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1

Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months

M. R. S. Ilha; A. P. Loretti; A. C. F. Reis

2005-01-01

2

Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vector of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in Paraná state, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The phlebotomine sandflies in the northern areas of the state of Paraná, Brazil, particularly those in the '16a' health region, were investigated over a 3-year period. Using CDC light traps (with and without hamster bait) and Shannon traps (with lights and horse or human bait), 16 species were collected from seven municipal districts which were known foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: Arapongas; Apucarana; Cambira; Marumbi; Faxinal; Florestópolis; and Sabáudia. Although the frequency at which each species was collected varied with the collection site, Lutzomyia whitmani predominated (62.0% of all the sandflies collected), followed by Lu. fischeri (13.3%), Lu. pessoai (10.8%), Lu. migonei (8.2%) and Lu. intermedia (2.8%). Lutzomyia monticola, Lu. shanonni, Lu. firmatoi, Lu. lanei, Lu. alphabetica, Lu. misionensis, Lu. correalimai, Lu. cortellezzii, Lu. longipenis, Brumptomyia brumpti and B. nitzulescui together represented the remaining 3.0% of the collected sandflies. Three of the 1961 female sandflies collected and dissected in the municipal district of Cambira, where a recent case of cutaneous leishmaniasis had been registered, were found to have flagellates in their guts. All three were Lu. whitmani. The parasites from each of these infections were successfully isolated in NNN and 'Tobie and Evans' media and/or by inoculation into a hind foot of a golden hamster. The results of isoenzyme electrophoresis indicated that all three isolates were of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:11064764

Luz, E; Membrive, N; Castro, E A; Dereure, J; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J A; Pandey, A; Thomaz-Soccol, V

2000-09-01

3

Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain.

Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Marcia Regina; Casarin, Leticia Sopena; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

4

PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natalia Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-01-01

5

Phlebotomine sandflies in rural locations in the State of Parana, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-01-01

6

Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

2012-01-01

7

Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters. PMID:24871179

Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

2014-01-01

8

A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.

de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant' Anna, Celia Leite

2008-01-01

9

Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).  

PubMed

Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology. PMID:19439554

Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

2009-09-01

10

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

11

A new Gloeoporus species growing on bamboo from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Gloeoporus guerreroanus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens collected on bamboo in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new taxon presents hymenium continuum along the tubular internal surface and dissepiments and represents an addition into the relatively small, poroid-merulioid genus Gloeoporus. PMID:17256585

Coelho, Gilberto; da Silveira, Rosa Mara Borges; Rajchenberg, Mario

2006-01-01

12

Helminth parasitism in the Neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, in southern Brazil: effect of host size, weight, sex, and maturity state.  

PubMed

Forty-seven specimens of Neotropical cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from Lago Guaíba, Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30° 00' S, 51°15' W), were examined for helminth parasites between 1999 and 2003. Twenty species of helminth parasites were found: ten digeneans: Austrodiplostomum mordax, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum sp., Drepanocephalus olivaceus, Drepanocephalus spathans, Hysteromorpha triloba, Ignavia olivacei, Paryphostomum segregatum, Prosthogonimus ovatus, and Ribeiroia ondatrae; one cestode: Paradilepis caballeroi; eight nematodes: Contracaecum rudolphii, Eucoleus contortus, Eustrongylides sp., Ornithocapillaria appendiculata, Syngamus sp., Syncuaria squamata, Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) sp., and one undetermined capillariid (genus and species); and one acanthocephalan: Andracantha tandemtesticulata. The length and weight of male and female birds, as well as their sexual maturity (juvenile or adult), did not show significant difference regarding the helminth fauna; the standard length did not influence the helminth parasite indices. The prevalence of I. olivacei was higher in larger birds while the intensity of infection by this digenean species was higher in females. The abundance of P. caballeroi was higher in male birds. A. mordax and H. triloba showed higher prevalence and abundance in juvenile hosts, while O. appendiculata was more abundant in juveniles. The remaining species did not have their parasite indices influenced by the host parameters studied. The present work records the richest helminth fauna for any bird of the genus Phalacrocorax and is the first study to evaluate the influence of length, weight, sex, and maturity state on parasitism. PMID:21431903

Monteiro, Cassandra M; Amato, José F R; Amato, Suzana B

2011-09-01

13

Zooplankton biomass in tropical reservoirs in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to test the hypothesis that zooplankton biomass distribution (total and taxonomic groups) was influenced by the nutrient\\u000a concentration and primary productivity distribution in three tropical reservoirs, subsurface samples were taken in the fluvial,\\u000a transitional and lacustrine regions of three reservoirs (oligotrophic, mesotrophic and eutrophic) in southern Brazil (Paraná\\u000a State) in March and September 2002. Zooplankton biomass ranged from

Claudia Costa Bonecker; Mariza Yuri Nagae; Martin Cesar Maria Bletller; Luiz Felipe Machado Velho; Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha

2007-01-01

14

Genetic polymorphisms of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd systems in a population from the State of Paran?, southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Red blood group genes are highly polymorphic and the distribution of alleles varies among different populations and ethnic groups. Aim To evaluate allele polymorphisms of the Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group systems in a population of the State of Paraná Methods Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group polymorphisms were evaluated in 400 unrelated blood or bone marrow donors from the northwestern region of Paraná State between September 2008 and October 2009. The following techniques were used: multiplex-polymerase chain reaction genotyping for the identification of the RHD gene and RHCE*C/c genotype; allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for the RHD? and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction for the RHCE*E/e, KEL, FY-GATA and JK alleles. Results These techniques enabled the evaluation of the frequencies of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd polymorphisms in the population studied, which were compared to frequencies in two populations from the eastern region of São Paulo State. Conclusion The RHCE*c/c, FY*A/FY*B, GATA-33 T/T, JK*B/JK*B genotypes were more prevalent in the population from Paraná, while RHCE*C/c, FY*B/FY*B, GATA-33 C/C, JK*A/JK*B genotypes were more common in the populations from São Paulo.

Guelsin, Glaucia Andreia Soares; Sell, Ana Maria; Castilho, Lilian; Masaki, Viviane Lika; de Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante; Hashimoto, Margareth Naomi; Hirle, Loide Souza; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2011-01-01

15

Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. METHODS: This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and

Flair J Carrilho; Cleusa R Moraes; João RR Pinho; Isabel MVGC Mello; Dennis A Bertolini; Marcílio F Lemos; Regina C Moreira; Leda C Bassit; Rita A Cardoso; Gabriela Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Luiz C Da Silva

2004-01-01

16

Intersexuality and sexual rights in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper reports of the socio-medical management of intersexuality in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Findings reveal that the 'search for sex' in the body treats sex as a medical-diagnostic category constructed during decision-making negotiations. In the course of the various bodily 'regulations' and 'corrections' imposed, the insufficiency of a model in which categories are based around a sexual dichotomy is revealed. By questioning this dichotomy, it is possible to examine theoretical and ethical limits circumscribing the field of bioethics and the notion of sexual rights as human rights. The paper also explores the tensions that can arise from the application of sexual rights to health issues in general, and the medical sphere in particular. PMID:19296306

Machado, Paula

2009-04-01

17

First report of Lagochilascaris (Nematoda: Ascarididae) eggs in a public park in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil. PMID:21974947

de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro

2012-03-23

18

New Species of Culex (Melanoconion) from Southern Brazil (Diptera: Culicidae).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Culex (Melanoconion) lopesi, a new species from Municipio Iguape, Estado Sao Paulo, southern Brazil is recognized. The adult male, the only known stage of this species, is described and its genitalia are illustrated.

S. Sirivanakarn W. L. Jakob

1979-01-01

19

Reconstruction in the Southern United States: A Comparative Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares post-emancipation societies in Haiti, Jamaica, Russia, the southern United States, Cuba, Brazil, and Zaria, relative to the acquisition of land by former slaves. Suggests that this information might provide a comparative perspective for instruction about the efforts of Blacks and Whites after abolition. (KO)

Pressly, Thomas J.

1989-01-01

20

Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Background Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. Methods This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Results Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%), D (57.1%) and F (12.2%). Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Conclusions Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters ? 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse < 10 times; 3.42 times if the number of patients per worker is more than five. Sequence similarity among the HBV S gene from isolates of different patients pointed out to nosocomial transmission.

Carrilho, Flair J; Moraes, Cleusa R; Pinho, Joao RR; Mello, Isabel MVGC; Bertolini, Dennis A; Lemos, Marcilio F; Moreira, Regina C; Bassit, Leda C; Cardoso, Rita A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Gabriela; Da Silva, Luiz C

2004-01-01

21

Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

2014-01-01

22

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success.

2013-01-01

23

Inspection of Wooden Poles in Electrical Power Distribution Networks in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to test an inspection method for wooden utility poles based on a classification system according to qualitative (visual and sounding) and quantitative parameters (excavation and drilling) to assess internal\\/external wood decay. Ten thousand poles were inspected, distributed over 23 cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil). The results indicated a significant quantity of

FlÁvio L. R. Vidor; MarÇal Pires; Berenice A. Dedavid; Pedro D. B. Montani; Adriano Gabiatti

2010-01-01

24

Determinants of Educational Performance in Southern Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of socioeconomic origin (SES) and mental ability (MA) on levels of educational (EA) and occupational aspiration (OA), academic performance (AP), and significant others' influence (SOI) for 1,950 5th grade elementary and 4th year gymnastic students in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Representative samples of approximately…

Hansen, David O.

25

Barrier evolution and placer formation at Bujuru southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the link between the evolution of a coastal barrier in southern Brazil during the Late Holocene and the formation of a large volume of eolian disseminated heavy mineral deposits. Our data set is based on an earlier heavy mineral prospecting campaign (1991) and on 10 new shallow vibrocores, 2–5 m long. The model presented has three main

Sérgio R. Dillenburg; Luiz J. Tomazelli; Eduardo G. Barboza

2004-01-01

26

Potassium-argon ages of alkaline rocks from southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present potassium-argon ages for 66 samples (micas, feldspars, fine-grained whole rocks and amphiboles in descending frequency) from 21 alkaline rock localities in southern Brazil. A general geological description is given for each locality. Analytical precision is about one per cent for potassium and two per cent or better for radiogenic argon determinations. It is possible to classify many samples

G. Amaral; J. Bushee; U. G. Cordani; K. Kawashita; J. H. Reynolds

1967-01-01

27

Molecular epidemiology of adrenocortical tumors in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The high frequency of TP53 R337H carriers in southern Brazil is responsible for the highest known incidence of childhood adrenocortical tumor (ACT). Our aims were to examine other contributing mutations, age-related risk factors, epidemiological differences in ACT and to shed light on a method for increasing the survival rate of children. The fetal zone of the adrenal cortex is believed to be one of the tissues most susceptible to adenoma or carcinoma formation due to loss of p53 function. The founder germline R337H mutation is found in 95% of ACTs of young children, a much greater proportion than in adults. Despite intense educational campaigns about the high incidence of ACT in Paraná State, advanced cases remain common. Four advanced ACT cases (4/5) were admitted to a single institution in the first 6months of 2011 in Paraná State, none of the families knew about ACT, and 2 reported no familial cancer syndrome. Curative resection is possible when a small ACT is detected early. PMID:22056871

Custódio, Gislaine; Komechen, Heloisa; Figueiredo, Francisco R O; Fachin, Natasha D; Pianovski, Mara A D; Figueiredo, Bonald C

2012-03-31

28

Phylogeographic Analysis of HIV-1 Subtype C Dissemination in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The HIV-1 subtype C has spread efficiently in the southern states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná). Phylogeographic studies indicate that the subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil was initiated by the introduction of a single founder virus population at some time point between 1960 and 1980, but little is known about the spatial dynamics of viral spread. A total of 135 Brazilian HIV-1 subtype C pol sequences collected from 1992 to 2009 at the three southern state capitals (Porto Alegre, Florianópolis and Curitiba) were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to explore the degree of phylogenetic mixing of subtype C sequences from different cities and to reconstruct the geographical pattern of viral spread in this country region. Phylogeographic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the HIV-1 subtype C clade circulating in southern Brazil and placed the root of that clade in Curitiba (Paraná state). This analysis further suggested that Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state) is an important staging post in the subtype C dissemination displaying high viral migration rates from and to the other cities, while viral flux between Curitiba and Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul state) is very low. We found a positive correlation (r2?=?0.64) between routine travel and viral migration rates among localities. Despite the intense viral movement, phylogenetic intermixing of subtype C sequences from different Brazilian cities is lower than expected by chance. Notably, a high proportion (67%) of subtype C sequences from Porto Alegre branched within a single local monophyletic sub-cluster. These results suggest that the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil has been shaped by both frequent viral migration among states and in situ dissemination of local clades.

Bello, Gonzalo; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A.; Iamarino, Atila; Graf, Tiago; Pinto, Aguinaldo R.; Couto-Fernandez, Jose C.; Morgado, Mariza G.

2012-01-01

29

Astronomy in the Curriculum Proposals of Southern Region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is a science that has attracted attention and fascination of different people. Because it is a subject that arouses curiosity, Astronomy has been the subject of several studies related to the area of education. In this respect, this article presents partial results of an ongoing Doctoral research. The objective is to analyze and compare the contents related to Astronomy present in curricular proposals that guide the Basic Education in Southern Brazil. The methodological approach followed the assumptions of qualitative research. We used content analysis to make the comparison between the astronomical content present in the curriculum proposals from the states of Parana, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The reading of the proposals has possible to reorganize the content into categories. As a result the category is displayed Earth and its analysis, which shows the lack of clarity and specificity in the presentation of the contents of the curriculum proposals. This finding may be an indicator that affect the integration of astronomical content in the curriculum of schools.

Albrecht, Evonir; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

2013-08-01

30

Diversity of yeasts from bovine mastitis in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Mastitis is one of the most serious problems in the dairy cattle farms. The great majority of the cases are caused by bacteria, but lately there have been an increasing number of reports about cases of mycotic etiology. The objective of this work was to characterize the yeasts and yeast-like fungi associated with milk of cows with mastitis. Milk samples (n = 248) from a dairy belt situated around the region of Passo Fundo, hinterland of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, were analyzed. Aliquots of 0.1 ml of milk were inoculated on yeast extract-malta agar with chloramphenicol. After a period of incubation of 3-5 days at 22-25 degrees C, the counting of the morphologically distinct colonies was performed, as well as the isolation and identification through phenotypical and physiological criteria. It was possible to isolate 68 yeast species from 43 (17.3%) of the samples. The most frequent genera were Candida (37.9%), Pichia (19.1%), Cryptococcus (10.3%) and Rhodotorula (10.3%). PMID:18785784

Spanamberg, Andréia; Wünder, Elsio Augusto; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel; Argenta, Juliana; Cavallini Sanches, Edna Maria; Valente, Patrícia; Ferreiro, Laerte

2008-09-30

31

Fumonisins in corn (Zea mays L.) from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 232 samples of corn commercialised in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil (temperate zone climate), were evaluated from 2007 to 2012 for fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2). Before performing this study, a FBs method with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (ex. 335; em. 440 nm) was validated first. FBs were detected in 46.6% (108 samples), with values ranging from 66 to 7832 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and 110 to 1201 µg kg(-1) for FB2. The number of contaminated corn samples for FB1 and FB2 varied and often presented contamination of FB1 only. Per year of analysis, the numbers were: n = 22/8(FB1/FB2), 44/5(FB1/FB2), 25/12(FB1/FB2), 4(FB1), 6(FB1) and 7(FB1) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The contamination percentage was 42.3/15.4, 59.5/6.8, 43.8/21.1, 36.4, 35.3 and 33.3%, respectively, during these years. Consumers can be exposed to these mycotoxins and their health can be at risk through the consumption of contaminated corn. PMID:24914602

Scussel, Vildes M; Savi, Geovana D; Costas, Lea Luzia Freitas; Xavier, José Junior Mendonça; Manfio, Daniel; Bittencourt, Karoline O; Aguiar, Kin; Stein, Stephanie M

2014-06-01

32

Pilot scale semicontinuous production of Spirulina biomass in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the feasibility of the pilot scale production of Spirulina strain LEB-18 in southern Brazil and assessed the quality of biomass produced in relation to its kinetics characteristic, nutritional value, heavy metal content and microbial content. The maximum mean biomass concentration was 1.24 g L?1 and the maximum productivity was 69.16 g m?2 d?1. The biomass showed 84.0% digestibility, 86.0% (w\\/w)

M. G. Morais; E. M. Radmann; M. R. Andrade; G. G. Teixeira; L. R. F. Brusch; J. A. V. Costa

2009-01-01

33

Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

2008-12-01

34

High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

2014-06-01

35

United States Policy for Southern Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Southern Africa is a region that is of major (not vital) interest to the United States. It is a region dominated by South Africa, possessing vast mineral resources and torn by armed conflict. This paper outlines a proposed US national security policy for ...

P. E. Stein

1986-01-01

36

Teaching Gerontological Nursing in Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs in 15 southern states (n=211) determined the current status of gerontological nursing programs. Findings indicate that, although there are areas of improvement, the status of gerontological nursing education and practice in the undergraduate curriculum is not equal to that of other…

Brower, H. Terri; Yurchuck, E. Ruth

1993-01-01

37

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector.

Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

38

Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately after the landslide event. Numerical simulations with the SHALSTAB model were carried out in the basin and the results compared to the original location of the scars in the field. The results suggest that the combination of field mapping with the numerical simulation scenarios may contribute to the definition of better land management practices in such environment. Besides this, the replacement of the natural rain forest by huge banana plantations in this environment may have played a major role in defining the spatial distribution of landslides scars and the magnitude of the landslides generated.

Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

2013-04-01

39

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever, weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or vulva. The diagnosis of T. vivax was confirmed in four horses by morphological parameters of trypomastigotes in blood smears and species-specific PCR. All T. vivax-infected animals showed anemia, and most showed increased levels of beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulins. Horses were treated with diminazene aceturate, but cure was not achieved, and the disease relapsed after therapy. These findings demonstrated that Brazilian T. vivax isolates, which were already reported infecting cattle, buffaloes, goats, and sheep, can be highly pathogenic for horses, causing severe disease and even death of the animals due to the recurrence of the infection. PMID:20820805

Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Garcia Perez, Herakles A; Costa, Márcio M; França, Raqueli T; De Gasperi, Diego; Zanette, Régis A; Amado, João A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Teixeira, Marta M G; Monteiro, Silvia G

2011-01-01

40

Extreme wet events in Southern Brazil during the Heinrich Stadials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are making continuous efforts to improve both the data resolution and chronology of the speleothem d18O record from Botuvera Cave, southern Brazil, one of the very few high-precision and high-resolution records from southern tropical continents covering the last ~ 100 kyr. In this study, we particularly focus on precipitation change in southern Brazil during the extreme cold time intervals in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich (H) Stadials. With precise U/Th dating, high-resolution d18O profiles from multiple Botuvera stalagmites show that the H2, H3 and H4 stadials are about 1,000 years long and centered approximately 24.6 kyr BP, 30.0 kyr BP and 39.0 kyr BP, respectively. Following the earlier studies on Brazilian speleothem d18O records, as well as trace element analysis and modeling simulations, we interpret the calcite d18O as a proxy of monsoonal rainfall in the region. Broadly speaking, the lower calcite d18O, the higher rainfall, and vice versa. The abrupt drops on calcite d18O during these intervals, with an amplitude of ~ 2% VPDB, suggest that climate change in this region is manifested as a dramatic increasing of rainfall. This confirms our previous finding that on millennial timescales, precipitation change in southern Brazil is anti-phased with that in the north, such as eastern Asia, which is probably controlled by the meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The fast growth rates of the samples enable us to characterize detail precipitation changes in southern Brazil during these three Heinrich Stadials. Precipitation increases abruptly in the earlier stage, evidenced by a d18O drop rate of ~ 5%/kyr, whereas during the later stage, precipitation decreases more gradually, with a d18O rising rate of ~ 2.5%/kyr. This asymmetric pattern of change is different from the temperature behavior in the North Atlantic, which warms much more dramatically in the final stage of a Heinrich Stadial than it cools in the initial phase. Such decoupling may suggest that ITCZ meridional migration is preferably controlled by the temperature gradient between the mid and low latitudes in the cold hemisphere. It has been further noticed that calcite d18O values are higher right after the Heinrich Stadials than those immediately preceding the events, hence, an even drier climate after the extreme wet events. These values, in a range between -3.4% and -2.7%, however, are far below the typical value of ~ -1.5% in early Holocene. This observation suggested that, although the Atlantic overturning circulation may "overshoot" directly following its weaken mode during the Heinrich Stadials, the atmospheric response did not react in a proportional manner.

Wang, X.; Rao, Z.; Auler, A.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Edwards, R.

2011-12-01

41

Prevalence of antibodies against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers and breeders in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this investigation, we determined the prevalence of the Ornithobacerium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection in broilers and broiler breeders in southern Brazil. We also correlated the presence of antibodies in broilers with performance. Sera from 1550 broilers from 50 flocks were collected during the slaughter time in nine companies with federal veterinary inspection of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Sera from 480 meat-type breeders of 40 flocks from 14 companies in southern Brazil were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the prevalence of antibodies was determined. The prevalence of ORT antibodies in broiler flocks was 63.83%, but in each individual flock only 6.52% of the birds were positive. The prevalence in broiler breeder flocks was 100.00%, and in each individual flock 94.62% of the birds were positive. There was a positive correlation between the presence of antibodies to ORT and decreased body weight in broilers. There was no significant correlation between presence of antibodies to ORT and age, lineage, efficiency index, feed conversion, and mortality. There was a positive correlation between the presence of respiratory signs and antibodies to ORT, although the reverse correlation was not significant. These results confirm that ORT is present and widespread in broilers and broiler breeders in southern Brazil. PMID:14562904

Canal, Cláudio W; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Ferreira, Danilo José; Macagnan, Marisa; Pippi Salle, Carlos Tadeu; Back, Alberto

2003-01-01

42

Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Diabetes in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of diabetes on general and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity in southern Brazil. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based cohort study of 1,091 individuals was conducted. Diabetes was ascertained by medical history. The vital status of 982 individuals and the incidence of events were ascertained during another visit and through hospital records, death certificates, and verbal necropsy with relatives. RESULTS The mean ± SD age of participants was 43.1 ± 17 years, and 55.7% were women. The prevalence of diabetes was 4.2%, and the mean follow-up time was 5.3 ± 0.07 years. Mortality was 36.3% and 6.6% in participants with or without diabetes, respectively; the incidence of CVD was 20.8% and 3.0%, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.4 (95% CI 2.4–7.9). Diabetic population-attributable risk (PAR) for CVD mortality was 10.1% and 13.1% for total CVD. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is responsible for a large PAR for overall mortality and cardiovascular events in Brazil.

Moreira, Leila B.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Wiehe, Mario; Neyeloff, Jeruza L.; Picon, Rafael V.; Moreira, Marina B.; Gus, Miguel; Fuchs, Flavio D.

2009-01-01

43

Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n = 4) and abortion (n = 1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

2013-10-01

44

Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

2013-01-01

45

Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

2012-11-01

46

Environmental pathways and human exposure to manganese in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The study of environmental pathways and human exposure to Manganese (Mn) in Southern Brazil was performed using two steps. The first step consisted of taking water samples from the surface of the Pardinho River. The average results from this technique showed a significant increase of pollutants, including increased levels of Mn, above the environmentally acceptable standard recommended by the Brazilian National Environment Council. Additionally, 64 soil samples were taken from areas with and without agricultural activity. Many results were above the mean crust and did not indicate significant differences of Mn levels between the sampled areas. For the second step, 12 families were selected and assessed for exposure to Mn in a region with high levels of Mn in the soil. Most of the analyzed foods contained amounts of Mn above the reference values, indicating that food can be an important source of exposure. The Mn content from the hair of most subjects studied was also high compared to reference values from non-exposed populations. Although the contamination appeared to come from a natural origin, the results found in the present study showed that the Mn levels present in the Pardinho River Basin are a relevant public health issue. PMID:24346793

Hermes, Nadir; Schneider, Rosana C S; Molin, Daniela D; Riegel, Guilherme Z; Costa, Adilson B; Corbellini, Valeriano A; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

2013-01-01

47

Probable Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southern United States  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In the southern region of the United States, such as in Louisiana and Texas, there are autochthonous cases of leprosy among native-born Americans with no history of foreign exposure. In the same region, as well as in Mexico, wild armadillos are infected with Mycobacterium leprae. METHODS Whole-genome resequencing of M. leprae from one wild armadillo and three U.S. patients with leprosy revealed that the infective strains were essentially identical. Comparative genomic analysis of these strains and M. leprae strains from Asia and Brazil identified 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and an 11-bp insertion–deletion. We genotyped these polymorphic sites, in combination with 10 variable-number tandem repeats, in M. leprae strains obtained from 33 wild armadillos from five southern states, 50 U.S. outpatients seen at a clinic in Louisiana, and 64 Venezuelan patients, as well as in four foreign reference strains. RESULTS The M. leprae genotype of patients with foreign exposure generally reflected their country of origin or travel history. However, a unique M. leprae genotype (3I-2-v1) was found in 28 of the 33 wild armadillos and 25 of the 39 U.S. patients who resided in areas where exposure to armadillo-borne M. leprae was possible. This genotype has not been reported elsewhere in the world. CONCLUSIONS Wild armadillos and many patients with leprosy in the southern United States are infected with the same strain of M. leprae. Armadillos are a large natural reservoir for M. leprae, and leprosy may be a zoonosis in the region. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.)

Truman, Richard W.; Singh, Pushpendra; Sharma, Rahul; Busso, Philippe; Rougemont, Jacques; Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Brisse, Sylvain; Scollard, David M.; Gillis, Thomas P.; Cole, Stewart T.

2011-01-01

48

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions...

1989-01-01

49

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka Breganó, Regina; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Barbante Casella, Antônio Marcelo; Ruiz Lopes Mori, Fabiana Maria; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

50

Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

2012-01-01

51

Fertility of Vriesea gigantea Gaud. (Bromeliaceae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Plant fertility is a central subject of many questions in plant evolutionary and conservation biology. Pollen availability, abiotic resources, and flowering pattern can limit fruit and seed production. Open pollination and pollen supplementation studies are used to estimate any pollen limitation in natural populations. To study the impact of these factors on the reproductive success of Vriesea gigantea, an epiphytic bromeliad in the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, its fertility in four natural populations in Itapuã State Park was assessed by considering plant and inflorescence size, flower production, fruit and seed set, flower and fruit set pattern, and seed viability and germination rate. Supplemental pollination in adult plants was used to determine whether fruit production in V. gigantea is limited by reception of pollen. The results showed that V. gigantea has a high production of flowers, fruits, and seeds. Seeds are highly viable in all populations, presenting an average germination rate of 94% (SE ± 3.5). Plants of V. gigantea from Itapuã State Park are highly fertile. The high proportion of fruit and seed set after manual hand pollination indicates that the species is self-compatible. Pollination treatments showed evidence of pollinator limitation in the Itapuã State Park population. PMID:21636436

Paggi, Gecele M; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Silveira, Lucas C T; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Bered, Fernanda

2007-04-01

52

Potential of Carbon Accumulation in No-Till Soils with Intensive Use and Cover Crops in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004- 2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT

Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado; Cimélio Bayer; Paulo Cesar Conceição; Evandro Spagnollo; Ben-Hur Costa de Campos; Milton da Veiga

2006-01-01

53

Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil. PMID:22437385

Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

2012-02-01

54

Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

Diniz, A

1997-01-01

55

Case report: Feline infection by Lagochilascaris sp. in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lagochilascariosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Lagochilascaris sp., with the northern of Brazil representing 81.2% of all reports of the disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of feline lagochilascariosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern of Brazil. It was diagnosed through coproparasitologic exam and laboratorial identification of the nematodes. PMID:23582666

Faccio, Luciana; Oliveira, Camila B; Denardin, Cíntia A; Tonin, Alexandre A; Gressler, Lucas T; Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Sampaio, Luzia C L; Stainki, Daniel R; Monteiro, Silvia G

2013-09-23

56

The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

Simpson, Brent

2006-01-01

57

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes.

Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

2009-01-01

58

Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier  

PubMed Central

Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mario

2013-01-01

59

Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed.

Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Kaltchuk dos Santos, Eliane; Eggers, Lilian; Flores, Alice Mainieri; Alves, Eudes M. Stiehl; Fachinetto, Juliana; Lustosa, Juliana; Correa, Lauis Brisolara; Tacuatia, Luana Olinda; Piccoli, Paula; Miz, Rogeria Beatriz

2012-01-01

60

Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil. PMID:24878674

Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

2014-01-01

61

High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

62

United States and Brazil: Opening a New Dialogue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The United States and Brazil: The Past; 'Itamaraty' and Brazilian External Policy; The Brazilian Economy: Boom or Bust; 'Abertura': The Political Opening; Military Policy Issues; The United States and Brazil: Future Challenges.

R. J. Branco

1984-01-01

63

Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S.) pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil. PMID:11285478

Knoff, M; de São Clemente, S C; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C

2001-01-01

64

Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. The rice production sector of Rio

J. J. Centeno da Silva

1999-01-01

65

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romão; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

66

Lacertoid footprints from the Upper Triassic (Santa Maria Formation) of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Triassic of Southern Brazil is well-known for its rich tetrapod body fossils. However, trace fossils such as tetrapod trackways and trails were discovered only recently from the Predebon outcrop (upper part of the Alemoa Member, Santa Maria Formation), providing new information on small-sized animals. The trackways can be identified as Rhynchosauroides retroversipes isp. nov., Rhynchosauroides isp., Rhynchosauroides? isp. and

Rafael Costa da Silva; Jorge Ferigolo; Ismar de Souza Carvalho; Antonio Carlos Sequeira Fernandes

2008-01-01

67

Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

68

Spatial Ecologyand Social Interactions of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Southern Pantanal, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pantanal of Brazil is an important area for the conservation of jaguars (Panthera onca). As the size of traditional large ranches in the Pantanal decreases, human access to jaguar habitat increases, resulting in human-altered landscapes that may influence patterns of resource selection and space use by jaguars. We used global positioning system radiocollars to study jaguars in the southern

Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti; Eric M. Gese

2009-01-01

69

Temporal dynamics of HIV-1 circulating subtypes in distinct exposure categories in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil is predominantly driven by subtype B. However, in Brazilian Southern region subtype C prevails and a relatively high AIDS incidence rate is observed. The aim of the present study was to assess the temporal dynamics of HIV-1 subtypes circulating in patients from distinct exposure categories in Southern Brazil. For this purpose 166 HIV-1 samples collected at the years of 1998 (group I) and 2005–2008 (group II) were analyzed. Results Analysis of group I revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05) associations between MSM and subtype B as well as between IDU and subtype C; while no statistical significant association between HIV-1 subtypes and exposure category was verified for group II. An overall temporal increase in the prevalence of subtype C and BC recombinants was observed in both HET and MSM populations, accompanied by a proportional decrease in the prevalence of the pure subtype B. Conclusions The present study shows an association between HIV subtypes and exposure categories at the middle 1990s in Southern Brazil. Our findings suggest that MSM and IDU populations might have played a major role in the introduction and initial dissemination of subtypes B and C, respectively, in Southern Brazil. This study also suggests a trend towards homogenization of HIV-1 strains across distinct exposure categories as a consequence of an overall increase in the prevalence of subtype C and BC recombinants in both HET and MSM populations.

2012-01-01

70

Molecular survey of trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum species complex from barley in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight is a disease of primary concern to small-grain cereals of Brazil, including barley. Its main causal agent, Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex)¸ is able to produce mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), that usually contaminate grain. Strains that produce DON may also produce its acetylated derivatives: 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON). Ninety two isolates were obtained from samplings of barley grain during three years (2007, 2008 and 2009) from several fields in both southern and northern production regions of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. These isolates were examined for polymerase chain-reaction-based (PCR) trichothecene genotype based on the amplification of portions of Tri3 and Tri12. There was no effect of year or region on the proportion of trichothecene genotypes. Overall, 66% of the strains (61/92) were 15-ADON, 4.4% (4/92) were 3-ADON and 29.3% (27/92) were NIV. The overall NIV/DON ratio estimated (0.41) was five times higher than that found in previous studies with strains from wheat grown in the same region. Species identification of nine strains representing the trichothecene genotypes, based on comparisons of DNA sequences of portions of the PHO, RED and URA genes with sequences from curated reference isolates of Fusarium from GenBank, revealed that they belong to F. graminearum sensu stricto (four 15-ADON and one 3-ADON strain), F. meridionale (three NIV strains) and F. austroamericanum (one 3-ADON strain). These results add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes and species within the Fg complex affecting barley in the region. PMID:21665312

Astolfi, P; dos Santos, J; Schneider, L; Gomes, L B; Silva, C N; Tessmann, D J; Del Ponte, E M

2011-08-15

71

Secondary ozone peak in the troposphere over the Southern Space Observatory, Brazil (1996 - 2000)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric soundings (in troposphere and lower stratosphere) to measure ozone and meteorological profiles have been made at the Southern Space Observatory, Brazil (29.4S, 53.8W) since 1996. In this work, a total of 50 launchings between November 1996 and December 2000 are analysed. All of them achieved at least the tropopause level, which local average altitude is around 17.5 km. Around 54 % of the soundings show a secondary ozone peak in the troposphere. The secondary ozone peak average altitude is 3,362 m, but the peaks occurrence spreads over the range 0.9 - 6.1 km. The ozone partial pressure average in this altitude range is 19.5 ± 3.5 ? hPa without the peaks, while the peaks only have an average of the 38.8 ± 10.6 ? hPa. The peaks seasonal distribution is uneven, with occurrences mainly in November, with 10 events, and December, with 7 events, meaning 91 % and 70 % of the monthly soundings, respectively. Both these months and January are the months with maximum biomass burning in the region of the Rio Grande do Sul State for the same period (1996 -- 2000) according to NOAA-12 satellite data. These could indicate that the sources of the secondary peak are due to biomass burning events.

Pinheiro, D. K.; Manfro, R. L.; Biazi, L. A.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Echer, E.; Guarnieri, R. A.; Padilha, L. F.; Carbone, S.; Schuch, A. P.; Schuch, N. J.

72

Phaeohyphomycoses in a Free-Ranging Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

2014-08-01

73

The Triassic taphoflora of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil: a biostratigraphical approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Triassic taphoflora identified in the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, represents an important biostratigraphical stage in the palæofloristic succession of the Paraná Basin. A megafloristic association composed of compressed leaves, fronds and seeds of a ' Dicroidium Flora' shows a predominance of the Dicroidium genus, with several species and other important taxa like Neocalamites sp., Cladophlebis sp., Tetraptilon aff. heteromerum, Ginkgoites antarctica, Sphenobaiera sp., Podozamites sp., Nilssonia sp., Pteruchus sp. and Carpolithus sp. Taking into account the stratigraphical distribution of different species of the Dicroidium genus, a biostratigraphical framework was established. Considering that the recognition of this ' Dicroidium Flora' was based on limited outcrops belonging to one lithostratiphical level (Santa Maria Formation — Passo das Tropas Facies), it was impossible to established a formal biostratigraphical zonation. Instead, at the present time, an informal floristic interval, named the ' Dicroidium odontopteroides Flora', is proposed (Late Anisian to Late Ladinian, Middle Triassic). An ' Araucarioxylon Flora' composed of secondary woods of the Araucarioxylon type and stems of Rhexoxylon brasiliensis was also identified several km apart. The compressed fossils of the ' Dicroidium Flora' and the petrified stems of the ' Araucarioxylon Flora' could represent different but contemporaneous communities corresponding to fluvial-lacustrine environments.

Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Iannuzzi, R.

1999-07-01

74

Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

2013-06-01

75

Child and adolescent labor and smoking: a cross-sectional study in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study assessed the association between smoking and child and adolescent labor among 3,269 individuals 10 to 17 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil (excluding higher income census tracts) in 1998. Adjusted hierarchical analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of child labor was 13.8%. Current smoking prevalence was 6.3% in the sample as a whole (15.7% among working versus 3.4% among non-working children). In the multivariate analysis, smoking was significantly associated with child labor, with a prevalence ratio of 1.75 (95%CI: 1.30-2.36). Smoking was also associated with family characteristics (lower maternal schooling, mother currently without husband/partner, household members with alcohol or drug problems, single mother, and history of serious injuries), and the children's characteristics (age greater than 16 years, inadequate school performance, and externalizing behavior). The findings point to smoking as one of the harmful consequences of child labor and suggest the workplace as an appropriate target for smoking prevention. PMID:21340103

Dall'Agnol, Marinel Mór; Fassa, Ana Claudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

2011-01-01

76

Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasites in food handlers, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, the prevalence and risk factors for enteroparasites were determined in food handlers from Maringá, Paraná State, southern Brazil. Fecal and subungual materials of 150 street food vendors were analyzed by the methods of Lutz, Faust, and Mello, respectively. A questionnaire on hygiene and sanitary conditions of the workplace and of domicile was applied. The prevalence of enteroparasites was 28%, and the protozoa infection was more expressive (21.3%) than by helminths (6.7%), but without significant difference (p > 0.05). Entamoeba coli was the most frequent species occurring in 15.3%, while the prevalence of protozoa pathogenic was low (Giardia lamblia: 2.7% and Entamoeba histolytica: 0.7%). The subungual material presented negative results. The presence of pets in domiciles has increased twice the risk of infection. The working conditions of the majority of street food vendors were inappropriate. The results highlight the need for more rigorous programs of continuing education, parasitological examination every six months, and health surveillance. In this way, the quality of the service provided to the population can be improved and the transmission of food-borne diseases can be prevented. PMID:24256564

Colli, Cristiane Maria; Mizutani, Angelica Sayuri; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Ferreira, Erika Cristina; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

2014-10-01

77

Age distribution of Serra Geral (Parana??) flood basalts, southern Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Parana??) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ???130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35?? and 19??S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140-160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques. ?? 1989.

Fodor, R. V.; McKee, E. H.; Roisenberg, A.

1989-01-01

78

The holoplankton of the Santa Catarina coast, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper presents information from different sampling surveys carried out along the Santa Catarina coast in order to outline the biogeographical characteristics of the zooplankton in this region and identify species or groups of species with potential use as bioindicators. Based on a checklist of species of the zooplankton community in the state, it was observed that, in the warmer months of the year, the fauna is similar to that of the states of Paraná and São Paulo (e.g. Creseis virgula f. virgula, Penilia avirostris; Acartia lilljeborgi and Oithona oswaldocruzi), while in the colder months there are coastal representatives of the fauna of Rio Grande do Sul (e.g. Acartia tonsa). However, the zooplankton consists predominantly of warm water species for most of the year, which is typical of Tropical Shelf Waters. Various species of zooplankton can be used as hydrological indicators, enabling a distinction to be made between coastal waters which are influenced by continental inputs (e.g. Paracalanus quasimodo and Parvocalanus crassirostris), common in the north of the state, and processes of upwelling (e.g. Podon intermedius) and the influence of the Subtropical Shelf Front (e.g. Pleopis polyphemoides), coming from the south. The different environments investigated present a zooplankton abundance that depends on the influence of continental inputs and the possibility of their retaining and contribution for the coastal enrichment, which varies seasonally. PMID:21670880

Resgalla, Charrid

2011-06-01

79

REGIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest systems in the southern United States. redictions for this region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. hifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in res...

80

Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4) to 4.4 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R

2012-11-01

81

Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

2009-10-01

82

An additional basal sauropodomorph specimen from the Upper Triassic Caturrita Formation, southern Brazil, with comments on the biogeography of plateosaurids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bittencourt, J.S., Leal, L.A., Langer, M.C. & Azevedo, S.A.K., iFirst article. An additional basal sauropodomorph specimen from theUpper Triassic Caturrita Formation, southern Brazil, with comments on the biogeography of plateosaurids. Alcheringa, 1–10. ISSN0311-5518.We describe an additional saurischian specimen from the Caturrita Formation (Norian) of the Parana Basin, southern Brazil. This material was collected in the 1950s and remained unstudied due

Jonathas S. Bittencourt; Luciano A. Leal; Max C. Langer; Sérgio A. K. Azevedo

2012-01-01

83

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

84

Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

85

A new aetosaur from the Upper Triassic of the Santa Maria Formation, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Aetosaurs are armored pseudosuchian archosaurs widespread in Upper Triassic units. In South America, four taxa were previously recorded: Aetosauroides scagliai, Neoaetosauroides engaeus, Aetobarbakinoides brasiliensis, and Chilenosuchus forttae. Herein we describe a new Late Triassic juvenile aetosaur from the Santa Maria Formation of southern Brazil, Polesinesuchus aurelioi gen. et sp. nov., increasing the paleobiodiversity of this interesting group to five taxa in Western Gondwana. The holotype is composed of cranial (parietal and braincase) and postcranial elements (cervical, dorsal, sacral, caudal vertebrae, both scapulae, a humerus, ilium, pubis, ischium, tibia, a partial right pes, and anterior and mid-dorsal paramedian osteoderms). It belongs to a juvenile individual, as its neurocentral sutures are open in all vertebrae, and also due to its small size. However, future paleohistological investigation is necessary to fully corroborate this assumption. This new taxon is distinguished from all other aetosaurs by the presence of an unique combination of character states (not controlled by ontogeny) such as: cervical vertebrae with prezygapophyses widely extending laterally through most of the anterior edge of the diapophyses; absence of hyposphene articulations in both cervical and mid-dorsal vertebrae; presence of a ventral keel in cervical vertebrae; anterior and mid-dorsal vertebrae without a lateral fossa in their centra; expanded proximal end of scapula; anteroposteriorly expanded medial portion of scapular blade; a short humerus with a robust shaft; and a dorsoventral and very low iliac blade with a long anterior process which slightly exceeds the pubic peduncle. Regarding its phylogenetic relationships, the present analysis placed Polesinesuchus as the sister taxon of Aetobarbakinoides and both as sister taxa of the unnamed monophyletic clade Desmatosuchinae plus Typothoracisinae.  PMID:24870635

Roberto-da-Silva, Lúcio; Desojo, Julia B; Cabreira, Sérgio F; Aires, Alex S S; Müller, Rodrigo T; Pacheco, Cristian P; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio

2014-01-01

86

The present status of artisanal fisheries of extreme Southern Brazil: an effort towards community-based management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf of the extreme southern Brazil is one of the most productive fishing areas in Brazil. Great part of the commercial species is related to the estuary of Patos Lagoon. The estuary serves as spawning, nursery and feeding grounds for several species. The artisanal fishery in the estuarine area exists since the end of the last century but

Enir G Reis; Fernando D'Incao

2000-01-01

87

Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2014-07-01

88

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and involved 182 farms located in 26 countries. In addition to the three major broad-spectrum anthelmintic groups (viz. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin) the combination benzimidazole and leyamisole and the H. contortus specific anthelmintic, closantel, were tested by the faecal egg count reduction method for the prevalence

F. Echevarria; M. F. S. Borba; A. C. Pinheiro; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

89

Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

2009-01-01

90

Occurrence of Ornithodoros brasiliensis Aragão (Acari: Argasidae) in São Francisco de Paula, RS, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

There have been no reports of the endemic Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Aragão) in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, since the 1950s. In January 2007, 21 O. brasiliensis ticks were collected in a rural area named "Cruzinha" in the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, RS, and another population was sampled later that year (October) in Vargem do Cedro, another rural area of São Francisco de Paula, following reports of human parasitism by ticks. The reappearance of this tick is a reason for concern in terms of public health. PMID:21437496

Martins, J R; Doyle, R L; Barros-Battesti, D M; Onofrio, V C; Guglielmone, A A

2011-01-01

91

Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services.

2013-01-01

92

RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Fernandez, Heriberto; De Bona, Laura Renata; Neuhauss, Erli; Longo, Larisse; Prolla, Joao Carlos

2014-01-01

93

RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS.  

PubMed

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil. PMID:24878996

Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Fernández, Heriberto; De Bona, Laura Renata; Neuhauss, Erli; Longo, Larisse; Prolla, João Carlos

2014-06-01

94

Collective Bargaining Agreement between Association of Professors, Southern Oregon State College, and Southern Oregon State College, November 27, 1985-June 30, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collective bargaining agreement between Southern Oregon State College and the Southern Oregon State College Association of Professors, an affiliate of the National Education Association, covering the period November 27, 1985-June 30, 1987, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, association security, management…

Southern Oregon State Coll., Ashland.

95

Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric UPb dating and palynostratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiometric zircon age of 285.4±8.6Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Paraná Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part

Margot Guerra-Sommer; Miriam Cazzulo-Klepzig; Rualdo Menegat; Milton Luiz Laquintinie Formoso; Miguel Ângelo Stipp Basei; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Margarete Wagner Simas

2008-01-01

96

Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.  

PubMed

Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

2012-02-01

97

ANALYSIS OF THE SANTOS FLEET FROM SÃO PAULO, SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1971-1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus), and sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) are caught off the south and southeast Brazilian coasts by Brazilian and leased (Hon- duras and Barbados flags) longliners of Santos city, São Paulo State, Brazil. This paper reports statistics for the Santos fleet including blue marlin, white marlin and sailfish annual yield for 1971-99, monthly yield

A. F. Amorim; C. A. Arfelli

98

Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

2014-06-01

99

Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

Ruhoff, Anderson

2014-05-01

100

Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (<15 ?mad) with 2 h resolution using streakers and with impactors for 24 h resolution of 7 particle size fractions (<0.25 to >8 ?mad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 ?m) from both fire types. P, S and Cl were mostly small particle, Mg, Al, Si and K showed a bimodal distribution biased towards the small particle range, while Ca, Ti and Fe (crustal elements) predominated in the large particle mode. As Cl was found to be exclusively small particle, a formation mechanism in which HCl gas neutralizes small organic particles containing P and S may be hypothesized. A much more extensive field program for the summer of 1980 is planned to take place in the central Amazon basin using ground and airborne aerosol samplers, to capitalize on the work pioneered in this study.

Leslie, Alistair C. D.

1981-03-01

101

Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust. Synkinematic granitoids localize most, if not all, deformation in the studied shear zone. The regional continuity and the pervasive character of the magmatic fabric in the various synkinematic granitic bodies, consistently displaying similar plane and direction of flow, argue for accommodation of large amounts of orogen-parallel movement by viscous deformation of these magmas. Moreover, activation of high-temperature deformation mechanisms probably allowed a much easier deformation of the hot synkinematic granites than of the colder country rock and, consequently, contributed significantly to the localization of deformation. Finally, the small extent of the low-temperature deformation suggests that the strike-slip deformation ended approximately synchronously with the final cooling of the peraluminous granites. The evolution of the deformation reflects the strong influence of synkinematic magma emplacement and subsequent cooling on the thermomechanical evolution of the shear zone. Magma intrusion in an orogen-scale transcurrent shear zone deeply modifies the rheological behavior of the continental crust. It triggers an efficient thermomechanical softening localized within the fault that may subsist long enough for large displacements to be accommodated. Therefore the close association of deformation and synkinematic magmatism probably represents an important factor controlling the mechanical response of continental plates in collisional environments.

Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

1994-04-01

102

Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission track thermochronology obtained in the adjacent basement units. The main denudation events are 140 ± 20 Ma (rifting), 75 ± 15 Ma, and 30 ± 10 Ma (estimated age of the Cone do Rio Grande structure formation). We conclude that the subsidence, uplift and denudation events that affected the eastern margin of Brazil and Uruguay and western margin of Africa segmented most of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas, difficulting the paleogeographic reconstruction and plate kinematic of the Brasiliano/Pan-African belts.

Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

2012-12-01

103

Podocoryna loyola, n. sp. (Hydrozoa, Hydractiniidae): a probably introduced species on artificial substrate from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Podocoryna loyola, a new hydractiniid species, has been found on artificial substrates in Baía de Paranaguá, southern coast of Brazil, since April 2007. Its main morphological characteristics are: (1) polymorphic colonies with reticular stolons or encrusting hydrorhiza not covered by periderm and smooth chitinous spines; (2) newly-released medusae with eight tentacles and small interradial gonads; (3) mature medusae with eight tentacles and unbranched oral lips; gastric peduncle absent. Molecular data show that P. loyola is distinct from all other examined species of Podocoryna, and from P. hayamaensis Hirohito (1988), its sister species from Japan. As the polyps having been noted only quite recently, and in having been found only on man-made objects in port areas and estuaries, the species is most likely exotic to the region. PMID:24870689

Haddad, Maria Angélica; Bettim, Ariane Lima; Miglietta, Maria Pia

2014-01-01

104

Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State.

Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marilia; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vania A.; Tercas, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

2012-01-01

105

Coastline orientation, aeolian sediment transport and foredune and dunefield dynamics of Moçambique Beach, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the role of coastline orientation on foredune and dunefield development at Moçambique Beach, Southern Brazil. The beach displays significant alongshore variations in exposure to the prevailing winds and waves, grain size, beach/surfzone morphodynamic type, foredune volume, and type and dimensions of the Holocene dune systems. Two wind analyses and calculation of aeolian drift potentials were carried out, one based on 1 year of wind record and another based on a record of 34 years. Monthly topographic surveys of beach and foredunes on 5 profiles along Moçambique beach were conducted over one year to obtain data on beach mobility and width, aeolian sediment transport and foredune development. Southerly winds dominate, and aeolian sediment supply is minimal in the south, moderate in the central portion and high in the northern portion of the embayment. The relationship between actual sediment supply, foredune building and potential sediment supply is relatively poor over one year due to factors such as beach type and mobility, beach moisture levels, rainfall, storm surge and wave scarping. The intermediate term (34 year) record indicates a strong relationship between foredune size and volume, winds and shoreline orientation: foredune volume is minimum in the southern part of the beach and greatest in the northern part of the beach. The Holocene barrier and dunefield development also reflects the long term control of shoreline orientation and increasing longshore gradient in exposure to southerly winds: for the last 6000-7000 years a small foredune developed in the southern portion, parabolics and small transgressive dunes in the central portion, and a large-scale transgressive dunefield in the northern portion.

Miot da Silva, Graziela; Hesp, Patrick

2010-08-01

106

76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-03-07

107

78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2013-05-29

108

Biomass assessment of the monkfish Lophius gastrophysusstock exploited by a new deep-water fishery in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monkfish Lophius gastrophysuswas the first fishing resource that proved abundant enough to sustain profitable deep- water fishing operations off southern Brazil. As a directed fishery was structured in 2001, a preliminary stock assessment was conducted based on biological samples and catch rate data provided by both national trawlers and chartered gillnetters. Catch- at-size, general linearized models (GLM) and depletion

Angel Alvarez Perez; Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Humber Agrelli de Andrade

2005-01-01

109

Preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: 1982, 1993 and 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three birth cohort studies from 1982, 1993 and 2004, in Pelotas, Southern Brazil provided the data for this study of trends in preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth re- striction. We found a slight increase in the pe- riod in the low birth weight prevalence from 9% to 10%. Intrauterine growth restriction de- creased from 14.8% in 1982

Fernando C. Barros; Cesar G. Victora; Alicia Matijasevich; Iná S. Santos; Bernardo L. Horta; Mariângela F. Silveira; Aluísio J. D. Barros

2008-01-01

110

Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains ?-amyrin (90.6 ?g g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of ?-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, ?-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of ? and ?-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ?-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region. PMID:22782538

Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

2012-09-01

111

Occurrence of three haplotypes of Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported to occur from eastern Brazil to central Argentina in pasture or grassland, forest and second growth riparian forest, nesting under stones, rotting wood, and sandy soil. However, information on this species is poor and its ecological interactions and role as pests are unknown. Linepithema humile (Mayr), a closely related species to L. micans, known as the Argentine ant, is native to South America, and was accidentally introduced to several regions of the world. Recent studies have shown that other related species, such as L. micans, could become as pestiferous as L. humile because of its phylogenetic proximity. Samples of L. micans from different habitats in Southern Brazil were characterized by sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA. Sequences were compared to previously obtained sequences from samples of L. humile and the genetic distance and differences in the tRNALeu structure were investigated. Our data identified three haplotypes of L. micans, two of which were observed in ant populations closely associated with the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that is a serious pest of vineyards. The third haplotype was identified in ants from populations invading residences in urban habitats. PMID:23950010

Martins, C; Nondillo, A; Martins, V G; Botton, M; Bueno, O C

2012-02-01

112

An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

Navarro, Hector

1997-01-01

113

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil Clóvis Angeli Sansigolo CPTEC, INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil This study investigates the AOI-ENSO seasonal relationships and their combined impacts on rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature over Southern Brazil. Monthly 3x3 contingency tables, evaluated by ROC scores, were used to assess the significant, simultaneous and 1 to 6 months lagged relationships between their lower and upper terciles. Significant simultaneous relationships between the negative (positive) AOI phases and El Niño (La Niña) events were obtained during the austral fall months (ROC= 0.61 and 0.63) and spring months (ROC=0.52 and 0.44). Furthermore, significant 1, 3, and 6 months Niño/La Niña lagged relationships were respectively found in fall and spring, in summer, fall, and winter, and in fall and winter. Three months AOI lagged relationships were significant in summer, fall, and spring, and 6 months lagged in fall. Related to the AO and ENSO impacts on the surface regional climate, we observed that El Niño (La Niña) events were respectively, simultaneously and 1 month lagged, associated with above (below) normal rainfall in Spring (ROC=0.65, 0.74, 0.46 and 0.35), and with lags of 2 and 3 months in winter (ROC=0.68, 0.54, 0.69, and 0.60). The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with below normal rainfall in the austral summer (ROC=0.35), winter (0.38) and spring months (0.30) and the AOI negative phases with above normal rainfall in summer (ROC=0.34). Both AOI phases were inversely related to 1 and 3 months lagged rainfall anomalies in winter. El Niño (La Niña) events were significantly associated with above (below) normal minimum temperature (Tmin) anomalies in the spring months (ROC=0.31, and 0.34).With 1 month lag, only El Niño events were related to above normal Tmin in summer and winter, with 2 months lag the significant relations were between La Niña and below normal Tmin in fall, and with 3 months lag, both ENSO events were directly associated with Tmin anomalies. The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with above normal Tmin in fall (ROC=0.54), and in spring (ROC=0.32), and their negative phases, with below normal anomalies in spring (ROC=0.38). With 1 and 2 months lag, the significant relations were between -AOI and above normal Tmin in summer and winter, and +AOI and below normal Tmin in summer. El Niño (La Niña) events were also associated with above (below) normal maximum temperature (Tmax) anomalies in fall (ROC=0.45 and 0.37), and inversely related in spring (ROC=0.33 and 0.36). With 1 month lag, significant direct relationships were observed in fall and inverse ones in spring. With 2 months lag, the significant relationships were in fall, winter and spring. The lagged and simultaneous relationships between AO, ENSO and the surface climate over southern Brazil provide a useful tool for monitoring and prediction of rainfall, Tmin and Tmax in the region.

sansigolo, clovis

2013-04-01

114

Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses. PMID:21138380

de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

2011-03-01

115

Report on the occurrence of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in southern Brazil, in a new intermediate host from the genus Sarasinula (Veronicellidae, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are the main intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus costaricencis. In a rural locality in Nova Itaberaba (SC, southern Brazil) Sarasinula linguaeformis was identified as a crop pest. The parasitological examination revealed A. costaricencis infection in 43 out ot 50 slugs. The prevalence of 86% and the individual parasitic burdens are the highest sofar reported in Brazil and S. linguaeformis is the first species from the genus Sarasinula to be identified as intermediate host for A. costaricencis in southern Brazil. PMID:11340504

Laitano, A C; Genro, J P; Fontoura, R; Branco, S S; Maurer, R L; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Milanez, J M; Chiaradia, L A; Thomé, J W

2001-01-01

116

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par? State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jose D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natalia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

117

Overview of applied solid-state fermentation in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the history and evolution of solid-state fermentation (SSF) in Brazil in the last 15 years. SSF processes and applications are presented here pointing out the advantages and perspectives for the use of this technique. Brazilian economy is strongly dependent on the various kinds of agro-industrial production such as coffee, sugar cane, soybean, etc., which also generates huge

Carlos R Soccol; Luciana P. S Vandenberghe

2003-01-01

118

Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Pará State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L; Vinhote, Wagner M; Barbosa, José D; de Oliveira, Cairo H S; de Oliveira, Carlos M G; Campos, Karinny F; Silva, Natália S; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-12-01

119

Histoplasmosis outbreak in Tamboril cave--Minas Gerais state, Brazil?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report four cases of Histoplasma capsulatum infection in eight biologists who made an expedition to determine the prevalence of this fungus in a cave localized in the northwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This case report demonstrates the importance of evaluating the H. capsulatum presence in Brazilian caves before opening to public visitations.

Rocha-silva, Fabiana; Figueiredo, Sonia M.; Silveira, Thamara T.S.; Assuncao, Claudia B.; Campolina, Sabrina S.; Pena-barbosa, Joao P.P.; Rotondo, Alexandre; Caligiorne, Rachel B.

2013-01-01

120

Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

2012-05-01

121

Agricultural Drought Assessment for the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources systems of the Southern U.S. are increasingly stressed by various demands. This stress is magnified during the periodic droughts that occur in the region, and agriculture is particularly affected by these droughts. Recent public policy in some states has attempted to mitigate the impacts on farmers, but reliable methods of drought assessment and forecasting are needed to allow efficient policy implementation. A methodology is presented to assess the effects of droughts on crop yields, irrigation demands, and the full yield-irrigation relationship. The technique utilizes irrigation optimization algorithms coupled with physiologically based crop models. Ensembles of climatic forcing allow for quantification of the stochastic crop-water production function at specific sites and quantification of the changes in this function in drought periods. Data needs for assessment are discussed as well as sensitivity of the methodology to some input parameters. The technique is applied to case study sites in southwestern Georgia where a new policy to compensate farmers to forego irrigation is in the initial implementation stage. The assessment methodology generates information useful for the binary drought decision mandated by state law, and it suggests potentially beneficial modifications to the current policy.

Brumbelow, K.; Georgakakos, A.

2002-12-01

122

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

123

Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover. PMID:18833475

Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

2008-08-01

124

Infection of humans and animals with Echinococcus granulosus (G1 and G3 strains) and E. ortleppi in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, is one of the foci of human cystic echinococcosis (CE). The sheep strain (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi (also known as cattle strain G5) have been reported before to infect livestock. However, up to the present, no molecular data are available on isolates of the E. granulosus complex from humans and dogs. The present study analyzed hydatid cysts from 6 CE patients and adult worms from 12 dogs. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 and 12S rRNA genes detected the E. granulosus G1 genotype from four human cases, the G3 genotype (or buffalo strain) from one human case and E. ortleppi from another human case, respectively. Ten of the twelve dogs were found infected with the G1 genotype, and one dog each harbored worms of the G3 genotype and E. ortleppi. Obvious morphological differences were recognized between the G1 and E. ortleppi adult worms from dogs in this region. The buffalo strain (G3) is for the first time reported from South America. PMID:21273000

de la Rue, Mario L; Takano, Keishi; Brochado, Joaquim F; Costa, Carmem V; Soares, Antonio G; Yamano, Kimiaki; Yagi, Kinpei; Katoh, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Kenichi

2011-04-19

125

The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest) in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed ?13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas. PMID:23828336

Scheer, Maurício B; Curcio, Gustavo R; Roderjan, Carlos V

2013-01-01

126

[The role of states in mental health policy in Brazil].  

PubMed

This article examines the role of States in mental health policy in Brazil from 1990 to 2009. The methods included the use of an electronic questionnaire on State coordination of mental health in 24 Brazilian States, document review, and analysis based on official data. The results showed that the States use various strategies and tools to conduct mental health policy, especially in monitoring and services delivery. However, the study showed that States have not developed systematic approaches to planning, coordination with other levels of government, or coordination of care. Funding poses a major challenge for management of mental health at the State level. The study suggests that overcoming the challenges in mental health policy depends on the relationship between the Federal government, States, and Municipalities in drafting policies to address each region's specific needs, the promotion of participatory planning, and investment in the sector. PMID:22124500

Simon, Aline Gabriela; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria

2011-11-01

127

Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. PMID:23571856

Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

2013-01-01

128

Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals. PMID:21790069

Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

2011-05-01

129

Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

2013-02-01

130

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

2009-10-01

131

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in young adults from the Southern Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and its associated factors among subjects that have been followed up from birth. In 1982, all maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil, were visited and all births were recorded. Babies whose parents lived in the urban area of Pelotas were subsequently followed up on several occasions. A 22 to 23-year follow-up of this birth cohort was carried out in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as waist circumference ? 90 cm and triglyceride levels ? 177 mg/dL for males, and waist circumference ? 85 cm and triglyceride levels ? 133 mg/dL for females. The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 5.9% and 4.5% among men and women, respectively. Among males, a sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, smoking and obesity were associated with the presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, whereas among females the condition was positively associated with skin color, family income, obesity and dietary fat intake. PMID:23703005

Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M

2013-05-01

132

Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and assess its association with risk factors in a cohort of young adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p?0.001) when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p?0.001) and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002) increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders.

Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C; Minten, Gicele C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

2009-01-01

133

Population structure of Rudgea parquioides, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1) a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2) biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter) and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m(2) area in the municipality of Curitiba (25°25'S; 49°19'W). A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha(-1)) were recorded in the area. The first expectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1). On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope ? < 1, which indicates that growth in height is higher than in diameter, not supporting the second expectation. These results show that life strategies in shade-tolerant species may imply in more trade-off combinations than previously described. PMID:21562692

Cardoso, Fernanda C G; Salvalaggio, Ana P B; Marques, Márcia C M

2010-09-01

134

Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment.

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira

2012-01-01

135

The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

2012-07-01

136

Astyanax douradilho, a new characid fish from the rio Tramandaí system, southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).  

PubMed

Astyanax douradilho, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by possessing 37-39 perforated scales along the lateral line, 3-5 maxillary tricuspid teeth, 22-24 branched anal-fin rays, absence of a conspicuous dark stripe from humeral region to caudal peduncle, two vertically elongated humeral spots, head length (26.0-29.9% of standard length), upper jaw length (43.8-50.6% of head length), and snout length (23.0-28.6% of HL). PMID:24870337

Bertaco, Vinicius A

2014-01-01

137

An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural–urban-industry\\u000a gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0–5.1 in rural to 5.4–6.1 in industrial\\u000a sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+,

M. R. Casartelli; N. Mirlean; M. C. Peralba; S. Barrionuevo; M. X. Gómez-Rey; M. Madeira

2008-01-01

138

Biomass assessment of the monkfish Lophius gastrophysus stock exploited by a new deep-water fishery in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monkfish Lophius gastrophysus was the first fishing resource that proved abundant enough to sustain profitable deep-water fishing operations off southern Brazil. As a directed fishery was structured in 2001, a preliminary stock assessment was conducted based on biological samples and catch rate data provided by both national trawlers and chartered gillnetters. Catch-at-size, general linearized models (GLM) and depletion models

José Angel Alvarez Perez; Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Humber Agrelli de Andrade

2005-01-01

139

Sequence of facies at a holocene storm-dominated regressive barrier at Praia de Leste, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the coast at Praia de Leste, southern Brazil (25º 41’ S latitude), a positive sedimentary budget and a lowering of the sea level following the postglacial maximum has given rise to a progradational strandplain barrier that is 3–5km wide. Sand quarries that lie 3.5km from the present-day coastline have provided material from exceptional outcrops of 75% of the sequence

Maria Cristina de Souza; Rodolfo José Angulo; Mario Luis Assine; David Lopes de Castro

140

Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

2009-10-01

141

Group 1 Vaccinia virus zoonotic outbreak in Maranhao State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, several exanthematic autochthone Vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreaks affecting dairy cattle and rural workers have been reported since 1999. Although outbreaks had been first described in the Brazilian Southeast, VACV outbreaks were notified in all Brazilian regions in < 10 years. However, in this context, VACV outbreaks had not been described in some Brazilian States, likely because of a lack of notification, or yet unknown epidemiological reasons. Here, we describe the first VACV outbreak in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The virus isolated from this outbreak showed several biological and molecular features that resemble other Group 1 Brazilian VACV, including a deletion signature in the A56R gene. This study raises new questions about diversity and epidemiology of Brazilian VACV. PMID:24166043

Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Assis, Felipe Lopes; Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

2013-12-01

142

Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paran? River basin, Paran? State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion\\u000a using P. brasiliensis gp43 and

Andreia C. Corte; Walfrido K. Svoboda; Italmar T. Navarro; Roberta L. Freire; Luciano S. Malanski; M. M. Shiozawa; Gabriela Ludwig; Lucas M. Aguiar; Fernando C. Passos; Angela Maron; Zoilo P. Camargo; Eiko N. Itano; Mario Augusto Ono

2007-01-01

143

SRDC Plan of Work - Southern States' Title V Programs. SRDC Series Publication No. 22, June 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Development Center's 1977 plan focuses on ways to move rural development program and research information to the users. One of four regional centers set by the 1972 Rural Development Act, the southern center works with research and extension staffs in 27 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico. Its publication…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

144

THE PERMANENCE OF DISTINCTIVENESS: PERFORMANCES AND CHANGING SCHOOLING GOVERNANCE IN THE SOUTHERN EUROPEAN WELFARE STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the performance and the emerging forms of governance of schooling in the countries of the southern model of welfare state (Ferrera, 1996, 2000). Four countries - Spain, Portugal, Greece and Italy - will be analysed in the context of the 'lifelong learning policy' and the wider Lisbon strategy. The common belonging of these countries to the Southern

PAOLO LANDRI

145

U–Pb ages of plutonic and metaplutonic rocks in southern Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Timing of Brasiliano deformation and magmatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is divided into three main domains: northern, central, and southern. Several U–Pb zircon ages of plutons and orthogneisses became available in the recent years in the central and northern domains, but similar results are scarce in the southern domain. This study reports U–Pb dates for single zircon grains from one orthogneiss (Jupi orthogneiss) and

Sérgio P. Neves; Olivier Bruguier; Delphine Bosch; José Maurício Rangel da Silva; Gorki Mariano

2008-01-01

146

Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011), 1993 (5,304), and 2004 (4,287) were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored through vital registration, visits to hospitals and cemeteries. The analyses were restricted to women younger than 30 years who delivered singletons (72%, 70% and 67% of the original cohorts, respectively). Maternal age was categorized into three groups (< 16, 16-19, and 20-29 years). Further analyses compared mothers aged 12-19 and 20-29 years. The outcome variables included fetal, perinatal, neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortality. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression models. Results There were no interactions between maternal age and cohort year. After adjustment for confounding, pooled ORs for mothers aged 12-19 years were 0.6 (95% CI = 0.4; 1.0) for fetal death, 0.9 (0.6; 1.3) for perinatal death, 1.0 (0.7; 1.6) for early neonatal death, 1.6 (0.7; 3.4) for late neonatal death, 1.8 (1.1; 2.9) for postneonatal death, and 1.6 (1.2; 2.1) for infant death, when compared to mothers aged 20-29 years. Further adjustment for mediating variables led to the disappearance of the excess of postneonatal mortality. The number of mothers younger than 16 years was not sufficient for most analyses. Conclusion The slightly increased odds of postneonatal mortality among children of adolescent mothers suggest that social and environmental factors may be more important than maternal biologic immaturity.

2011-01-01

147

Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages. PMID:18833472

Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

2008-08-01

148

Ecological traits of two sympatric species of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work was performed with the aim to test theoretical predictions regarding that the sympatric species Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi might show distinct population biology to facilitate its coexistence. The specimens were collected monthly with nets from August 2003 through July 2004 in two trout ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. In the laboratory, the specimens were measured as cephalothorax length (mm), being the sex and ovigerous conditions checked. The species H. pleoacuta was 2.94 times more frequent than H. castroi. Males were significantly greater in size than females ( H. pleoacuta—males: 0.74 ± 0.002 mm and females: 0.66 ± 0.001 mm; H. castroi—males: 0.84 ± 0.00 mm and females: 0.72 ± 0.003 mm). Males and females of H. castroi showed a greater mean body size than H. pleoacuta. Sexual maturity was attained at 0.53 mm in males and 0.48 mm in females of H. pleoacuta, and 0.72 mm in males and 0.67 mm in females of H. castroi. The frequency distribution in size classes was usually bimodal in H. pleoacuta and polymodal in H. castroi throughout the year. Sex ratio was female-biased in either species of Hyalella. Ovigerous females (carrying eggs or juveniles in the marsupium) were collected throughout the year in both Hyalella species, but H. pleoacuta and H. castroi were found with more frequency during the winter and fall, respectively. Recruitment occurred in all months of sampling, the juvenile frequency being more than 50% of the amphipods collected in almost all months in both species. The biological differences (especially body size, size at sexual maturity, number of specimens collected and reproductive peak) and microhabitat specialization can be facilitating factors in the coexistence of H. pleoacuta and H. castroi in artificial ponds raising trout.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Buckup, Georgina Bond

2008-01-01

149

Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. PMID:24566128

Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

2014-05-28

150

Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas.

Freitas-Junior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araujo, Joafrancio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

151

Isolation and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected (rustic farm) pigs in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study reported a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 100 pigs from 58 rural farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-six pigs were seropositive (IFAT?1:64). Bioassays were performed for all 36 seropositive pigs, and 17 isolates were obtained (47.2%). Seven of these isolates (41.2%) were highly pathogenic to mice, as clinical signs of acute infection were observed, and tachyzoites were found in the peritoneal exudates, livers, and lungs. The remaining 10 isolates were able to establish a chronic infection in mice, therefore, they were not highly virulent. The results of this study indicate that pork is a potential source of T. gondii transmission to humans. PMID:24612744

Cademartori, B G; Santos, L M J F; Oliveira, F C; Quevedo, P; Oliveira, P A; Ramos, T S; Rocha, A S R; Ruas, J L; Farias, N A R

2014-06-16

152

Variants of the HNF1? gene: A molecular approach concerning diabetic patients from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) presents monogenic inheritance and mutation factors which have already been identified in six different genes. Given the wide molecular variation present in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? gene (HNF1?) MODY3, the aim of this study was to amplify and sequence the coding regions of this gene in seven patients from the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Brazil, presenting clinical MODY3 features. Besides the synonymous variations, A15A, L17L, Q141Q, G288G and T515T, two missense mutations, I27L and A98V, were also detected. Clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients were compared with the molecular findings, including the I27L polymorphism that was revealed in some overweight/obese diabetic patients of this study, this corroborating with the literature. We found certain DNA variations that could explain the hyperglycemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:23271932

Bonatto, Naieli; Nogaroto, Viviane; Svidnicki, Paulo V; Milléo, Fábio Q; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Almeida, Mara C; Vicari, Marcelo R; Artoni, Roberto F

2012-12-01

153

United States and Brazil : Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely compelling website, dedicated to examining the interactions between Brazil and the United States from the 18th century to the present, grew out of discussions between Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress, and the former President of Brazil, Fernando Hernrique Cardoso. Developed under the auspices of the Global Gateway program at the Library of Congress, the site contains an impressive amount of primary source materials, including maps, rare books, prints, photographs, and manuscripts. When completed, the project will contain materials organized around four primary themes, but currently only the theme of Historical Foundations is complete. As might be expected, the site is presented in both Portuguese and English, and a powerful multifaceted search engine will help guide users to particular documents of interest. Browsing through the Historical Foundations section of the site, visitors will find a timeline (complete with accompanying visual materials), and five separate sections dedicated to exploration, the colonial period, and so on.

Billington, James H.; Cardoso, Fernando H.

154

Genetic variability in five populations of Partamona helleri (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Partamona is a Neotropical genus of stingless bees that comprises 33 species distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. These bees are well-adapted to anthropic environments and build their nests in several substrates. In this study, 66 colonies of Partamona helleri from five localities in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (São Miguel do Anta, Teixeiras, Porto Firme, Viçosa and Rio Vermelho) were analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in order to assess their genetic variability. Low levels of observed (Ho = 0.099-0.137) and expected (H e = 0.128-0.145) heterozygosity were encountered and revealed discrete genetic differentiation among the populations (F ST = 0.025). AMOVA further showed that most of the total genetic variation (94.24%) in P. helleri was explained by the variability within local populations.

2010-01-01

155

Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2005-11-01

156

Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…

Campbell, Dottie C.

157

April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

158

The bottomland hardwood forest of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottomland hardwood forests are valued for timber production, water storage, enhanced water quality, nutrient cycling, erosion control and wildlife habitat. However, the majority of southern bottomland stands, 90% of which are in private ownership, are occupied by a degraded mixture of tree species, caused largely by repeated, incomplete harvests. They can be naturally regenerated to a stand of favorable species

Robert C. Kellison; Michael J. Young

1997-01-01

159

The Pariquera Açu K-alkaline complex and southern Brazil lithospheric mantle source characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the most important K-alkaline magmatic complexes of southern Brazil are associated with two main NW-trending structures. The Lages occurrence is linked to the uplift of a large crustal block, the Lages Dome, tectonically controlled by old NW-trending fault zones. The Jacupiranga, Juquiá and Pariquera Açu (PGAM) occurrences are related to the Ponta Grossa Arch, a NW-trending uplift structure that produced tensional tectonic lineaments with the same direction and influenced the emplacement of both alkaline rocks and dyke swarms associated with Paraná flood basalt activity. The Pariquera Açu complex, petrographically and geochemically described here for the first time, comprises coarse- to fine-grained rocks representing two main suites with different degrees of alkalinity: theralite to essexite and syenogabbro to syenodiorite. In both series highly evolved products are lacking. The presence of carbonatites is inferred. In the Jacupiranga complex (ca. 130 Ma), clinopyroxenite (jacupirangite) cumulates with minor dunites are associated with ankaratrites, alkali gabbros and leucocratic rocks such as syenites, nepheline syenites and peralkaline phonolites. Many phases of both calcic and magnesian carbonatite intrusions, to which relevant fenitization processes of jacupirangite are related, characterize the district. The Juquiá complex (130-135 Ma) consists of prevalent olivine clinopyroxenite cumulates and nepheline syenites, the latter arranged in subanular concentric patterns together with subordinate ijolites-melteigites-urtites, essexites and syenodiorites. The central part of the intrusion is occupied by a small Mg-carbonatite body. The Lages complex (78-63 Ma) is made up of mafic-ultramafic rock-types (olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites) and prevalent leucocratic bodies mainly consisting of peralkaline phonolites. Kimberlitic breccias and carbonatites are also present. Petrography, mineral and bulk-rock chemistry and mass balance calculations show that shallow-level fractional crystallization processes controlled the evolution from mafic to leucocratic rocks in all four complexes. Starting from a mantle source composition as suggested for the eastern Paraguay alkaline (ASU) magmatism, mass balance calculations indicate that primary magmas with high LILE contents and high La/Yb ratios are consistent with a garnet peridotite or phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotite solid residuum and less than 6% melting. The mantle sources are inferred to have been derived by different incompatible element enrichment probably associated with two late Proterozoic metasomatic processes: ASU (1.1 Ga) and Alto Parana?´ba Igneous Province (APIP; 0.5 Ga). Mainly on the basis of geochemical evidence (e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly), mantle sources for PGAM and Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites seem to have been affected by an APIP-like event. On the other hand, an ASU-like metasomatic process is suggested for the Lages basanite mantle source, which may be indicative of vertical mantle heterogeneity. Geochemical data also point to a large-scale northward increase in concentration of incompatible elements (e.g. Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites vs APIP kamafugites). An attempt to correlate the chemical composition of silicate rocks and carbonate metasomatism shows that the mantle sources for PGAM and Lages occurrences plot on a mixing curve linking depleted peridotites and the average Ca-carbonatite. This fact supports the view that carbonatitic fluids/melts have been involved in the metasomatic processes responsible for variable incompatible element enrichment of the lithospheric mantle of SE Brazil.

Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Brotzu, P.; D'Acquarica, S.; Garbarino, C.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

2000-04-01

160

Herd-level risk factors for Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy farms in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was used to test the relationship between herd seroprevalence to Neospora caninum and various potential herd-level risk factors in 60 dairy farms located in two distinct regions in southern Brazil. Thirty farms were randomly selected from within each region. A questionnaire was designed to summarize each farm's production system as it might relate to N. caninum transmission. The questionnaire contained 105 closed questions relating to general characteristics of the farms, farm facilities, management, source of food and water, herd health, environment and biosecurity, which included questions relevant to N. caninum transmission, including presence and number of dogs and other animals, purchase of animals and contact with man. Serum samples were collected from 40% of animals in each farm and N. caninum antibodies were detected by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The association between potential risk factors and the probability of an animal being seropositive was modeled using a generalized estimation equations (GEE) logistic regression model. The model accounted for multilevel correlation of data from multiple animals within herds. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of animals in the 60 herds was 64.5 (+/-45.6), ranging from 20 to 280 females. Blood samples were collected from 1549 animals. The size of the farms varied from 4 to 100 ha (mean 30.1+/-25.9 ha). At least one dog was found in 57 of the 60 dairy farms (95%). The mean number of dogs was 3.1 (+/-1.9), ranging from 0 to 10. All females were raised on pasture. For all cattle sampled, N. caninum seroprevalence was 17.8%. Overall, 93.3% of herds (56/60) had at least one seropositive animal identified. Four variables were significantly associated with N. caninum sero-response in the 57 dairy farms, which were included in the final multivariable model: the number of dogs on the farm, farm area (hectares), feeding pooled sources of colostrum and region. The odds of a cow being seropositive increased 1.13 times for each additional dog present on the farm (P=0.021). Cattle from farms that fed calves colostrum pooled from multiple cows had 1.79 times greater odds for being seropositive for N. caninum (P<0.003). The probability of being seropositive was inverse to the area of the farms, such that cattle had 0.92 times the odds to be seropositive (P=0.014) for each additional 10 ha of farmland. Finally, cattle from farms in region one had 0.71 times the odds to be seropositive than cattle from region two (P=0.035). Results of this study suggest that several risk factors may explain why dairy cattle in Brazil may become exposed to N. caninum. However, further investigation of these factors is necessary because the purpose of this study was to refine and generate hypotheses on N. caninum transmission. PMID:16343669

Corbellini, Luis G; Smith, David R; Pescador, Caroline A; Schmitz, Milene; Correa, Andre; Steffen, David J; Driemeier, David

2006-05-17

161

Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between,its anomalies,and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and

Alvaro F. Diaz; Caarem D. Studzinski; Carlos R. Mechoso

1998-01-01

162

Comparing phosphorus indices from twelve southern U.S. states against monitored phosphorus loads from six prior southern studies.  

PubMed

Forty-eight states in the United States use phosphorus (P) indices to meet the requirements of their Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Code 590 Standard, which provides national guidance for nutrient management of agricultural lands. The majority of states developed these indices without consultation or coordination with neighboring states to meet specific local conditions and policy needs. Using water quality and land treatment data from six previously published articles, we compared P loads with P-Index values and ratings using the 12 southern P indices. When total measured P loads were regressed with P-Index rating values, moderate to very strong relationships (0.50 to 0.97) existed for five indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) and all but one index was directionally correct. Regressions with dissolved P were also moderate to very strong ( of 0.55 to 0.95) for the same five state P indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina); directionality of the Alabama Index was negative. When total measured P loads were transformed to current NRCS 590 Standard ratings (Low [<2.2 kg P ha], Moderate, [2.2-5.5 kg P ha], and High [>5.5 kg P ha]) and these ratings were then compared to the southern-Index ratings, many of the P indices correctly identified Low losses (77%), but most did not correctly identify Moderate or High loss situations (14 and 31%, respectively). This study demonstrates that while many of the P indices were directionally correct relative to the measured water quality data, there is a large variability among southern P indices that may result in different P management strategies being employed under similar conditions. PMID:23128731

Osmond, D; Sharpley, A; Bolster, C; Cabrera, M; Feagley, S; Lee, B; Mitchell, C; Mylavarapu, R; Oldham, L; Walker, F; Zhang, H

2012-01-01

163

Low gene flow of Aedes aegypti between dengue-endemic and dengue-free areas in southeastern and southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We present a population genetic study of Aedes aegypti in Brazil using isoenzyme markers. Four polymorphic loci were used to examine 11 mosquito collections at four periods in 2003. Samples from a dengue-endemic area (southeastern region) and a dengue-free area (southern region) connected by an important network of roads and railways were analyzed. The degree of genetic differentiation observed between populations is consistent with limited gene flow between them. There was no evidence of passive dispersion of Ae. aegypti by vehicles among the different routes linking metropolitan areas. PMID:17690403

da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella

2007-08-01

164

The first description and confirmation of the Vista Alegre impact structure in the Paraná flood basalts of southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vista Alegre structure, centered at 25°57'S and 52°41'W, has been recently proposed as a meteorite impact structure. The 9.5km-diameter structure is located in the Paraná state of southern Brazil, within the Paraná Basin, which contains one of the largest and most extensive flood basalt provinces on Earth. The Paraná flood basalts belong to the Serra Geral Formation and are temporally related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, having been dated at about 133-132Ma. Tholeiitic basalts dominate the western portion of Paraná state, with some minor rhyodacites. Morphologically, Vista Alegre has a prominent circular outline, in the form of an incomplete ring of escarpments, and an inner depression. The presence of a central uplift is not obvious, but it is inferred by the occurrence of deformed sandstone blocks near the center of the structure. These sandstones are possibly related to the Triassic Pirambóia Formation and/or to the Cretaceous Botucatu Formation. These units are normally at stratigraphic depths of about 700-800m below the present surface in this portion of the Paraná Basin. The structure appears to be in an advanced erosion stage and its interior is occupied by a soil cover several meters thick, extensively used for agriculture. As a result there are limited outcrops in the interior of the structure, all of polymict breccias, some of them melt-bearing. We report the extensive occurrence of shatter cones, in the form of fine-grained rock clasts within the polymict breccias. The shatter cone-bearing breccias occur at different locations within the structure, separated by several kilometers. The nested shatter cones range in size from about 0.5 to 20cm for individual cones, and up to half a meter for complete assemblages. The shatter cones formed in fine-grained Parana flood basalt and might be the first examples of shatter cones in such a rock type. In addition, planar deformation features (PDFs) were found in quartz grains within sedimentary rock clasts of the polymict breccia. These findings confirm the impact origin of the Vista Alegre structure.

Crósta, Alvaro P.; Koeberl, Christian; Furuie, Rafael A.; Kazzuo-Vieira, Cesar

2010-02-01

165

Simulation of the trajectory of microwaves during passage of Mesoescale Convective System over Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the eletromagnetic wave travels in the atmosphere from one medium to another with different density and/or composition suffers small changes in speed and direction of propagation. These changes are caused by the vertical variation of atmospheric refractive index. This causes different types of trajectory deviations, which can be called: normal refraction, sub-refraction, super-refraction and duct. The condition to create duct is satisfied when there is a especific vertical profile of refraction, in this case an eletromagnectic wave will oscillate in a layer of the atmosphere. Considering that this ducts condition can causes damage in the transmission and reception of microwave system equipment (e.g. telecomunications, global positioning, weather radars and satellites) and that in the Rio Grande do Sul, state of Brazil, there are two weather radars, this study present a simulation of the trajectory that would have an eletromagnetic wave. In this study was used soundings of the atmosphere to infer the vertical profile of refractive index during the passage of a Mesoescale Convective System on September 7, 2009. In the lack of this data a numerical simulation with nested grids using Weather Research & Forecasting Model was performed to infer this.

Diniz, F. L.; Munchow, G. B.; Herdies, D. L.; Foster, P. R.

2010-12-01

166

[Intention to breastfeed and complementary feeding of postpartum women in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This article seeks to analyze the intention of mothers to breastfeed and the prospects for introduction of complementary food in the first year of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2010 at the Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire, containing questions about socioeconomic conditions, breastfeeding and complementary feeding. 170 mothers were enlisted, with a mean age of 26.5 ± 5.8 years old. Among them, 99% had received prenatal medical care and only 49% recalled having received information about breastfeeding and/or supplementary feeding during the care. All of the mothers intended to breastfeed exclusively for a mean time of 5.5 ±1.6 months. Years of schooling, mothers who do not work outside the home, lower maternal age and receiving information about breastfeeding during prenatal care were associated with longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Regarding complementary food, bean soup was the food most intended for the child's first year of life, with an acceptance of 99.41%, while tea was the one with the earliest intention. The duration of breastfeeding was below the WHO guidelines, and complementary food was considered to be misguided. PMID:25014278

Machado, Adriana Kramer Fiala; Elert, Vanessa Winkel; Pretto, Alessandra Doumid Borges; Pastore, Carla Alberici

2014-07-01

167

Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcal isolates from Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present study, a total of 455 enterococcal isolates, recovered from patients living in the city of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the period from July 1996 to June 1997, were identified to the species level by conventional biochemical and microbiological tests, and assayed for their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents. The genetic diversity of antimicrobial resistant strains was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of SmaI restricted chromosomal DNA. The most frequent species was Enterococcus faecalis (92.8%). Other species identified were: E. faecium (2.9%), E. gallinarum (1.5%), E. avium (1.1%), E. hirae (0.7%), E. casseliflavus (0.4%), E. durans (0.4%) and E. raffinosus (0.2%). The overall prevalence of isolates with high-level resistance (HLR) to aminoglycosides was 37.8%. HLR to gentamicin was found in 24.8%. No strains with acquired resistance to vancomycin were found. PFGE analysis showed the predominance of clonal group A, comprising strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients in three hospitals. These results suggest intra and inter-hospital dissemination of one predominant clonal group of E. faecalis isolates with HLR to gentamicin in the hospitals included in this study. PMID:16547573

d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Dias, Cícero Armídio Gomes; Teixeira, Lúcia Martins

2006-01-01

168

Advertisement call of Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)
(Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Bahia, Brazil.
 

PubMed

The Rhinella crucifer species group is currently composed by six species: Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821); R. ornata (Spix, 1824); R. henseli (A. Lutz, 1924); R. abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004); R. pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004) and R. inopina Vaz-Silva, Valdujo & Pombal, 2012. Until 2012, the group was known to occur only in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest from Rio Grande do Sul to Ceará, and adjacent areas in Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Baldissera et al. 2004). The recently described R. inopina revealed an allopatric distribution, occurring in forest vegetation types in eastern Cerrado (Vaz-Silva et al. 2012). Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821), occurs throughout the Atlantic Rain Forest from Rio de Janeiro to Ceará including the northeast of Minas Gerais (Baldissera et al. 2004; Frost, 2014). Only two species in the group have described calls: R. ornata as Bufo crucifer in Heyer et al. (1990) and R. pombali (Lourenço et al. 2010). The type locality of R. crucifer was informed as being between São Pedro de Alcantara in Santa Catarina and Barra da Vereda in Bahia, but as stated by Bokermann (1966) the type locality can be narrowed down to an area between the rivers Piabanda and Issara, both affluents of the Ilhéus river, approximately 40 km above the municipality of Itabuna. Herein we describe the advertisement call of R. crucifer from a population in the municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia, Brazil, located less than 100 km from the city of Itabuna.  PMID:24872038

De Oliveira, Renan Manoel; Ruas, Danilo Silva; Mendes, Caio Vinicius De Mira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

169

Phytolith studies applied to geomorphologic analysis in the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These factors accounts as well for the larger diameter of the gravels in P1, giving evidences of a more effective action of mechanical weathering near the outcrop. The stock of phytoliths of P1 follows a normal trend of decrease with depth, while P2 presents a very large increase in the organic horizon. In the surface horizons, the indexes D/P are characteristic of open vegetation, but in P1 the current tree cover density is slightly higher than in P2, probably because, being closer to the outcrop, it is located in a place that concentrates more humidity, or because phytoliths comes from the more wooded vegetation of the hillside. D/P index decreases with depth, except for a significant increase in the detritic pavement, suggesting a more humid environment. In the deeper horizons the values are lower than today, but the weathering of phytoliths at this depth is so great that the phytolith signal is weak, remaining only phytoliths that are more resistant to dissolution. In this case, the reconstitution of vegetation by the phytoliths is not reliable, and we can only infer that the erosive processes during this period were very noticeable, indicating a high-energy environment.

Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.

2012-12-01

170

HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil.  

PubMed

HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such as fear of casual contact and blame towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine correlations. Less stigma (both individual items and grouped as a scale) was significantly correlated with VCT use (pSouthern Brazil. Learning more about stigma is important given the growing assertions that testing is a 'critical gateway' to HIV prevention and treatment. As access to HIV testing and treatment improves, providers increasingly need to understand and address how stigma acts as a barrier to services. PMID:18767210

Pulerwitz, J; Michaelis, A P; Lippman, S A; Chinaglia, M; Díaz, J

2008-08-01

171

76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-10-24

172

AN OVERVIEW OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) in the thirteen states of the Southern Region. The definitions, sources, types, and trends of NPSP are discussed. NPSP is of particular concern to wetlands because it is difficult to manage and most states have little knowledge of the effects on wetlands. Information is very limited on the cumulative effects of different NPSP

D. G. Neary; H. Riekerk

173

An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

2012-04-01

174

Geology, petrography and geochemistry of the A-type granites from the Morro Redondo Complex (PR-SC), southern Brazil, Graciosa Province.  

PubMed

The Morro Redondo Complex is one of the most important occurrences of the Graciosa A-type Province, southern Brazil. It consists of the Papanduva and Quiriri granitic plutons and a contemporaneous bimodal volcanic association. The Papanduva Pluton includes massive and deformed peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites with Na-Ca and Na-amphiboles and clinopyroxenes. The deformed types are the most evolved rocks in the province and carry rare ‘agpaitic’ minerals, some being described for the first time in granites from Brazil. The larger Quiriri Pluton comprises massive, slightly peraluminous, biotite syeno- and monzogranites with rare Ca-amphibole. Biotite compositions are relatively homogeneous, whereas sodic amphiboles and clinopyroxenes show increasing Na and Fe3+ evolving paths. The Morro Redondo granites are ferroan, with high SiO2, alkalis and HFSE contents; the peralkaline types registering the highest fe#. LILE and HFSE abundances increase with the agpaitic index and the most evolved are HHP granites, with radiogenic heat production up to 5.7 ?Wm-3. Geothermobarometric estimates indicate emplacement under low pressures (~100 MPa), at temperatures up to 850-800 °C, and relatively reduced (QFM) and oxidized (+1 < ?QFM < +3) environments for the Papanduva and Quiriri Plutons, respectively. In both cases, melts evolved to relatively high oxidation states upon crystallization progress. PMID:24804310

Vilalva, Frederico C J; Vlach, Silvio R F

2014-03-01

175

Lichen diversity and composition in Araucaria forests and tree monocultures in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree plantations for commercial use have been replacing native ecosystems all over the world. We investigated how forest conversion\\u000a to plantations of exotic and native tree species may influence lichen diversity and composition in a southern Brazilian landscape.\\u000a The lichen community from the National Forest of São Francisco de Paula was studied using three stands of each of the four

Márcia I. Käffer; Gislene Ganade; Marcelo P. Marcelli

2009-01-01

176

HIV behind bars: human immunodeficiency virus cluster analysis and drug resistance in a reference correctional unit from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

Prellwitz, Isabel M; Alves, Brunna M; Ikeda, Maria Letícia R; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D; Jarczewski, Carla A; Osório, Marta R; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A

2013-01-01

177

HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.

Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osorio, Marta R.; Sanchez, Alexandra; Seuanez, Hector N.; Larouze, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

2013-01-01

178

Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

2013-06-01

179

Occurrence of Lepidopterism caused by the moth Hylesia nigricans (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lepidopterism by Hylesia nigricans (Berg) moth is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil. Preventive strategies of control are proposed based on information on the biology and ecology of this moth. PMID:17934630

Iserhard, Cristiano A; Kaminski, Lucas A; Marchiori, Maria O; Teixeira, Eduardo C; Romanowski, Helena P

2007-01-01

180

SRDC Plan of Work: Southern States' Title V Programs, 1978. SRDC Series Publication No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving rural development program and research information to users summarizes the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) Plan of Work for 1978. One of 4 regional centers set up by the 1972 Rural Development Act, SRDC coordinates cooperation between research and extension at 28 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico which have rural…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

181

Who Owns the Land. A Preliminary Report for the Southern States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Farmers and farm managers are the largest single group of owners in the sixteen southern states; they own 36 percent of all private noncorporate holdings and almost 43 percent of land in farms, according to a 1978 ESCS survey of privately owned farm and r...

D. G. Lewis

1980-01-01

182

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various

Puneet Dwivedi

2010-01-01

183

Folk medical uses of plant foods in southern Appalachia, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of information obtained from interviews with 660 older native inhabitants of the southern Appalachian region in the United States indicates that plant foods, especially cultivars and materials processed from them, and some wildcrafted plant foods as well, constituted the bulk of the folk materia medica in the 1920s and 1930s. Aside from their use for the treatment of

A. Cavender

2006-01-01

184

Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

2013-01-01

185

Ozone Injury Across the Southern United States, 2002-06.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the Eastern United States, hourly concentrations of ozone typically range from 30 to 50 parts per billion (ppb), with events that may exceed 100 ppb. Typical exposure levels can cause visible foliar injury to some plant species and have the potential t...

A. K. Rose J. W. Coulston

2009-01-01

186

[Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2008-07-01

187

Airborne fungi isolated from Fortaleza city, State of Ceará, Brazil.  

PubMed

Airbone fungi are considered important causes of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. The knowledge of these fungi in a city or region is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhalation of fungal allergens. The airborne fungi of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, were studied during a one year period. Five hundred and twenty Petri dishes with Sabouraud dextrose agar medium were exposed at ten different locations in the city. The dishes exposed yielded one thousand and five hundred and twenty one colonies of twenty four genera. The most predominants were: Aspergillus (44.7%), Penicillium (13.3%), Curvularia (9.8%), Cladosporium (6.8%), Mycelia sterilia (6.0%), Fusarium (3.5%), Rhizopus (3.1%), Drechslera (2.6%), Alternaria (2.4%) and Absidia (2.2%). The results shown that Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium and Alternaria were found during all months in the year. Absidia was more frequent during the dry season. Anemophilous fungi and the high concentration of spores in the air are important because may result in an increased number of people with allergic respiratory disease. PMID:15286814

Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Trindade, Emerson C Pereira; Costa, Maria Márcia; Freire, Caio César Furtado; Cavalcante, Márcio de Souza; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

2004-01-01

188

[Sandflies in rural localities in northwest Paraná State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study reports the results from sandfly captures at six sites in a rural area of Japurá, Paraná State, Brazil, showing the vector's presence indoors, outdoors, and in residual forest. Sandfly captures were performed with Falcão traps from 8:00 AM to 3:00 PM. At sites 195, 223, 236, and 527, three captures were performed at different times from December 2007 to January 2009. At sites 175 and 218, captures were performed from January to December 2008. 8,453 sandflies were captured, with an average of 155.40 specimens per hour. Nyssomyia neivai was the predominant species. Most sandflies were captured in domestic animal shelters (75.91 per hour) and in ciliary forest (38.45 per hour) during the hottest and rainiest months, in the outdoor environment with accumulation of organic matter and inadequate disposal of household wastewater. The study emphasizes the need for regular outdoor cleaning around households and building domestic animal shelters far from residences. PMID:22218588

Cella, Wilsandrei; Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de; Legriffon, Cristiane Machado de Oliveira; Freitas, Janaina Sales de; Kuhl, João Balduino; Teodoro, Ueslei; Rossi, Robson Marcelo

2011-12-01

189

El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Snow Level in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow level, the elevation that snowfall transitions to rainfall, is directly related to the snow covered area resulting from a given snowfall event. With snow level variability quantified from records of (1) wet-bulb zero heights at ten rawinsonde sites (1957-2010), (2) empirical snow level estimates from precipitation and snowfall observations in ten watersheds (~1924-2009), and (3) 850-700 hPa thicknesses (1948-2010), the relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the elevation of snow level in the western United States is established. The statistical relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index and these snow level proxies is determined by the change in the empirical probability density function from moderate values of the Southern Oscillation Index to extreme values of the Southern Oscillation Index. For all three data sources, the results suggest that El Niño events are linked to higher snow levels across nearly the entire western United States. The strength of this signal generally decreases with distance from the Pacific Ocean and results suggest that the southern Rockies experience slightly decreased snow levels during El Niño events. A snow covered area analysis derived from observations by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) supports this El Niño signal in snow level. There is little evidence for a significant and spatially coherent La Niña relationship with snow level. It is likely that the elevated snow levels are due to the tendency for more maritime characteristics of mid-latitude cyclones during El Niño events while decreased snow levels in the southern Rockies are likely due to the transition of maritime air masses to continental air masses along with deeper troughs. To lend support for this hypothesis, the leading modes of synoptic scale flow during winter precipitation events will be identified for separate regions of the western United States using the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset.

Svoma, B. M.

2013-12-01

190

Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a rice-growing region of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Tussocks of Andropogon bicornis (Poaceae) make up a significant part of the landscape of the rice-growing region of south Brazil. However, little is known about their role in maintaining insect diversity in anthropized regions. We tested the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) by analyzing the composition, structure, and diversity of pentatomoid assemblages over the course of a year. A total of 208 tussocks were removed at fortnightly intervals from April 2010 to March 2011. We collected 3,423 pentatomoid specimens belonging to 22 species distributed in 13 genera of three families, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, and Thyreocoridae. The most common species was Tibraca limbativentris Stål, the main rice pest in southern Brazil, followed by Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer) and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius). Abundance and species richness were the lowest in January, February, and March and the highest in July, August, and September. A combination of high species diversity observed during the colder months, including several unrelated to rice, and the absence of immature specimens in the tussocks strengthens the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for pentatomoids in the region. PMID:23949805

Klein, J T; Redaelli, L R; Barcellos, A

2013-06-01

191

Shortage and underutilization of psychiatric beds in southern Brazil: independent data of Brazilian mental health reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Mental health policies throughout the world are being subjected to several changes due to increased pressure from the public\\u000a and from health administrators. Mental health policies in the developing world experienced changes following advice and consultation\\u000a from the World Health Organization (WHO). This was the case with Brazil, which enacted several laws and policies affecting\\u000a community care and the closure

Rafael Henriques Candiago; Sergio da Silva Saraiva; Veralice Gonçalves; Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu

2011-01-01

192

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

193

An Assessment of Maternal Quality of Life in the Postpartum Period in Southern Brazil: A Comparison of Two Questionnaires  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess maternal quality of life (QoL) during the postpartum period and to compare the performance of two QoL questionnaires across a sample of 101 women in southern Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures maternal quality of life during the postpartum period in Brazil. INTRODUCTION There is limited information about postpartum maternal quality of life in Brazil. The are no Portuguese versions of instruments specifically designed to measure quality of life during the postpartum period. METHODS Research participants completed the Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) questionnaires. The correlations between the MQLI and the discrete areas of WHOQOL-BREF were examined using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. RESULTS We report a significant correlation between the global MQLI and the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scores (p < 0.01). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean scores in the Psychological and Environment domains according to different socio-economic strata: F (3, 97) = 3.81, p = 0.012 and F (3, 97) = 4.03, p = 0.01, respectively. DISCUSSION The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire may be more sensitive than the MQLI in detecting the impact of socioeconomic status on the QoL of postpartum women. CONCLUSION The sample of postpartum women evaluated in this study presented favorable QoL scores according to both the MQLI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Our results also indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF and the MQLI questionnaires have a significant correlation in terms of their assessments of postpartum mothers.

Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Schumacher, Marina Verdi; Muller, Lucia Cristina; Amoretti, Aline Luz

2009-01-01

194

Does inadequate diet during childhood explain the higher high fracture rates in the Southern United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Southern states have the highest age-adjusted hip fracture rates among older adults in the United States. Regional hip fracture\\u000a rates in the United States in 1986–1993 correlate with death rates from rickets in the 1940s. Historical patterns of bone\\u000a nutrition early in life might explain contemporary geographic patterns in bone fragility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  State of residence early in life is a better

L. J. Paulozzi

2010-01-01

195

Influence of interhemispheric thermal gradient on the tropical climate state and Southern Hemisphere Westerlies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent paleoclimate proxy study (Anderson et al., 2009) indicated enhanced upwelling rates in the Southern Ocean during the late Pleistocene glacial termination that coincided with the deglacial warming in Antarctica and the rise in atmospheric CO2. Anderson et al. (2009) suggested the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere, specifically affecting the midlatitude westerlies. Our previous modeling study (Lee et al. 2011) showed the viability of such a teleconneciton, albeit in a relatively simplified modeling framework (an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a simplified ocean) and using idealized experiments. In the study, we explore the climate connection between interhemispheric thermal gradient, tropical climate state, Southern Ocean wind response, and ocean overturning circulation in a realistic 21,000 year transient coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model simulation encompassing the most recent deglaciation and the Holocene (the TraCE-21k simulation). We find a significant connection between the interhemispheric surface temperature gradient and the upper level westerlies over the Southern Ocean, in particular in the South Pacific during austral winter. In tropics, we observe a marked southward shift of the tropical precipitation, indicating an alteration of the Hadley circulation. The climate response resembles our previous idealized study (Lee et al., 2011), albeit with smaller magnitude. Our results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that northern hemisphere climate changes can influence the southern hemisphere westerlies via the tropics through an atmospheric teleconnection.

Lee, S.; Chiang, J. C.

2013-12-01

196

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

2014-08-01

197

Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. applicati...

S. D. Tollefson

1990-01-01

198

Hydrometeorological application of an extratropical cyclone classification scheme in the southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) in the southern United States are often overlooked when compared with tropical cyclones in the region and ETCs in the northern United States. Although southern ETCs are significant weather events, there is currently not an operational scheme used for identifying and discussing these nameless storms. In this research, we classified 84 ETCs (1970-2009). We manually identified five distinct formation regions and seven unique ETC types using statistical classification. Statistical classification employed the use of principal components analysis and two methods of cluster analysis. Both manual and statistical storm types generally showed positive (negative) relationships with El Niño (La Niña). Manual storm types displayed precipitation swaths consistent with discrete storm tracks which further legitimizes the existence of multiple modes of southern ETCs. Statistical storm types also displayed unique precipitation intensity swaths, but these swaths were less indicative of track location. It is hoped that by classifying southern ETCs into types, that forecasters, hydrologists, and broadcast meteorologists might be able to better anticipate projected amounts of precipitation at their locations.

Senkbeil, J. C.; Brommer, D. M.; Comstock, I. J.; Loyd, T.

2012-07-01

199

El Niño-Southern Oscillation and snow level in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the elevation of snow level in the western United States is established. Snow level variability is quantified from records of (1) wet-bulb zero heights at ten rawinsonde sites (1957-2010), (2) empirically estimated snow levels over ten adjacent watersheds from precipitation and snowfall observations (˜1924-2009), and (3) 850-700 hPa thicknesses (1948-2010). The statistical relationship between these variables and the Southern Oscillation Index is established through the examination of the change in the empirical probability density function from moderate values of the Southern Oscillation Index to extreme values of the Southern Oscillation Index. For all data sources, results suggest that El Niño events are linked to higher snow levels across much of the western United States. Considering the known effects of El Niño on airflow over the western United States, the elevated snow levels are likely due to the more maritime characteristics of midlatitude cyclones. The strength of this signal decreases with distance from the Pacific Ocean and the southern Rockies display slightly decreased snow levels during El Niño events, likely due to the transition of maritime air masses to continental air masses. A snow covered area analysis derived from the Terra MODIS observations supports this El Niño signal in snow level. There is little evidence for a significant and spatially coherent La Niña relationship with snow level. This ENSO signal in snow level is apparent in the data with trend removed and for the cold and warm phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

Svoma, Bohumil M.

2011-12-01

200

Application of PCR in Serum Samples for Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Southern Bahia-Brazil  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01). Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail.

Dias, Lucas; de Carvalho, Leila Falcao; Romano, Carla C.

2012-01-01

201

Pharmacy practice simulations: performance of senior pharmacy students at a University in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients.

Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; Franca, Taina F.

202

The Itajaí foreland basin: a tectono-sedimentary record of the Ediacaran period, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Itajaí Basin located in the southern border of the Luís Alves Microplate is considered as a peripheral foreland basin related to the Dom Feliciano Belt. It presents an excellent record of the Ediacaran period, and its upper parts display the best Brazilian example of Precambrian turbiditic deposits. The basal succession of Itajaí Group is represented by sandstones and conglomerates (Baú Formation) deposited in alluvial and deltaic-fan systems. The marine upper sequences correspond to the Ribeirão Carvalho (channelized and non-channelized proximal silty-argillaceous rhythmic turbidites), Ribeirão Neisse (arkosic sandstones and siltites), and Ribeirão do Bode (distal silty turbidites) formations. The Apiúna Formation felsic volcanic rocks crosscut the sedimentary succession. The Cambrian Subida leucosyenogranite represents the last felsic magmatic activity to affect the Itajaí Basin. The Brusque Group and the Florianópolis Batholith are proposed as source areas for the sediments of the upper sequence. For the lower continental units the source areas are the Santa Catarina, São Miguel and Camboriú complexes. The lack of any oceanic crust in the Itajaí Basin suggests that the marine units were deposited in a restricted, internal sea. The sedimentation started around 600 Ma and ended before 560 Ma as indicated by the emplacement of rhyolitic domes. The Itajaí Basin is temporally and tectonically correlated with the Camaquã Basin in Rio Grande do Sul and the Arroyo del Soldado/Piriápolis Basin in Uruguay. It also has several tectono-sedimentary characteristics in common with the African-equivalent Nama Basin.

Basei, M. A. S.; Drukas, C. O.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Dunyi, L.; Santos, P. R.; Passarelli, C. R.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Siga, O.; Osako, L.

2011-04-01

203

Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape units resulting from this relationship may be identified. The species E.edulis is found within these landscape units and is integrated into the livelihood of the community.

2013-01-01

204

Seasonal variation in body size and diet of the sea star Astropecten marginatus (Paxillosida, Astropectinidae) off coast of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sea star Astropecten marginatus has a neotropical distribution and is a highly abundant and frequent species in shrimp trawling by-catchin many places along the Brazilian coast. This has caused its threat to extinction and in addition, its bio-ecological aspects are poorly known. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of population length structure and feeding habits of the sea stars A. marginatus inhabiting off state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The analyzed specimens were collected in February (summer), April (fall), June (winter) and October (spring) of 2008 from shrimp by-catch trawling. In the laboratory, each individual had its length measured and then weighed on an analytical scale. Afterwards, the stomach contents of 10 individuals of each of two most frequent length classes were seasonally analyzed. The relative frequency and abundance for each prey category was determined and, then combined into an index of alimentary importance. A total of 994 individuals of A. marginatus were collected with length ranging from 7.0 to 56.2mm, but most individuals were in the 20.1-25mm length classes. Individuals larger than 40mm were only collected in the spring while a few recruits (<10mm) were found in fall and winter. The total weight of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 15.3g and the weight-length relationships showed a negative allometric growth (b<2.54). Regarding its food consumption, this sea star explored eleven food items, with cumaceans and mollusks as the most frequent items. High frequency of empty stomach was recorded at fall. Seasonal differences in the amount explored preys and ingested items as well as in the prey composition were also observed. Higher amount of explored prey categories and ingested items were recorded at winter-spring than summer-fall periods. Predominance in prey category changed from gastropods (summer and fall) to cumaceans (winter and spring). The importance of gastropods as main prey category at summer and fall should be carefully considered since it was coincidently observed with high frequency of empty stomach and low amount of ingested items. The observed seasonal differences in feeding behavior pattern were mainly associated to low prey availability and to changes in the sea star feeding rates, and probably reflected in some biological traits such as small body size of the population inhabiting waters off the Paraná coast, Southern Brazil. PMID:24912343

Guilherme, Pablo D B; Rosa, Leonardo C

2014-03-01

205

Seasonal and interannual litter dynamics of a tropical semideciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed how seasonal and interannual variations in climate alter litter dynamics, including production, decomposition, and accumulation. Monthly measurements of leaf, stem, and reproductive (flower plus fruit) litter and the forest floor litter mass were combined with a mass balance model to determine rates of litter decomposition for a semideciduous tropical forest located in the rain forest-savanna ecotone of the southern Amazon Basin for 2001-2007. Annual rates of litter production varied between 8 and 10.5 Mg ha-1 a-1, and leaf litter production accounted for the majority (˜70%) of the total litter production. Leaf litter production peaked at the end of the May-August dry season while stem litter production peaked during the wet season and reproductive litter production peaked during the dry-wet season transition. Forest floor litter mass ranged between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 over the study period and generally declined as litter inputs declined. Litter decomposition rates were remarkably stable from year-to-year and varied between 10.8 and 12.4 Mg ha-1 a-1. On average, rates of litter decomposition were highest during the dry-wet season transition. Overall, our results suggest that rainfall variability directly altered litter production dynamics and indirectly altered forest floor litter mass and decomposition kinetics through its effect on litter production. Future changes in seasonal and/or interannual rainfall patterns, whether in response to El Niño or to anthropogenic climate change, will likely have important consequences for the litter dynamics of Amazonian semideciduous forest.

Sanches, Luciana; Valentini, Carla Maria Abido; Júnior, Osvaldo Borges Pinto; de Souza Nogueira, José; Vourlitis, George Louis; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; da Silva, Carlos José; Bambi, Paulino; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco

2008-12-01

206

Pathways to Social Complexity and State Formation in the Southern Zambezian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theorists have put forth various anthropological perspectives on the variables leading to social complexity and the emergence\\u000a of state-level polities. This paper incorporates data from the Zambezian region of Southern Africa in order to contribute\\u000a to the literature on social evolutionary theory. It traces the cultural trajectories of communities that flourished during\\u000a the region’s Iron Age within the Shashi-Limpopo Basin,

Nam C. Kim; Chapurukha M. Kusimba

2008-01-01

207

Exploring retrofit alternatives for State Houses in Southern New Zealand: an intensive monitoring process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previous findings of an energy efficiency retrofit programme of state houses in southern New Zealand regions indicated that low internal temperatures occurred during the winter months and that it was difficult to reach minimum levels of indoor comfort. Houses were found to be 0.4ºC warmer (annual average increase) after a ceiling\\/underfloor insulation upgrade with 0.6 ºC increase recorded in

Maria Callau; Tim Bishop

208

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

Nemésio, A

2013-05-01

209

[Development, longevity and reproduction of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in natural conditions during autumn and winter, in southern Paraná, Brazil].  

PubMed

The development, longevity and reproduction of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead were investigated under natural conditions during autumn and winter from 1999 to 2001, in Southern Paraná State, Brazil, in order to understand how these parasitoids overwinter in subtropical regions. Adults of T. basalis e T. podisi emerged during autumn and winter from eggs parasitized between April and June. Adult longevity in natural conditions was higher than eight and seven months, for T. basalis and T. podisi respectively, showing that both species overwinter in the adult stage. Percentage survival of T. basalis and T. podisi females during autumn and winter was higher than 85% and mortality increased significantly in spring. Females maintained for six months in natural conditions parasitized E. heros eggs after transference to 25 degrees C, and the presence of females in the offspring showed that mating occurred during autumn and winter. Temperature during immature development influenced significantly the adult performance, regulating the longevity and reproductive capacity after dormancy. Female parasitoids that developed in higher temperatures lived longer and parasitized more host eggs after transference to 25 degrees C than females that developed under colder conditions. PMID:17607456

Doetzer, Augusta K; Foerster, Luís A

2007-01-01

210

The reduction of HIV transfusion risk in southern Brazil in the 1990s.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of blood donor records was undertaken to obtain risk estimates for transfusing HIV-contaminated blood due to an infectious window period in a large blood bank in the south of Brazil in the 1990s. An incidence/window period model was used to estimate HIV incidence and risk of seroconversion among 11 286 repeat donors with 8917 person-years of follow-up. Separate estimates were calculated for the periods of 1991-94, 1995-96 and 1997-99. Although the residual risk of HIV-positive transfusion decreased from 1 : 5000 in 1991-94 and 1 : 3794 in 1995-96 to 1 : 48 777 in 1997-99, this is still almost 10 times higher than in developed countries. The risk reduction is likely to have resulted from improved donor selection. Despite a 10-fold reduction in the risk of transfusing HIV-contaminated blood because of the screening test's failure to detect the virus during the infectious window period in the 1990s, additional measures are urgently needed to reduce the risk further. To this end, PCR screening of pooled blood donations might be considered in areas of high HIV prevalence when justified by cost-effectiveness calculations. PMID:11299023

Kupek, E J

2001-04-01

211

Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey. PMID:23917551

Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

2013-05-01

212

Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23868199

Amaral, Dt; Arnoldi, Fgc; Rosa, Sp; Viviani, Vr

2014-08-01

213

Molecular identification of bovine papillomaviruses associated with cutaneous warts in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are widespread pathogens mainly associated with benign, self-limiting, cutaneous lesions (warts). At least 8 viral types, defined by serology or nucleotide sequences of the L1 gene, have been identified to date. Different serotypes are associated with the specific type and morphology of the lesion and with particular geographical regions. This article describes the molecular identification of papillomaviruses from Brazilian cattle (n = 48) and horses (n = 1) through partial amplification and sequencing of the L1 gene. Bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) was identified in warts from 29 cattle (59%), BPV-6 from 9 cattle (18%), and BPV-2 in 8 lesions (16%). Warts of 2 cattle harbored L1 sequences of a new BPV type (BAA5), otherwise identified almost exclusively in healthy skin. The newly proposed BPV type "BR-UEL-4" was identified in a sarcoid tumor of a horse. Thus, the present report provides information on the main types of BPV involved in bovine papillomatosis in Brazil and reveals a new viral type associated with equine sarcoid, which to date has been attributed exclusively to BPV-1 and BPV-2. PMID:20622233

Silva, Mariana Sá E; Weiss, Marcelo; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Dos Anjos, Bruno Leite; Torres, Fabricio Dias; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

2010-07-01

214

A prospective study of Toxoplasma-positive pregnant women in southern Brazil: a health alert.  

PubMed

We evaluated anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM-reactive pregnant women seen at a high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic. From March 2005 to January 2008 in Paraná, Brazil, pregnant women seen by the Brazilian Public Health System, in any gestational period, who were anti-T. gondii IgM-positive, were followed. Clinical symptoms were noted, and tests performed including IgA, IgG avidity, ultrasonogram, and amniocentesis (PCR/inoculation in mice). Of 75 patients, 8 showed low, 3 intermediate and 31 high IgG avidity. Of those who underwent the avidity test, 31 (70.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. Thirty-two (42.7%) pregnant women received specific treatment. Six received triple combination treatment; in three, tachyzoites were isolated, although only one was PCR-positive, showing changes in the cerebral sonogram, borderline IgA, and the Sabin tetrad. One fetus died, and one non-reactive IgM pregnant woman showed ocular recurrence. The municipality of residence, contact with cats during adulthood, and ingestion of unpasteurized milk were shown to be important risk factors. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in a pregnancy referred late for treatment. Follow-up of children born to mothers with diagnosed or suspected acute toxoplasmosis is crucial in the management of the changes that toxoplasmosis may cause. PMID:20138322

Higa, Lourenço T; Araújo, Silvana M; Tsuneto, Luiza; Castilho-Pelloso, Marcela; Garcia, João L; Santana, Rosangela G; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

2010-06-01

215

Limnological Characterization of Gravataí River, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological Characterization of Gravataí River, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A limnological study of Gravataí River, RS, Brazil (29° 45' - 30° 12'S and 50° 27'- 51° 12'W) was carried out in order to characterize the spatial and temporal changes of physical, chemical, climatic and microbiological variables along its course attempting to explain its functioning as a lotic system,

São Carlos

216

Distance Education in Brazil and in the United States: A Comparative View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of distance education in Brazil and compares it with that in the United States. It presents a brief historical perspective of private and public initiatives in Brazil and concentrates on present governmental projects and educational policies guiding distance education, with emphasis on higher education. Deficits…

Reifschneider, Marina Becker

2006-01-01

217

Comparison between spore dosimetry and brewer photometry for monthly UV doses in 2000 - 2003 at Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the human risks due to the environmental UVB exposure, it is necessary to determine the biologically effective doses relevant to DNA damage. Spore dosimetry employing dried spores of Bacillus subtilis strainTKJ 6312 (uvr spl) has been performed under various conditions as well at a variety of geometrical and temporal modes at Southern Space Observatory, Sao Martinho da Serra/RS - Brazil (Lat. 29.44°S, Long. 53.82°W), and the results were compared with the irradiance spectra obtained by Brewer spectrophotometers of MKII (June/2000 - August/2002) and MKIII (August/2002 - December/2002). The monthly cumulative doses were analyzed based on the daily effectiveness spectra obtained through the multiplications of the irradiance and the action spectra for spore inactivation and erythema induction. The calculated values from both spectra exhibited good correlations (r =0.8 from the power regression) with the direct measurements of spore inactivation doses. The results indicate the usefulness of the spore dosimetry system for the continuous long-term monitoring of solar-UVB radiation at various sites under various climates.

Schuch, A. P.; Guarnieri, R. A.; Rosa, M. B.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Munakata, N.; Schuch, N. J.

218

Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

Behague, Dominique P; Goncalves, Helen

2009-01-01

219

Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ? 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

2009-01-01

220

Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids.

da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sonia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2008-01-01

221

Evidence of HLA-DQB1 Contribution to Susceptibility of Dengue Serotype 3 in Dengue Patients in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Dengue infection (DI) transmitted by arthropod vectors is the viral disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, an estimated 300 million cases per year. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may also influence the manifestation of the disease; as even in endemic areas, only a small proportion of people develop the most serious form. Immune-response gene polymorphisms may be associated with the development of cases of DI. The aim of this study was to determine allele frequencies in the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci in a Southern Brazil population with dengue virus serotype 3, confirmed by the ELISA serological method, and a control group. The identification of the HLA alleles was carried out using the SSO genotyping PCR program (One Lambda), based on Luminex technology. In conclusion, this study suggests that DQB1?06:11 allele could act as susceptible factors to dengue virus serotype 3, while HLA-DRB1?11 and DQA1?05:01 could act as resistance factors.

Cardozo, Daniela Maria; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Sell, Ana Maria; Guelsin, Glaucia Andreia Soares; Beltrame, Leticia Maria; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Reis, Pamela Guimaraes; Alves, Hugo Vicentin; Mazini, Priscila Saamara; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2014-01-01

222

Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (?13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes.

Goncalves, Helen; Behague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

2009-01-01

223

A rapid fish radiation associated with the last sea-level changes in southern Brazil: the silverside Odontesthes perugiae complex.  

PubMed Central

Coastal freshwater fishes provide valuable models for studying the role of the last glaciations in promoting speciation. To date, the great majority of studies are of Northern Hemisphere taxa, and reflect the influence of vicariant events during, or prior to, the Pleistocene. Microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to investigate patterns of population divergence and evolutionary relationships in a freshwater group of silverside fishes (Odontesthes perugiae complex), endemic to the recently formed coastal plain of southern Brazil. Lacustrine morphotypes showed concordant patterns of genetic and morphological divergence consistent with the geographical history of the coastal plain. The results support the proposal of a silverside radiation chronologically shaped by the sea-level changes of the Pleistocene and Holocene. The radiating lineage comprises a minimum of three allopatric and two sympatric lacustrine species. Four species displayed extremely high levels of genetic variation and some of the most rapid speciation rates reported in fishes. These features were related to a marine-estuarine origin of the radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular phylogeographic survey of a coastal radiation in South America.

Beheregaray, Luciano B; Sunnucks, Paul; Briscoe, David A

2002-01-01

224

[Urban work profile among adolescents aged 14-15 years: a population-based study in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article was to describe the urban work patterns among 14 to 15-year-old youths from Southern Brazil. Child labor was characterized as any activity that resulted in retribution in the form of goods, services or money. The analyses were stratified by sex and economic level. Of the 4325 adolescents interviewed, the proportion of labor in the last year was 22.2%, namely 27.7% for the male sex, and 17% for the female sex. This proportion was also higher among the poorer strata of the population (30.0%) than the more affluent (14.3%). The majority of adolescents worked away from home and approximately half of them began working before 14 years of age, and around 80.0% reported that they worked by choice. Only 1.0% had a labor contract or work booklet, 30.0% worked more than six hours per day, and the average income was less than US$85/month. Domestic work predominated among the poorest teenagers. There is a need for greater surveillance of child labor and of interventions seeking to enforce prevailing legislation. PMID:22634819

Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Bocanegra, Carlos Alberto Delgado; Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fantinel, Everton José; Fiori, Nadia Spada; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Carvalho, Samuel

2012-05-01

225

Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

2012-09-01

226

Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

2014-05-01

227

Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque Group and the Florianópolis Batholith collided.

Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

2011-12-01

228

Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

Stoney, Louise

229

Short-term soil CO 2 emission after conventional and reduced tillage of a no-till sugar cane area in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of tillage systems on soil CO2 emission is a complex issue as different soil types are managed in various ways, from no-till to intensive land preparation. In southern Brazil, the adoption of a new management option has arisen most recently, with no-tillage as well as no burning of crops residues left on soil surface after harvesting, especially in

N. La Scala; D. Bolonhezi; G. T. Pereira

2006-01-01

230

Evidence of rainfall variations in Southern Brazil from trace element ratios (Mg\\/Ca and Sr\\/Ca) in a Late Pleistocene stalagmite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace element ratios in the Bt2 stalagmite from Botuverá cave, Southern Brazil, are explored as a proxy for changes in the local rainfall recharge during the last 116ky. BP Mg\\/Ca and Sr\\/Ca ratios, measured with an electron microprobe, are significantly positively correlated with one another throughout the entire record, and vary in a way that is very consistent with variations

Francisco W. Cruz; Stephen J. Burns; Michael Jercinovic; Ivo Karmann; Warren D. Sharp; Mathias Vuille

2007-01-01

231

Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18° 05' 43.6? S, 43° 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in São João da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mössbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

2014-04-01

232

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact.

2014-01-01

233

Preferences on vital and nonvital tooth bleaching: a survey among dentists from a city of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the preferences of general dentists regarding vital and nonvital tooth bleaching therapies and investigated whether the time of clinical practice and post-graduate training influence these options. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire with closed questions applied to dentists (n=276) of a mid-sized city of the southern Brazil (Pelotas, RS). Information was collected regarding sociodemographic variables, level of specialization and time since graduation. In addition, options regarding bleaching therapies including the first choice of material, technique and clinical practice for vital and nonvital tooth bleaching therapies were included. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis and the associations were evaluated using chi-square and Fisher exact tests (?=0.05). The response rate was 68% (n=187). At-home bleaching therapy was broadly preferred (78.1%) over in-office (21.9%) bleaching. For at-home bleaching, most dentists answered to use 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) (40.2%) and >30% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (31.7%) for nonvital therapies. The majority of dentists with post-graduation training preferred at-home bleaching techniques (p=0.003). At-home bleaching therapy was also more indicated by younger dentists. No association was found between the choice for nonvital bleaching therapies and time since graduation (p=0.532) or continuous education (p=0.083). In conclusion, at-home bleaching was preferred over in-office therapies; 10% CP and >30% HP were chosen as first option agents to treat discolored vital and nonvital teeth, respectively. The time in clinical practice and the level of specialization affected dentists' choices only for vital tooth bleaching treatment. PMID:24474298

Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Ely, Caroline; Torre, Eliana Nascimento; Costa, José Ricardo Souza; Fernández, María Raquel; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves

2013-01-01

234

Population structure, growth and production of Thoracophelia furcifera (Polychaeta: Opheliidae) on a sandy beach in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates aspects of the life history of the polychaete Thoracophelia furcifera on a sandy beach in southern Brazil. Two fixed transects perpendicular to the shoreline in the intertidal zone were sampled fortnightly from May 2008 to April 2009 at low tide. Five T. furcifera samples were collected along each transect and sediment temperature and the salinity of interstitial water were recorded. The material was washed over 0.5- and 0.088-mm sieves, and the width of setiger 8 of each specimen was measured. A total of 5,870 organisms were examined and the estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were L ? 3.60 mm (Wd8S), K 0.63 year-1, C 0.3 and WP 0.97 (Rn 0.132). Life span was 2.6 years, instantaneous mortality rate Z was 3.8 year-1 and the growth index ?' 0.91. Mean density ranged from 644.44 ± 191.77 to 2,783.33 ± 453.64 ind m-2 and mean biomass ranged from 2.52 ± 0.55 to 9.52 ± 1.83 g m-2. Recruitment occurred from April to July and ovigerous females were found from June to November. Annual secondary production was 6.582 g m-2 year-1, mean biomass was 5.638 g m-2 and turnover rate was 1.167. The high values for density, secondary production and biomass suggest that T. furcifera constitute an important food source. These features of T. furcifera' life strategy demonstrate the significant role this species plays in ecosystem dynamics.

Otegui, Mariana B. P.; Blankensteyn, Arno; Pagliosa, Paulo R.

2012-12-01

235

Breast-feeding among the urban poor in southern Brazil: reasons for termination in the first 6 months of life.  

PubMed Central

A study of breast-feeding practices over the first 6 months of life among a cohort of urban poor infants in southern Brazil indicated that the median duration of breast-feeding was 18 weeks, and at 6 months 41% of the infants were still being breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with the following: the infant's sex, mother's colour, type of first feed, timing of the first breast-feed, breast-feeding regimen and frequency of breast-feeding at 1 month, and the use of hormonal contraceptives by the mother. The following were significant risk factors for early termination of breast-feeding: the infant's sex, type of first feed, use of supplementary feeds, frequency of breast-feeding, feeding regimen, weight-for-age, and weight-for-age after controlling for birth weight. Dissatisfaction with their infant's growth rate was the most frequent reason given by mothers for supplementing the diets of infants who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life. Also, the mothers' perception that their milk output was inadequate was the most frequent reason expressed for stopping breast-feeding in the first 4 months. The roles of health services and family support in providing favourable conditions for increasing the duration of breast-feeding in the study population are discussed, as well as the possibility of bias being introduced into studies of the relationship between infant feeding and growth by the effect of the infant's rate of growth on the mother's decision to continue breast-feeding.

Martines, J. C.; Ashworth, A.; Kirkwood, B.

1989-01-01

236

Assessment of the labile fractions of copper and zinc in marinas and port areas in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The dissolved labile and labile particulate fractions (LPF) of Cu and Zn were analyzed during different seasons and salinity conditions in estuarine waters of marina, port, and shipyard areas in the southern region of the Patos Lagoon (RS, Brazil). The dissolved labile concentration was determined using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). DGT devices were deployed in seven locations of the estuary for 72 h and the physicochemical parameters were also measured. The LPF of Cu and Zn was determined by daily filtering of water samples. Seasonal variation of DGT-Cu concentrations was only significant (p?

Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica

2013-08-01

237

Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents.

Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; Franca, Joao B.; Moreira, Suzana; Goncalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

2011-01-01

238

Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for 2050. Conclusions Our models indicate the potential for range expansion of climate suitable for survival of R. microplus and R. annulatus in the southern United States by mid-century, which increases the risk of reintroduction of these ticks and cattle tick fever into major cattle producing areas.

2014-01-01

239

Insomnia and the use of hypnotic drugs in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: Insomnia, the most frequent sleep disorder, significantly affects quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of insomnia in the general population of adults in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: A representative random sample of the population of 77 counties in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

José Carlos Souza; Neomar Souza

240

Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

2014-04-01

241

Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states  

SciTech Connect

The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

242

Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states  

SciTech Connect

The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

243

[Therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this paper is to shed light on the therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from Santa Maria in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The study sought to follow the complex trajectories followed by transvestites in their quest for health care. Field research was conducted between January and November 2012 with transvestites from different cities in the state who were living in Santa Maria at the time. It involved qualitative methodology using ethnographic research. The results showed that the interviewees avoid institutionalized health services, opting for other forms of health care. In this respect, it is noteworthy that of the group of 49 transvestites who were included in this study, 48 sought health care in "African religion groups" or "batuque" ("drumming"), as they refer to them. The transvestites stated that they opted for "African religion groups" as they saw them as places that were able to afford forms of care and protection, without questioning bodily changes and sexual orientation. This article may help to shed light on some of the unusual trajectories of transvestites in their quest for health care. PMID:25014306

Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Coviello, Denise Martin; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

2014-07-01

244

Overview of Drought and Hydrologic Conditions in the United States and Southern Canada, Water Years 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the drought and hydrologic conditions in the United States and southern Canada during the 1986-90 water years. This drought, which spread from the Eastern United States, where it was referred to as 'the drought of the century,' throug...

S. L. Holmes

1992-01-01

245

Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time.

Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2010-01-01

246

Geodiversity assessment of Paraná State (Brazil): an innovative approach.  

PubMed

Geodiversity is considered as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, and soil features, including their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems. A method developed for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was applied to Paraná, a Brazilian state with an area of about 200,000 km(2). The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales ranging from 1/500,000 to 1/650,000, with the final Geodiversity Index the sum of five partial indexes calculated on a 25 × 25 km grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, including geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, paleontology, and soils. The fifth partial index covers mineral occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters, and springs. The Geodiversity Index takes the form of an isoline map that can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management, and use of natural resources at the state level. PMID:23775492

Pereira, Diamantino Insua; Pereira, Paulo; Brilha, José; Santos, Leonardo

2013-09-01

247

[Health care user satisfaction in Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2005].  

PubMed

Researching the users' satisfaction is a key task for management. With the Project for Strengthening the Evaluation Capacity of the State, the Pernambuco Health Secretariat has defined to evaluate the health system performance as priority. The current study aimed to know the factors associated with the users' satisfaction of the Pernambuco health system. It was an evaluative study based on the results obtained in a population survey carried out on 2005 in Pernambuco. The data analysis considered the use of multivariate methods and the satisfaction as dependent variable. The main analyzed aspects were the professionals quality, the health services quality and the health system resolubility. The analysis has revealed that the waiting time for health care and the availability of medicines were the factors with the lowest percentage of users' satisfaction, what generate reflections about if the access has been actually related to the offering of health services, adequate or not to the people demands and the pharmaceutical assistance policy in the state. In conclusion, it was possible to obtain a more complete overview about how the health system of Pernambuco has attended the people expectations by the users perspectives. PMID:21519674

Gouveia, Giselle Campozana; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de

2011-03-01

248

Focal mechanisms and the state of stress on the San Andreas Fault in southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal mechanisms have been determined from P wave first motion polarities for 138 small to moderate (2.6 ? M ? 4.3) earthquakes that occurred within 10 km of the surface trace of the San Andreas fault in southern California between 1978 and 1985. On the basis of these mechanisms the southern San Andreas fault has been divided into five segments with different stress regimes. Earthquakes in the Fort Tejon segment show oblique reverse sup on east-west and northwest striking faults. The Mojave segment has earthquakes with oblique reverse and right-lateral strikesup motion on northwest strikes. The San Bernardino segment has normal faulting earthquakes on north-south striking planes, while the Banning segment has reverse, strike-sup, and normal faulting events all occurring in the same area. The earthquakes in the Indio segment show strike-slip and oblique normal faulting on northwest to north-south striking planes. These focal mechanism data have been inverted to determine how the stresses acting on the San Andreas fault in southern California vary with position along strike of the fault. One of the principal stresses is vertical in all of the regions. The vertical stress is the minimum principal stress in Fort Tejon and Mojave, the intermediate principal stress in Banning and Indio, and the maximum principal stress in San Bernardino. The orientations of the horizontal principal stresses also vary between the regions. The trend of the maximum horizontal stress rotates over 35°, from N15°W at Fort Tejon to N20° at Indio. Except for the San Bernardino segment, the trend of the maximum horizontal stress is at a constant angle of about 65° to the local strike of the San Andreas fault, implying a weak fault. The largest change in the present stress state occurs at the end of the rupture zone of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. It appears that the 1857 rupture ended when it propagated into an area of low stress amplitude, possibly caused by the 15° angle between the strikes of the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The strong correlation between present state of stress and segmentation in previous earthquakes suggests that the stress state is important in controlling rupture propagation.

Jones, Lucile M.

1988-08-01

249

Assessing public preferences for forest biomass based energy in the southern United States.  

PubMed

This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% (E10) and 85% (E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO(2), decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were $0.56 gallon(-1), $0.58 gallon(-1), and $0.48 gallon(-1), and for E85 they were $0.82 gallon(-1), $1.17 gallon(-1), and $1.06 gallon(-1) in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents' were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO(2) and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity. PMID:20140672

Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R; Mercer, Evan

2010-04-01

250

The advertisement call of the endemic Bokermannohyla martinsi (Bokermann, 1964) (Anura: Hylidae) from southern Espinhaço range, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian hylid genus Bokermannohyla Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell & Wheeler, 2005 is currently composed of four (B. circumdata, B. claresignata, B. martinsi, and B. pseudopseudis) species groups (Faivovich et al. 2005). To date, the Bokermannohyla martinsi species group comprises only three species (Faivovich et al. 2009): B. martinsi (Bokermann, 1964), B. langei (Bokermann, 1965), and B. juiju Faivovich, Lugli, Lourenço & Haddad, 2009, whose advertisement calls remain unknown to science. Bokermannohyla martinsi is a narrowly distributed hylid frog species endemic to the southernmost portion of the Espinhaço range, known as Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF). Located in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, the QF is considered an area of "special biological importance" (Drummond et al. 2005). Notwithstanding, because QF is one of the most important iron-ore mining districts in the world (Spier et al. 2003), it has increasingly been target of anthropogenic threats, being one of the most endangered Brazilian landscapes (Jacobi et al. 2007; Jacobi & Carmo, 2008). Herein, we describe for the first time the advertisement call of a member of B. martinsi group, B. martinsi. PMID:24943607

Pinheiro, Paulo Durães Pereira; Taucce, Pedro Paulo Goulart; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta

2014-01-01

251

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-01-01

252

Induction of micronucleus of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to waters from the Cubatão do Sul River, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize the pollution of surface waters by potentially genotoxic agents, this study aimed at assessing the frequency of micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes of the fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, from the Cubatão do Sul River. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Negative control fish showed low frequency of MN, ranging between 0.49‰ and 0.90‰. Positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5 mg/L) organisms showed high MN frequency (16.82-17.25‰). The MN frequency increased along the river (Site 1--1.24‰ winter 2011; Site 4--9.76‰ summer 2011). Based on the observation of elevated MN erythrocytes frequency in O. niloticus exposed to water samples from along the river course, we conclude that the complex environmental mixtures of water from the Cubatão do Sul River have genotoxic potential. This genotoxicity most likely originated from agricultural runoff and domestic effluents released without treatment, based on the evidence from literature data and a survey in the region. This study provides a scientific basis for future studies regarding the genotoxicity of complex environmental mixtures in natural environments. PMID:24138896

Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; Matias, William G

2013-12-01

253

The effects of unpaved roads on suspended sediment concentration of third- to fifth-order streams- A case study from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg L-1) or a value that was 26 and 9 times higher than upstream and downstream samples, respectively. Event-by-event comparisons for each individual site display a tendency for road crossings to statistically increase mean concentration by an average of 6.9 times relative to upstream values only for those streams with the smallest catchment areas (< 2.6 km2). Meanwhile, for stream segments draining an excess of 9.5 km2 there was a tendency for upstream and downstream mean concentration to be statistically similar, presumably due to the minimal amount of road runoff contributed at a single crossing relative to the discharge being carried by the streams. The localized increase in sediment concentration by unpaved road crossing was not found to be associated to road surface area nor average slope. In summary, these findings suggest that the effect of unpaved roads on the local concentration of suspended sediment being transported by streams is strongly scale-dependent in that the impact tends to be important for the low-order headwater streams and undetectable for their higher order counterparts. These results point to the importance of low-order stream crossings in degrading water quality and the need to further explore the role of unpaved roads as agents of degradation in rural areas.

Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.

2012-12-01

254

Beyond Racism: Embracing an Interdependent Future. Brazil, South Africa, the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of four publications examines contemporary power relations between persons of European and African descent in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Using a comparative and multidisciplinary approach, these publications focus on three democracies with large multiracial and multiethnic populations. "Overview Report," which details…

Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

255

Sulfate adsorption and its relationships with properties of representative soils of the São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between sulfate adsorption and physical, electrochemical and mineralogical properties of representative soils of the São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated. Ten subsurface soil samples were characterized for particle size distribution, electrochemical and mineralogical properties and for their capacities of sulfate adsorption. The experimental results were submitted to analysis of variance and to correlation and regression analyses. The composition of

M. E. Alves; A. Lavorenti

2004-01-01

256

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

257

Estimating state-wide biomass carbon stocks for a REDD plan in Acre, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in many other developing countries, the state government of Acre, Brazil, is developing a program for compensating forest holders (such as communities of rubber tappers and indigenous peoples as well as small, medium and large private land holders) reducing their emission of atmospheric heat-trapping gases by not deforesting. We describe and then apply to Acre a method for estimating

Cleber I. Salimon; Francis E. Putz; L. Menezes-Filho; Anthony Anderson; Marcos Silveira; I. Foster Brown; L. C. Oliveira

2011-01-01

258

First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed. PMID:19197480

Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

2008-11-01

259

Characteristics of clays and properties of building ceramics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general characteristics and technological properties of four types of clays obtained from the same location at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have been investigated. These clays are intended for applications in ceramics such as bricks and roofing tiles. Clays were first analyzed by X-ray diffraction, chemical composition particle size distribution, thermal analysis and plasticity.

C. M. F. Vieira; R. Sánchez; S. N. Monteiro

2008-01-01

260

Correlation between Plasmodium vivax variants in Belém, Pará State, Brazil and symptoms and clearance of parasitaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine how different types of P. vivax affect clinical symptoms and parasitaemia clearance. Blood was collected from individuals from Pará State, Brazil. The patients were treated as chloroquine plus primaquine. P. vivax were typed daily till D7 and again on D30. Now we can confirm a previously reported correlation between P. vivax genotype

Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado; Alberto Ferreira de Figueiredo Filho; Vanja Sueli Pachiano Calvosa; Maria Cristina Figueredo; José Maria Nascimento; Marinete Marins Póvoa

2003-01-01

261

Highly Endemic, Waterborne Toxoplasmosis in North Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84%

Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira; Jeffrey L. Jones; Juliana Azevedo-Silva; Cristiane C. F. Alves; Fernando Oréfice; David G. Addiss

2003-01-01

262

The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…

Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

263

City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

1991-01-01

264

Cross-resistance profile of mesosulfuron-methyl-resistant Italian ryegrass in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Diclofop-resistant Lolium species (ryegrass) is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to mesosulfuron-methyl, a recently commercialized herbicide for ryegrass control in wheat; to determine the cross-resistance pattern of a Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Italian ryegrass) accession, 03-1, to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; and to determine the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl. Seventeen ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and Louisiana, including standard resistant and susceptible accessions, were used in this experiment. Fourteen of the 17 accessions were more resistant (four- to > 308-fold) to diclofop than the standard susceptible biotype. One accession, 03-1, was resistant to mesosulfuron-methyl as well as to other ALS inhibitor herbicides such as chlorsulfuron, imazamox and sulfometuron. Accession 03-1, however, did not show multiple resistance to the ACCase inhibitor herbicides diclofop, fluazifop, clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden, nor to glyphosate. The in vivo ALS activity of the 03-1 biotype was less affected by mesosulfuron-methyl than the susceptible biotype. This indicates that the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl is partly due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. It is concluded that diclofop-resistant ryegrass in the southern United States can be generally controlled by mesosulfuron-methyl. However, mesosulfuron-methyl must be used with caution because not all ryegrass populations are susceptible to it. There is a need for more thorough profiling of ryegrass resistance to herbicides. PMID:17315272

Kuk, Yong In; Bugos, Nilda R

2007-04-01

265

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in a Southern Brazilian population from the state of Paraná.  

PubMed

Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are encoded by polymorphic genes and have as binding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of KIR genes and inhibitory KIR/HLA pairs in a population from Southern Brazil, in the state of Paraná, and to compare the results with results from other populations. The genotyping of 16 KIR genes and HLA class I alleles of 289 unrelated individuals was accomplished by reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide Luminex (One Lambda, Inc., Canoga Park, CA). This Brazilian population demonstrated several similarities to Caucasian populations with regard to the frequency of KIR genes. Thirty-eight genotypes were defined in which the most frequent was the homozygous haplotype A (33.2%). Therefore, it was possible to define two new genotypes. Most of the individuals demonstrated at least one inhibitory KIR/HLA pair. Two pairs were the most frequent (40.4%), followed by three pairs (38.2%), one pair (14.6%), and four pairs (6.4%). The KIR2DL2/3 + HLA-C1 pair was the most frequent (79.9%) and the least frequent pair was KIR3DL2 + HLA-A3/11 (25.0%). This study demonstrated the diversity of KIR genes in a population of Paraná, as well as the characteristic pattern of Caucasians with racial admixture, which enabled the definition of two new genotypes and the identification of one individual without the inhibitory KIR/HLA pair. PMID:18848853

Rudnick, Cristiane Conceição Chagas; Franceschi, Danilo Santana Alessio; Marangon, Amanda Vansan; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2008-12-01

266

Genetic Services and Research in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minas Gerais in Brazil has a surface of 586,528 km2, and 18 million inhabitants. Infant mortality rate is 20\\/1,000, and congenital anomalies are its second cause. There are 11 medical schools where basic genetics, but not clinical genetics, is taught. Genetic services in the state include: newborn screening for hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis;

Marcos José Burle Aguiar

2004-01-01

267

Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

2014-05-01

268

Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.  

PubMed

Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

2006-06-01

269

Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)  

DOE Data Explorer

Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

Blackwell, D.D. and others

270

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

PubMed Central

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Goncalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-01-01

271

Identification of Risk Areas for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piaui State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study used spatial analysis to identify areas at greatest risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the urban area of Teresina, Brazil during 2001–2006. The results from kernel ratios showed that peripheral census tracts were the most heavily affected. Local spatial analysis showed that in the beginning of the study period local clusters of high incidence of VL were mostly located in the southern and northeastern parts of the city, but in subsequent years those clusters also appeared in the northern region of the city, suggesting that the pattern of VL is not static, and the disease may occasionally spread to other areas of the municipality. We also observed a spatial correlation between VL rates and all socioeconomic and demographic indicators evaluated (P < 0.01). The concentration of interventions in high-risk areas could be an effective strategy to control the disease in the urban setting.

de Almeida, Andrea S.; de Andrade Medronho, Roberto; Werneck, Guilherme L.

2011-01-01

272

The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

2008-01-01

273

76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing...Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of...

2011-10-26

274

Recent Historical and Projected Regional Trends of White-Tailed Deer and Wild Turkey in the Southern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the historical and future status of white-tailed deer and wild turkey populations in the southern United States is presented. Habitat-based models that statistically relate deer and turkey densities to land use and forest cover at the count...

C. H. Flather T. W. Hoekstra D. E. Chalk N. D. Cost V. A. Rudis

1989-01-01

275

Blood alcohol levels in suicide by hanging cases in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Suicide is one of the main causes of violent death worldwide, and has become a public health issue. Since alcohol consumption is associated with the increase in the number of suicides and hanging is one of the main methods used worldwide, the present study consists of an epidemiological analysis of BACs in victims of suicide by hanging autopsied in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present work was to establish an epidemiological profile and evaluate blood alcohol concentrations in victims of suicide by hanging in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2007. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted by collection of secondary data from autopsy reports of victims of hanging. According to the present study, positive results for alcohol were higher in male victims, but the mean BAC was higher in women. PMID:22687772

Zerbini, Talita; Ponce, Julio de Carvalho; Mayumi Sinagawa, Daniele; Barbosa Cintra, Raquel; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

2012-07-01

276

Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.  

PubMed

This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors. PMID:21125724

Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

2010-01-01

277

Pollen spectrum of honey produced in cerrado areas of Minas Gerais State (Brazil).  

PubMed

The pollen spectra of honey samples collected in five apiaries situated near cerrado areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were studied from April 1996 to April 1998 in order to establish the contribution of different plant species in pollen or nectar production The honey samples were characterized by the following native species: Astronium sp., Alternanthera sp., Schinus sp., and Serjanea sp. The pollinic participation percentage of those species was related to the degree of preservation in the areas. PMID:15029371

Bastos, E M A F; Silveira, V M; Soares, A E E

2003-11-01

278

Geographic distribution of Xerophthalmia in the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution of xerophthalmia in the state of Paraiba, Northeast Brazil, was determined by a field survey of 5,426 children 0–6 years old. Clinical signs were reported and serum retinol levels were determined in a sub?sample of 326 children. Notification of cases of comeal xerophthalmia and keratomalacia by the University Hospital in the period of 1983–86 were followed up.

Christiane Dricot DAns; Jean Dricot; Alcides Da Silva Diniz; Jose Guilherme Rains Mariath; Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos

1988-01-01

279

Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme) essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC\\/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of

Alexandre Porte; RONOEL L. O. GODOY

2008-01-01

280

Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

1983-01-01

281

Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area between São Paulo and Porto Alegre in southeastern Brazil plays a key area to understand and quantify the evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in Brazil. In this contribution, we present new thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 525.1(2.4) Ma, whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.5) and 93.0 (2.5) Ma. The spatial distribution of these ages shows three distinct blocks with a different evolution cut by old fracture zones. While the central block exhibits an old stable block, the Northern and especially the Southern block underwent complex post-rift exhumation. The sample of the Northern block shows two distinct cooling phases in the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleogene to Neogene. After sedimentation of the Permian sandstones the samples of the Central block were never heated up over 100 °C with a following moderate to fast cooling phase in Cretaceous to Eocene time and a fast cooling between Oligocene to Miocene. The five thermal models obtained in the Southern block indicate a complex evolution with three cooling phases. The exhumation events of the three blocks correspond with the Paraná-Etendekka event, the alkaline intrusions due to the Trinidad hotspot, and the evolution of the continental rift basins in SE Brazil and are, therefore, most likely to be the major force for the post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in SE Brazil, which therefore corresponds to the three main phases of the Andean orogeny.

Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Kollenz, Sebastian; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

2013-09-01

282

Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

2010-11-01

283

Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

2010-10-01

284

Relating TRMM precipitation radar land surface backscatter response to soil moisture in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySoil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in agronomy, meteorology, and hydrology. It regulates the exchange of water and heat between land surface and atmosphere and thus plays an important role in the development of weather patterns. It is difficult to obtain a comprehensive spatio-temporal map of soil moisture because of expensive installation of soil moisture measuring instruments. In this paper, a model to estimate soil moisture ( m s) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR) backscatter ( ?°) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is developed for the Southern United States. Soil moisture data from Soil and Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations is used to calibrate and validate the model. The estimated values of m s compare well with the ground measurements of soil moisture. The model works well for various landcovers but works best for low density vegetated areas (closed shrubland). All the soil moisture estimates in this landcover have an absolute error of less than 8%. The model performance deteriorates with increase in vegetation density (crops and forest). Overall, the model performance is satisfactory for all landcover types with RMSE less than 6.3% and absolute error of 10% or less for 90% of the estimates. Estimation of soil moisture over a large area with low error provides another use of TRMMPR data.

Puri, Sumit; Stephen, Haroon; Ahmad, Sajjad

2011-05-01

285

Comparison of flavonoid composition of red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) grown in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Raspberry flavonoid compounds have significant antioxidant activities, and regular consumption may help prevent and/or moderate chronic diseases. Targeted metabolite profiling is useful to identify compounds contributing to these antioxidant properties and health benefits and for tailored breeding for functional foods. In this study, metabolomic variation was determined among three fall-fruiting red raspberry cultivars ('Autumn Britten', 'Caroline', 'Nantahala') grown at three North Carolina locations differing in elevation and average day/night temperatures. 'Nantahala' was specifically bred for the mountainous regions of the southern United States. Ten flavonoid compounds were detected by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Of those, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and quercetin-3-glucoside were quantified against external standards. Variation in flavonoid composition was primarily attributed to genotype and associated with night temperature and hours exposed to temperatures over 29 °C. 'Nantahala' had particularly high levels of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, indicative of its purple raspberry lineage. Quercetin-3-glucoside levels increased the most with elevated temperatures. PMID:22128912

Bradish, Christine M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Fernandez, Gina E; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei

2012-06-13

286

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored.

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

287

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI---a case study in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as

Peter Bröde; Eduardo L. Krüger; Francine A. Rossi; Dusan Fiala

2011-01-01

288

The Influence of Regional-Scale Circulation on Precipitation Variability in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proximity of the southern United States to large water bodies, mountain systems, and the arid climate of the desert southwest makes extended precipitation forecasts exceedingly difficult. In order to better understand the complex precipitation mechanisms, this analysis addresses the relationships between the regional-scale circulation and long-term precipitation variability and change in the southern US for each season through a 42 year study period. Five unique precipitation regions were created for each season, and seasonal anomalies were calculated and examined by region for changes in variability and slope through time. Long -term climate change was detected in the precipitation regions only during the autumn season. During autumn, the western regions showed a significant increase in precipitation through the study period while the eastern region recorded a significant decrease. To explain the significant variations and trends, relationships with the mean hemispheric flow regimes were analyzed. Atmospheric teleconnection indices and a formulated regional-scale flow index were correlated to the regional precipitation anomalies. Results indicated that the regional -scale flow index was the best estimator of regional precipitation variability during every season. To investigate the influence of the regional-scale circulation further, isolation of the primary circulation anomalies associated with the Atlantic Subtropical High (STH) was necessary. Results indicated the importance of five dominant circulation regimes which transcend the seasonal analysis. Three of the patterns related to variations in the STH while two related to variations in the generalized hemispheric longwave flow. Of these, the most important patterns with respect to changes in precipitation related to variations in the STH, especially during the autumn season. It was found that strengthening of the STH over the eastern US causes persistent drought while advecting moisture into the continental interior. Position of the STH anomaly is critical to the corresponding precipitation regime as an eastward displaced STH causes negative precipitation anomalies in the western regions and positive precipitation anomalies in the east. This analysis proves the importance of regional-scale circulation variation on the precipitation variability of the US south. Given current global warming predictions, studies which fully integrate regional-scale atmospheric circulation variability are crucial to future impact scenarios.

Vega, Anthony Jude

289

The Southern Chilean Subduction Zone: Local Earthquake Tomography and State of Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the northern and central part of the South American Subduction zone has been intensively studied the southern part has attracted less attention, which might be caused by its difficult accessibility and lower seismic activity. However, the southern part exhibits strong seismic and tsunamogenic potential with the prominent example of the Mw=9.5~May~22, 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here we present data from an amphibious seismic array (Project TIPTEQ) located between 41.5--43.5°S reaching from the trench to the active magmatic arc incorporating the Island of Chiloé and the magmatic arc with the N-S trending Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone~(LOFZ). 364 local events were observed in a 11-month period from November 2004 until October 2005 with magnitudes between 0.5 to 5.1~Ml. The observed seismicity allows us to constrain the current state of stress of the subducting plate and magmatic arc as well as the local seismic velocity structure. The downgoing Wadati-Benioff zone is readily identifiable as an eastward dipping plane with an inclination of about 29-33°. Besides events in in the Benioff Zone, 75~shallow crustal events with depths shallower than 25~km were observed mainly occurring in different clusters along the magmatic arc. These crustal clusters of seismicity are related to the LOFZ, to the volcanoes Chaitén, Michinmahuida and Corcovado, and to active faulting on secondary faults. Further activity along the LOFZ is indicated by individual events located in direct vicinity of the LOFZ. Focal mechanisms were calculated using moment tensor inversion of amplitude spectra for body waves which mostly yield strike slip mechanisms with SE-NW oriented direction of~?1~for the LOFZ at this latitude. In contrast to the strike-slip mechanism of the events along the LOFZ, the focal mechanisms of the stronger events in the Benioff Zone yield mainly thrust mechanism down to 55~km depth. Focal Mechanism Stress Inversion (FMSI) was carried out for the crustal events and the events in the Benioff zone indicating a strike slip regime along the arc and thrust regime in the Benioff zone, respectively. We suggest that the observed deformation along the LOFZ combined with teleseismic observations is a confirmation for the proposed northward movement of the forearc sliver acting as a detached continental micro-plate as outlined by Forsythe~& Nelson (1985) and Beck et al.~(1993). A high quality subset of events was inverted for a 2-D velocity model using the SIMULPS inversion code. First results suggest a 10~km high mantle bulge (vp>7.8~km/s) below the longitudinal valley and low velocity structure below the coastal cordillera.

Lange, D.; Cembrano, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Haberland, C.; Dahm, T.; Bataille, K.

2007-12-01

290

Poverty, bridging between injecting drug users and the general population, and "interiorization" may explain the spread of HIV in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study how structural determinants and the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) as a bridging population to the general population affected the AIDS subepidemic in southern Brazil during 1986-2000. Data from 288 southernmost Brazilian municipalities were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling and inputs from a Geographic Information System, a multilevel model was constructed. The dependent variable was the logged AIDS standardized incidence rate (among the heterosexual population aged 15-69-years-old); independent variables included indicators for education, water provision, sewage, and garbage collection, per capita income, Gini coefficient (on income), Human Development Index, indicators of accessibility, and AIDS rate among IDUs. Significant predictors included AIDS rate among IDUs, distance from/to highways/railways, the Human Development Index and the ratio of residents who have access to sanitary installations. Poverty (as measured by socioeconomic indicators) and bridging from IDUs contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian southern municipalities. PMID:19083260

Hacker, Mariana A; Leite, Iuri; Friedman, Samuel R; Carrijo, Renata Gracie; Bastos, Francisco I

2009-06-01

291

Major shear zones of southern Brazil and Uruguay: escape tectonics in the eastern border of Rio de La plata and Paranapanema cratons during the Western Gondwana amalgamation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mantiqueira Province represents a series of supracrustal segments of the South-American counterpart formed during the Gondwana Supercontinent agglutination. In this crustal domain, the process of escape tectonics played a conspicuous role, generating important NE-N-S-trending lineaments. The oblique component of the motions of the colliding tectonic blocks defined the transpressional character of the main suture zones: Lancinha-Itariri, Cubatão-Arcádia-Areal, Serrinha-Rio Palmital in the Ribeira Belt and Sierra Ballena-Major Gercino in the Dom Feliciano Belt. The process as a whole lasted for ca. 60 Ma, since the initial collision phase until the lateral escape phase predominantly marked by dextral and subordinate sinistral transpressional shear zones. In the Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil and Uruguay, transpressional event at 630-600 Ma is recognized and in the Ribeira Belt, despite less coevally, the transpressional event occurred between 590 and 560 Ma in its northern-central portion and between ca. 625 and 595 Ma in its central-southern portion. The kinematics of several shear zones with simultaneous movement in opposite directions at their terminations is explained by the sinuosity of these lineaments in relation to a predominantly continuous westward compression.

Passarelli, C. R.; Basei, M. A. S.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Oyhantçabal, P.

2011-04-01

292

Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled trees; n = 48). We discuss the impact of the fishermen's harvesting practices in the managed area with an emphasis on three main points: (1) the harvesting practices are likely not contributing to a decrease in diversity in the managed area; (2) the greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition found for the managed area may reflect a mosaic pattern created by the opening of small tree-gaps distributed across this area over the course of more than 50 years; (3) the disturbance promoted by the fishermen's harvesting practices can be compared to natural disturbances of low impact that create mosaic patterns in tropical forests. This study emphasizes the prominence of the human dimension in ecological processes and the importance of considering the perspectives of local people when discussing the conservation of the natural environments in which these people live. PMID:21396767

de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

2011-07-01

293

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ?ST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

2009-01-01

294

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.  

PubMed

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ?(ST) pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

2009-07-01

295

Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of Paran?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas.

Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

2008-01-01

296

Babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The status of Babesia spp. infection in dogs from rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. For this, 150 animals were examined by blood smears and by PCR; the presence of tick infestation was also investigated. By the blood smear examination, 3 animals (2%) were detected positive and by PCR for Babesia spp. 12 (8%) were positive, with bands visualized in 450 bp. Rhipicephalus sanguineus or Amblyomma spp. were found on 36 (24%) of the 150 dogs. Amblyomma species found were A. cajennense (9/36-25%) and A. ovale (9/36-25%). It was not possible to correlate the presence of R. sanguineus and the infection with Babesia spp. The sequencing of four positive samples demonstrated close identity with B. canis vogeli already characterized in Brazil. PMID:19602312

O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Lopes, Viviane Von Ah; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; Paduan, Karina Dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins

2009-01-01

297

Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12) of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2) of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil. PMID:11781602

Romano-Lieber, N S; Yee, J; Hjelle, B

2001-01-01

298

Exploring the potential of Eucalyptus for energy production in the Southern United States: Financial analysis of delivered biomass. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus plantations in the Southern United States offer a viable feedstock for renewable bioenergy. Delivered cost of eucalypt biomass to a bioenergy facility was simulated in order to understand how key variables affect biomass delivered cost. Three production rates (16.8, 22.4 and 28.0 Mg ha?1 y?1, dry weight basis) in two investment scenarios were compared in terms of financial analysis, to evaluate the

R. Gonzalez; J. Wright; D. Saloni; R. Phillips; R. Abt; H. Jameel

2011-01-01

299

Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems and their relation to ore deposition, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary meteoric hydrothermal systems have altered the rocks exposed over more than 5% of the land surface of the northwestern United States and southern British Columbia, including at least 25,000 km2 in Idaho. The systems typically involved convective circulation of fluid derived from ordinary meteoric groundwaters around crystallizing, calc-alkaline, epizonal plutons emplaced into coeval volcanic cover rocks. These individual systems

Robert E. Criss; Robert J. Fleck; Hugh P. Taylor

1991-01-01

300

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post- conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish

Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2009-01-01

301

Paget's disease of bone: analysis of 134 cases from an island in Southern Brazil: another cluster of Paget's disease of bone in South America.  

PubMed

Paget's disease of bone (PDB) exhibits a marked geographic variation. In Brazil, the prevalence of PDB is unknown and only a few clinical data are available. The aim is to determine clinical, laboratory, imaging and response to treatment data in a large PDB case series in the city of Florianopolis, Brazil. We have performed a retrospective study based on charts reviews of all patients with PDB followed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina and at five different private rheumatology outpatient offices in Florianopolis, between 1995 and 2009. One hundred and thirty-four patients with PDB were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 63.2 ± 10.5 years, 67.2% were women, and 91.1% were Caucasian. Positive family history was reported in only 8.2%. Polyostotic disease was found in 75.0% of the cases, bone pain in 77.9%, and bone deformities in 15.9%. Higher levels of AP were significantly associated with polyostotic disease and skull involvement. Pelvic bones were the most frequently affected (53.7%). Complications included deafness in 8.2%, bone fractures in 3.0%, hydrocephalus in 2.2%, and cauda equina syndrome in 0.7% of the cases. Treatment with zoledronic acid achieved the best response with only 2.9% failing to respond adequately. According to literature data, PDB in South America seems to be characterized by an overall low prevalence, but with localized clusters with higher prevalence. The authors have described a cluster of PDB in Florianopolis, in Southern Brazil. Further properly designed studies are necessary to clarify the PDB epidemiology in South America. PMID:21127877

Werner de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo; Heiden, Gláucia Itamaro; Zimmermann, Adriana Fontes; Morato, Edelton Flávio; Neves, Fabrício Souza; Toscano, Maria Amazile; de Magalhães Souza Fialho, Sonia Cristina; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

2012-03-01

302

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-08-01

303

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-03-01

304

Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the ?-giardin gene.

Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão; Nathália Motta Delvaux Ramos; Maria Fantinatti; Marcus Vinícius Proença de Moraes; Halim Atique Netto; Luciane Moreno Storti-Melo; Elenir Alves Macedo de Godoy; Andréa Regina Baptista Rossit; Octávio Fernandes; Ricardo Luiz Dantas Machado

2011-01-01

305

Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding system may be a source of NDV. These data can be used to establish appropriate biosecurity and husbandry measures for this type of breeding system to prevent NDV spread in Brazil. PMID:24958456

Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

2014-09-01

306

Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in Haematobia irritans (Muscidae) from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33) from all over the state. All populations were highly resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors (RF) ranging from 89.4 to 1,020.6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation also were performed in 16 samples. The kdr mutation was found in 75% of the tested populations, mostly with relatively low frequencies (<20%), and was absent in some highly resistant populations. Addition of TPP did not significantly reduce the LC50 in any population. However, PBO reduced LC50s above 40-fold in all tested populations, resulting in RFs ? 10 in most cases. Horn fly resistance to cypermethrin is widespread in the state, being primarily caused by an enhanced activity of P450 mono-oxygenases and secondarily by reduced target site sensitivity. PMID:23538495

Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Schumaker, Teresinha Tizu Sato; Koller, Wilson Werner; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Albuquerque, Thais Aguiar de; Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

307

Two new species of Haliclona Grant, 1836 (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae) from Sergipe State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Haliclona is one of the most species-rich genera among Demospongiae, but with only 11 species recorded for the Brazilian coast. Here we describe two new species of Haliclona collected by trawling at Sergipe State (Northeastern Brazil). Haliclona (Halichoclona) dura sp. nov. is distinguished by the combination of confused choanosome with dense reticulation, oxeas with stepped and mucronate points, color dark brown externally and light beige internally, consistency firm and incompressible. Haliclona (Soestella) brassica sp. nov. is set apart by the combination of a choanosomal skeleton with rounded meshes, strongyles, raphides, color beige and consistency soft. PMID:24870167

Sandes, Joana; Bispo, André; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

308

Radium-226 in sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum, products in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the 226Ra concentrations in samples of sugar cane juice, which is sold for human consumption in the city of Recife, capital of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample collections were carried out in seventeen commercial establishments where high quantities of the juice are usually sold. The methodology used to determine the concentrations of 226Ra in the juice was based on 222Rn emanation classical technique. Concentrations of 226Ra in the samples varied from 18 to 89 mBqL(-1). PMID:18500415

Silva, C M; Amaral, R S; Santos Júnior, J A; Breckenfeld, M R O; Menezes, R S C

2008-05-01

309

The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011). Methods The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. Results In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. Conclusions These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control. PMID:25075494

Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Kitada, Amanda Akemi Braga; Boechat, Jéssica Sepulveda; Viana, Paula Gonçalves; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco

2014-06-01

310

Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.083–41.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women.

2014-01-01

311

Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

2013-01-01

312

Sun-earth relationship inferred by tree growth rings in conifers from Severiano De Almeida, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of Sun-Earth relationships is based on tree growth rings analysis of araucarias (Araucaria angustifolia) collected at Severiano de Almeida (RS) Brazil. A chronology of 359 years was obtained, and the classical method of spectral analysis by iterative regression and wavelet method was applied to find periodicities and trends contained in the tree growth. The analysis of the dendrochronological series indicates representative periods of solar activity of 11 (Schwabe cycle), 22 (Hale cycle), and 80 (Gleissberg cycle) years. The result shows the possible influence of the solar activity on tree growth in the last 350 years. Periods of 2-7 years were also found and could represent a response of the trees to local climatic conditions. Good agreement between the time series of tree growth rings and the 11 year solar cycle was found during the maximum solar activity periods.

Prestes, A.; Rigozo, N. R.; Nordemann, D. J. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Souza Echer, M. P.; Echer, E.; da Rosa, M. B.; Rampelotto, P. H.

2011-07-01

313

Signatures of continental collisions and magmatic activity in central Brazil as indicated by a magnetotelluric profile across the southern Alto Paranaiba igneous province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband and long-period magnetotelluric soundings were collected along a 560 km E-W profile in a region in central Brazil subjected to Neoproterozoic collision tectonics and Archean to Cretaceous magmatic events. The profile crosses the northeast part of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanics of the Parana basin, the southern extension of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Brasilia belt, locally pervaded by Cretaceous alkaline magmas of the Alto Paranaiba igneous province (APIP), and Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and Archean exposed basement of the southern Sao Francisco craton. 2D conductivity structures derived by joint inversions of the TE and TM polarization modes and a separate inversion of the tipper components show signatures of the past tectonomagmatic events that affected the area. A gravity-defined suture zone beneath the Parana basin related to the Neoproterozoic collision of the Sao Francisco and Parana blocks is detected in the models as a subvertical conductor extending from crustal to upper mantle depths. Deep underthrusting of organic graphite-bearing metasediments in the suture zone is proposed to explain the increase of electrical conductivity. A similar conductivity signature beneath the sedimentary covered region of the Sao Francisco craton is interpreted as another suture zone. This previously undetected feature can be associated either with a trace of a much older event preserved in the cratonic rocks or an expression of accretionary events generating the larger Neoproterozoic San Franciscan plate. Isolated high-conductivity anomalies at midcrustal depths below the Parana and APIP provinces are interpreted as residues of the emplacement of Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic volcanics. A low resistivity wedge into the lithosphere is highlighted at the topmost upper mantle beneath the APIP volcanic complex, coincidental with a zone of low velocity defined by seismic tomography. Geochemical evidences indicate that the alkaline magmatism stemmed from a metasomatized upper mantle at only slightly raised temperatures. Although related to the same magmatic process, the seismic and conductivity anomalies are presently centered at different depths and probably triggered by different sources. Interconnected carbon at the topmost mantle is the most likely candidate to explain the high conductivity whereas the low seismic velocity can be related to either compositional or temperature variations. Conductivity anomalies at different depths in the southern segment of the Sao Francisco cratonic lithosphere suggest that it was significantly affected by the several magmatic episodes it has experienced throughout its geological history. Enhanced conductivity at lower crust can be genetically related to massive basaltic intrusions whereas upper mantle high conductivity can be related to refertilization by infiltrations of low degree basaltic melts from deeper-sourced metasomatic processes.

Padilha, Antonio; Bologna, Mauricio; Vitorello, Icaro; Padua, Marcelo

2010-05-01

314

Yellow fever epizootics in non-human primates, São Paulo state, Brazil, 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF) has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs) are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%). Most of the epizootics (46.6%) were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk. PMID:23328725

Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Spinola, Roberta; Tengan, Cilea Hatsumi; Brasil, Roosecelis Araujo; Siciliano, Melissa Mascheratti; Coimbra, Terezinha Lisieux Moraes; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Rocco, Iray Maria; Bisordi, Ivani; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Petrella, Selma; Pereira, Luiz Eloy; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Silva, Fernanda Giselle da; Suzuki, Akemi

2013-01-01

315

Distribution of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in seropositive patients in the state of Alagoas, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We determined the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in anti-HCV seropositive patients in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, by means of nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of amplified fragments of the 5´NCR. The nested-PCR with genotype-specific primers from the core region was carried out when detection was not possible by the first approach. Detectable HCV-RNA was present in 115 (74.7%) of 154 serum samples. Genotype 1 was the most frequent (77.4%), against 20.9% of genotype 3 and 0.8% of genotype 2. Subtype 1b was predominant (65.2%), followed by subtypes 1a (8.7%), and 3a (6.1%). Coinfection (1a/3a) was detected in 0.8% of the samples. Indeed, there was no significant differences in the prevalence of genotype 1 compared to what has been obtained from anti-HCV seropositive patients from other locations in Brazil. Here we report for the first time the genotype 2 in the state of Alagoas.

Gonzaga, Rosa Maria S.; Rodart, Itatiana F.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvao; Ramalho Neto, Cicero Eduardo; Silva, Denise Wanderlei

2008-01-01

316

Annual Progress Report, 1975. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this second annual report on the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) 1974-75 plan of work are data re: orientation visits; regional workshops; technical consultants; liaison with regional agencies and organizations; information dissemination; annual evaluation; functional networks in the areas of land use issues, citizen…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

317

Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

318

Mycorrhizal relationships in bottomland hardwood forests of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycorrhizae are important in the functioning of forest ecosystems worldwide, and play a critical role in water uptake, nutrient acquisition, and prevention of feeder root disease. The majority of mycorrhizal research has been conducted on upland sites, especially in coniferous ecosystems and in commercial agricultural production. However, the maintenance and restoration of bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest ecosystems in the southern

M. F. Jurgensen; D. L. Richter; M. M. Davis; M. R. McKevlin; M. H. Craft

1996-01-01

319

A materialist analysis of slavery and sharecropping in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical nature of Southern slavery and of the social relations established after its abolition have for a long time been a source of heated debate among American historians. During the last decades, historians have tended to divide into two camps: neoclassical economic historians, who identify slavery and sharecropping with capitalism, and social historians, more or less influenced by Marxism,

Daniel Gaido

2000-01-01

320

Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub 2] could have beneficial effects on plants, climate change could cause serious changes to many ecological systems, for example inducing plants to bloom before their pollinators are available, and could precipitate modifications that few scientists have considered. Certainly many ecological systems will be seriously altered by climate change. Large northward shifts in species' ranges are expected, causing communities and ecosystems to change in composition. Loss of or movement of a dominant tree species may influence many other plant and animal species in the southern forest, bringing about large increases in the numbers of threatened and endangered species, as well as extinctions. Predictions about the effects of global climate change to southern forests and suggestions for detecting and preparing for them are included.

Devall, M.S.; Parresol, B.R. (Forest Service, New Orleans, LA (United States). Inst. for Quantitative Studies)

1994-09-01

321

Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study  

PubMed Central

Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care.

2010-01-01

322

Prevalence and molecular characterization of ?-thalassemia in the state of Bahia, Brazil: first identification of mutation HBB: c.135delC in Brazil.  

PubMed

?-Thalassemia (?-thal) is a hereditary disease with at least 200 known causative molecular defects, with a limited number of distinct mutations predominating in any given population. The Brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous in the world. Although occurrences of ?-thal in this country have been recognized for a long time and previous studies have shown important regional differences related to the mutational profile, no extensive analysis of mutations of the HBB gene has been carried out in Brazil. We examined 1011 teenagers from Bahia, a state located in the northeast of Brazil. Hematological data were obtained using automated cell counting, hemoglobin (Hb) profiles were studied by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA was analyzed by automated sequencing. None of the four Mediterranean mutations that are most frequently found in South and Southeast Brazil (HBB: c.118C>T; HBB: c.93-21G>A; HBB: c.92+1G>A; HBB: c.92+6T>C), was found to be responsible for thalassemia in the cases that we studied. One heterozygote for a frameshift mutation at codon 44 (-C) was identified. This is the first study to determine the prevalence and profile of ?-thal in Bahia State. For the first time in Brazil, we report the occurrence of the HBB: c.135delC mutation in the ?-globin gene. PMID:23425035

Fonseca, Silvana F; Moura Neto, Jose P; Goncalves, Marilda S

2013-01-01

323

Spatial and temporal distribution of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in streams in a mountainous region in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Abstract The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

2013-12-01

324

Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

2013-12-01

325

SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ? one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thallitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F.; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

2013-01-01

326

Serological survey of Ehrlichia species in dogs, horses and humans: zoonotic scenery in a rural settlement from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ? one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species. PMID:24037288

Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

2013-01-01

327

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

2012-05-01

328

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food.

Floss, Elzira Cecilia Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

2013-01-01

329

PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2) is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) and Basic Health Units (BHU) in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2.

Caldeira, Thais Duquia Moraes; Goncalves, Carla Vitola; de Oliveira, Gisele Rodrigues; da Fonseca, Tania Vieira; Goncalves, Regina; do Amaral, Clair Teixeira; da Hora, Vanusa Pousada; de Martinez, Ana Maria Barral

2013-01-01

330

Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species. PMID:23562883

Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

2013-07-01

331

Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.  

PubMed

We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness. PMID:18278312

Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

2007-11-01

332

Deep sea corals off Brazil verify a poorly ventilated Southern Pacific Ocean during H2, H1 and the Younger Dryas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous 14C and Th/U dating of deep sea corals are useful for reconstructing the intensity of deep ocean circulation in the past, as they deliver the time between the gas exchange of the water with the atmosphere and the incorporation of the 14C in the carbonates (Adkins and Boyle, 1997; Adkins et al., 1998; Mangini et al., 1998). Th/U ages of deep sea corals sampled in sediment cores from locations off the coast of Brazil bathed by Antarctic Intermediate Water at depths between 600 and 800 m group close to Heinrich events H2, H1 and the Younger Dryas. The ? 14C of the water bathing the corals starts to decrease approximately 2 kyr before the Heinrich events and decreases to values 400‰ lower than the corresponding back tracked atmospheric values. The timing and the magnitude of the decrease is similar to that observed in intermediate water in the N. Pacific off Baja California (Marchitto et al., 2007) and in the Eastern Pacific (Stott et al., 2009). High ventilation ages, partly exceeding 4000 years, are an unambiguous indication for a reduction of North Atlantic deep water formation during H2, H1 and the YD, as deduced from higher 231Pa/ 230Th activity ratios and from ?Nd in N. Atlantic Ocean sediments (McManus et al., 2004; Pahnke et al., 2008; Yu et al., 1996). They also could indicate a poorly oxygenated Southern Pacific Ocean at the end of the Heinrich events.

Mangini, A.; Godoy, J. M.; Godoy, M. L.; Kowsmann, R.; Santos, G. M.; Ruckelshausen, M.; Schroeder-Ritzrau, A.; Wacker, L.

2010-05-01

333

Diversity of flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in organic citrus orchards in the vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the Counties of Montenegro and Pareci Novo located in the region of the Vale do Rio Cai, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, aiming to determine the fruit fly species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae that occur in organic orchards of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] cultivar Céu, and Murcott tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis), during the fruit ripening stages in 2003 and 2004. Eight McPhail traps baited with integral grape juice diluted to 25% were installed in four orchards, two in each citrus species. The traps were checked weekly, when the baits were changed, the flies separated and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. Fruits were also sampled from the orchards, placed in containers with damp soil and closed with a mesh. The tephritid flies represented 86.2% of all captured flies in the four orchards during both years. Five Tephritidae species were captured from traps: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastrepha grandis (Macquart), Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew), Anastrepha dissimilis Stone and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The captured species of Lonchaeidae were: Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, Neosilba n.sp.3, Neosilba sp. and Lonchaea sp. Anastrepha fraterculus was found in 99% of the fruit samples, both in 'Céu' orange and 'Murcott' tangor, and Neosilba n.sp.3 were only obtained from 'Murcott' tangor fruits. PMID:17144140

da Silva, Fernando F; Meirelles, Rafael N; Redaelli, Luiza R; Soglio, Fábio K Dal

2006-01-01

334

Diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to Neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The protozoa Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. The objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in Southern Brazil with special reference to N. caninum infection. A total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. The cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. Overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with N. caninum. Bacterial infection accounted for 17.4% (28/161) of cases, fungal infection for 3.1% (5/161) of cases and viral aetiology for 1.8% (3/161). Six fetuses had concurrent infection with N. caninum and Leptospira spp. Data from 111 fetuses and the respective aborted cows were analysed to investigate the association between previous abortion and current N. caninum infection. The prevalence of N. caninum-infected fetuses from cows with and without a history of previous abortion was 44% (11/25) and 24.4% (21/86), respectively. Cows aborting a N. caninum-infected fetuses were 2.4 times more likely to have aborted previously than cows aborting for other reasons (95% CI of odds ratio=0.9-6.8, P=0.06). PMID:16772136

Corbellini, Luis G; Pescador, Caroline A; Frantz, Fernanda; Wunder, Elsio; Steffen, David; Smith, David R; Driemeier, David

2006-07-01

335

Stilbenes and tyrosol as target compounds in the assessment of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Vitis vinifera red wines from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The contents of stilbene monomers, cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid, trans-piceid, and tyrosol, were quantified in Vitis vinifera red wines, cvs. Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sangiovese, and Syrah, 2006 and 2007 vintages, from the Sa?o Joaquim region, a new grape-growing region at southern Brazil. Moreover, the effect of chronic consumption of these wines on the antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities was monitored in C57BL6 LDL receptor knockout mice and treated with a hypercholesterolemic diet. Red wines from this region had substantial levels of resveratrols (the predominant forms were glycoside and trans) and tyrosol. Biomonitoring of antioxidant and hypolipidemic activities in vivo revealed that consumption of these wines increased the antioxidant capacity and reduced the hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia promoted by the hypercholesterolemic diet. Significant correlations were found between the increase of antioxidant capacity markers, the decrease of lipid levels promoted by wine consumption, and the contents of stilbenes and tyrosol, supporting the important biological activity of these compounds. PMID:21718033

Gris, Eliana Fortes; Mattivi, Fulvio; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Vrhovsek, Urska; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

2011-07-27

336

A new specimen of Guaibasaurus candelariensis (basal Saurischia) from the Late Triassic Caturrita Formation of southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of the anatomy of a second incomplete skeleton of Guaibasaurus candelariensis to that of basal Saurischia suggests that the origin of the “Prosauropoda” was from unknown basal saurischians, after separating from theropods (except herrerasaurids). Guaibasaurus and Saturnalia are part of this early dichotomy, and they bear mixed characters-states of basal theropods and “prosauropods” type. The Late Triassic age

J. F. Bonaparte; G. Brea; C. L. Schultz; A. G. Martinelli

2007-01-01

337

Carbon emission mitigation measures in Brazil—case study of biomass policy for a ferroalloy plant in Ceará State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims at discussing the possibilities of atmospheric carbon emissions mitigation in the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the forest sector using a case study in the Northeast of Brazil. Taking Ceará State as an example and based on the Ceará State Energy Balances for 1980, 1984 and 1987, the Carbon

Maria Silvia Muylaert De Araujo; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

2006-01-01

338

Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

2011-07-01

339

?-globin haplotypes in normal and hemoglobinopathic individuals from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Five restriction site polymorphisms in the ?-globin gene cluster (HincII-5‘ ?, HindIII-G ?, HindIII-A ?, HincII- ??1 and HincII-3‘ ??1) were analyzed in three populations (n = 114) from Reconcavo Baiano, State of Bahia, Brazil. The groups included two urban populations from the towns of Cachoeira and Maragojipe and one rural Afro-descendant population, known as the “quilombo community”, from Cachoeira municipality. The number of haplotypes found in the populations ranged from 10 to 13, which indicated higher diversity than in the parental populations. The haplotypes 2 (+ - - - -), 3 (- - - - +), 4 (- + - - +) and 6 (- + + - +) on the ?A chromosomes were the most common, and two haplotypes, 9 (- + + + +) and 14 (+ + - - +), were found exclusively in the Maragojipe population. The other haplotypes (1, 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 16) had lower frequencies. Restriction site analysis and the derived haplotypes indicated homogeneity among the populations. Thirty-two individuals with hemoglobinopathies (17 sickle cell disease, 12 HbSC disease and 3 HbCC disease) were also analyzed. The haplotype frequencies of these patients differed significantly from those of the general population. In the sickle cell disease subgroup, the predominant haplotypes were BEN (Benin) and CAR (Central African Republic), with frequencies of 52.9% and 32.4%, respectively. The high frequency of the BEN haplotype agreed with the historical origin of the afro-descendant population in the state of Bahia. However, this frequency differed from that of Salvador, the state capital, where the CAR and BEN haplotypes have similar frequencies, probably as a consequence of domestic slave trade and subsequent internal migrations to other regions of Brazil.

2010-01-01

340

The perception of students on the use of animals in higher education at the Federal University of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The use of animals in education and research is a controversial issue that involves ethical considerations. In Brazil, Act 11,794, which was approved in 2008, established the National Council on the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and a database of institutions that use animals for research and education (CIUCA). This legislation also set out the regulations for the use of animals. In this study, we have evaluated the ethical issues involved in the use of animals for educational purposes at the Federal University of Paraná, through a qualitative-quantitative analysis that relied on written questionnaires. Our objective was to find out the opinions of students and staff from different academic fields, and at different stages in their professional development, on the use of animals for educational purposes. The study involved 101 students and 20 lecturers (i.e. tenure-track professors and all those who teach the students) in Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Approximately half of the students (45.5%) did not know the legislation that regulates the use of animals in education, and most of the lecturers believed that learning goals could not be achieved with alternative methods. Only 38.9% of the lecturers and 31.9% of the students trusted the usefulness of alternative methods. Furthermore, recent graduates were as unaware of the legislation, as were students in the first two years of their university courses. These results suggest that it is necessary to considerably expand the discussion on alternatives to animal use in the academic environment. PMID:22762192

Deguchi, Bernardo G F; Molento, Carla F M; de Souza, Carlos E P

2012-05-01

341

A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices. PMID:23102960

Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

2013-01-01

342

Childhood trauma and suicide risk in a sample of young individuals aged 14-35 years in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Suicide is among the main causes of death of people aged between 15 and 44 years old. Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for suicide. Hence, the objective of this study was to verify the relationship between childhood trauma and current suicide risk (suicidal behavior and ideation) in individuals aged 14-35 years, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Sample selection was performed by clusters. Suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Moreover, the participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, work, and substance use. The sample was composed of 1,380 individuals. The prevalence of suicide risk was 11.5%. The prevalence figures of childhood trauma were 15.2% (emotional neglect), 13.5% (physical neglect), 7.6% (sexual abuse), 10.1% (physical abuse), and 13.8% (emotional abuse). Suicide risk was associated (p<.001) with gender, work, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and all types of childhood trauma. The odds of suicide risk were higher in women (OR=1.8), people who were not currently working (OR=2.3), individuals who presented alcohol abuse (OR=2.6), and among tobacco smokers (OR=3.4). Moreover, suicide risk was increased in all types of trauma: emotional neglect (OR=3.7), physical neglect (OR=2.8), sexual abuse (OR=3.4), physical abuse (OR=3.1), and emotional abuse (OR=6.6). Thus, preventing early trauma may reduce suicide risk in young individuals. PMID:24629481

Barbosa, Luana Porto; Quevedo, Luciana; da Silva, Giovanna Del Grande; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Branco, Jerônimo; Lara, Diogo; Oses, Jean; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

2014-07-01

343

Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian malaria outbreaks to the penguins that are maintained throughout summer.

Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patricia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mario; Braga, Erika M.; Catao-Dias, Jose Luiz

2014-01-01

344

Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

2013-12-01

345

Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012.

da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

2013-01-01

346

Spatial modeling of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil using spatial regression.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas. PMID:24521991

Fonseca, F; Freitas, C; Dutra, L; Guimarães, R; Carvalho, O

2014-05-01

347

Isotopic evidence for paleohydrologic evolution of ground-water flow paths, southern great plains, United States  

SciTech Connect

A confined aquifer in Triassic Dockum Group sandstone beneath the southern Great Plains was isolated from hypothesized paleorecharge areas in eastern New Mexico by Pleistocene erosion of the Pecos and Canadian river valleys and formation of hydrologic divides. Truncation of the flow system left meteoric water in the confined aquifer with mean {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are 17{per thousand} and 2.0{per thousand}, respectively, lighter than those in the overlying High Plains aquifer. Thick upper Dockum mudstone retards downward flow from the High Plains aquifer, which has been recharged by isotopically heavy precipitation during the Holocene. Recharge to the confined aquifer occurred at altitudes of 1600 to 2200 m in proximal Dockum sandstone facies since eroded in eastern New Mexico, at a mean temperature 3 C cooler than present temperature across the southern High Plains. Effect of Pleistocene climatic change on isotopic composition of Dockum ground water could be superposed over geomorphologic effects.

Dutton, A.; Simpkins, W.W. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1989-07-01

348

Comparative development of the Western United States and southern Kazakhstan, Soviet Union - Two early Paleozoic carbonate passive margins  

SciTech Connect

Early Paleozoic passive continental margins of the Western united States and southern Kazakhstan evolved at low latitudes on rifted Precambrian continental crust adjacent to the proto-Pacific Ocean. In the Western United States, early Paleozoic carbonate submarine fans and slides formed on continental slopes in central Nevada. Coeval shoal-water carbonate sediments occurred to the east, in Utah, where they interfingered with siliciclastic sediments and onlapped the craton. In contrast, early Paleozoic carbonate sediments of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan, were deposited on isolated microcontinental blocks that developed during Late Proterozoic rifting of the continental crust. Comparison of stratigraphic sections from Nevada and Malyi Karatau indicate a similar upward-shallowing and seaward-prograding evolution. The Hot Creek Range section in Nevada consists of the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation and Tybo Shale, and Upper Cambrian and lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone. These depositional facies include basin plain (about 500 m), carbonate submarine fan and slides (200 m), upperslope (150 m), and platform margin (150 m). The Kyrshabakty and Batyrbay sections in the Malyi Karatau consist of Cambrian and lowest Ordovician rocks of the Shabakty Suite. Stratigraphic sections in both the Western United States and Malyi Karatau record three coeval episodes of sea level lowstands. These lowstands, which the authors interpret to be eustatic, are recognized by times of seaward collapse of large segments of the platform margins and deeper water slopes and by solution breccias and faunal discontinuities in shoal-water platform-interior sites.

Cooke, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Zhemchuzhnikov, S.V.; Apollonov, M.K.; Ergaliev, G. Kh.; Sargaskaev, Z.S. (Inst. of Geological Sciences, Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan)); Dubinina, S.V. (Geological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

1991-02-01

349

Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of P-to-S conversions from the seismic discontinuities near 410 and 660 km depth reveal the shoaling of the 410-km discontinuity and the deepening of the 660-km discontinuity beneath the Archaean cratons in southern Africa; consequently, the mantle transition zone is 20 km thicker than beneath post-Archaean regions and the global average. The discontinuity structure, combined with tomographically imaged seismic

John Blum; Yang Shen

2004-01-01

350

[Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines. PMID:20498954

Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

2010-01-01

351

[Breastfeeding practices among paid working mothers in Paraíba State, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].  

PubMed

Paid work should not be an obstacle to women's breastfeeding. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. In Brazil, women are legally entitled to 4 months of maternity leave, but in practice few women enjoy such benefits. How is it possible to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months? We analyzed both the breastfeeding rates and whether paid jobs interfere with breastfeeding in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 70 of 223 municipalities (counties) during the annual immunization campaign in 2002. Among 11,076 infants (< 12 months of age), the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 0-4 months was 22.4% and was significantly higher among working women receiving maternity leave as compared to those who did not. The prevalence of total and predominant breastfeeding for 4 months was significantly lower among working women. In rural areas, having paid work was associated with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding. The results show that breastfeeding practices in Paraíba fall far short of WHO recommendations, especially when mothers return to their paid jobs. PMID:17891300

Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo; Rea, Marina Ferreira; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Escuder, Maria Mercedes

2007-10-01

352

Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:18279250

Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

2008-01-01

353

Immature mosquitoes of Serra do Mar park, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

With the objective of providing knowledge about the natural habitat of mosquito larvae, we conducted a study on the culicid fauna and identified larval habitat types at 3 different locations in the Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil, over the 12 months of 1991. We collected 1,425 larvae belonging to 23 species, of which the most frequent were Culex iridescens, Culex spp., Limatus durhami, and Trichoprosopon pallidiventer. The mosquito larval habitats presenting the greatest densities of specimens were bamboo, bromeliads, rubber boots, and streams. We observed that the culicids used a variety of containers as larval habitats and bred under a diversity of ecological conditions. Most of the habitats were natural, formed by bamboo, bromeliads, streams, and depressions in the ground and in rocks, along with artificial habitats consisting of rubber boots and abandoned metal cans. Seven species occurred preferentially in the internodes of closed bamboo stems, 6 in internodes of open stems, and 4 in bromeliads. PMID:21033051

Alencar, Jeronimo; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; De Oliveira, Renata Freitas Nunes; Silva, Julia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

2010-09-01

354

Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

2004-12-01

355

[Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

2014-02-01

356

[Spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Among all bites and stings by venomous animals, scorpion stings have increased significantly in urban areas all over Brazil. Considering that Ponta Grossa is the city in Paraná State with the highest incidence of reported scorpion stings, the current study aimed to assess trends in scorpion stings based on notification records and complaints from January 2008 to December 2010. The geographic coordinates of addresses with reported scorpion stings were collected, digitized, and spatialized, resulting in a cartogram of the georeferenced scorpion stings in the city. The incidence coefficients for this period showed that Ponta Grossa had 113.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and that Colônia Dona Luiza, Neves, and Chapada were the neighborhoods with the highest rates. Investigation of determinants of scorpion stings used visual and statistical analysis, indicating wooded or green areas, water mains, and the sewer system as the main correlated variables. PMID:24068229

Kotviski, Bianca Mayara; Barbola, Ivana de Freitas

2013-09-01

357

Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins) in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Agua Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature) and in stage D (empty gonads) were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions. PMID:17876438

Gomiero, L M; Braga, F M S

2007-05-01

358

[Emerging and reemerging rickettsiosis in an endemic area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article describes a serological survey for rickettsiosis in the county of Novo Cruzeiro, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 1998, testing schoolchildren and dogs. Sera included 331 samples from schoolchildren from an endemic area and 142 samples from schoolchildren from a non-endemic area in the county. All children examined were healthy and had not reported clinical symptoms of Brazilian spotted fever prior to the serological survey. Some 35 children in the endemic area were reactive to Rickettsia rickettsiiby indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) with a titer of 1:64, corresponding to 10.6%. Sera from 73 dogs were tested, showing seroreactivity (IFA 1:64) to Rickettsia rickettsi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia canisin 3 (4.11%), 11 (15.07%), and 13 (17.81%), respectively. The results in schoolchildren and the presence of canine seroreactivity to Ehrlichiaspecies that are potentially pathogenic to humans suggests the risk of transmission of other Rickettsiaein the study area. PMID:12488886

Galvão, Márcio A M; Lamounier, Joel A; Bonomo, Elido; Tropia, Margarete S; Rezende, Eliane G; Calic, Simone B; Chamone, Chequer B; Machado, Mirtes C; Otoni, Márcia E A; Leite, Romário C; Caram, Camila; Mafra, Cláudio L; Walker, David H

2002-01-01

359

The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries.

Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Goncalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

2008-01-01

360

A hydrogen energy system and prospects for reducing emissions of fossil fuels pollutants in the Ceará state—Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of a solar–wind hydrogen energy system was applied to the Ceará state—Brazil and the prospects for reducing emissions of fossil fuels pollutants in such federal state were studied. This long-term study simulates three scenarios of fast, slow and no introduction of hydrogen in the energy balance of the Ceará state. Not including nitrogen oxides, if fuel burning continues,

E. M. do Sacramento; L. C. de Lima; C. J. Oliveira; T. Nejat Veziroglu

2008-01-01

361

Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and ?C-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime was sufficiently humid to develop hydromorphic horizons in the valley bottoms of the entire drainage network to the valley heads; d) regional change toward a drier hydric regime occurred in MIS 2, when erosion of the paleosols predominated; and e) in MIS 1 (current Holocene interglacial), burial of the paleosols and relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

2014-10-01

362

[Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].  

PubMed

This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

2014-07-01

363

A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks. PMID:24676160

Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

2014-03-01

364

New species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) from southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species ofRuellia,R. epallocaulos from northeastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and eastern Paraguay, andR. kleinii from southern Brazil, are described, illustrated and compared to related species.

Cecilia Ezcurra; Dieter C. Wasshausen

1992-01-01

365

Susceptibility to insecticides used for control of Piezodorus guildinii (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States and Brazil.  

PubMed

Limited information exists on the insecticide susceptibility of redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), despite its impact on soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., production in Brazil and the United States. Therefore, this study set out to 1) determine baseline levels of susceptibility to currently recommended pesticides using topical and vial bioassays, 2) determine the levels of esterase activity in populations in the United States and Brazil, and 3) compare control among products in field trials. In topical bioassays conducted in the United States using technical grade materials, the LC50 values of lambda-cyhalothrin, acephate, and methamidophos were 4-25, 141-295, and 40-151 ng per insect, respectively. The LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were 11 and 27 ng per insect, respectively. In vial bioassays conducted in the United States using technical grade materials, the LC50 values of cypermethrin, acephate, and methamidophos were 0.4-0.9, 3.8, and 1.6 microg per vial, respectively. In topical bioassays conducted in Brazil by using commercially formulated products, the LC50 values of acephate, methamidophos, endosulfan, and imidacloprid were 0.90-1.9, 0.4-0.6, 1.5-6.6, and 0.2-0.3 microg per insect, respectively. In vial bioassays conducted in Brazil using commercially formulated products, the LC50 values of endosulfan, methamidophos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were 4-32 and 2-24 microg/cm2 for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. Esterase activity in Louisiana (United States) populations ranged from 251 to 658 nmol alpha-naphthol formed/min/mg protein. Esterase activity levels in Londrina (Brazil) populations averaged 163 nmol/min/mg. In field tests, P. guildinii in Louisiana were controlled by organophosphates thiamethoxam and imidacloprid and in Brazil, with combinations of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. PMID:20568634

Baur, M E; Sosa-Gomez, D R; Ottea, J; Leonard, B R; Corso, I C; Da Silva, J J; Temple, J; Boethel, D J

2010-06-01

366

DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH.

Pontes, Zelia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

2013-01-01

367

Natural fluoride levels from public water supplies in Piauí State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the natural fluoride concentrations in public water supplies in Piauí State, Brazil, in order to identify cities in risk for high prevalence of dental fluorosis. For each city, two samples of drinking water were collected in the urban area: one from the main public water supply and another from a public or residential tap from the same source. Fluoride analyses were carried out in duplicate using a specific ion electrode and TISAB II. From a total of 222 cities in Piauí, 164 (73.8%) samples were analyzed. Urban population in these towns corresponds to 92.5% of the whole state with an estimated population of 1,654,563 inhabitants from the total urban population (1,788,590 inhabitants). A total of 151 cities showed low fluoride levels (<0.30 mg/L) and 13 were just below optimum fluoride concentration in the drinking water (0.31-0.59 mg/L). High natural fluoride concentration above 0.81 mg/L was not observed in any of the surveyed cities. As a conclusion, most of the cities in Piauí have low fluoride concentration in the drinking water. The risk for a high prevalence of dental fluorosis in these urban areas due to natural fluoride in the water supplies is very unlikely. Thus, surveys about the dental fluorosis prevalence in Piauí should be related with data about the consumption of fluoridated dentifrices and other fluoride sources. PMID:20069191

Silva, Josiene Saibrosa da; Moreno, Wallesk Gomes; Forte, Franklin Delano Soares; Sampaio, Fábio Correia

2009-01-01

368

[Hospitalization and mortality from mansoni schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1992/2000].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the historical trends, epidemiological profile, and spatial distribution of hospital admissions and deaths from schistosomiasis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, an analysis was conducted of data from the Hospital Information System and Mortality Information System from 1992 to 2000. The results showed a reduction in hospital admissions and mortality, while identifying more admissions and deaths among males. There was a lower percentage of deaths and admissions from schistosomiasis in individuals under 30 years of age. However, schistosomiasis is still of relevant magnitude, as evidenced by the number of deaths from this cause and the number of patients admitted to the hospital system in Pernambuco. A spatial analysis of the endemic's distribution in the State showed that although from 1995 to 1999 there was a greater spread of admissions due to schistosomiasis in the municipalities (counties) of the Sertão (backlands) and São Francisco river valley, the number of municipalities with hospitalizations due to schistosomiasis decreased from 1995 to 1998, followed by an increase in 1999 and 2000. PMID:16158144

Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barbosa, Constança Simões

2005-01-01

369

Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

2012-11-01

370

Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with small terrestrial mammals in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

From June 2005 to November 2010, 43 small mammals encompassing 6 species of Didelphimorphia, 8 species of Rodentia, and 1 species of Lagomorpha were found parasitized by ticks in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Nine tick species, in total 186 specimens, were identified as follows: Amblyomma cajennense (larvae and nymphs) on opossums and rodents; Amblyomma ovale (nymphs) on rodents; Amblyomma parvum (nymphs) on rodents; Amblyomma coelebs (nymphs) on opossums; Amblyomma dubitatum (nymph) on opossums; Ixodes amarali (females, nymphs, and larvae) on opossums and rodents; Ixodes loricatus (male, females, nymph) on opossums; Ixodes schulzei (female) on rodents; and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (female) on rabbits. Most of the tick-host associations found in the present study have never been recorded in the literature; those include three new host records for I. amarali, four for A. cajennense, one for A. dubitatum, two for A. ovale, and one for A. coelebs. In addition, we provide the first record of A. coelebs in the state of Minas Gerais. PMID:22585005

Saraiva, Danilo G; Fournier, Gislene F S R; Martins, Thiago F; Leal, Karla P G; Vieira, Flávia N; Câmara, Edeltrudes M V C; Costa, Claudia G; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Labruna, Marcelo B

2012-10-01

371

Molecular characterization of noroviruses and HBGA from infected Quilombola children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se (40), (171,216,357,428,739,960) were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le (59, 202, 314) for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L; Ferreira, Mônica S R; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

2013-01-01

372

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

373

Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics. PMID:20356679

da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

2010-06-24

374

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from commercial breeding facilities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasmosis is widespread zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii ,a protozoan that may infect mammals and birds. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of T. gondii in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from commercial breeding facilities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in a way to increase the knowledge on the behavior and importance of the parasite

Paulo Francisco; Rodrigo Costa da SILVA; Ana Paula; Angelucci Contente

375

The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

2010-01-01

376

Isolation of Rickettsia rhipicephali and Rickettsia bellii from Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Ticks in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, attempts to isolate Rickettsia in cell culture were performed individually in seven specimens of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi ticks collected in the state of Sao Paulo (southeastern Brazil). Rickettsia was successfully isolated by the shell vial technique and established in Vero cell culture from six ticks (six isolates). DNA extracted from infected cells of these isolates was tested

Marcelo B. Labruna; Richard C. Pacheco; Leonardo J. Richtzenhain; Matias P. J. Szabo

2007-01-01

377

Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i) produce

Paloma Shimabukuro; Túllio Romão Ribeiro da Silva; Frederico Fonseca; Luke Anthony Baton; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

2010-01-01

378

Carbon emission mitigation measures in Brazil—case study of biomass policy for a ferroalloy plant in CearaState  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims at discussing the possibilities of atmospheric carbon emissions mitigation in the scope of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the forest sector using a case study in the Northeast of Brazil. Taking CearaState as an example and based on the CearaState Energy Balances for 1980, 1984 and 1987, the Carbon (C-CO2) Emission

Maria Silvia Muylaert; De Araujo; Luiz Pinguelli Rosa

379

TEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE DETECTION RATES OF HEPATITIS B IN THE SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem. The state of Santa Catarina presents areas of high endemicity. The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in detection rates of hepatitis B in the period from 2002 to 2009 in Santa Catarina and in its regions. A time series study was carried out. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. Annual variation percentages were estimated by Joinpoint regression. There were two distinct and significant trends in Santa Catarina. From 2002 to 2006 a significant increase of 5.9% per year was observed. From 2006, there was a significant decrease of 6.4% per year. In this same period the southern and far-western regions had significant increases of 15.9% and 4.6% and significant decreases of 7.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Greater Florianópolis and Northeast also showed significant increases until 2006, of 15.4% and 17.4%, respectively. In the following period, non-significant decreases of 5.8% and 9.8% respectively were observed. Foz do Rio Itajaí and Planalto Serrano showed non-significant increases up to half of the studied period of 21.1% and 12.0%, respectively and after, significant decreases of 21.5% and 18.0%, respectively. Vale do Itajaí showed a significant decrease of 9.7%; Planalto Norte showed a non-significant decrease of 0.6% and Midwest a non-significant increase of 2.7% per year, in the period from 2002 to 2009.

Marcon, Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Traebert, Jefferson

2014-01-01

380

Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

1996-01-01

381

[Fear of recurrent falls and associated factors among older adults from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Fear of falling is characterized by anxiety when walking or excessive worry about falling. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with fear of recurrent falls among older adults in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. A total of 266 older adults who had fallen in the previous year were studied based on a population-based cross-sectional survey. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression to assess the association between fear of recurrent falls and the covariates (socioeconomic variables, physical activity, diseases, cognitive impairment, socializing with friends, characteristics of falls, and self-rated health), respecting the hierarchy between the variables. Among the sample, 57.1% feared recurrent falls. The adjusted analysis yielded a significant association between the outcome and female gender (p = 0.013), less socializing with friends (p = 0.015), diseases of the spinal column (p = 0.022), and limitation of daily activities after the fall (p = 0.001). Thus, campaigns to prevent fear of new falls should particularly target women with limitations due to previous falls and low social interaction. PMID:23568305

Antes, Danielle Ledur; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora

2013-04-01

382

An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; Reis, Neilane Bertoni Dos; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

2014-04-01

383

The burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease due to tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2009. METHODS: This was an epidemiological study with an ecological design. Data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality were collected from specific Brazilian National Ministry of Health databases. The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was based on the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The DALYs were estimated by adding the years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Absolute values were transformed into rates per 100,000 population. The rates were calculated by gender, age group, and health care macroregion. RESULTS: The burden of disease due to tuberculosis was 5,644.27 DALYs (92.25 DALYs/100,000 population), YLLs and YLDs respectively accounting for 78.77% and 21.23% of that total. The highest rates were found in males in the 30-44 and 45-59 year age brackets, although that was not true in every health care macroregion. Overall, the highest estimated burden was in the Planalto Norte macroregion (179.56 DALYs/100,000 population), followed by the Nordeste macroregion (167.07 DALYs/100,000 population). CONCLUSIONS: In the majority of the health care macroregions of Santa Catarina, the burden of disease due to tuberculosis was concentrated in adult males, the level of that concentration varying among the various macroregions.

Ferrer, Glenio Cesar Nunes; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Ferrer, Kelian Tenfen; Traebert, Jefferson

2014-01-01

384

Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil.  

PubMed

Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region. PMID:23670475

Leite, Renner de Souza; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; Lopes, Ysabel Arianne Cordeiro Ferreira; Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves

2013-05-01

385

Nematophagous fungi in fresh feces of cattle in the Mata region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The capacity to survive gut passage is one of the desirable characteristics for nematophagous fungi to be considered potential biological control agents of gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock. From April 1995 to April 1996, a pool of 10 cow fecal samples and 10 individual samples of feces from heifers, which were raised under partial (cows) or total (heifers) confinement in the Mata Region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were examined monthly for the presence of nematophagous fungi. A total of 10 isolates was found in the survey. Eight isolates were recovered from the pooled samples of cow feces and two from the individual samples of heifers. Fungi were present in the cow feces during the dry months of August (two isolates of Arthrobotrys oligospora and one Monacrosporium eudermatum) and September (one isolate of Harposporium lilliputanum and one of M. gephyropagum). Fungi were also recovered at the beginning and middle of the rainy season: one isolate of A. musiformis in October, and one isolate of M. gampsosporum and one unidentified fungus which produced septate hyphae and adhesive buds in December. In the individual samples collected from heifers, fungi were present only in the months of September (end of dry season) and March (end of rainy season). One isolate each of H. lilliputanum and A. oligospora were found, respectively. Additional studies to further characterize these isolates should be encouraged. PMID:10348101

Saumell, C A; Padilha, T; Santos, C; de, P; Roque, M V

1999-04-12

386

Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of S?o Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

2014-01-01

387

Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Para?ba state, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims.

2014-01-01

388

Mercury contamination of fish and exposures of an indigenous community in Pará state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is an important source of protein among indigenous communities in Amazonian Brazil. Exposures to mercury via fish were studied in an indigenous community of the Munduruku reserve, located in the Tapajós River basin in the state of Pará, one of the oldest and most productive gold mining areas in the Amazon region. This study summarizes the results of mercury (Hg) analyses of fish consumed by inhabitants of the Munduruku settlement of Sai Cinza. The most frequently consumed fish, reported by 330 persons interviewed for this study, were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. The mean mercury concentration in carnivorous fish was 0.297 microg.g(-1) while in noncarnivorous fish mean mercury concentration was 0.095 microg.g(-1). Only in caratinga was there a significant relationship between fish size, weight, and mercury levels. Levels of methylmercury in the tucunaré averaged 0.170 microg.g(-1), while in traíra the mean level of methylmercury was 0.212 microg.g(-1). Although the levels of Hg in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza community are below the Brazilian limit value for consumption, the high rates and amounts of fish consumed by this population are relevant to evaluating risks of mercury contamination for communities with limited food resources. PMID:11097792

da Silva Brabo, E; de Oliveira Santos, E; de Jesus, I M; Mascarenhas, A F; de Freitas Faial, K

2000-11-01

389

[Nutritional status and screen time among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status, sedentary behavior (TV, computer, and videogame time and screen time as the sum of these first three) and physical activity using a questionnaire with youth (10 to 18 years of age) enrolled in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Anthropometry (body mass and stature), sedentary behavior, and information on physical activity were obtained in a probability sample of 10 to 18 year-old students (n = 328; 108 boys) stratified by school and selected in two stages (classes and students). Low height for age did not appear as a problem, but 25.7% of the youth presented excess weight (18% overweight and 7.7% obese). Total screen time did not differ between the sexes, but boys spent more time playing videogames than girls, regardless of age, while girls watched more TV. Boys spent twice as much time as girls of all ages in physical activity (three times more in the ? 14 year-old group). Screen time was significantly associated with excess weight. In conclusion, public school youth in Niterói show high prevalence rates of excess weight associated with inadequate lifestyle. PMID:23568301

Vasconcellos, Marcelo Barros de; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite de

2013-04-01

390