Science.gov

Sample records for state southern brazil

  1. MRSA from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: intriguing epidemiological differences compared to other Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Alessandro C O; Cunha, Gabriela R; Caierão, Juliana; Cordova, Caio M de; d'Azevedo, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (20.2%) and chloramphenicol (12.9%). We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmec type III was predominant (54%), followed by type II (21.8%), consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58%) isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions. PMID:26119853

  2. A new troglobitic species of Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Zuphiini) from a cave in Paraná State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bená, Daniela De Cassia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A new troglobitic species of the Zuphiini genus Coarazuphium, C. ricardoi new species, is described on the basis of specimens collected inside the "Gruta do Varzeão" cave, in Paraná State. This is the first species of Coarazuphium described from Southern Brazil. The new species is compared with three other troglobitic species of the genus that are microphthalmous and have the elytral apical margins truncate (C. pains Álvares & Ferreira, C. tapiguassu Pellegrini & Ferreira and C. whiteheadi Ball & Shpeley). The most recent published keys for species identification of Coarazuphium are updated to include the new species. PMID:24871725

  3. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  4. Ecological niche of family farmers in southern Minas Gerais State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Cavallini, M M; Nordi, N

    2005-02-01

    The concept of ecological niche, considered by the food dimension point of view, was used to characterize a small farmers community from the south of Minas Gerais State (Brazil). Ten small farmer families and 76 different meals eaten by them were evaluated in this study, during three different periods: September 1995 (end of the dry season), December 1995 (rainy season) and April 1996 (end of the rainy season). The analysed community appeared to depend markedly on certain food items showing little seasonal variation in their diet and appeared also to be self-sufficient in food supply, with satisfactory nutritional status. The food niche breadth for the studied small farmer families was always below 50%, with high seasonal overlap of the food niche, around 72% to 80%. The results are discussed based on social-cultural, economical and agrarian context. PMID:16025904

  5. YIELD COMPARISON OF INDICA AND US CULTIVARS GROWN IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) are indica, grown in tropical areas like southern China, and japonica, grown in temperate areas. Tropical japonicas are the japonica subgroup grown in the southern US. When indica rices are grown in the southern US and compared to tropical japoni...

  6. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  7. Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vector of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, E; Membrive, N; Castro, E A; Dereure, J; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J A; Pandey, A; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2000-09-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies in the northern areas of the state of Paraná, Brazil, particularly those in the '16a' health region, were investigated over a 3-year period. Using CDC light traps (with and without hamster bait) and Shannon traps (with lights and horse or human bait), 16 species were collected from seven municipal districts which were known foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: Arapongas; Apucarana; Cambira; Marumbi; Faxinal; Florestópolis; and Sabáudia. Although the frequency at which each species was collected varied with the collection site, Lutzomyia whitmani predominated (62.0% of all the sandflies collected), followed by Lu. fischeri (13.3%), Lu. pessoai (10.8%), Lu. migonei (8.2%) and Lu. intermedia (2.8%). Lutzomyia monticola, Lu. shanonni, Lu. firmatoi, Lu. lanei, Lu. alphabetica, Lu. misionensis, Lu. correalimai, Lu. cortellezzii, Lu. longipenis, Brumptomyia brumpti and B. nitzulescui together represented the remaining 3.0% of the collected sandflies. Three of the 1961 female sandflies collected and dissected in the municipal district of Cambira, where a recent case of cutaneous leishmaniasis had been registered, were found to have flagellates in their guts. All three were Lu. whitmani. The parasites from each of these infections were successfully isolated in NNN and 'Tobie and Evans' media and/or by inoculation into a hind foot of a golden hamster. The results of isoenzyme electrophoresis indicated that all three isolates were of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:11064764

  8. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

  9. Molecular profiling of drug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Schörner, Marcos André; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Cançado; Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano de; Rovaris, Darcita Bürger; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2015-08-01

    Drug resistance is a global threat and one of the main contributing factors to tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks. The goal of this study was to analyse the molecular profile of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Fifty-three MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates were analysed by spoligotyping and a partial region of the rpoB gene, which is associated with rifampicin resistance (RMP-R), was sequenced. Some isolates were also distinguished by their mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). S531L was the most prevalent mutation found within rpoB in RMP-R isolates (58.5%), followed by S531W (20.8%). Only two MDR isolates showed no mutations within rpoB. Isolates of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family were the most prevalent (45.3%) found by spoligotyping, followed by Haarlem (9.4%) and T (7.5%) families. SIT106 was found in 26.4% of isolates and all SIT106 isolates typed by MIRU-12 (5 out of 14) belong to MIT251. There was a high correlation between the S531W mutation and the LAM family mainly because all SIT2263 (LAM9) isolates carry this mutation. Among isolates with the S531W mutation in rpoB MIRU demonstrates a cluster formed by four isolates (SIT2263 and MIT163) and very similar profiles were observed between eight of the nine isolates. Better characterisation of TB isolates may lead to new ways in which to control and treat TB in this region of Brazil. PMID:26154743

  10. Molecular profiling of drug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Schörner, Marcos André; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Cançado; de Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano; Rovaris, Darcita Bürger; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance is a global threat and one of the main contributing factors to tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks. The goal of this study was to analyse the molecular profile of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Fifty-three MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosisclinical isolates were analysed by spoligotyping and a partial region of therpoB gene, which is associated with rifampicin resistance (RMP-R), was sequenced. Some isolates were also distinguished by their mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). S531L was the most prevalent mutation found within rpoB in RMP-R isolates (58.5%), followed by S531W (20.8%). Only two MDR isolates showed no mutations withinrpoB. Isolates of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family were the most prevalent (45.3%) found by spoligotyping, followed by Haarlem (9.4%) and T (7.5%) families. SIT106 was found in 26.4% of isolates and all SIT106 isolates typed by MIRU-12 (5 out of 14) belong to MIT251. There was a high correlation between the S531W mutation and the LAM family mainly because all SIT2263 (LAM9) isolates carry this mutation. Among isolates with the S531W mutation in rpoB MIRU demonstrates a cluster formed by four isolates (SIT2263 and MIT163) and very similar profiles were observed between eight of the nine isolates. Better characterisation of TB isolates may lead to new ways in which to control and treat TB in this region of Brazil. PMID:26154743

  11. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  12. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  13. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique Dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  14. Zirconium mobility in bauxites of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, A. J.; Subies, F.; Nahon, D.; Formoso, M. L. L.

    1996-07-01

    A geochemical study of the behaviour of zirconium in bauxites developed on alkaline rocks in southern Brazil is presented. Zirconium, generally considered as an immobile element during weathering, shows an important mobility conditioned to the original Zr bearing parent mineral. In the two areas (Poços de Caldas and Lages) zircon is rare and the zirconium bearing parent minerals are complex weathered silicates as "giannettite", eudyalite, astrophyllite, etc. Since the first stages of weathering, zirconium is partially leached of from the bauxite profile and the remaining Zr is incorporated in secondary phases of the bauxite (amorphous ferric oxydes and aluminous goethite).

  15. Seroepidemiological survey of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses from a rural and from urban areas of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Thállitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C; Finger, Mariane A P; Nascimento, Denise A G; Sicupira, Patrícia M L; Dutra, Leonardo H; Deconto, Ivan; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroepidemiological data of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in horses from a rural settlement and carthorses from urban areas of Paraná State, southern Brazil. A total of 198 horses, including 32 from the rural settlement and 166 carthorses from Colombo (n=48), Pinhais (n=76), Londrina (n=24), and Curitiba city (n=18) was sampled and tested using a commercial competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) test. Out of the 198 horses, 193 (97.5%) were seropositive for at least one piroplasm species. Antibodies to T. equi were detected in 155/198 horses (78.3%), antibodies to B. caballi were detected in 137/198 horses (69.2%), and antibodies to both were detected in 99/198 (50.0%) horses. Horses living in the rural settlement and Colombo were more likely to be seropositive to T. equi than those in Curitiba (p<0.05). Horses older than 5 years were more likely to be seropositive for T. equi than those younger than 5 years (p<0.05). No significant association was found between gender or the presence of ticks and seropositivity to T. equi (p>0.05). In conclusion, the high seroprevalences to B. caballi and T. equi observed in this study emphasize that active surveillance programs are critical for monitoring animal health status, particularly because carthorses may act as urban disseminators of these piroplasms. PMID:24209493

  16. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study. PMID:25351322

  17. The Archaeology of Shore Stranded Shipwrecks of Southern Brazil 

    E-print Network

    Torres, Rodrigo de Oliveira

    2015-04-27

    The Rio Grande do Sul coast, in southern Brazil, is an extensive and scarcely populated sandy shore, nearly 620km long, home of stranded ships representing various periods of navigation in the southwestern Atlantic. Investigations suggest a greater...

  18. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  19. Genomic sequences of Piezodorus guildinii from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorus guildinii, is native to Central and South America and a well-studied pest of soybeans in Brazil. Recently, it has been become economically important in the southern U.S. states, damaging soybeans from South Carolina to Texas. We cloned the partial genomic DNA from...

  20. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  1. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  2. Determinants of Educational Performance in Southern Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.

    The study examined the effects of socioeconomic origin (SES) and mental ability (MA) on levels of educational (EA) and occupational aspiration (OA), academic performance (AP), and significant others' influence (SOI) for 1,950 5th grade elementary and 4th year gymnastic students in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Representative samples of approximately…

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Carrilho, Flair J; Moraes, Cleusa R; Pinho, João RR; Mello, Isabel MVGC; Bertolini, Dennis A; Lemos, Marcílio F; Moreira, Regina C; Bassit, Leda C; Cardoso, Rita A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Gabriela; Da Silva, Luiz C

    2004-01-01

    Background Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. Methods This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Results Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%), D (57.1%) and F (12.2%). Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Conclusions Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters ? 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse < 10 times; 3.42 times if the number of patients per worker is more than five. Sequence similarity among the HBV S gene from isolates of different patients pointed out to nosocomial transmission. PMID:15113436

  5. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

  6. North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical

    E-print Network

    North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

  7. Prevalence of antibodies against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers and breeders in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canal, Cláudio W; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Ferreira, Danilo José; Macagnan, Marisa; Pippi Salle, Carlos Tadeu; Back, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation, we determined the prevalence of the Ornithobacerium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection in broilers and broiler breeders in southern Brazil. We also correlated the presence of antibodies in broilers with performance. Sera from 1550 broilers from 50 flocks were collected during the slaughter time in nine companies with federal veterinary inspection of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Sera from 480 meat-type breeders of 40 flocks from 14 companies in southern Brazil were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the prevalence of antibodies was determined. The prevalence of ORT antibodies in broiler flocks was 63.83%, but in each individual flock only 6.52% of the birds were positive. The prevalence in broiler breeder flocks was 100.00%, and in each individual flock 94.62% of the birds were positive. There was a positive correlation between the presence of antibodies to ORT and decreased body weight in broilers. There was no significant correlation between presence of antibodies to ORT and age, lineage, efficiency index, feed conversion, and mortality. There was a positive correlation between the presence of respiratory signs and antibodies to ORT, although the reverse correlation was not significant. These results confirm that ORT is present and widespread in broilers and broiler breeders in southern Brazil. PMID:14562904

  8. Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jerônimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-02-01

    Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management. PMID:22941529

  9. INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil Cla´udio M. R. Melo Æ.V. 2009 Abstract We report on the invasion of Brazil by the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and discuss was found amongst the native species in oyster banks up to 100 km south of oyster farms in South Brazil

  10. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  11. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  12. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

  13. QUALITY OF LIFE EVALUATION IN CELIAC PATIENTS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Castilhos, Amélia C; Gonçalves, Bárbara C; Macedo E Silva, Manoella; Lanzoni, Laura A; Metzger, Letícia R; Kotze, Lorete M S; Nisihara, Renato M

    2015-09-01

    BackgroundRestrictions imposed by the gluten-free diet generate large changes in the daily habits of the celiac patient, causing a negative impact on quality of life.ObjetiveThis study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of patients with celiac disease on a capital in Southern Brazil.MethodsPatients older than 18 years were included, with confirmed celiac disease for at least 60 days in the period from June to October 2013. A validated questionnaire, with specific questions to assess the patient's quality of life celiac was applied. A total score ranged from 20 to 100 points; the higher the score, worse quality of life.ResultsA total of 103 questionnaires were evaluated, 96 (93.2%) female, with average score 56.6±12.35 (28 to 88 points). The comparison between the questionnaire scores and family income was not significant (P=0.139). Patients diagnosed less than 1 year have poorer quality of life than those with more than 10 years (P=0.063). Patients older than 60 years had better quality of life compared with the younger ones (P=0.04).ConclusionThere was no association between quality of life and factors such as family income, length of diet and age at diagnosis. Chronological age greater than 60 years has positively influenced the quality of life of celiac patients. PMID:26486281

  14. [Use of evaluation by primary healthcare managers: a case study in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nickel, Daniela Alba; Natal, Sonia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on a meta-evaluation, focused on utilization, in a state in southern Brazil. This was a single case study with primary data collection using semi-structured interviews with health department administrators and staff. Content analysis used categories defined in the evaluation matrix: political and organizational context and implementation of evaluation. The political and organizational context revealed weaknesses in the items on experience, evaluation team, and time and space for reflection. Technical autonomy was verified in the State and in one municipality. In the implementation of evaluation, evaluative quality met the established criteria, but there was no prior definition of the uses and users of evaluation. One report referred to use for planning actions and political use. The study concluded that evaluation produced important information for stakeholders, with the political and organizational context as the principal limiting factor for use. PMID:26247991

  15. Southern States Specialty Office Building 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    1983-01-01

    that the United States no longer leads the world in biotechnology. Unfortunately for these scientists, Americans have had an uneasy past with the idea of ES cells. Since their isolation in 1998, ES cells have become one of the most hotly debated ethical issues...

  16. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  17. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  18. Characteristics of rainfall over Brazil: Annual variations and connections with the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, V. B.; Hada, K.

    1990-06-01

    Annual and interannual variations of rainfall over Brazil are discussed. First, rainy and dry seasons for several stations of Brazil are determined using the data of 21 years (1958 1978). The progressive movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone seems to be associated with the progresive variation of rainfall seasons in the equatorial eastern Brazil. The annual migration of deep tropical convection from Central and Southern Portion of the Amazon basin in austral summer to the northwestern sector of South America in austral winter seems to be responsible for the annual cycle of rainfall in the Amazon basin. The conncection between the interannual variation of rainfall over Brazil and the Southern Oscillation is also discussed. The correlation coefficient between the Southern Oscillation index and the rainfall is generally small over most of Brazil except over Rio Grande do Sul. The correlation between the spring rainfall of Rio Grande do Sul and the Southern Oscillation index of the same or of the previous season is significantly high and shows prospects for seasonal rainfall prediction.

  19. SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study

    E-print Network

    SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern California Attrition Study Fall 2005 through Fall 2009 Full-Time First-Time Freshmen A C A D E M I C P L A N · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table

  20. Dog intoxication by lizard's claw mushroom, Lysurus cruciatus (higher Basidiomycetes) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Vagner G; Rossoni, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    A case of mushroom poisoning of a dog caused by a phalloid fungus is reported for the first time. The phalloid caused gastrointestinal syndrome in a 1-year-old dog, and was identified as Lysurus cruciatus, a common phalloid fungus in southern Brazil. PMID:24941168

  1. Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

  2. Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  4. Assessment of MODIS LAI retrievals over soybean crop in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the magnitude of the Collection 4 MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product for the soybean crop for two crop seasons, 2001/2002 to 2004/2005, in Southern Brazil. The data indicated that there were a large proportion of digical counts were at a maximum level suggesting that the LAI was...

  5. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  6. A new species of tree crickets Oecanthus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Oecanthinae) in tobacco plantation from Southern Brazil, with body color variation.

    PubMed

    Milach, Elisa Machado; Martins, Luciano De P; Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti Da; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Oliveira, Gabriel Lobregat De; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Neutzling, Alexandre Schneid; Dornelles, José Eduardo Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Lucas Azevedo; Zefa, Edison

    2015-01-01

    We provide herein a description of a new species of Oecanthus collected from the tobacco plantation in southern Brazil, municipality of São Lourenço do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Description focused metanotal gland features, phallic sclerites, and calling song. A large sampling of individuals was distributed into four groups according to body and appendages color and dotted. We also rank all kind of marks present in the scape and pedicel. We compare linear morphometric variables of the metanotal glands and tegmina, as well as calling song parameters between groups in order do define all of them as the same species. Photographs and measurements are provided. PMID:26624040

  7. Cytogenetic description of Ancistrus abilhoai (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Iguaçu River basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M O; Noleto, R B; Lorscheider, C A; Porto, F E; Prizon, A C; Zawadzki, C H; Oliveira, L C; Portela Castro, A L B

    2015-01-01

    The Iguaçu River basin is a tributary to the upper Paraná River in southern Brazil, and is considered an important aquatic ecoregion that, although having few species of fish, 51-71% of these are apparently endemic. Ancistrus abilhoai is one of three recently described species for this basin and is currently considered endemic to the basin. In this study, we present the chromosomal structure of two populations of Ancistrus abilhoai one collected in the Iguaçu River, in Paraná State, and another collected in the Timbó River, a tributary of the Iguaçu River, in the State of Santa Catarina. Karyotype analyzes were performed in 11 specimens from the Iguaçu River (four females and seven males) and 12 specimens (all males) from Timbó River, revealing 2n = 48 chromosomes with a karyotype formula of 22m + 14sm + 6st + 6a in both populations. Analysis of active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probes revealed the submetacentric pair 13 bearing marks at terminal positions on the short arms. Considered as plesiomorphic chromosomal markers in Loricariidae, asynteny 18S and 5S rDNA, and small amounts of heterochromatin were observed. In this study, the first chromosomal data of A. abilhoai are presented with comments on karyotypic characteristics of the genus. PMID:25966177

  8. Post-collisional subvolcanic rhyolites associated with the Neoproterozoic Pelotas Batholith, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Diego Skieresz de; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp

    2015-11-01

    Neoproterozoic volcanic and subvolcanic rhyolitic systems in southernmost Brazil are correlated with acid magmatism linked to different petrotectonic associations of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. A portion of this volcanism in the Dom Feliciano Belt is associated with the Pelotas Batholith, which resulted from magmatic episodes associated with the Ediacaran post-collisional evolution of southern Brazil. Ana Dias Rhyolite is the main subvolcanic occurrence of this volcanism that took place in the Quitéria region, in the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State. The acid magmatism has been commonly associated with the most differentiated granite suite phases during the final stages of emplacement of the Pelotas Batholith. The Ana Dias Rhyolite is characterized as an intrusive body with rocks that present a porphyritic to seriated texture and a gradational variation to fine-grained equigranular rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 581.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the Ana Dias Rhyolite. Geochemistry data characterize the rhyolites as belonging to the alkaline series; they present a metaluminous to peraluminous character; elevated SiO2 and alkali concentrations, high FeOt/FeOt + MgO ratios and agpaitic index; and low Al2O3, CaO, and MgO contents. The Zr, Rb, Y, Nb, and Ga concentrations are moderate when compared with the relatively low Ba and Sr contents. These geochemistry characteristics are common in acid magmas with alkaline affinity. The behavior of certain trace elements and REE demonstrate enrichment in more incompatible elements, in addition to the negative anomaly of Ba, the slight enrichment in Ce relative to adjacent elements, as well as the enrichment in K2O and Rb relative to Nb, suggesting magmas derived from mantle sources enriched in incompatible elements with some crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield.

  9. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Nilceu P; Sentelhas, Paulo C; Panosso, Alan R; Palhares, Antonio L; Ide, Bernardo Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t(-1)). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable (R (2) adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R (2) adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE???5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions. PMID:25921362

  10. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable (R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ? 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  11. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2015-10-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  12. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

  13. Campylobacter species isolated from poultry and humans, and their analysis using PFGE in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiani Teixeira da; Tejada, Talita Schneid; Blum-Menezes, Dulcinea; Dias, Priscila Alves; Timm, Cláudio Dias

    2016-01-18

    Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans through ingestion of contaminated food. Six hundred samples were collected, 200 from human stool samples, 200 from poultry products and 200 from poultry feces in Southern Brazil, and then inoculated on blood agar plates. A total of 58% of the poultry feces, 17% of the poultry meat, and 2% the of human stools tested positive for Campylobacter. Positive Campylobacter colonies were identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobactercoli by multiplex PCR. Campylobacter isolates were analyzed using PFGE to compare different profiles according to the source. This study demonstrated that there are different Campylobacter clones distributed in different aviaries in Southern Brazil. In addition, PFGE molecular profiles suggested that broilers can be a source of contamination of poultry products. However, the human isolate studied did not show any relationship with other strains examined. PMID:26561789

  14. Hyperthermic syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of ergots of Claviceps purpurea in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ilha, Marcia R S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Barros, Claudio S L

    2003-06-01

    A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to 70% of cattle from those herds were affected. The disease occurred after the introduction of a new batch of feed contaminated with sclerotia of C. purpurea. First clinical signs were observed up to 3 mo after the ration was introduced and consisted of pyrexia, intense salivation and drooling, open-mouth, difficult breathing, in some cases with the tongue protruded, decrease in milk yield, decrease in food intake and weight loss. Affected cattle compulsively sought shade or water ponds. Signs were more pronounced during daytime. The severity of the clinical picture varied according to changes in environmental temperature during the day. There was complete recovery approximately 60 d after feeding with the contaminated ration was discontinued. Abortions occurred during the outbreak and soon after the remission of the clinical signs associated with HS. In one of the herds, reproductive performance and fertility were seriously impaired even after clinical signs of HS completely disappeared. Diagnosis was based on epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the occurrence of HS are briefly discussed. PMID:12776790

  15. Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

  16. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength. PMID:25511000

  17. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  18. Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  20. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

  1. First Evaluation of an Outbreak of Bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil Using Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

  2. First evaluation of an outbreak of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil using multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

  3. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

  4. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  5. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

  6. [Non-pharmacological management of hypertension in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sturmer, Giovani; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Macedo, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out among individuals aged 20 to 69 years in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objective was to analyze characteristics of hypertensive patients in relation to management of arterial hypertension. Among the 1,968 interviewees, 380 were hypertensive (19.3%), and 44.1% of these always consulted the same physician. Of the entire sample, 85.5% were sedentary, 48.2% showed excessive fat consumption, and 47.4% smoked. Most physicians recommend the following: lowering salt consumption (98.4%), cessation of alcohol consumption (93.7%), for losing weight, diet and consumption of low-fat food (88.2%), smoking cessation (73.2%), and physical activity (68.9%). The clinical management was classified as inadequate in 284 individuals (74.7%). Increased probability of adequate management was found among: women, individuals > 50 years, upper and middle-class patients, non-smokers, and patients with diabetes mellitus. Some findings showed positive aspects, but differences according to socioeconomic status evidenced lack of equity in care. PMID:16832544

  7. Age distribution of Serra Geral (Paraná) flood basalts, southern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ?130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  9. Weaning in southern Brazil: is there a "weanling's dilemma"?

    PubMed

    Martines, J C; Habicht, J P; Ashworth, A; Kirkwood, B R

    1994-08-01

    In Pelotas, Brazil, 400 newborns from low income families were followed-up until 26 wk of life to study the relationship between their feeding patterns and growth as modified by access to water and by diarrhea. Effects of access to water were the strongest among non-breastfed infants. In houses without indoor water taps, the weight gain of non-breastfed infants during the first 3 mo was approximately half that of partially or predominantly breastfed infants (P < 0.001). In houses with indoor water taps, non-breastfed infants' growth was similar to or exceeded that of predominantly breastfed infants from 2 mo. Predominantly breastfed infants' growth was similar in houses with and without water taps. Breastfed infants had less weight loss per day of diarrhea than non-breastfed infants during the first 4 mo and less diarrhea through 6 mo of life, particularly in houses without taps, in which diarrhea was most prevalent. The existence of a "weanling's dilemma" was approached by comparing the duration of the detrimental effects of not breastfeeding (i.e., 0-3 mo in this study) with the age at which breast milk alone becomes less than optimal for growth (i.e., at 5 mo). Because these two points did not coincide, we conclude that there is no "weaning's dilemma" in this population. PMID:8064369

  10. Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate

    E-print Network

    Mazloff, Matthew R

    2006-01-01

    A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...

  11. Drug use among street children in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forster, L M; Tannhauser, M; Barros, H M

    1996-12-01

    We studied the self-reported activities engaged in by children found wandering on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brazil, aiming to describe their drug abuse habits and practice of thefts or mendicancy. One hundred-and-five youngsters, 6-18 years old, were interviewed in the streets. Although the external appearance of the interviewed children lacked cues as to their life-style differences, three diverse life-style characteristics were depicted among them. Almost 25% of the children lived with their families and went to school (FAMSCH) and 46% lived with their families but didn't go to school (FAM). The other 29% spent all day long and slept in the streets (STREET). The most frequently used drug for the total group of children was tobacco, followed by alcohol, with a much higher prevalence of use of both alcohol and tobacco among children from the STREET subgroup. Alcohol was used by more than 25% of the STREET children and tobacco by 58% of the children from this subgroup, in a regular (almost daily) basis. Less than 12% of the FAMSCH children used illicit drugs. Inhalants were the preferred drugs for illicit drug experimental use. Only 4% of the children attending school sniffed solvents in a regular basis. Regular abuse of inhalants was reported much more frequently by the STREET subgroup of children, reaching a prevalence of 40%. Self-report of marijuana smoking was described to be regular by 4% of the FAMSCH children and 26% by the STREET children. A significantly higher number of the children who lived with their families in comparison to the STREET children described work activities (selling food, washing cars or polishing shoes) while out in the streets. On the other hand the practice of thefts was self-reported mainly by the children from the STREET group and only by the ones who used illicit drugs. Children who lived with their families reported less mendicancy and thefts than STREET children. These results show that very poor children might spend many hours of the day by themselves in the streets of a big city accompanied by children who are never under adult supervision. In spite of being alone for some hours a day and making friends with others who might use drugs, having a family and regularly attending school decreases the risk of delinquent acts and drug use. PMID:8957143

  12. [Secular plague trend in Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Aragão, Antonia Ivoneida; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Seoane, Antônio Carlos Mendonça; Nascimento, Osmar José do; Tavares, Celso; Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva de

    2007-03-01

    After its introduction into the State of Ceará, Brazil, in 1900, the plague was established in seven ecological complexes: Chapada do Araripe and the Ibiapaba, Baturité, Machado, Matas, Pedra Branca, and Uruburetama mountains. These natural foci were monitored successively from 1935 to 2004 by the National Health Department, National Plague Service, National Department of Rural Endemics, Superintendency of Public Health Campaigns, National Health Foundation, and finally by the National Health Surveillance Secretariat. Data analysis on human cases during these 70 years allowing identifying different plague circulation patterns in the human population, alternating high incidence with silent periods and characterizing a chronological periodicity with unique epidemiological characteristics, besides concluding that plague should still be considered a potential threat, thus justifying the revitalization of surveillance measures by strengthening all levels in the Unified National Health System. PMID:17334584

  13. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm2. All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm2. Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm2 were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

  14. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    and equal protection under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. The caseUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF FLORIDA Case No. 04-80216-CIV-COHN CONGRESSMAN States Constitution and is brought pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983. INTRODUCTION Plaintiffs, Robert Wexler

  15. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  17. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

  18. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

  19. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani). PMID:25947873

  20. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  1. 5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  3. Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivity in a Agricultural Crop Site in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Tamíres; Roberti, Debora; Moreira, Virnei; Silveira, Marcos

    The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. In the present work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a agricultural crop located at the Cruz Alta city in southern Brazil. Also the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a agricultural crop farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this specific site, there is a crop rotation scheme along the year. The soil type is Rhodic Hapludox (FAO) or Typic Haplorthox (US Soil Taxonomy), characterized as a deep, clay soil. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a known Ks from literature for this type of soil; (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T2-T1)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T1 and T2 are the temperature in different layers above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The general results agree with the literature for the specific agricultural crop for Ks values in the current study for the measurement period.

  4. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility. PMID:26600554

  5. Wachholz, a new exquisite dinosaur-bearing fossiliferous site from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution reports a new fossiliferous site from the Caturrita Formation (Upper Triassic of Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil), which yields articulate, complete, associated, and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur specimens, together with the sole occurrence of an isolated tooth ascribed to a carnivore indetermined archosauriform. These specimens increase the sauropodomorph record from this geological unit. A preliminary evaluation of such specimens suggests that sauropodomorph dinosaurs could have been more abundant in Norian Faunas from southern Brazil, considering the increased sampling here reported. So far, about six specimens are previously recognized (disregarding Guaibasaurus) from the Caturrita Formation, and here we add four specimens, or even five if consider an additional autopodium. Also, the morphology of the isolated carnivorous-type tooth differs from other described carnivorous archosauriform teeth from the Caturrita Formation. Hence, it might represent a still undescribed taxon. Further studies of these specimens will certainly provide new data regarding biostratigraphy, phylogeny, paleoecology, and taphonomy, as this new fossiliferous locality preserves one of the most representative dinosaur records from the Norian worldwide.

  6. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  7. A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marina B; Martinelli, Agustín G; De Oliveira, Téo V

    2014-12-01

    We report here on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence), collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T) which includes the left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a more derived taxon than tritylodontids, being the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium plus Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, closely related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse. PMID:25590707

  8. PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CHICKENS FROM A HIGHLY ENDEMIC AREA TO HUMANS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was examined to evaluate environmental contamination by oocysts. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) in sera of chickens. Antibodies a...

  9. Wind Power Energy in Southern Brazil: evaluation using a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a associated variation of wind intensity. The monthly average indicate several small regions with a higher value of energy. Average production higher than 1.5 MW, for the area inland, was of 72.9% for a turbine at 150 m height but only 13.1% for one at 50 m height. This initial study indicates the variability of the region in terms of wind power availability. It can be extended to the study of extreme situations, as the case of very strong winds that knocked down 8 wind turbines in this region on the 20 of December of 2014. Simulations with high degree of spacial details will be the next step in this investigation.

  10. New species and records of cunaxid mites (Acari: Cunaxidae) from soil in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Matheus Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2015-01-01

    Neocunaxoides promatae sp. nov., Bonzia flechtmanni sp. nov. and Dactyloscirus multiscutus sp. nov. are described from soil and leaf litter in Atlantic rainforest and Atlantic Araucaria forest in natural environments in São Francisco de Paula municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In addition, the species Pulaeus quadrisolenidius Castro & Den Heyer 2009 and Lupaeus lectus Castro & Den Heyer (2009) are registered for the first time in this State. PMID:26249978

  11. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  12. Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

  13. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Leila; Gigante, Luciana P; Fuchs, Sandra C; Busnello, Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants) using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison), with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7). After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income populations, women should be routinely evaluated for postnatal depression, and those with no partner or spouse are likely to require further care from health services and should be given the benefit of mental health prevention programs. PMID:18173833

  14. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

  15. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

  16. Precipitation variability in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, A. S.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2008-08-01

    The State of São Paulo is the richest in Brazil, responsible for over 30% of the Brazilian gross rate. It has a population of around 30 million and its economy is based on agriculture and industrial products. Any change in climate can have a profound influence on the socio-economics of the State. In order to determine changes in total and extreme rainfall over São Paulo State, climate change indices derived from daily precipitation data were calculated using specially designed software. Maps of trends for a subset of 59 rain gauge stations were analysed for the period 1950-1999 and also for a subset of this period, 1990-1999, representing more recent climate. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to the time series. Maps of trends for six annual precipitation indices (annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), very heavy precipitation days (R20 mm), events greater than the 95th percentile (R95p), maximum five days precipitation total (RX5day), the length of the largest wet spell (CWD) and the length of the largest dry spell (CDD)) were analysed for the entire period. These exhibited statistically significant trends associated with a wetter climate. A significant increase in PRCPTOT, associated with very heavy precipitation days, were observed at more than 45% of the rain gauge stations. The Mann-Kendall test identified that the positive trend in PRCPTOT is possibly related to the increase in the R95p and R20 mm indices. Therefore, the results suggest that there has been a change in precipitation intensity. In contrast, the indices for the more recent shorter time series are significantly different to the longer term indices. The results indicate that intense precipitation is becoming concentrated in a few days and spread over the period when the CDD and R20 mm indices show positive trends, while negative ones are seen in the RX5day index. The trends found could be related to many anthropogenic aspects such as biomass burning aerosols and land use.

  17. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission track thermochronology obtained in the adjacent basement units. The main denudation events are 140 ± 20 Ma (rifting), 75 ± 15 Ma, and 30 ± 10 Ma (estimated age of the Cone do Rio Grande structure formation). We conclude that the subsidence, uplift and denudation events that affected the eastern margin of Brazil and Uruguay and western margin of Africa segmented most of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas, difficulting the paleogeographic reconstruction and plate kinematic of the Brasiliano/Pan-African belts.

  18. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, João Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km² ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paraná Basin, South of São Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km²), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km²) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the peridotitic unit; b) the intrusion and probable differentiation of the clinopyroxenites and ijolitic rocks; c) intrusions of several lithotypes forming the heterogeneous zone; d) intrusion of lamprophyric dykes into the syenites; e) the carbonatite intrusion. The precise geochronological sequence is still unknown, since only the syenites (134.9 ± 0.65 Ma this study), the carbonatite (131 Ma) and the clinopyroxenite (131 Ma) were dated at present. Our goal is now to investigate the origin and evolution of the magmas which formed the Jacupiranga Complex using geochronology with Ar/Ar, U-Pb and U-Th/He dating, as well as elemental and isotopic geochemistry. Considering that the Jacupiranga Complex is one of the most differentiated alkaline complexes around the world, this contribution will be important not only for the understanding of the unit itself but also for the general comprehension of the forming process, the evolution of the alkaline and carbonatitic magmas and the concentration of apatite in carbonatites, still controversial subjects among the scientific community.

  19. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  20. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  1. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis. PMID:26100241

  2. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  3. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  4. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23°27'S and 51°15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  5. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase. PMID:22852747

  6. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

  7. Energy Partitioning and Evapotranspiration over a Rice Paddy in Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timm, Andrea U.; Roberti, Debora R.; Streck, Nereu A.; de Goncalves, Luis G. G.; Acevedo, Otavio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.; Moreira, Virnei S.; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Ferlan, Mitja; Toll, David L.

    2014-01-01

    During approximately 80% of its growing season, lowland flooded irrigated rice ecosystems in southern Brazil are kept within a 5-10-cm water layer. These anaerobic conditions have an influence on the partitioning of the energy and water balance components. Furthermore, this cropping system differs substantially from any other upland nonirrigated or irrigated crop ecosystems. In this study, daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of the energy and water balance components were analyzed over a paddy rice farm in a subtropical location in southern Brazil using eddy covariance measurements. In this region, rice is grown once a year in low wetlands while the ground is kept fallow during the remaining of the year. Results show that the energy budget residual corresponded to up to 20% of the net radiation during the rice-growing season and around 10% for the remainder of the year (fallow). The energy and water balance analysis also showed that because of the high water table in the region, soil was near saturation most of the time, and latent heat flux dominated over sensible heat flux by up to one order of magnitude in some cases. The estimate of evapotranspiration ET using the crop coefficient multiplied by the reference evapotranspiration K(sub c)ET(sub o) and the Penman-Monteith equation ET(sub PM), describing the canopy resistance through leaf area index (LAI) obtained by remote sensing, represent well the measured evapotranspiration, mainly in the fallow periods. Therefore, using a specific crop parameter like LAI and crop height can be an easy and interesting alternative to estimate ET in vegetated lowland areas.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  9. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

  10. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This....-Brazil CEO Forum (Forum), pursuant to the Terms of Reference signed in March 2007 by the U.S....

  11. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum, pursuant to the Terms...

  12. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  13. Geological context of the dinosauriform-bearing outcrops from the Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The Triassic of the western Gondwana (southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina) records the oldest dinosaurs. The Southern Brazilian Triassic fauna is subdivided into four assemblage zones (AZ's), recorded in alluvial (channel and floodplain) deposits, split into three third-order sequences that comprise the Santa Maria Supersequence. These deposits record dinosauriforms in three of these AZ's, mostly in near-channel environments (channel deposits, crevasse splays, distal floodplains) with different types of preservation (mostly partly articulated, with little carbonate deposition). There is faciological homogeneity within the Dinodontosaurus, Santacruzodon and Hyperodapedon AZ's, whereas change in fluvial style is recorded at the Riograndia AZ. So, further stratigraphic studies must include the recognition of post-depositional tectonism, in order to better understand the autogenic and allogenic mechanisms of deposition. It is suggested here that there is a lateral change on main channel deposition, with the areal restriction of the Santacruzodon AZ probably linked to reactivation on the Passo do Sobrado lineament and modification of the basin floor.

  14. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  15. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping technique can be applied on flood zonation to avoid urbanization without planning.

  16. Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

    1997-06-15

    Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted. PMID:9199538

  17. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  18. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  19. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  20. DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Dias, Alessandra de Cassia; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility. PMID:25229218

  1. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

    2010-11-01

    Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

  2. Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

  3. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  4. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

  5. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  6. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andrea Pires dos; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Messick, Joanne Belle; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Oliveira, Simone Tostes de; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sá; Nascimento, Naíla Cannes do; Pedralli, Viviane; Lasta, Camila Serina; González, Félix Hilário Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40%) were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', with 50/369 (13.55%) positive cats, followed by 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis', 10/369 (2.71%), and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%). Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%), whereas 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' in 5/369 (1.35%). Three cats (0.81%) were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', but not with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic. PMID:25517519

  7. Seasonal allergic dermatitis in sheep in southern Brazil caused by Culicoides insignis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Corrêa, T G; Ferreira, J M; Riet-Correa, G; Ruas, J L; Schild, A L; Riet-Correa, F; Guimarães, A; Felippe-Bauer, M L

    2007-04-10

    The incidence of seasonal dermatitis was studied in a Hampshire Down flock on a farm in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data, clinical signs and macroscopic pathology were obtained by visiting the farm. Histological lesions were studied in skin biopsies of affected sheep. Biting insects were collected from January to April 2005 in an attempt to identify the etiological agent of the disease. Disease prevalence was 40%; the age of the affected animals was variable. Disease occurred from December to March, some animals had lesions for the entire year. Clinical signs include pruritus on the ears, around the eyes and ventral abdomen. Initially erythema and small red papules were seen, followed by alopecia and crust formation. Histologically the lesions were characterized by perivascular eosinophilic dermatitis. Hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were observed in the chronic lesions. Both Anopheles albitarsis and Culicoides insignis were captured during the study. C. insignis bites caused pruritus in sheep. Both types of insects were caught when they approached the sheep baits approximately 30min after sunset. Results suggested that the disease occurred as a result of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to C. insignis. PMID:17127007

  8. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among "shantytown" youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an "anti-biologizing" explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven "biopsychiatrization" so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to "resist" pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  9. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  10. Nutritional evaluation follow-up of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of over/underweight and its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS Longitudinal cohort study of youths born in 1982 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5 we interviewed 4,198 of the 5,914 cohort subjects, obtaining weight and stature measurements that were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Underweight was defined as BMI lower than 18,5 kg/m2; overweight as BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2; and obesity as BMI IMC ? 30kg/m2. The effects of socioeconomic (family income and schooling) and demographic (skin color) variables, birthweight, and breastfeeding on underweight, overweight, and obesity were analyzed separately for men and women using Poisson regression. RESULTS Prevalence of underweight, obesity, and overweight were 6.0%, 8.2%, and 28.9%, respectively. In adjusted analysis, only birthweight remained associated with underweight among men and women. Poor men showed higher risk of underweight, but were protected from obesity and overweight. By contrast, risk of obesity and overweight was higher among poor women. CONCLUSIONS The present results underscore the importance of socioeconomic determinants on nutritional status, with special emphasis on the distinct effects these factors have among men and women in different nutritional conditions. PMID:19142346

  11. Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence in adolescents and young adults of a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study of infants born in 1982, in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and interviewed in 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005. In the 1997 and 2000-2001 follow-up visits, the outcome studied was smoking, defined as the consumption of at least one cigarette in the previous week. In the 2005 follow-up visit, the dependent variable was current smoking. Adjusted analysis was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalences among males were 5.9%, 20.2% and 27.6% in the 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005 follow-up visits, respectively. Among females, respective values were 9.3%, 27.5% and 23.6%. Mean age of smoking onset was 15.1 years (SD=2.5). In the multivariate analysis, lower maternal level of education, low income level in 1982, poverty during the follow-up period and maternal smoking were significantly associated with higher smoking prevalences in both sexes. Being non-white was associated with higher risk of smoking among females exclusively. Breastfeeding was not associated with smoking. Among females, smoking was inversely associated with birth weight in the crude analysis, but lost its significance in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher incidence of smoking in poorer groups suggests that behavior such as avoiding smoking during pregnancy and increasing cigarette prices can have an important population impact. PMID:19142348

  12. Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C; Minten, Gicele C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and assess its association with risk factors in a cohort of young adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p?0.001) when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p?0.001) and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002) increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders. PMID:19142342

  13. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

    2015-01-01

    This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  14. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  15. Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Rosa Marin, Maria; Lewis, Mirtha; Fernández, Teresita

    2006-12-01

    This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2-3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12 satellite-tracked juveniles remained at the edge of young warm-core eddies and near the outer core of cold-core eddies, coinciding with the most productive areas of these temperature fronts. Seal trajectories along high-temperature gradients were always consistent with the speed and direction of surface currents inferred from the temperature distribution and confirmed by surface drifters. Movements of foraging seals were compared with those of surface drifters, coinciding in time and space and yielding independent and consistent data on regional water circulation parameters. The diving pattern recorded for one focal seal yielded shallower dives and a loose diel pattern in the eddy, and a marked diurnal cycle compatible with foraging on vertically migrating prey in the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Pre-reproductive females that use the mesoscale fronts of the Argentine Basin as an alternative foraging area would benefit from lower competition with more experienced seals and with other top predators that reproduce along the coast of Patagonia.

  16. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. PMID:26611972

  17. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

  18. Higher Education and Financial Control by State Governments in Southern Association States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Atlanta, GA.

    During recent years, the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) have had problems applying and enforcing a law (Illustration 7) affirming that state funds be left entirely to the jurisdiction of the institutional governing board after they have been appropriated. After alleged violations by state

  19. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults, and fractures and folds of events 3 and 4 are consistent with regional extensional tectonics associated with earthquakes that triggered sediment deformation. The 200 km that separate the occurrences of cap carbonates suggest that important seismic events took place during the early Ediacaran in the southern Amazon Craton.

  20. Food habits and nutritional status of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Douglas, A; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1980-03-01

    A new class of migrant workers, commonly known as "Boia-Frias", is rapidly growing in the periurban slumbs (favelas) of Brazil. In 1978 a collaborative study was undertaken to assess the food habits and nutritional status of 100 migrant worker families of Vila Recreio, a typical Boia-Fria settlement near Ribeirao Preto in the state of Sao Paulo. The findings of this survey revealed that the traditional diet of Boia-Frias is nutritionally inadequate both in quality and quantity. Their rice and bean-based diet lacks sufficient variety because of the infrequent use of fresh fruits and vegetables, which are available locally, and of supplemental amounts of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Empty-calorie foods such as carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages are consumed freely; and starchy foods, traditionally used in the North and Northeast of Brazil, are used commonly as weaning foods. Although dietary practices of pregnant and lactating women are poor, breast-feeding is still practiced by most mothers. The biochemical analysis of blood samples did not indicate major subclinical deficiencies except low hematological values and low plasma vitamin A concentrations in about 25% of the population examined. Plasma cholesterol and plasma vitamin E values were found to be normal. However, anthropometric examinations revealed clear signs of malnutrition and/or undernourishment, which likely impairs their capacity for physical work and adversely affects their overall health. PMID:7355851

  1. Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method?

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997

  2. Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Carolina Somaio; Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Roper, James J

    2007-01-01

    Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 x 20 cm) were taken from fibreglass floats (boardwalks and boat hulls) and concrete columns. A total of 85 species were found of which 50 were classified into three categories: four introduced, 33 cryptogenic and 13 native. The introduced species were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana (on floats, boats and submerged concrete), the polychaete Polydora cornuta (more abundant on floats and submerged concrete) and the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (equally abundant on the three substrata) and Striatobalanus amaryllis (only on floats and submerged concrete). Organisms were most abundant on floating boardwalks, while species richness and composition were similar to that on boat hulls (32 and 37, respectively), which are an important vector for intraregional transport. All substrata supported at least three of the four introduced, and many of the cryptogenic species. The proportion of introduced to the total number of species was greater than observed in other ports. This demonstrates that the introduction potential is great in Paranaguá Bay, especially considering that this study was restricted to one site and sampled only hard substrata. None of the introduced species has yet been identified as invasive, but all are generalists with respect to substratum, indicating their invasive potential. The ability to colonise stable concrete walls shows that they could also colonise the natural granite rocky substrata in the bay, and the ability to colonise floating surfaces indicate their capability of spreading in the region on the hulls of recreational boats. PMID:17852067

  3. Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosângela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome “occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview” and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351

  4. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages. PMID:18833472

  5. A new species of Caenis Stephens, 1836 (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucas R C; Molineri, Carlos; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Caenis Stephens is described based on the male imago, female imago and egg stages from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The male imago of Caenis gaucha sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: body length of male 2.0-2.5 mm; base of antennal flagellum not dilated; forceps apically rounded, not fused to lateral margins of styliger plate; styliger plate short with posterior margin slightly sub-triangular; ratio of foreleg 1.7-2.2 × the length of hind leg, forceps length 4.4-6.0 × the width ½ from base, and distance between the extreme lateral points of the forceps bases 1.7-1.8 × forceps length. PMID:25947532

  6. Larval habitats of sand flies in rural areas of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; de Carvalho Gasparotto, Jaqueline; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of an investigation of natural larval sand fly habitats in the Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo municipality, Paraná state, Brazil, from May, 2010 to August, 2012. We used Alencar emergence traps (AT), experimental traps (ET), and soil samples incubated in a biochemical oxygen demand incubator. Eight sand flies were collected with ATs. One specimen was collected with an ET and 21 were collected in soil samples. The collected species were Brumptomyia brumpti, Micropygomyia ferreirana, Migonemyia bursiformis, Migonemyia migonei, Nyssomyia neivai, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Pintomyia pessoai. The laval habitats of sand flies were located in the Recanto Marista, especially between tree roots, but the number of adults that emerged in the traps and soil samples was small despite the high density of sand flies that has been recorded in the Recanto Marista. PMID:26611961

  7. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used. PMID:24838545

  8. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo-environmental accidents resulting from underground erosion phenomena.

  9. THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES

    E-print Network

    THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES FISHERY LEAFLET No. 472 UNITED, D. C. #12;THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES by William W. Anderson Fishery Research Biologist The shrimp fishery of the United States is centered primarily in the eight

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

  11. HIV Diagnoses, Prevalence and Outcomes in Nine Southern States.

    PubMed

    Reif, Susan; Pence, Brian Wells; Hall, Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Whetten, Kathryn; Wilson, Elena

    2015-08-01

    A group of nine states in the Southern United States, hereafter referred to as the targeted states, has experienced particularly high HIV diagnosis and case fatality rates. To provide additional information about the HIV burden in this region, we used CDC HIV surveillance data to examine characteristics of individuals diagnosed with HIV in the targeted states (2011), 5-year HIV and AIDS survival, and deaths among persons living with HIV (2010). We used multivariable analyses to explore the influence of residing in the targeted states at diagnosis on deaths among persons living with HIV after adjustment for demographics and transmission risk. In 2011, the targeted states had a higher HIV diagnosis rate (24.5/100,000 population) than the US overall (18.0/100,000) and higher proportions than other regions of individuals diagnosed with HIV who were black, female, younger, and living in suburban and rural areas. Furthermore, the targeted states had lower HIV and AIDS survival proportions (0.85, 0.73, respectively) than the US overall (0.86, 0.77, respectively) and the highest death rate among persons living with HIV of any US region. Regional differences in demographics and transmission risk did not explain the higher death rate among persons living with HIV in the targeted states indicating that other factors contribute to this disparity. Differences in characteristics and outcomes of individuals with HIV in the targeted states are critical to consider when creating strategies to address HIV in the region, as are other factors identified in previous research to be prominent in the region including poverty and stigma. PMID:25524210

  12. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  13. An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate

    E-print Network

    Mazloff, Matthew R.

    An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

  14. Simulation of hydrosedimentological impacts caused by climate change in the Apucaraninha River watershed, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Iensen, I. R.; Bauer Schultz, G.; Dos Santos, I.

    2015-03-01

    Climate change can cause significant modifications in hydrosedimentological processes. Climate projections indicate the occurrence of extreme events, in terms of precipitation, droughts, floods and temperature. By increasing temperatures and altering precipitation regimes, climate change is expected to affect sediment dynamics. Predictions of the effects of climate change on streamflow and sediment yield vary widely, depending on the geographical location and climate scenarios used. Mathematical modelling can be used to simulate the hydrosedimentological processes in watersheds and enable the simulation of climate change effects on sediment yield. This paper aims to simulate the impacts of climate change hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed (504 km²), southern Brazil, considering the climate change scenarios A2 (pessimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases) and B2 (optimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases), developed by the IPCC. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate projections on the sediment yield in the Apucaraninha River watershed. The model was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and sediment data from 1987 to 2012. The model presented satisfactory fit to the observed data allowing the reproduction of the current hydrological conditions of the watershed. Based on the satisfactory results in calibration and validation, the climate scenarios A2 and B2 were inserted to simulate streamflow and sediment conditions for the period 2071-2100. The results for both scenarios indicate that simulations of both climate scenarios resulted in changes in hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed, mainly in terms of decrease in average sediment yield due to the reduction in precipitation amount and increase in evapotranspiration. Our results also indicate that every 1% change in precipitation has resulted in 2.8% change in soil erosion and 1.6% change in runoff under scenario A2, and 2.3% change in erosion and 1.1% in runoff under scenarios B2, thus suggesting that climate change tends to affect sediment yield more than streamflow, although seasonally both could be impacted in similar ways.

  15. Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States

    E-print Network

    Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States Peter B and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during

  16. THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH.

    E-print Network

    THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH. The southern spring mackerel fishery of the United States if'! important from aev- eral standpoints, and of late has been than the regular fishery for mackerel carried on during the summer and fall months, it- has

  17. Helicobacter pylori and anemia: a community-based cross-sectional study among adults in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Minten, Gicele Costa; Valle, Neiva C J; Tuerlinckx, Giovana Costa; Boccio, José; Barrado, Domingo Andrés; Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski da; Pereira, Guilherme Augusto Reissig

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori and anemia, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 year old users of the 31 primary health care units in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were carried out in waiting rooms during two work shifts. Anemia (hemoglobin < 11g/dL among pregnant women, < 12g/dL among women and < 13g/dL among men) was diagnosed from capillary blood (HemoCue) and H. pylori by means of a 13C-UBT. Information on socio-demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics was collected. Logistic and linear regression analyses were carried out, taking into account aggregated primary health care units. A total of 1,117 respondents fulfilled the inclusion criteria (losses/refusals: 8.1%). Prevalence of anemia was 20.6% (18.2-23.2%) and of H. pylori, 70.7% (68.0-73.6%). After allowing for age, sex and skin color the odds ratio for anemia among those who were diagnosed H. pylori positive was 0.94 (0.70-1.27). After allowing for sex, skin color, family monthly income, age, and smoking, the reduction in hemoglobin among H. pylori positive respondents was 0.07g/dL (-0.24-0.11; p = 0.4). There is no association between H. pylori and anemia among adults attending primary health care units in Southern Brazil. PMID:20191156

  18. Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1?:?62482, 1?:?30821, and 1?:?47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. PMID:25346858

  19. Congenital neosporosis in goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Varaschin, Mary S; Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y; Guimarães, Antônio M; Santos, Domingos S; Bezerra, Pedro S; Costa, Rafael C; Peconick, Ana P; Langohr, Ingeborg M

    2012-03-01

    Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil. PMID:22451736

  20. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO... March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... the Brazilian Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO...

  1. Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

    2012-05-01

    This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

  2. Black-fly assemblage distribution patterns in streams in disturbed areas in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa; Sagot, Lúcia Beatriz; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2014-12-01

    Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in September 2004 to address ecological aspects. Of the 18 species collected, those that occurred in more than 50% of the streams were: Simulium subnigrum Lutz 1910, Simulium pertinax Kollar 1882, Simulium subpallidum Lutz 1910 and Simulium incrustatum Lutz 1910. Species richness was not influenced by any of the environmental or geographical variables considered, and there was no pattern of species co-occurrence, corroborating the hypothesis of a stochastic distribution of the Simuliidae assemblage. When analyzed individually, only three of seven species with occurrence frequency >30% were related to any of the variables measured. The probabilities of occurrence of Simulium jujuyense Paterson & Shannon 1927 and S. pertinax were higher in streams with high values of water pH and electrical conductivity, whereas the opposite was observed for S. incrustatum. Therefore, due to stochastic distribution, the population studies of Simuliidae are more suitable for predicting the occurrence of species in rural areas than are studies of assemblages. PMID:25107279

  3. [Traffic accidents in a city in Southern Brazil: an evaluation of coverage and quality of data].

    PubMed

    Andrade, S M; Prado de Mello-Jorge, M H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze police coverage and the validity of data on emergency and hospitalization records as well as on death certificates for traffic casualties in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Victims (3,643) of road accidents during the first semester of 1996 were investigated and followed up after 180 days to confirm whether death was due to the accident. Police data recorded only 32.5% of the casualties, the coverage being higher for car occupants (71.6%) and lower for cyclists (8.1%) and pedestrians (24.8%). Agreement was low between original information and that derived from investigation of death certificates (Kappa coefficient 0.10; 95% CI: 0.02-0.17), fair for hospitalization records (Kappa coefficient 0.33; 95% CI: 0.27-0.40), and substantial for emergency records (Kappa coefficient 0.63; 95% CI: 0.61-0.65). Results suggest that police data underestimate the number of traffic casualties and that it is necessary to improve the validity of medical records. PMID:11784905

  4. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Bonacin, José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

  5. 76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35561] Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway Company (LSRC) and Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company...

  6. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

  7. Thermobarometric and geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Brasília Fold Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Brown, M.; Piccoli, P. M.; Trouw, R. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Usui, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2006-05-01

    The Brasília Fold Belt lies between the São Francisco, Amazonas and Paranapanema cratons in central Brazil. In the southern portion of this belt, the Andrelândia Group comprises a stack of nappes that record metamorphic conditions ranging from greenschist facies at the base to high pressure granulite facies at the top of the stack. Published conventional thermobarometric data indicate peak P-T conditions of ~1.3 GPa and ~900°C in the uppermost nappes, and the few published geochronologic data suggest an age of peak metamorphism around 630 Ma. Here we report new thermobarometry for the uppermost nappes calculated using the average P-T method in THERMOCALC, based on new analytical data from our own samples and literature data, in order compare published results based on conventional thermobarometry to results obtained using the average P-T method. In addition, we report new U-Pb zircon ages that constrain the timing of metamorphism in the uppermost nappes of the Andrelândia Group. Maximum average P-T conditions of 1.5±0.2 GPa and 1020±130°C were calculated for a mafic granulite in the uppermost Socorro --- Guaxupé Nappe, which compares to published results of ~1.1 GPa and ~890°C. The Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, immediately below the Socorro --- Guaxupé Nappe, yields an average P-T of 1.1±0.1 GPa and 880±40°C for literature data, compared with published results of ~1.3 GPa and ~730°C. In addition, our new analytical data from the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe yield P-T conditions comparable to the recalculated data, with typical peak P ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 GPa and T ranging from 750 to 880°C. These data suggest that the upper nappe was subjected to higher pressures than previously reported, and also may have been subjected to higher temperatures. For the Carmo da Cachoeira Nappe, immediately below the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, we calculate P-T of 0.6 to 0.7 GPa and 520 to 580°C. For the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, zircons were dated from three samples of Grt-Ky-Kfs gneiss. Cores and rims of zircons from a variety of microstructural settings were dated in situ using a Cameca 1270 secondary ion mass spectrometer. Sixteen 207Pb/206Pb dates inferred to be from metamorphic zircon overgrowths were culled from the dataset; a probability distribution plot of these dates indicates two ages of zircon growth, at 650±4 Ma and 605±6 Ma (2?). We speculate that the younger age reflects emplacement of the Socorro --- Guaxupé Nappe over the Três Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, in which case the older age may record the peak of subduction related metamorphism prior to arc collision.

  8. Phytolith studies applied to geomorphologic analysis in the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These factors accounts as well for the larger diameter of the gravels in P1, giving evidences of a more effective action of mechanical weathering near the outcrop. The stock of phytoliths of P1 follows a normal trend of decrease with depth, while P2 presents a very large increase in the organic horizon. In the surface horizons, the indexes D/P are characteristic of open vegetation, but in P1 the current tree cover density is slightly higher than in P2, probably because, being closer to the outcrop, it is located in a place that concentrates more humidity, or because phytoliths comes from the more wooded vegetation of the hillside. D/P index decreases with depth, except for a significant increase in the detritic pavement, suggesting a more humid environment. In the deeper horizons the values are lower than today, but the weathering of phytoliths at this depth is so great that the phytolith signal is weak, remaining only phytoliths that are more resistant to dissolution. In this case, the reconstitution of vegetation by the phytoliths is not reliable, and we can only infer that the erosive processes during this period were very noticeable, indicating a high-energy environment.

  9. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  10. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  11. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  12. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  13. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  14. Assessment of Yield with Altered Soybean Traits Under Climate Change in Southern Brazil: Performance of the Crop Model and Genotype Trait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, R.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Boote, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water deficit is the main factor responsible for soybean yield gap in Southern Brazil and tends to increase under climate change scenarios. Alternatives need be identified in order to create options to reduce the yield gap. One alternative is the selection of soybean cultivars with traits associated to drought tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study, via use of crop models, is to evaluate genetic traits that can help to improve soybean yield under climate change scenarios in Southern Brazil by improving the crop tolerance to water deficit. For this, the CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean model was used to simulate soybean yield in Southern Brazil and evaluate yield with altered genetic traits. The first step was to calibrate the model for a Brazilian soybean cultivar, using results from irrigated and rainfed experiments conducted in different sowing dates and locations in Southern Brazil. The CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean estimated a mean yield of 3551 (SD = 1439) kg ha-1, while the mean observed yield was 3313 (SD = 1105) kg ha-1. The mean error was 238 kg ha-1 (7.2%), mean error absolute was 765 kg ha-1 (23%) and modeling efficiency was 0.27, with a good relationship between observed and simulated yield (Figure 1). The model was able to estimate soybean yield for different levels of soil water available during the crop season. The next steps of the project are to manipulate the coefficients related with rooting depth extension, early stomata closure at high soil water contents, transpiration limited to a maximum rate, and N2 fixation drought tolerance in the model in order to identify their impact on yield under current and future climate scenarios in all soybean production regions in Southern Brazil. The soybean yield from different changed traits will be evaluated in order to define guidelines for breeding programs, allowing the saving of resources and time in the new cultivars development process, focused on adaptation to climate change.

  15. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

  16. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos, Susane Müller Klug; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years), low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains. PMID:25945989

  17. Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dottie C.

    This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…

  18. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  19. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    E-print Network

    Giles, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Busch, Joseph D.; Olafson, Pia U.; Scoles, Glen A.; Davey, Ronald B.; Pound, J. Mathews; Kammlah, Diane M.; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H.; Wagner, David M.

    2014-04-17

    Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which...

  20. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  1. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  2. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  3. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  4. Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern are the `perfume flower' and the `oil flower' pollination syndromes (Dodson 1975, Simpson & Neff 1981, Vogel 1988, Eltz et al. 1999). The perfume flower pollination syndrome is characterized by production of eth

  5. Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Jahnke, Richard A.

    Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern; accepted 8 June 2007 Available online 20 June 2007 Abstract The Patos­Mirim Lagoon system along, the hydraulic head of the lagoon, the largest in South America, drives groundwater transport to the coast. Water

  6. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  7. April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

    The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM SHEEP FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection but little is known of ovine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in sera of 495 sheep from 36 counties of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25) and found in 120...

  9. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…

  10. Departamento de Fruticultura Southern Oregon Experiment Department of Horticulture Universidad Catolica de Chile Station, Oregon State Oregon State University,

    E-print Network

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Catolica de Chile Station, Oregon State Oregon State University, Santiago, Chile University, Medford, USA on `Comice'pear yield components C.H. Crisosto Departamento de Fruticultura, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile D. Sugar Southern Oregon Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Medford, OR 97502

  11. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland, and 46.1 cm / h in Native Forest. The infiltration in the secondary forest in January was of 32.3 cm / h (29.9% higher than in August). The pasture indicated infiltration of 12.8 cm / h (32.9% lower) and 49.2 cm / h native forest (6.3% higher). Soil compaction in August was of 2.9 kgf / cm2 in the secondary forest, 3.7 kgf / cm2 in the pasture, and 1.4 kgf / cm2 in the Native Forest. In January, compression was of 2.1 in Secondary Forest (27.6% less than in August), 4.0 kgf / cm2 in the pasture (7.5% higher) and 1.3 kgf / cm2 in the native Forest (7.1% lower). These variations may be associated to the climatic conditions which cause some frost in winter promoting greater mobilization of animals looking for food in secondary forest areas due to reduced pasture. The springs from the pasture in summer enhances the time animals stay in the pasture areas. The influence of animals on hydrogeomorphic conditions in faxinal areas was evident, especially when comparing the data from the two areas with the ones indicated by the Native Forest.

  12. Properties of iron sulphides from a copper mine in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussel, Wagner N.; Murad, Enver; Magalhães, Natalie C.; Abrahão, Walter A. P.; Mello, Jaime W. V.; Fabris, José D.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed two iron sulphide samples from a copper mine in Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to consist of essentially pure pyrite and chalcopyrite associated with a minor amount of pyrite and possibly some cubanite. While the pyrite was well crystallized and of simple mineralogy, Mössbauer data indicated the chalcopyrite contained in the second sample to consist of coexisting tetragonal and (remnant) cubic modifications, as has been previously described for another sample from this locality.

  13. Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ? 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ? 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839

  14. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape units resulting from this relationship may be identified. The species E.edulis is found within these landscape units and is integrated into the livelihood of the community. PMID:23826807

  15. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The ?13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

  16. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini?Tefé; Manacapuru?Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo?São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos?Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. PMID:25528017

  17. Displacement of Black Teachers in the Eleven Southern States. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Robert W.

    In order to collect information on teacher displacement, the Race Relations Information Center surveyed white and black teachers and principals, teacher association executives, attorneys, civil rights and community leaders, state and federal officials, and journalists in 11 Southern states; the survey was conducted largely by phone. Several…

  18. GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER PETITION FOR

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER PETITION FOR FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES IN THE GEORGIA: This petition is for informational purposes only and does not in any way imply a determination of legal, it is suggested that a Petition for Tuition Classification be completed to establish in-state status for tuition

  19. GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER PETITION FOR

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER PETITION FOR UNIVERSITY SYSTEM EMPLOYEES children are eligible for this waiver. NOTE: This petition is for informational purposes only and does, it is suggested that a Petition for Tuition Classification be completed to establish in-state status for tuition

  20. Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States

    E-print Network

    : (1) share cutting edge research and extension information on water quality, conservation, law (Oklahoma State University), · Diane Boellstorff (Texas A&M University) · Conservation attitudes1 Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States October 13

  1. Vitamin D Status and VDR Genotype in NF1 Patients: A Case-Control Study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza Mario Bueno, Larissa; Rosset, Clévia; Aguiar, Ernestina; Pereira, Fernando de Souza; Izetti Ribeiro, Patrícia; Scalco, Rosana; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Gischkow Rucatti, Guilherme; Chies, José Artur; Camey, Suzi Alves; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency when compared to the general population. This study aimed to determine the levels of 25-OH-vitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with NF1 and disease-unaffected controls and analyze FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms in a case and in a control group. Vitamin D levels were compared between a group of 45 NF1 patients from Southern Brazil and 45 healthy controls matched by sex, skin type, and age. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of VDR gene polymorphisms were obtained from the same NF1 patients and 150 healthy controls. 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency was not more frequent in NF1 patients than in controls (p = 0.074). We also did not observe an association between FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms and vitamin D levels in NF1 patients, suggesting that their deficient or insufficient biochemical phenotypes are not associated with these genetic variants. The differences between the groups in genotypic and allelic frequencies for FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms were small and did not reach statistical significance. These polymorphisms are in partial linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype frequencies also did not differ in a significant way between the two groups (p = 0.613). PMID:26161090

  2. Pre-vegetation fluvial floodplains and channel-belts in the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Santa Bárbara group (Southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconato, André; de Almeida, Renato Paes; Turra, Bruno Boito; Fragoso-Cesar, Antônio Romalino dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    One key element to the understanding of the dynamics of pre-vegetation fluvial systems is the reconstruction of processes operating on their floodplains given that, in modern systems, channel banks and floodplains are the environments most affected by plant colonization. Notwithstanding, few pre-vegetation floodplains have been described, and major questions regarding their most basic characteristics are still unresolved. In order to address these questions, detailed analysis of coeval channel-belt, fluvial floodplain and alluvial-fan deposits from the Santa Bárbara Group (Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian, southern Brazil) was performed. While floodplain facies resemble ephemeral stream deposits, being coarser-grained than modern floodplains and marked by the stacking of flood event cycles, channel-belt deposits show composite bars, which do not present conclusive evidence for high water discharge variation. The floodplain deposits show particular features common to other pre-vegetation fluvial systems, such as better preserved small-scale structures, lack of bioturbation, and abundance of cross-laminated sandstones, while other features differ from previous depositional models, namely abundant mudcracks and evidence of soil formation. The lateral variation of depositional systems recorded in the Santa Bárbara Group shows contrasting signatures of water discharge variation in sand-dominated coeval environments, and offers an example of the relation between different alluvial environments before the evolution of land plants.

  3. Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate fertilizer factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l(-1) and 5 mg l(-1), respectively, and were dependent on pH. The fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial horizon of soil in quantities comparable to those in the manufactured end-products--up to 23,000 mg kg(-1). Fluoride distribution in the environment is controlled by physical-chemical parameters of emission, rain intensity and soil properties. The highest fluoride concentrations were registered at a close distance of up to 2 km from the factory. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater resembled the same distribution in rainwater due to the high permeability of the local soils. Fluoride penetration to the groundwater also depended on the type of vegetation cover. The groundwater in woodland areas was less affected by contamination of fluoride than in the grassland areas, most probably because of the influence of eucalyptus throughfall, which increases the pH of wet precipitates. PMID:17288010

  4. Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson’s regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347

  5. Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; Béhague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (?13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes. PMID:19142343

  6. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  7. Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

  8. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  9. The use of GIS for the integration of traditional and scientific knowledge in supporting artisanal fisheries management in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Débora M; Tagliani, Paulo Roberto A

    2009-05-01

    The integration of local harvesters' knowledge of attitudes and practices toward the resources they harvest with scientific information is essential to natural resources management. However, the development and implementation of management policies have, in most cases, not been effective because of a failure to use all available sources of information and knowledge. In fisheries management, local knowledge is usually not collected in a systematic format and little published literature has discussed the use of local knowledge data collection and analysis methods. This paper describes the implementation of geographic information systems to systematize, analyze, and display traditional and scientific information to support fisheries management in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil. Artisanal fishing data were documented through a series of interviews conducted during and after fishing trips at harvest spots, and scientific data on environmental variables were obtained from different research institutions. A multi-layer GIS database integrating local fishers' and scientific knowledge information was developed with ArcGIS 8.3 ArcView tools to integrate and translate information into an accessible and interpretable format. The geo-spatial database interface allowed the selection of specific data characteristics by target species, harvest areas, fishers' communities, fishing gear, catch-per-unit of effort (CPUE), and monthly landings. The observed fishing spatial dynamics presented among the fishers' communities shows that, in most cases, artisanal fishermen tend to concentrate in shallow estuarine waters surrounding their villages. PMID:18573591

  10. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ? 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  11. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  12. UV degradation of hdpe and pvc geomembranes in laboratory exposure So Paulo State University (UNESP) -Ilha Solteira (Brazil)

    E-print Network

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    University (UNESP) - Ilha Solteira (Brazil) Bueno, B.S. University of State of São Paulo (USP) at São Carlos (Brazil) Zornberg, J.G. University of Texas (UT) at Austin (USA) Keywords: UV degradation, weathering International Conference on Geosynthetics, Brazil, 2010 821 3 #12;were used like a guide: ASTM D638 (Standard

  13. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

  14. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  15. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla EO; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M

    2014-01-01

    Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations. PMID:25075782

  16. The Itajaí foreland basin: a tectono-sedimentary record of the Ediacaran period, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, M. A. S.; Drukas, C. O.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Dunyi, L.; Santos, P. R.; Passarelli, C. R.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Siga, O.; Osako, L.

    2011-04-01

    The Itajaí Basin located in the southern border of the Luís Alves Microplate is considered as a peripheral foreland basin related to the Dom Feliciano Belt. It presents an excellent record of the Ediacaran period, and its upper parts display the best Brazilian example of Precambrian turbiditic deposits. The basal succession of Itajaí Group is represented by sandstones and conglomerates (Baú Formation) deposited in alluvial and deltaic-fan systems. The marine upper sequences correspond to the Ribeirão Carvalho (channelized and non-channelized proximal silty-argillaceous rhythmic turbidites), Ribeirão Neisse (arkosic sandstones and siltites), and Ribeirão do Bode (distal silty turbidites) formations. The Apiúna Formation felsic volcanic rocks crosscut the sedimentary succession. The Cambrian Subida leucosyenogranite represents the last felsic magmatic activity to affect the Itajaí Basin. The Brusque Group and the Florianópolis Batholith are proposed as source areas for the sediments of the upper sequence. For the lower continental units the source areas are the Santa Catarina, São Miguel and Camboriú complexes. The lack of any oceanic crust in the Itajaí Basin suggests that the marine units were deposited in a restricted, internal sea. The sedimentation started around 600 Ma and ended before 560 Ma as indicated by the emplacement of rhyolitic domes. The Itajaí Basin is temporally and tectonically correlated with the Camaquã Basin in Rio Grande do Sul and the Arroyo del Soldado/Piriápolis Basin in Uruguay. It also has several tectono-sedimentary characteristics in common with the African-equivalent Nama Basin.

  17. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-04-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  18. Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

  19. Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population 8 Southern States and Maine Cornelis F. de Hoop

    E-print Network

    10.0 Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population ­ 8 Southern States and Maine by Cornelis F. de 31, 2002 #12;10.1 SURVEYS OF THE LOGGING CONTRACTOR POPULATION Once the Logging Capacity Study a reliable source of documented knowledge about the population as a whole. One way to do this is to survey

  20. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  1. Almost As Fairly: The First Year of Title IX Implementation in Six Southern States. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Columbia, SC. Southeastern Public Education Program.

    Volunteers from community organizations in six southern states monitored 21 school districts to find their districts' initial answer to Title IX, federal legislation barring sex discrimination. The actual monitoring of the 21 districts was completed in the late spring of 1976, with data covering the first year of Title IX implementation. The…

  2. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  3. Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dena Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to…

  4. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  5. Paleolimnological record as an indication of incipient eutrophication in an oligotrophic subtropical coastal lake in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hennemann, Mariana Coutinho; Simonassi, José Carlos; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello

    2015-08-01

    Paleolimnology of lake sediments can be a powerful tool to assess various aspects of lake history and catchment change through elemental, isotopic and molecular analysis of the sedimented organic matter (OM). In this sense, the objective of the present study was to investigate the source, depositional history and preservation of OM in the sediments of two different sites in Peri Lake (southern Brazil) to better understand the nature and direction of environmental changes. Therefore, two sediment cores were sampled and analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and elemental ratios, and stable isotope ratios of C and N (?(13)C and ?(15)N). Both cores showed similar general tendencies, with increasing amounts of OM (range 1-35%), TOC (2.55-258.40 mg g(-1)), TN (0.30-25.97 mg g(-1)) and TP (0.03-4.72 mg g(-1)) from the bottom toward the top more recent layers. TOC:TN ratios (range 8.1-14.7) showed a slight decrease in recent times and indicated a mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous contribution to the OM, with predominance of the last source. TN:TP (range 0.2-51.3) indicated a condition of potential limitation by P in general. Both ?(13)C (range -25.58 to -20.85) and ?(15)N (range 2.6 to 7.1) showed a decreasing pattern toward the top of the cores, in opposition to macronutrient concentration. Differences in the depth variation pattern between the two cores were associated to the marginal location of one of the cores. The results suggest that nutrients and primary production are increasing in the lake. PMID:26197956

  6. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  7. Biomonitoring of water genotoxicity in a Conservation Unit in the Sinos River Basin, Southern Brazil, using the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay.

    PubMed

    Endres Júnior, D; Sasamori, M H; Cassanego, Mbb; Droste, A

    2015-05-01

    The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62. During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea confirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit. PMID:26270220

  8. Characterization of a mud deposit offshore of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Allen H.; Faas, Richard W.; Allison, Mead A.; Calliari, Lauro J.; Holland, K. T.; O'Reilly, S. E.; Vaughan, W. C.; Alves, A.

    2009-03-01

    Rapid deposition of mud on the beach along the shoreface of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil dramatically influences the normal operations in the littoral zone. In the surf zone, fluid and suspended mud opposes water-wave movement and dissipates water-wave energy; on the beach, mud limits trafficability. As part of a multinational, multidisciplinary program to evaluate the influence of mud strength, density and viscosity on water-wave attenuation, sediments were evaluated in situ or collected for evaluation from an area offshore of Cassino Beach, slightly south of the Patos Lagoon mouth. Shear strength of deposited sediments ranged from 0.6 kPa at the seafloor to 3.4 kPa at ˜1 m below the seafloor. Mud sediments were also collected to simulate the in situ response of fluid mud to shear stresses. For this determination, rheological evaluations were made using a strain-controlled Couette viscometer on numerous remixed samples that ranged in density from 1.05 to 1.30 g/cm 3. It was determined that this mud is a non-ideal Bingham material in that it has a true initial yield stress as well as a upper Bingham yield stress. Initial yield stress ranged from 0.59 to 2.62 Pa, upper Bingham yield stress ranged from 1.05 to 7.6 Pa. Apparent viscosity ranged from 0.02 to 4.7 Pa s with the highest viscosities occurring between the two yield stresses. Sediment strength in the remixed samples is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the horizontal shear strength of the sediment bed as determined by shear vane or predicted from penetrometer measurements. This difference is partially due to the fact that rheological evaluations are made on fully remixed sediments, whereas horizontal shear strength is determined within relatively undisturbed sediments. Similar values of viscosity and shear strength are comparable to those determined for mud in other coastal areas where fluid mud deposits occur.

  9. Ergasilus thatcheri n. sp. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) from the gills of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Engers, K B; Boeger, W A; Brandào, D A

    2000-10-01

    The female of Ergasilus thatcheri n. sp. (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Ergasilidae) is described from the gills of the "jundiá," Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Pimelodidae), from fish ponds in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new species has a falciform semipinnate terminal seta on the first exopod, which suggests phylogenetic affinity to 10 other congeners, all from fishes of the Amazon Basin. Based on general morphology, the new species shows great similarity to E. callophysus Thatcher and Boeger, 1984, a parasite of another pimelodid fish Callophysus macropterus. Ergasilus thatcheri n. sp., however, can be easily differentiated from E. callophysus in its possession of a more distal sensillum not located on a cuticular elevation, and a row of spinules on the inner margin of the second antennal segment (first endopodal segment). PMID:11128515

  10. [Variables associated with leisure-time physical inactivity and main barriers to exercise among industrial workers in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Shana Ginar da; Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa da; Nahas, Markus Vinícius; Viana, Sérgio Luís

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity and factors associated with physical inactivity among industrial workers in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A cross-sectional study with analysis of secondary data included 2,265 workers. Thirteen barriers were investigated: fatigue, weather, overwork, lack of will, study obligations, family obligations, distance to the facility/setting, affordability, lack of motor skills, poor physical conditioning, lack of facilities, lack of money, security, and others. Prevalence of physical inactivity among workers was 45.4%, and the most common barriers were fatigue (15.1%), overwork (12.7%), and family obligations (9.2%). Fatigue, overwork, family obligations, lack of will, affordability, study obligations, and weather were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Government policies focused on overarching interventions could help these workers overcome such barriers and adopt an active lifestyle. PMID:21359461

  11. Tropical cyclone precipitation risk in the Southern United States

    E-print Network

    Shedd, Sandra Michael

    2015-01-01

    This thesis works to evaluate the new rainfall algorithm that is used to simulate longterm tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) climatology throughout the southeastern United States. The TCP climatology is based on a fleet ...

  12. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

  13. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  14. Extending the southern range of four shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae, Hippolytidae and Alpheidae) in southwestern Atlantic (27o S) and confirming the presence of Mediterranean Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Bruno Welter; Freire, Andrea Santarosa

    2015-01-01

    In subtidal zones, certain shrimp species with cryptic behaviour represent a gap in the biodiversity description in many places in the world. This study extends the southern limit of Stenopus hispidus (Oliver, 1811), Alpheus formosus Gibbes, 1850, Alpheus cf. packardii Kingsley, 1880 and Lysmata ankeri Rhyne & Lin, 2006 to Santa Catarina State-Brazil, 27oS. The results also confirm the new occurrence of Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazilian waters. All specimens were collected by scuba diving from rocky islands between 3 and 25 meters depth. We present for each species certain taxonomic features in colour images that will help to identify these decapods in situ in further monitoring programs. PMID:26249501

  15. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies on domiciled cats from Lages municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Trevisani, Natascha; Medeiros, Alessandra Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Bellato, Valdomiro

    2010-01-01

    Sera were collected from 300 domiciled cats from the municipality of Lages, Southern Brazil, to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and risk factors associated. Tests for T. gondii antibodies were performed using indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive reactions with titers ?1:64 were found in 43 (14.33%) cats. A significant number of seropositive cats were ?6 month old (p = 0.03758) and had access to the streets or/and rural areas (p = 0.04185). The results indicate that T. gondii is widespread in cats in Lages with a prevalence of 14.33%. PMID:21184709

  16. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates contribution from younger sources, such as the Neoproterozoic São Gabriel Arc itself. This Neoproterozoic zircon population with ages ranging from 948 to 803 Ma, suggests that the onset of the magmatic/tectonic evolution of the São Gabriel Arc might have started as early ca. 0.95 Ma.

  17. Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2014-04-01

    A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

  18. Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18° 05' 43.6? S, 43° 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in São João da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mössbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

  19. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial-millennial scale El Niño/La Niña-state swings. Phases of El Niño dominance occur from 3,000 to 2,400 years BP, from 1,800 to 1,400 years BP and from c. 1,000 years BP onwards, while the brief periods of a predominant La Niña-state occurred from 2,400 to 1,800 years BP and 1,400 to 1,000 years BP. Our high-resolution ENSO-state reconstructions parallel terrestrial reconstruction from Laguna Pallcacocha (South America) and highlight the strong influence of ENSO on the palaeoceanographic development offshore southern Australia via teleconnections.

  20. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, S.

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  1. Biogeography and karyotypes of freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knakievicz, Tanise; Lau, Adriana Helena; Prá, Daniel; Erdtmann, Bernardo

    2007-02-01

    In the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes), the incidence of different biotypes identified by several ploidy levels is very common. Planarians collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were identified using cytogenetics. Different species distributions were observed with respect to Rio Grande do Sul's geomorphology, which could have been caused by their different microhabitats. Girardia tigrina and G. anderlani consisted of diploid and triploid individuals, whereas G. schubarti showed diploids, triploids, and mixoploids; for all these species, individuals of different ploidies were sympatric. Only for diploid G. anderlani were B chromosomes observed. These B chromosomes seem to have an irregular segregational behavior during mitosis, and possibly also during meiosis. However the processes (e.g., selection, mutation) of maintaining 2n, 3n, and 2n/3n individuals within natural populations of G. schubarti remain to be clarified. PMID:17409725

  2. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  3. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Ben Ross

    The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian ...

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  5. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65764). For FY 2011, this priority is an absolute priority. Under 34..., published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65764). Note: The regulations in 34 CFR part... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  7. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Mânlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  9. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  10. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  11. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from humans, vectors, and animal reservoirs following an outbreak of acute human Chagas disease in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Steindel, Mário; Kramer Pacheco, Letícia; Scholl, Daniele; Soares, Marcos; de Moraes, Milene Hoehr; Eger, Iriane; Kosmann, Cecília; Sincero, Thais Cristine Marques; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2008-01-01

    During March 2005, 24 cases of acute human Chagas disease were detected in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, all of them related to the ingestion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated sugar cane juice. Following field studies allowed the isolation of 13 T. cruzi strains from humans, opossums (Didelphis aurita and Didelphis albiventris), and vectors (Triatoma tibiamaculata). The isolated strains were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and analysis of the spliced-leader and 24Salpha rRNA genes. The assays revealed that all strains isolated from humans belong to the TcII group but revealed a TcII variant pattern for the phosphoglucomutase enzyme. Strains isolated from opossums also showed a TcI profile in all analysis, but strains isolated from triatomines revealed a mixed TcI/TcII profile by MLEE. No indication of the presence of Trypanosoma rangeli was observed in any assay. Considering that mixed strains (TcI/TcII) were isolated from triatomines in an area without active vectorial transmission to humans and that all strains isolated from humans belong to the TcII group, our results show that T. cruzi TcI and TcII groups are circulating among reservoirs and vectors in southern Brazil and indicate that selection toward TcII group in humans may occur after ingestion of a mixed (TcI/TcII) T. cruzi population. PMID:17889480

  12. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

  13. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  14. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  15. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

    2006-06-01

    Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

  16. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of São Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.

  17. A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

  18. "Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hautzinger, S

    1997-01-01

    This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives. PMID:12321266

  19. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

  20. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 ?W/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 ?W/cm(2). PMID:21741680

  1. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2015-06-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P<0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P<0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  2. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    PubMed

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios. PMID:25472831

  3. Simulating Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Amazonia: Impacts in Brazil's Roraima State from Reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19 % (CONSERV) and 42 % (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  4. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis... Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and... under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  5. Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

    2015-09-01

    The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni. PMID:24830883

  6. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella Pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Simone M; Redaelli, Luiza R; Diefenbach, Lúcia M G; Dal Soglio, Fábio K

    2007-01-01

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leafminer, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 degrees 68'S and 51 degrees 46'W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. PMID:18060301

  7. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  8. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  9. Risk factors of occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii among horses in the state of Alagoas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca de Araújo Valença, Sandra R; Barreto Valença, Rômulo M; Pinheiro Júnior, José Wilton; Feitosa de Albuquerque, Pedro P; Souza Neto, Orestes L; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii among horses and its associated risk factors in Alagoas, Brazil. In total, 440 samples from 36 properties in 23 districts of the state of Alagoas were studied, covering the Leste, Agreste and Sertão mesoregions. Risk factors were evaluated through the application of an investigative questionnaire that focused on the productive, reproductive and sanitary management of herds. T. gondii infection were assayed using the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with a cutoff point of 64; 14.4% (95% CI: 11.0%-17.8%) of - horses were seropositive. A significant association was determined between anti-T. gondii antibody presence and the consumption and storage of hay (OR = 2.08 / 95% CI: 1.20-3.62). This is the first report of T. gondii infection among horses in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:26408594

  10. El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in the southern and central United States: Evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, Daniel; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-10-01

    Understanding and predicting regional impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on winter (October-March) precipitation can provide valuable inputs to agricultural and water resources managers. Effects of ENSO and PDO on winter precipitation were assessed in 165 climate divisions throughout the southern United States. A continuous region of significantly (P < 0.05) increased (decreased) winter precipitation in response to El Niño (La Niña) conditions in the preceding summer (June-September Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)) extends across the entire southern United States and as far north as South Dakota. Within this region stronger correlations (r ? -0.45) are found along the Gulf of Mexico, southern Arizona, and central Nebraska. Winter precipitation differs significantly (P < 0.1) between warm and cold phase PDO periods only in the south central region, with greatest significance centered in Oklahoma. Enhanced negative La Niña anomalies during PDO cold phases are dominant in the central region (Texas to South Dakota) whereas enhanced positive El Niño anomalies during PDO warm phases are dominant in the southwest (Arizona, Nevada, and California) and southeast (Louisiana to Florida). Validation tests of winter precipitation predictions based on summer SOI and/or PDO-phase show a decrease of 9% to 16% in the relative Mean Absolute Error (MAE) from the MAE obtained by using the mean as a predictor in areas with strong correlation (r < -0.45) between SOI and precipitation. Logistic regression probability models of having above or below average winter precipitation had up to 77% successful predictions. The advantage of having probabilities of exceeding certain precipitation thresholds at the beginning of a hydrologic year makes logistic regression models attractive for decision makers.

  11. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Neto, Jaime De Liege Gama; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-01-01

    Miroculis (Miroculis) eldorado sp. nov. and Ulmeritoides passorum sp. nov. are described based on material from Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil. Additional records of Leptophlebiidae genera and species are made. Askola Peters, 1969, Farrodes Peters, 1971, Microphlebia Savage & Peters, 1983, Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez, 1992, Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth, 1943 and Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947) are recorded for the first time in Roraima State. Simothraulopsis janae Mariano, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Northern Brazil. PMID:25543739

  12. Poverty, bridging between injecting drug users and the general population, and "interiorization" may explain the spread of HIV in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Mariana A; Leite, Iuri; Friedman, Samuel R; Carrijo, Renata Gracie; Bastos, Francisco I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study how structural determinants and the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) as a bridging population to the general population affected the AIDS subepidemic in southern Brazil during 1986-2000. Data from 288 southernmost Brazilian municipalities were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling and inputs from a Geographic Information System, a multilevel model was constructed. The dependent variable was the logged AIDS standardized incidence rate (among the heterosexual population aged 15-69-years-old); independent variables included indicators for education, water provision, sewage, and garbage collection, per capita income, Gini coefficient (on income), Human Development Index, indicators of accessibility, and AIDS rate among IDUs. Significant predictors included AIDS rate among IDUs, distance from/to highways/railways, the Human Development Index and the ratio of residents who have access to sanitary installations. Poverty (as measured by socioeconomic indicators) and bridging from IDUs contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian southern municipalities. PMID:19083260

  13. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

  14. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

  15. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM FINISHING PIG HERDS AND SLAUGHTER FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil during 2004. A total of 1,258 samples were colleted and pre-enriched in buffered peptone water, after which, each sample was di...

  16. A new species of Pareiorhaphis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Schvambach, Lucas J; Reis, Roberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pareiorhaphis garapia, new species, is described based on specimens collected in the headwaters of the Arroio Garapiá, Rio Maquiné basin, a coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Pareiorhaphis species in having the nuchal plate covered by thick skin, the exposed posterior process of the cleithrum comparatively narrow, and the last segment of the preopercular ramus of the latero-sensory canal reduced to an ossified tubule. The absence of a dorsal-fin spinelet, the reduced number of plates in the dorsal and mid-dorsal series of lateral plates, and morphometric traits also distinguish the new species from its congeners. The restricted geographic distribution of P. garapia, endemic to a headwater stream of the Rio Maquiné basin, and the syntopic occurrence of P. nudulus are discussed. PMID:26624457

  17. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceição, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mônica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Basílio Elesbão da Cruz; Rios, Débora Correia

    2007-08-01

    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic São Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colônia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colônia (732 ± 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 ± 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 ± 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 ± 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the São Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araçuaí orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  18. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  19. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.

  20. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.

  1. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  2. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Anne I; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L P; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  3. Age and duration of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the AnapolisItaucu Complex, Southern Brasilia Belt, central Brazil

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    ). The assumption that an age obtained from a zircon in a metamorphic rock corresponds to Tmax has been shownAge and duration of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the Ana´polis­Itauc¸u Complex, Southern-sloping heavy-REE patterns, commonly inferred to be magmatic, whereas unambiguous metamorphic grains

  4. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. PMID:25942692

  5. New species of Hippopleurifera (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) from the Miocene
    Pirabas Formation, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Távora, Vladimir A; Tilbrook, Kevin J; Zágoršek, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The Pirabas Formation in Brazil has been studied for many years and a great diversity of animal groups (in particular fishes, molluscs and echinoderms) have been described from there, whereas the Bryozoa have scarcely been mentioned. New samples, collected specifically to focus on bryozoans, have shown that the diversity in this formation is higher than previously thought. Here we describe two new species belonging to the cheilostomate genus Hippopleurifera-H. barbosae sp. nov. and H. confusa sp. nov. Both species were collected at Atalaia Beach, northeastern Pará state, which boasts some of the best marine Cenozoic fossil outcrops in Brazil. After accounting for all described species, plus the two new species and four generic reassignments (new combinations) described herein, some 29 Hippopleurifera species are now known. Most of these are fossils from Europe or the USA, but a handful are known from the Recent Mediterranean, Caribbean and Indo-West Pacific. PMID:26250330

  6. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  7. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ?0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ?213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  8. Assessing public preferences for forest biomass based energy in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R; Mercer, Evan

    2010-04-01

    This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% (E10) and 85% (E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO(2), decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were $0.56 gallon(-1), $0.58 gallon(-1), and $0.48 gallon(-1), and for E85 they were $0.82 gallon(-1), $1.17 gallon(-1), and $1.06 gallon(-1) in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents' were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO(2) and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity. PMID:20140672

  9. Assessing Public Preferences for Forest Biomass Based Energy in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R.; Mercer, Evan

    2010-04-01

    This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% ( E10) and 85% ( E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO2, decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were 0.56 gallon-1, 0.58 gallon-1, and 0.48 gallon-1, and for E85 they were 0.82 gallon-1, 1.17 gallon-1, and 1.06 gallon-1 in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents’ were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO2 and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  11. How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-04-01

    Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS. PMID:21543708

  12. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day?1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  13. Elemental composition and chemical characteristics of five edible nuts (almond, Brazil, pecan, macadamia and walnut) consumed in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-01-01

    The total elemental concentrations and proximate chemical composition of five different tree nuts, almond (Prunus dulcus), Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa), pecan (Carya pecan), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) and walnut (Juglans nigra) that are consumed in South African households were investigated. In addition, six physicochemical properties of the extracted nut oils, namely acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, density and specific gravity were evaluated. A high concentration of Se (36.1 +/- 0.4 microg g(- 1)) was found in the Brazil nuts only. With maximum and minimum limits being set by the almond and pecan nut samples, Cr ranging from 0.94 +/- 0.14-2.02 +/- 0.07 microg g(- 1) was detected in the nut samples. Generally, the order of the concentrations of the elements in all the nut samples is found to be Mg > Ca > Fe > Cu > Cr > As > Se. The concentrations of Mn and Zn showed greater variation amongst the different types of nuts. The extracted oils showed low acid values and high saponification values with the macadamia nut sample having the highest oil content (76.0 +/- 0.5 g per 100 g of sample), the lowest acid value (0.42 +/- 0.01 mg KOH per g of oil) and highest saponification value (193.7 +/- 2.4 mg KOH per g of oil). The present findings are useful in calculating the Dietary Reference Intakes of these nutrients. PMID:17562467

  14. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

  15. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond. PMID:25945986

  16. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  17. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllummacrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  18. Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blackwell, D.D. and others

    Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

  19. Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M. ); Brown, Robert A. ); Rosenberg, Norman J. ); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Legler, David; Srinivasan, Ragahvan

    2003-02-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.

  20. Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  1. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  2. The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

  3. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrea L; White, William H; Nuessly, Gregg S; Solis, M Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Medina, Raul F

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  4. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing...Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of...

  5. Feeding ecology and activity pattern of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in a semideciduous tropical forest of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Christini Barbosa; Setz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire

    2011-10-01

    Most aspects of the ecology and behavior of Callicebus nigrifrons are still unknown. The information available about this species is mainly based on a few studies that also focused on other Callicebus. We examined the feeding behavior and activity pattern of a free-ranging pair of C. nigrifrons between March and November 2007 in an area of semideciduous tropical forest of southeastern Brazil. The study site is located at the southern limit of the Tropical Zone and is characterized by pronounced seasonality. As observed for other Callicebus monkeys, fruits were the most consumed food resource, accounting for 53% of the diet, which was complemented mainly by leaves (16%) but also by invertebrates and flowers (10% of each). A great variety of plant families (28) and species (62) were included in the diet. The titis spent 35% of their time feeding, distributing the remaining time between resting (30%) and traveling (24%). Data presented here indicate that C. nigrifrons prefer high-quality food items (fruit pulp), adding low-quality food items (such as leaves) as the availability of the higher-quality foods decreases. The amount of time spent traveling and resting did not change between seasons, but the time invested in feeding increased during the lean period. The activity pattern was not related to fruit availability, but in months with lower temperatures, monkeys spent more time feeding. We suggest that the feeding ecology and activity pattern of C. nigrifrons reflect adaptations related to annual fluctuations in food availability and temperature, respectively. PMID:21861115

  6. Identification of influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole over southern Brazil and the biological effects induced by UVB and UVA radiation in an endemic treefrog species.

    PubMed

    Passaglia Schuch, André; Dos Santos, Mauricio Beux; Mendes Lipinski, Victor; Vaz Peres, Lucas; Dos Santos, Caroline Peripolli; Zanini Cechin, Sonia; Jorge Schuch, Nelson; Kirsh Pinheiro, Damaris; da Silva Loreto, Elgion Lúcio

    2015-08-01

    The increased incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) due to ozone depletion has been affecting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it may help to explain the enigmatic decline of amphibian populations in specific localities. In this work, influential events concerning the Antarctic ozone hole were identified in a dataset containing 35 years of ozone measurements over southern Brazil. The effects of environmental doses of UVB and UVA radiation were addressed on the morphology and development of Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpole (Anura: Hylidae), as well as on the induction of malformation after the conclusion of metamorphosis. These analyzes were complemented by the detection of micronucleus formation in blood cells. 72 ozone depletion events were identified from 1979 to 2013. Surprisingly, their yearly frequency increased three-fold during the last 17 years. The results clearly show that H. pulchellus tadpole are much more sensitive to UVB than UVA light, which reduces their survival and developmental rates. Additionally, the rates of micronucleus formation by UVB were considerably higher compared to UVA even after the activation of photolyases enzymes by a further photoreactivation treatment. Consequently, a higher occurrence of malformation was observed in UVB-irradiated individuals. These results demonstrate the severe genotoxic impact of UVB radiation on this treefrog species and its importance for further studies aimed to assess the impact of the increased levels of solar UVB radiation on declining species of the Hylidae family. PMID:25957080

  7. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity. PMID:23053578

  8. Triceratium moreirae sp. nov. and Triceratium dubium (Triceratiaceae - Bacillariophyta) from estuarine environments of Southern Brazil, with comments on the genus Triceratium C. G. Ehrenberg.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, L F; de Souza-Mosimann, R M

    2001-02-01

    A new species of Triceratiaceae is described for estuarine environments of Southern Brazil. The valve of Triceratium moreirae sp. nov. is triangular with elevations bearing ocellus and a rimoportula in their basis. The valvar surface has robust pseudoloculi, circular to polygonal, each one confining a group of areolae arranged in a typical pattern. A central larger areola is surrounded by 5-8 smaller areolae, and they are poroidal with domed cribra. A septum emerges from the valvocopula, having the base reinforced by ribs and the margins folded to the innerside of the valve. The new species is compared to the closely related diatom Triceratium dubium, which has the same pattern of areolar disposition, formation of septum and pseudoloculi. The main differences in relation to T. moreirae are: rimoportulae intercalated to ocelli and with a characteristic morphology (spinules on the edge of the external aperture), and more elongated elevations with a constriction. Some criteria used for the classification of categories into the Triceratiaceae are also discussed, and we propose that the type of areola (poroidal with cribra) be included in the circumscription of Triceratium. PMID:11340474

  9. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and ?-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  10. [Mortality by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, C L; de Castilho, E A

    1998-09-01

    Mortality caused by firearms has been increasing at an alarming rate in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in this Brazilian state from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence (capital city, metropolitan area, or the state's interior), and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence. For children 10 to 14 years of age, mortality caused by firearms increased by 10% annually in the same period. The highest annual increase occurred in the state's interior. At the beginning of the period studied, dissemination of firearm mortality was observed to follow a definite direction parallel to the federal road that runs along the east coast of the state. Between 1990 and 1992, however, the increase in deaths by firearms spread out in practically every direction. Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities. Programs for prevention and control of this epidemic should focus on its various aspects and take into consideration both collective issues (such as proliferation of firearms among persons involved with international firearm smuggling, increases in criminal activity, expansion of drug trafficking, and exclusion from social opportunities) and personal issues (relationships and interaction of young people with their families, schools, and social environment). PMID:9796388

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Érico Luís de Barros; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Santos, Fabrine Alexandre Dos; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos de; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Gennari, Solange Maria; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Alves, Clebert José

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this survey were to determine the flock-level and animal-level prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sheep in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, and to identify risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 540 sheep in 63 flocks in 14 municipalities in the Sertão mesoregion. To serologically diagnose T. gondiiinfection, the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Flocks with at least one seropositive animal were considered positive. Among the 63 flocks, 28 (44.44%) were positive, and 60 (11.11%) of the 540 animals were seropositive. Variable flock size > 25 animals was identified as a risk factor (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.09 - 9.34; P = 0.033). The results from this survey demonstrate that T. gondii is spread among sheep in the State of Paraíba. PMID:26291143

  12. Ticks on buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Fabíola do Nascimento; da Cunha, Nathalie Costa; Rangel, Charles Passos; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Some tick species have been described parasitizing buffaloes, but reports from Brazil are rare. This study aimed to ascertain the species of ticks that parasitize buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Seventeen farm properties were visited between June 2008 and December 2009, and buffaloes were inspected in relation to infestation. The ticks were identified and a semi-structured questionnaire on parasitism and treatment against ticks was filled out through interviews with the owners. The species identified were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Dermacentornitens and Amblyommacajennense. It was noted that 82.3% (14/17) of the properties visited presented animals infested with ticks, although 76.5% (13/17) had been administering acaricide treatment. Buffaloes in the state of Rio de Janeiro are often parasitized by ticks, especially in the larval and nymph stages. PMID:23070448

  13. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

  14. Monitoring of the stress state variations of the Southern California for the purpose of earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M.; Garagash, I.; Bondur, V.; Steblov, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional geomechanical model of Southern California was developed, including a mountain relief, fault tectonics and characteristic internal features such as the roof of the consolidated crust and Moho surface. The initial stress state of the model is governed by the gravitational forces and horizontal tectonic motions estimated from GPS observations. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional geomechanical models allows monitoring of the changes in the stress state during the seismic process in order to constrain the distribution of the future places with increasing seismic activity. This investigation demonstrates one of possible approach to monitor upcoming seismicity for the periods of days - weeks - months. Continuous analysis of the stress state was carried out during 2009-2014. Each new earthquake with ?~1 and above from USGS catalog was considered as the new defect of the Earth crust which has some definite size and causes redistribution of the stress state. Overall calculation technique was based on the single function of the Earth crust damage, recalculated each half month. As a result each half month in the upper crust layers and partially in the middle layers we revealed locations of the maximal values of the stress state parameters: elastic energy density, shear stress, proximity of the earth crust layers to their strength limit. All these parameters exhibit similar spatial and temporal distribution. How follows from observations all four strongest events with ? ~ 5.5-7.2 occurred in South California during the analyzed period were prefaced by the parameters anomalies in peculiar advance time of weeks-months in the vicinity of 10-50 km from the upcoming earthquake. After the event the stress state source disappeared. The figure shows migration of the maximums of the stress state variations gradients (parameter D) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake 04.04.2010 with ?=7.2 in the period of 01.01.2010-01.05.2010. Grey lines show the major faults. In the table the values are sampled by 2 weeks, "-" indicates time before the event, "+" indicates time after the event.

  15. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  16. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  17. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Barros Filho, Ivan Roque de; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia de Sa; Santos, Leonilda Correia Dos; Moraes, Wanderlei de; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Oliveira, Marcos Jose de; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Silva, Lília Marcia Paulin; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Castro, Vanessa; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2015-12-01

    A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo. PMID:26689185

  18. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F.; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ? one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species. PMID:24037288

  19. Occurrence and abundance of a mariner-like element in freshwater and terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Transposable elements are DNA sequences present in all the large phylogenetic groups, both capable of changing position within the genome and constituting a significant part of eukaryotic genomes. The mariner family of transposons is one of the few which occurs in a wide variety of taxonomic groups, including freshwater planarians. Nevertheless, so far only five planarian species have been reported to carry mariner-like elements (MLEs), although several different species have been investigated. Regarding the number of copies of MLEs, Girardia tigrina is the only planarian species in which this has been evaluated, with an estimation of 8,000 copies of the element per haploid genome. Preliminary results obtained in our laboratory demonstrated that MLE is found in a large number of different species of planarians, including terrestrial. With this in mind, the aim was to evaluate the occurrence and estimate the number of MLE copies in different planarian species collected in south Brazil. Twenty-eight individuals from 15 planarian species were analyzed. By using PCR and the hybridization of nucleic acids, it was found that MLE was present in all the analyzed species, the number of copies being high, probably over 103 per haploid genome. PMID:21637447

  20. Premenstrual symptoms and syndrome according to age at menarche in a 1982 birth cohort in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Celene Maria Longo da; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Minten, Gicele Costa

    2008-04-01

    Premenstrual symptoms and syndrome were studied in young women who have been followed since birth. Data were collected on the intensity of four symptoms: irritability, anxiety or stress, depressed mood, and affective lability. Premenstrual syndrome was defined according to intensity of symptoms. Association between age at menarche and premenstrual symptoms and syndrome were investigated through Poisson regression. Adjusted analysis was conducted, controlling for possible confounding factors. The symptoms most frequently reported by the women from the 1982 Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, birth cohort who were interviewed in 2004-2005 were: irritability (52.3%) and anxiety (40.2%). The prevalence rates for moderate and severe premenstrual syndrome were 13.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Mean age at menarche was 12.4 (+/-1.5) years. Prevalence rates for symptoms and premenstrual syndrome were higher in women whose age at menarche was less than 11 years, but this difference was not statistically significant. Information on symptoms and premenstrual syndrome is scarce in other studies. PMID:18392361

  1. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A1, 2, 3), semiautomatic systems (S1, 2), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S1-without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms. PMID:26446089

  2. Occurrence and abundance of a mariner-like element in freshwater and terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sperb, Fernanda; Schuck, Desirée Cigaran; Rodrigues, Jaqueline Josi Samá

    2009-10-01

    Transposable elements are DNA sequences present in all the large phylogenetic groups, both capable of changing position within the genome and constituting a significant part of eukaryotic genomes. The mariner family of transposons is one of the few which occurs in a wide variety of taxonomic groups, including freshwater planarians. Nevertheless, so far only five planarian species have been reported to carry mariner-like elements (MLEs), although several different species have been investigated. Regarding the number of copies of MLEs, Girardia tigrina is the only planarian species in which this has been evaluated, with an estimation of 8,000 copies of the element per haploid genome. Preliminary results obtained in our laboratory demonstrated that MLE is found in a large number of different species of planarians, including terrestrial. With this in mind, the aim was to evaluate the occurrence and estimate the number of MLE copies in different planarian species collected in south Brazil. Twenty-eight individuals from 15 planarian species were analyzed. By using PCR and the hybridization of nucleic acids, it was found that MLE was present in all the analyzed species, the number of copies being high, probably over 10(3) per haploid genome. PMID:21637447

  3. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso Dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18?years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  4. Postural education and behavior among students in a city in southern Brazil: student postural education and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Cíntia Detsch; Cardoso dos Santos, Antônio; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Noll, Matias; Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Corso, Carlos Otávio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of the spine and posture among adolescent female students and to determine if they had access to postural education in or outside school. [Subjects and Methods] This was an epidemiological survey of a representative sample of 495 female students aged 14 to 18?years attending a regular secondary school in São Leopoldo, RS, Brazil. Data were collected through a questionnaire. [Results] The results showed that 16.8% of teens did not know what a spine was, 8.3% had no knowledge of posture, and 61% reported receiving no posture education. Posture awareness was associated only with posture while using a computer, while having postural education class was not associated with any postural behavior. [Conclusion] The results showed that, although most students are familiar with the spine and posture, a sizable group is not, and over half had no postural education. These findings suggest that inclusion of postural education programs in schools should be encouraged in order to promote health and prevent diseases related to the spine. PMID:26504322

  5. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

    2013-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

  7. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

  8. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered results may guide towards conservation and management of the geologic and natural processes associated with it, preserving geodiversity at the local scale, without the interruption of the geotourism network at Serra da Bocaina National Park. REFERENCES AB'SABER, Aziz NacibBrazil:. The nature of domains in Brazil: Landscape Potentials. São Paulo: Studio Editorial. 2003. GUERRA, Antonio Teixeira. Natural resources of Brazil. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE, 1980. IPHAN. National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage. International Declaration of Rights to the Land of Memory. [Digne-Les-Bains, France, 1991] Available at: http://portal.iphan.gov.br. Accessed on: 03, January 2014. UNESCO. Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural. Paris: UNESCO, 1972.

  9. [Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-04-01

    Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

  10. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  11. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nava, William R; Martinelli, Agustín G

    2011-03-01

    The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata) is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.). In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group) located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record. PMID:21437386

  12. Aflatoxin M? in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively. PMID:26001270

  13. [Demographic profile of Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garças, Meruri, and Morada dos Boróro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Boróro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations. PMID:19219240

  14. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

  15. Community Ecology of Euglossine Bees in the Coastal Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  16. A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

  17. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian malaria outbreaks to the penguins that are maintained throughout summer. PMID:24736326

  18. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian malaria outbreaks to the penguins that are maintained throughout summer. PMID:24736326

  19. Influence of anxiety on temporomandibular disorders--an epidemiological survey with elders and adults in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boscato, N; Almeida, R C; Koller, C D; Presta, A A; Goettems, M L

    2013-09-01

    The socio-economic and psychological factors and the use of and need for dental prostheses have been associated with prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of socio-economic and psychological factors, use of and need for dental prostheses with the prevalence and severity of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Luzerna/Brazil. All individuals aged 35-44 (adults) and 65-74 (elders) were invited to participate in this study. The measuring instrument included a questionnaire application and the clinical evaluation regarding signs and symptoms of TMD. Descriptive analyses, chi-squared test, unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression were used for the statistic analysis. The level of statistical significance was given when P ? 0·05. In total, 568 individuals (338 adults and 230 elders) were included; among them, 43·5% had absent, 42·6% mild, 11·3% moderate and 2·6% severe TMD. The presence of higher TMD rates was found in females (P = 0·001), and the TMD occurrence increased with anxiety level (P = 0·001). Other socio-economic factors, such as colour (P = 0·115), family structure (P = 0·478), age (P = 0·143), social class (P = 0·935) and education (P = 0·678) showed no influence. In conclusion, the female gender and individuals with higher levels of anxiety had increased prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD. Additionally, was not founded association between TMD and use of and need for dental prostheses. PMID:23782389

  20. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  1. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and ?C-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime was sufficiently humid to develop hydromorphic horizons in the valley bottoms of the entire drainage network to the valley heads; d) regional change toward a drier hydric regime occurred in MIS 2, when erosion of the paleosols predominated; and e) in MIS 1 (current Holocene interglacial), burial of the paleosols and relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

  2. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  3. United States Streamflow Patterns Associated with the Extreme Phases of the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahya, Ercan

    The potential for long-term streamflow forecasts based on atmospheric circulation indices in the United States has been assessed. The extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (SO) have been linked to fairly persistent classes of atmospheric anomalies (e.g., precipitation) over the low and middle latitudes at regional and global sale. This study examines the relationships between the extreme phases of the SO and unimpaired stream discharges over the contiguous U.S. Of particular interest in this investigation is the identification of areas of land that appear to have consistent and strong El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related streamflow signals. The first harmonic extracted from a 24-month ENSO composite at each station is assumed to be the ENSO-related signal appearing stream flow anomalies. The vectorial display of these harmonics over a map of the U.S. provides the areal extents of ENSO influence on streamflows. Similar analysis is performed for the La Nina phase of the SO. Strong and consistent streamflow responses to hypothesized ENSO forcing are found during a detected season in the four core areas: Gulf of Mexico, North East, North Central and Pacific Northwest. The Southwest is found to be another key region for the Type 1 ENSO events. For the La Nina phase, each of these regions exhibit an equally reliable signal and almost same timing with that of ENSO signal. The appearance of both ENSO and La Nina signals is analyzed in conjunction with the annual cycle. Almost reversal in sign of streamflow anomalies during ENSO events compared to these during La Nina events. The significance of relationships between the extremes of the SO and streamflows within each core area are determined by the hypergeometric distribution. A proper season that the SO index can be averaged to obtain a higher correlation value is found for each core area. Moreover, some clues are presented so that ENSO events influence significantly the persistence in streamflow. Finally, individual streamflow records in the PNW and the SW demonstrate a significance difference in the means of a signal period (for either ENSO or La Nina) between the years that the both SO extreme events occurred.

  4. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Caue Rodrigues; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; da Rocha, Brenda Chung; Moraes, Renato; Henrique-Pinto, Renato

    2012-12-01

    High-grade metasedimentary rocks can preserve geochemical signatures of their sedimentary protolith if significant melt extraction did not occur. Retrograde reaction textures provide the main evidence for trapped melt in the rock fabrics. Carvalhos Klippe rocks in Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil, present a typical high-pressure granulite assemblage with evidence of mica breakdown partial melting (Ky + Grt + Kfs ± Bt ± Rt). The metamorphic peak temperatures obtained by Zr-in-Rt and ternary feldspar geothermometers are between 850 °C and 900 °C. The GASP baric peak pressure obtained using grossular rich garnet core is 16 kbar. Retrograde reaction textures in which the garnet crystals are partially to totally replaced by Bt + Qtz ± Fsp intergrowths are very common in the Carvalhos Klippe rocks. These reactions are interpreted as a result of interactions between residual phases and trapped melt during the retrograde path. In the present study the geochemical signatures of three groups of Carvalhos Klippe metasedimentary rocks are analysed. Despite the high metamorphic grade these three groups show well-defined geochemical features and their REE patterns are similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC). The high-pressure granulite facies Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses with immature arenite (wacke, arkose or lithic-arenite) geochemical signatures present in the Carvalhos Klippe are compared to similar rocks in amphibolite facies from the same tectonic framework (Andrelândia Nappe System). The similar geochemical signatures between Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses metamorphosed in high-pressure granulite facies and Grt-Bt-Pl-Qtz schists from the Andrelândia and Liberdade Nappes, with minimal to absent melting conditions, are suggestive of low rates of melt extraction in these high-grade rocks. The rocks with pelitic compositions most likely had higher melt extraction and even under such circumstances nevertheless tend to show REE patterns similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC).

  5. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms. PMID:23295507

  6. Identification of Primary Drug Resistance to Rifampin in Mycobacterium leprae Strains from Leprosy Patients in Amazonas State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Contreras Mejía, Matilde del Carmen; Porto Dos Santos, Maísa; Villarouco da Silva, George Allan; da Motta Passos, Isabella; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Souza Cunha, Maria da Graça; Moraes, Milton Ozório

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the folp1, gyrA, and rpoB genes in leprosy patients treated in Amazonas State, Brazil. Among 197 slit-skin smear samples from untreated or relapsed patients, we found three cases of primary resistance to rifampin and one confirmed case of multidrug resistance. PMID:25274993

  7. Identification of primary drug resistance to rifampin in Mycobacterium leprae strains from leprosy patients in Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Contreras Mejía, Matilde Del Carmen; Porto Dos Santos, Maísa; Villarouco da Silva, George Allan; da Motta Passos, Isabella; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Souza Cunha, Maria da Graça; Moraes, Milton Ozório; de Paula, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the folp1, gyrA, and rpoB genes in leprosy patients treated in Amazonas State, Brazil. Among 197 slit-skin smear samples from untreated or relapsed patients, we found three cases of primary resistance to rifampin and one confirmed case of multidrug resistance. PMID:25274993

  8. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  9. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  10. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gastauer, Markus; Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S; Meira-Neto, João A A

    2015-01-01

    Camposrupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  11. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  12. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children. PMID:18209843

  13. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. PMID:25863697

  14. [Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides. PMID:23459824

  15. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  16. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum. PMID:24252949

  17. Outbreaks of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) under field conditions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenção, André L; Alves, André C; Fugi, Cristina G Q; Matos, Evandro S

    2008-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.) is a pest of greenhouse vegetables and ornamentals and infests crops in Europe and in the American continent. In Brazil, just a few cases are known on economic crops, being all restricted to greenhouse crops. In 2003, in Itatiba and neighboring localities of State of São Paulo, Brazil, field infestations of T. vaporariorum were observed, mainly on tomato and green bean. So far, whitefly infestation in this area expanded to squash and kale also. Field studies are needed for determining interactions of T. vaporariorum with plants and natural enemies, injury levels, and methods of control. PMID:18368256

  18. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  19. Checklist of host plants of insect galls in the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porfírio Júnior, Eder Dasdoriano; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Taiza Moura; Silva, Elienai Cândida e; Guilherme, Frederico Augusto Guimarães; Scareli-Santos, Claudia; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Surveys of host plants of insect galls have been performed in different regions of Brazil. The knowledge of species of host plants of insect galls is fundamental to further studies of plant-galling insect interactions. However, a list of host plant species of gall-inducing insects has not yet been compiled for the flora of the Midwest Region of Brazil. New information We provide a compilation of the plant species reported to host insect galls in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Altogether we found records for 181 species of 47 families of host plants, which hosted 365 distinct gall morphotypes. PMID:26696767

  20. A new species and new records of gripopterygidae (plecoptera) from the Serra dos Orgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avelino-Capistrano, Fernanda; Nessimiani, Jorge Luiz

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the stonefly family Gripopterygidae, Tupiperla barbosai sp. nov. is described from the Serra dos Orgãos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Additionally, two new species records are presented from the Serra dos Orgãos, Tupiperla reichardti Froehlich and Guaranyperla guapiara Froehlich, the latter a new record for Rio de Janeiro State. A review of the species of Gripopterygidae from these mountains is presented including distributional data and taxonomic remarks. PMID:25250446

  1. New tick records from the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Terassini, Flávio A; Costa, Francisco B; Marcili, Arlei; Camargo, Luis M A; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    From 2005 to 2012, ticks were collected from different hosts at different localities of the state of Rondônia. The following 16 ixodid tick species were identified: Ixodes fuscipes, Amblyomma auricularium, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma romitii, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, and Amblyomma varium. From these, A. auricularium, A. dubitatum, and A. geayi are reported for the first time in the state of Rondônia. We provide the following tick-host associations that have not been reported anywhere: A. longirostre on Pteroglossus bitorquatus, A. rotundatum on Hydrodynastes gigas, and A. latepunctatum and A. scalpturatum on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. An adult male specimen of A. rotundatum is reported on Boa constrictor, comprising only the fourth male specimen to be recorded for this obligate parthenogenetic tick species. We also report the presence of the argasid species Ornithodoros kohlsi for the first time in Brazil, based on larval specimens collected on bats Molossops (Neoplatymops) mattogrossensis in Monte Negro, Rondônia. The present study increases the Brazilian tick fauna to 65 species, from which 34 species (52 %) are now registered to Rondônia. Such high diversity of ticks in a relatively small state, associated with increasing environmental alteration due to deforestation and human occupation, makes Rondônia a potential source of tick-borne diseases. PMID:23975565

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  3. A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco-Southall, Crystal

    The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students who were enrolled in average science classes.

  4. Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

    2012-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

  5. Molecular characterization of noroviruses and HBGA from infected Quilombola children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L; Ferreira, Mônica S R; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se (40), (171,216,357,428,739,960) were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le (59, 202, 314) for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

  6. Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses and HBGA from Infected Quilombola Children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L.; Ferreira, Mônica S. R.; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher’s exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se40, 171,216,357,428,739,960 were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le59, 202, 314 for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

  7. Patients' Perceptions on the Performance of a Local Health System to Eliminate Leprosy, Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Yamamura, Mellina; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Neto, Marcelino Santos; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, leprosy has been listed among the health priorities since 2006, in a plan known as the “Pact for life” (Pacto pela Vida). It is the sole country on the American continent that has not reached the global goal of disease elimination. Local health systems face many challenges to achieve this global goal. The study aimed to investigate how patients perceive the local health system's performance to eliminate leprosy and whether these perceptions differ in terms of the patients' income. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Interviews were performed with the leprosy patients. The local health system was assessed through a structured and adapted tool, considering the domains judged as good quality of health care. The authors used univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and nineteen patients were recruited for the study, 50.4% (60) of them were male, 54.0% (64) were between 42 and 65 years old and 66.3% (79) had finished elementary school. The results showed that patients used the Primary Health Care service near their place of residence but did not receive the leprosy diagnosis there. Important advances of this health system were verified for the elimination of leprosy, verifying protocols for good care delivery to the leprosy patients, but these services did not develop collective health actions and did not engage the patients' family members and community. Conclusions/Significance The patients' difficulty was observed to have access to the diagnosis and treatment at health services near their homes. Leprosy care is provided at the specialized level, where the patients strongly bond with the teams. The care process is individual, with limited perspectives of integration among the health services for the purpose of case management and social mobilization of the community to the leprosy problem. PMID:25412349

  8. Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

  9. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

  10. Isotope evidence of paleo - El Nino - Southern Oscillation cycles in loess-paleosol record in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Follmer, L.R.; Chao-li, Liu, J.

    2000-01-01

    The ??13C of soil carbonate in rhizoconcretions collected from a loess-paleosol sequence in the central United States indicates that growing-season C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated by 35% on a 900 ?? 200 yr time scale during the late Wisconsinan glaciation. The pattern appears in phase with advance and retreat of the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet, suggesting influence by paleo-El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation cycles. The ??13C of soil organic matter indicates that the annual average C3/C4 plant ratio oscillated only by 18%, with a periodicity of 450 ?? 100 yr, and closely matched the cyclic pattern of loess-paleosol layers. It suggests a periodic enhancement of the penetration of the Gulf of Mexico air over the region during this time.

  11. Diverse Burkholderia Species Isolated from Soils in the Southern United States with No Evidence of B. pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Carina M.; Busch, Joseph D.; Shippy, Kenzie; Allender, Christopher J.; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W.; Schupp, James M.; Colman, Rebecca E.; Keim, Paul; Currie, Bart J.; Wagner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of the soil-dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, causative agent of melioidosis, is poorly understood. We used established culturing methods developed for B. pseudomallei to isolate Burkholderia species from soil collected at 18 sampling sites in three states in the southern United States (Arizona (n = 4), Florida (n = 7), and Louisiana (n = 7)). Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of seven genes, we identified 35 Burkholderia isolates from these soil samples. All species belonged to the B. cepacia complex (Bcc), including B. cenocepacia, B. cepacia, B. contaminans, B. diffusa, B. metallica, B. seminalis, B. vietnamiensis and two unnamed members of the Bcc. The MLST analysis provided a high level of resolution among and within these species. Despite previous clinical cases within the U.S. involving B. pseudomallei and its close phylogenetic relatives, we did not isolate any of these taxa. The Bcc contains a number of opportunistic pathogens that cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Interestingly, we found that B. vietnamiensis was present in soil from all three states, suggesting it may be a common component in southern U.S. soils. Most of the Burkholderia isolates collected in this study were from Florida (30/35; 86%), which may be due to the combination of relatively moist, sandy, and acidic soils found there compared to the other two states. We also investigated one MLST gene, recA, for its ability to identify species within Burkholderia. A 365bp fragment of recA recovered nearly the same species-level identification as MLST, thus demonstrating its cost effective utility when conducting environmental surveys for Burkholderia. Although we did not find B. pseudomallei, our findings document that other diverse Burkholderia species are present in soils in the southern United States. PMID:26600238

  12. Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

  13. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

  14. An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil: the importance of landscape in malaria biology.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Tsouris, Pantelis; Peterson, A Townsend; Honório, Nildimar Alves; de Barros, Fábio Saito Monteiro; de Aguiar, Ducinéia Barros; Gurgel, Helen da Costa; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Vasconcelos, Simão Dias; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I), submontane (II), plateau (III), lowland (IV), and alluvial (V). Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima), savannah (VII, cerrado), and wetland (VIII, campinarana). Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns. PMID:17568941

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  16. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r?=??0.38, p?=?0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes towards turtle conservation (H?=?8.33; p?=?0.04). Life history, habitat, specific and exogenous taboos, beliefs and the use of hawksbill turtle to make glasses and other handcrafts are also reported in the study. Conclusions Monitoring of spawning areas, preservation of traditional practices, strategies to moderate the use of fishery resources and the local ecological knowledge/attitudes can provide data to improve the conservation practices and management of sea turtles. PMID:23448503

  17. E-Learning of Genetic Counseling and Basic Genetics for Psychologists in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustilnick, Renato; Correia-Neto, Jorge S.; Vilar, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of a learning process of genetic counseling and basic genetics using an e-learning model and its application to a group of psychologists in the state of Parana in southern Brazil. The aim was to analyze the impact on the increase of knowledge in the presented subjects and the possibility of applying this…

  18. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

    2006-09-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east. PMID:16936942

  19. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

  20. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:24402151

  1. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  2. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Martins, Ubirajara R; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestiabeckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderesobliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestiabeckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  3. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  4. CIVIL RIGHTS U.S.A., PUBLIC SCHOOLS--SOUTHERN STATES, 1963, TEXAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WRIGHT, HARRY K.

    SINCE THE 1954 SUPREME COURT DESEGREGATION CASE, SMALL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTHERN AND WESTERN PARTS OF TEXAS VOLUNTARILY DESEGREGATED THEIR SMALL NUMBERS OF NEGROES INTO WHITE SCHOOLS, PRINCIPALLY FOR FINANCIAL REASONS. THE LARGE CITIES BEGAN TO DESEGREGATE ALSO. DESPITE THE GOVERNOR'S INTENTION TO SLOW DOWN INTEGRATION, THERE WERE 60 DISTRICTS OPEN…

  5. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  6. Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Devall, M.S.; Parresol, B.R. . Inst. for Quantitative Studies)

    1994-09-01

    This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub 2] could have beneficial effects on plants, climate change could cause serious changes to many ecological systems, for example inducing plants to bloom before their pollinators are available, and could precipitate modifications that few scientists have considered. Certainly many ecological systems will be seriously altered by climate change. Large northward shifts in species' ranges are expected, causing communities and ecosystems to change in composition. Loss of or movement of a dominant tree species may influence many other plant and animal species in the southern forest, bringing about large increases in the numbers of threatened and endangered species, as well as extinctions. Predictions about the effects of global climate change to southern forests and suggestions for detecting and preparing for them are included.

  7. Perspectives of South Korean Undergraduate Exchange Students Attending a University in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Lishu; Huang, Li-Ching; Hare, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This in-depth study examined the perspectives of 17 Korean undergraduate exchange students attending a U.S. southern university during the 2005-2006 school year. The struggles and frustrations they experienced; the difficulties they encountered socially, culturally, and academically; their contributions to the American academic community; and…

  8. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis Chemotype Populations in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. Methodology/Principal Findings A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. Conclusion/Significance The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures. PMID:25781320

  9. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  10. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  11. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  12. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  13. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  14. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face. PMID:25781778

  15. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  16. Characterization of heavy metals in a uranium ore region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Jairo Dias; dos Santos Amaral, Romilton; dos Santos Júnior, José Araújo; Genezini, Frederico Antonio; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; de Oliveira, Iane Andrade

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of As, Zn, Co, Cr, and Ba were determined in soil samples from an anomalous uranium ore region in the countryside of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The main land use system in this region is dairy farming, and there is a need to evaluate the potential risk of milk contamination. Twenty-three soil samples were activated with neutrons and analyzed using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. The results, recorded in mg kg(-1), varied from 0.4 to 6.7 for As, from 17.0 to 110.0 for Zn, from 2.8 to 38.4 for Co, from 12.1 to 65.5 for Cr, and from 443.0 to 1,497.0 for Ba. All of the Ba concentrations were higher than the intervention value adopted by the Brazilian National Environmental Board. This finding justifies research in other environmental areas to predict the toxicological risks to the local population. PMID:24389886

  17. Land use intensification effects in soil arthropod community of an entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, G M; Silva, E F F; Paz-Ferreiro, J

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  18. [Variables associated with sedentary leisure time in the elderly in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zaitune, Maria Paula do Amaral; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of sedentary leisure time (no type of leisure-time exercise once a week or more) among the elderly in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic factors, other health-related behaviors, and the presence of morbidity. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling. Data analysis considered the sample design. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 70.9%, and the prevalence ratio was significantly higher than 1.0 for the elderly with lower socioeconomic status (1.31: 1.11-1.55), smokers (1.39: 1.23-1.57), those with common mental disorders (1.20: 1.04-1.39), and females (1.16: 1.00-1.35). Prevalence of walking was 23.5%, followed by fitness or bodybuilding programs (3.8%), and swimming or water aerobics (3.6%). The results show the need to develop global action for health-related behaviors in order for this approach to succeed. Attention should focus on the elderly with common mental disorders and those with lower socioeconomic status to ensure equity in health promotion practices. PMID:17546324

  19. Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

    2003-08-01

    The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

  20. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from the aquatic basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nilma Cintra; de Araújo Figueiroa, Angela Cristina Torres; Cavalcanti, Valdelúcia Oliveira; da Silva, Soraya Cavalcante; Leal-Balbino, Tereza Cristina; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Hofer, Ernesto

    2008-03-01

    Through a continuous bacteriological monitoring programme carried out by the Health Secretariat of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, two isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa were discovered in an endemic area in 2001, during a cholera inactive period, along with six V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains and two Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria strains showing an unusual characteristic of agglutination with O1 antiserum. Between that time and 2005, eight other O1 isolates were found. The virulence genes present in the V. cholerae differed among strains, with only three O1 strains harboring the ctxA gene. The O1 and some non-O1/non-O139 strains displayed identical patterns of amplification of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. RAPD of the 10 V. cholerae O1 strains, with the two primers used, revealed heterogeneity. The presence of V. cholerae carrying virulence genes in the aquatic basins examined confirms that they constitute a vibrio reservoir during a cholera inactive period, thus strengthening the argument for a continuous monitoring programme and preventative measures for cholera, mainly in the areas where the supply of drinking water is deficient. PMID:18258274

  1. [Overweight and associated variables in schoolchildren in Itajaí in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Kneipp, Carolina; Habitzreuter, Fernanda; Mezadri, Tatiana; Höfelmann, Doroteia Aparecida

    2015-08-01

    The research objective was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables of health-related behaviors and characteristics of the home environment and the prevalence of overweight among students from 1st to 5th grade in the city of Itajaí in the State of Santa Catarina, brazil. Socioeconomic and demographic variables were identified through a questionnaire administered to parents/guardians. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index and waist circumference. The association between excess weight and other variables was investigated using Pearson's Chi-Square and the Linear Trend test. The population consisted of 417 children, which represented 95.2% of the sample. The data suggest that 44% of children were overweight, which was associated with: a better quality diet (49.4%, p = 0.051), lower frequency of consumption of snack foods, habit of eating meals while watching the television, overweight parents (51%, p = 0,002), the score of family nutrition (51.9%, p = 0.029**) and physical activity in children. It is suggested that health actions must consider the family environment and the social context of children to promote healthier lifestyles. PMID:26221806

  2. Epidemiological evaluation of notifications of environmental events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Cassia dos Santos Nery, Telma; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights "environmental events", such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  3. Plankton diversity and limnological characterization in two shallow tropical urban reservoirs of Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Viviane L S; Melão, Maria da Graça G; Moura, Ariadne N

    2012-06-01

    Plankton diversity, physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a were analyzed in two shallow urban reservoirs with different trophic degrees on Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. High eutrophication levels were observed in Apipucos reservoir, while Prata reservoir was considered oligotrophic. Values reported for physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a differed among the studied ecosystems. Richness and plankton diversity were higher in Apipucos reservoir especially for phytoplankton. The presence of potential toxic Cyanophyceae in both reservoirs reflects a problem mainly to Prata reservoir, which is used for public water supply. Differences were observed for some variables among sites of study in Apipucos reservoir, while the differences among strata were negligible in both reservoirs, reflecting the water column mixing by wind action. Rainfall regulated the temporal dynamics for the analyzed variables, with significant seasonal differences, mainly for the major of limnological variables in Apipucos reservoir. Plankton diversity was higher in Apipucos reservoir, especially to phytoplankton, showing that eutrophication and pollution can favor plankton diversity in tropical urban shallow reservoirs. PMID:22534751

  4. [Epidemiological study of Brazilian purpuric fever. Epidemic in a locality of São Paulo state (Brazil), 1986].

    PubMed

    Kerr-Pontes, L R; Ruffino-Netto, A

    1991-10-01

    A case control model was used in the study of an outbreak of Brazilian purpuric fever BPF which occurred in Serrana, S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1986. Three hypotheses were raised: 1--purulent conjunctivitis is associated with BPF; 2--a cluster effect occurs in BPF; 3--respiratory symptoms may be a variation of the clinical picture of the disease. Numerical values were attributed to different findings, as follows: fever = 5; diarrhea and/or vomiting = 1; haemorrhagic findings = 3; thrombocytopenia and/or leukopenia = 3; Haemophilus aegyptius positive hemoculture and/or Haemophilus aegyptius positive cerebrospinal fluid culture and/or H. a. oropharynx culture = 7; Waterhouse Friedrichsen syndrome = 7. Those cases for which the sum total of points reached or exceeded 13 were considered as confirmed and those obtaining between 8 and 12 were considered as suspect. Children with a score below 5 were taken as control cases. Cases and controls were matched according to sex, age and socioeconomic level. The total groups studied included 14 confirmed cases, 38 suspect cases and 78 controls. It was concluded that purpuric fever is strongly associated with previous and/or present purulent conjunctivities; a cluster effect seems to occur; respiratory symptoms such as coughing and/or coryza were not associated with BPF. PMID:1820627

  5. [Use of medicines in a Guaraní Indian village on the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Diehl, Eliana Elisabeth; Grassi, Francielly

    2010-08-01

    This article analyzes the use of medicines and related perceptions among Guaraní Indians on the coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The ethnographic research included participant observation, open and semi-structured interviews, and household surveys. Analyzing six months of prescriptions from 2008, 458 medicines were prescribed in 236 medical consultations, featuring cough and cold preparations, analgesics, and anti-helminthics, among drugs. In the three household surveys, analgesics and cough and cold preparations were the most frequently found in 2006 and 2007, while drugs for anemia were the most common in 2008. The Guaraní mainly used the primary healthcare services for colds, coughs, and diarrhea, and their practices also included turning to the shaman and self-care with medicines and herbal remedies, recognizing the efficacy of medicines and evaluating the treatment according to their experiences and their conceptions of the health-disease-care process. The study indicates the need for dialogue between professionals and users, linking the various forms of health knowledge. PMID:21229214

  6. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Arthur Willian de Lima; Parentoni, Roberta Nunes; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Bezerra, Camila de Sousa; Vilela, Vinicius Longo Ribeiro; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Azevedo, Sergio Santos de

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1%) for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%). Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99) and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33) were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals. PMID:26689181

  7. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State), northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessenda, Luiz C R; Gouveia, Susy E M; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Aravena, Ramon; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia S; Bendassolli, José A; Ribeiro, Adauto de S; Saia, Soraya E M G; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Menor, Eldemar de A; Oliveira, Sônia M B de; Cordeiro, Renato C; Freitas, Angela M de M; Boulet, René; Filizola, Heloisa F

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences) that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental), carbon isotopes (delta13C, 14C) and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM) and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years. PMID:19039491

  8. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  9. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  10. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs. PMID:26345977

  11. Life cycle environmental impacts of a prospective palm-based biorefinery in Pará State-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Delivand, Mitra Kami; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2013-12-01

    The availability of about 18 million hectares of grassland in Pará State, Brazil, and the possibility of increasing the livestock density display a good perspective for the oil palm expansion in pasture land. A life cycle assessment is performed for a prospective palm-based biorefinery to view two regional and one global environmental impact and the consequences of the land-use change in terms of GHG emissions. Oil palm cultivation in an area of ?110,000 hectares of land can annually produce ?39,000 tons of bioethanol, ?340,000 tons of biodiesel, ?268 GW h net electricity and other co-products. The life cycle GHG emissions reduction for biodiesel and bioethanol as compared to fossil diesel and gasoline would be 76.9-79.3% and 83.7-88.6%. The advantage of grassland rehabilitation by oil palm plantation is the removal of ?188 t CO2/ha from the atmosphere during the plant lifetime. The entire inflows and outflows for the conversion processes are schemed. PMID:23958338

  12. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  13. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Raimundo Wilson; de Almeida, Adilson Benedito; Barbosa-Silva, Silvia Cristina; Amorim, Marinete; Ribeiro, Paulo César; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01): female (62.2% infested of 143 examined) and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined). All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01) and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%). In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01) and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01). Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended. PMID:12700859

  14. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in urban rainforest fragments, Manaus -- Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; de Freitas, Rui Alves; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-05-01

    The non-flooded upland rainforest fragment in the Federal University of Amazonas Campus is considered one of the world's largest urban tropical woodland areas and Brazil's second largest one in an urban setting. It is located in the city of Manaus, State of Amazonas at 03° 04' 34? S, 59° 57' 30? W, in an area covering nearly 800 hectares. Forty-one (41) sand fly species belonging to genus Lutzomyia were found attaining a total of 4662 specimens collected. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the dominant species at all heights, followed by Lutzomyia anduzei and Lutzomyia claustrei. The fauna alpha diversity index showed to be 6.4, which is not much lower than that reported for areas of continuous forest in this Amazonian region. This data provides additional evidence on Phlebotomine sand flies found to transmit Leishmania and other trypanosomatids to humans and other animals circulating in this area. This is the first study being reported on sand flies collected in an urban rainforest fragment in Amazonia. PMID:23352955

  15. Gastrointestinal parasitic worms in equines in the Paraíba Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J R; Vianna, S S S

    2006-09-10

    Over a period of 12 years, from 1988 to 2000, a total of 20 individual equines (16 horses and 4 mules) were selected at random, from 10 municipalities in the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and then subjected to necropsy for collection of gastrointestinal worms. Individual samples of 10% of the intestinal contents were also taken for counting and identifying the species present, and to establish the prevalence of worms in equine species in the Paraíba Valley. In the sample considered, the presence of parasites ranged from 155 to 1249 worms. Tapeworms (Cestoidea) were present in about 85% of the animals studied, and roundworms (Nematoda) in 100% of the individuals. All the tapeworms collected were of one single species, Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the case of the roundworms, the prevalence of individual species was: 100% for Cyathostomineae, 90% for Oxyuris equi, 70% for Strongylus vulgaris, 45% for S. edentatus, 15% for Strongylus equinus, 60% for Triodontophorus sp., 50% for Gyalocephalus capitatus, 15% for Oesophagodontus robustus and Craterostomum acuticaudatum, and 5% each for Parascaris equorum, Probstimayria vivipara, Habronema muscae, and Trichostrongylus axei. No specimens of flukes (Trematoda) were found in any of the animals studied. PMID:16687215

  16. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  17. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  18. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter. PMID:25763017

  19. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis. PMID:26473679

  20. Comparative development of the Western United States and southern Kazakhstan, Soviet Union - Two early Paleozoic carbonate passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.E. ); Taylor, M.E. ); Zhemchuzhnikov, S.V.; Apollonov, M.K.; Ergaliev, G. Kh.; Sargaskaev, Z.S. ); Dubinina, S.V. )

    1991-02-01

    Early Paleozoic passive continental margins of the Western united States and southern Kazakhstan evolved at low latitudes on rifted Precambrian continental crust adjacent to the proto-Pacific Ocean. In the Western United States, early Paleozoic carbonate submarine fans and slides formed on continental slopes in central Nevada. Coeval shoal-water carbonate sediments occurred to the east, in Utah, where they interfingered with siliciclastic sediments and onlapped the craton. In contrast, early Paleozoic carbonate sediments of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan, were deposited on isolated microcontinental blocks that developed during Late Proterozoic rifting of the continental crust. Comparison of stratigraphic sections from Nevada and Malyi Karatau indicate a similar upward-shallowing and seaward-prograding evolution. The Hot Creek Range section in Nevada consists of the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation and Tybo Shale, and Upper Cambrian and lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone. These depositional facies include basin plain (about 500 m), carbonate submarine fan and slides (200 m), upperslope (150 m), and platform margin (150 m). The Kyrshabakty and Batyrbay sections in the Malyi Karatau consist of Cambrian and lowest Ordovician rocks of the Shabakty Suite. Stratigraphic sections in both the Western United States and Malyi Karatau record three coeval episodes of sea level lowstands. These lowstands, which the authors interpret to be eustatic, are recognized by times of seaward collapse of large segments of the platform margins and deeper water slopes and by solution breccias and faunal discontinuities in shoal-water platform-interior sites.

  1. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario. PMID:23828354

  2. Specialized care for people with AIDS in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Santos, Vanessa da Frota; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the distribution of specialized care services for HIV/AIDS is associated with AIDS rates. METHODS Ecological study, for which the distribution of 10 specialized care services in the Ceara state, Northeastern Brazil, was obtained, and the mean rates of the disease were estimated per mesoregion. We evaluated 7,896 individuals who had been diagnosed with AIDS, were aged 13 years or older, lived in Ceara, and had been informed of their condition between 2001 and 2011. Maps were constructed to verify the relationship between the distribution of AIDS cases and institutionalized support networks in the 2001-2006 and 2007-2011 periods. BoxMap and LisaMap were used for data analysis. The Voronoi diagram was applied for the distribution of the studied services. RESULTS Specialized care services concentrated in AIDS clusters in the metropolitan area. The Noroeste Cearense and west of the Sertoes Cearenses had high AIDS rates, but a low number of specialized care services over time. Two of these services were implemented where clusters of the disease exist in the second period. The application of the Voronoi diagram showed that the specialized care services located outside the metropolitan area covered a large territory. We identified one polygon that had no services. CONCLUSIONS The scenario of AIDS cases spread away from major urban areas demands the creation of social support services in areas other than the capital and the metropolitan area of the state; this can reduce access barriers to these institutions. It is necessary to create specialized care services for HIV/AIDS in the Noroeste Cearense and north of Jaguaribe. PMID:26487292

  3. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is increasing (reducing) with significance in almost all regions. "Região dos Lagos" has the most significant trends of increasing in temperature, thereby influencing the local production of salt and alkaline minerals in medium and long term. The goal of this research is, through the analysis of results, support studies of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change scenarios in Rio de Janeiro State.

  4. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60?+?yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not consume a diet similar to Americans, indicating that it is still possible to reverse the current trends of incorporating Western dietary habits in Brazil. PMID:25047421

  5. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  6. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  7. A new species of Tricorythopsis Traver, 1958 (Leptohyphidae) and occurrence of Pannota (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) species in Amapá state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Enide Luciana L; Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Hamada, Neusa

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe a new species of Tricorythopsis based on adults, and to report for the first time the following species and genera in Amapá state, Brazil: Amanahyphes saguassu Salles & Molineri, Macunahyphes australis (Banks), Macunahyphes pemonensis Molineri, Grillet, Nieto, Dominguez & Guerrero, Tricorythodes yapekuna Belmont, Salles & Hamada, Tricorythopsis faeculopsis Belmont, Salles & Hamada, Tricorythopsis pseudogibbus Dias & Salles, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira), Tricorythopsis yucupe Dias, Salles & Ferreira (Leptohyphidae), Coryphorus aquilus Peters (Coryphoridae) and Brasilocaenis (Caenidae). Macunahyphes pemonensis is recorded for the first time in Brazil. Tricorythopsis yusuaia sp. nov., can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characteristics: abdomen with black and reddish marks, a strongly sclerotized spine present on the base of the median filament, and the base and lateral margins of penes being sclerotized. PMID:26623791

  8. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:25141284

  9. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:25141284

  10. Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of ParanÁ, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas. PMID:24031301

  11. Mapping of Rock-Fabric Inhomogeneity (Map-Counting) and Mapping of Rock-Fabric Anisotropy (MORFA) - the Piquiri Syenite Massif, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peternell, M.; Bitencourt, M.; Kruhl, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade, studies on magmatic fabrics on different scale have been made for analyzing kinematics of melt emplacement and deformation as well as cooling histories of magmatic bodies and their host rocks (Brown 2001). The problem arises for comparing data from structural analysis in thin-sections and fabrics in outcrop scale. Magmatic fabrics in the outcrop scale are often very diffusely developed or show very complex mineral distribution patterns which are mostly not quantifiable with classical field methods. On the other hand the fabrics are too large for thin section investigation. Therefore, methods have to be developed for analyzing microscale rock fabrics like crystal shape preferred orientations on larger image templates, like from outcrop photographs. For analyzing such complex fabrics on different scale, methods of fractal geometry are powerful (Mandelbrot, 1982). Especially methods like map-counting (Kruhl et al., 2004), based on the classical box-counting method, or the modified Cantor-dust method (Volland & Kruhl, 2004) may be used for analyzing meter sized magmatic mineral distribution patterns in granitic rocks and the anisotropic behavior of micro- to macro scale fracture patterns in breccias. Nevertheless, these methods are performed manually and, therefore, not applicable to larger datasets. This study shows the next step towards automated recognition and subsequent quantification of magmatic patterns from micro- to macro-scale. Microstructure shape- and crystallographic preferred orientation measurements on K-feldspar crystals from the Piquiri Syenite Body, Southern Brazil are done manually based on thin-section series parallel to the syenite magmatic foliation. In addition U-stage measurements of K-feldspar indicatrix axis and (010) have been done. Additionally, a slightly changed modified Cantor-dust method was applied on centimeter- to several meter-sized K-feldspar phase distribution patterns, gained by automated image processing of samples and field photographs of the same syenite. The results show that all three methods result in the same shape- and/or crystallographic preferred orientations for K-feldspar, indicating a magmatic lineation, which is not determinable by field observation or in the thin- sections. In addition, the modified and automated Cantor-dust method applied on K-feldspar phase images of a syenite proves the advantage of such type of modified fractal-geometry methods for quantification of magmatic fabrics on various scales. Such automated quantification is fast and precise, and it is suitable for accurate analysis of magmatic fabrics on different scales and for large datasets. References: Kruhl,J.H., Andries,F., Peternell,M. & Volland,S. (2004): Fractal geometry analyses of rock fabric anisotropies and inhomogeneities. In: D.Kolymbas (ed.), Fractals in Geotechnical Engineering. Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling 9. Logos, Berlin, 115-135. Mandelbrot, B.B., (1982): The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San Francisco. Volland, S. & Kruhl, J.H. (2004): Anisotropy quantification: the application of fractal geometry methods on tectonic fracture patterns of a Hercynian fault zone in NW-Sardinia.- J. Struct. Geol. 26, 1489-1500. Brown,M. (2001): Crustal melting and granite magmatism; key issues.- Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy 26/4-5, 201-212.

  12. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50.11{+-}0.82 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10{+-}12.17 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 43.69{+-}0.30 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 465.82{+-}3.99 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). The concentrations were intermediate for the rhythmite samples (average values and respective deviations were 50.69{+-}1.09 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 7.63{+-}0.21 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 85.96{+-}2.47 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). As the analyzed rocks are raw materials for the ceramic, cement and soil correction compound industries, the results of this work furnish data to estimate the contribution of these products to the general public's radiation exposure.

  13. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  14. A new species of Neoathripsodes Holzenthal, 1989 (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) with new generic and species records in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Everton S; Quinteiro, Fabio B; Calor, Adolfo R

    2015-01-01

    Trichoptera is the most species-rich clade of exclusively aquatic insects. In Brazil, 645 species have been recorded, distributed in 70 genera and 16 families. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, 85 species have been recorded, including 56 in Bahia State. Sixteen of the Northeast Region species belong to the family Leptoceridae. Among these, the long-horned caddisfly genus Neoathripsodes Holzenthal has been a monotypic genus since its erection more than 26 years ago. It is an endemic genus in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo and only the male stage has been described for its only known species, Neoathripsodes anomalus. In this paper, we describe a new species of Neoathripsodes, with the first description of a female in this genus. Additionally, we present new records for the family Leptoceridae in Bahia, especially from the Serra Bonita Mountains, in order to help solve a long-term problem in Brazilian caddisfly research: An uneven proportion of studies in some regions of the country due to historical reasons. The Northeast Region of Brazil still remains a neglected area in which efforts to unearth its biodiversity should be focused. In this work, four species are recorded for the first time for Bahia State and its Serra Bonita Mountains: Grumichella rostrata Thienemann 1905, Neoathripsodes holzenthali n. sp., Nectopsyche fuscomaculata Flint 1983, and Notalina cipo Holzenthal 1986. Neoathripsodes and Notalina are new generic records for Bahia State. The following four species are new records for Serra Bonita: Atanatolica bonita Costa & Calor 2014, Oecetis martinae Quinteiro & Calor 2015, O. furcata Quinteiro & Calor 2015, and Triplectides gracilis (Burmeister 1839). Additional new distributional records for Bahia State are included in this study. PMID:26624373

  15. Speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples from São Paulo Estuary, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mario Marques; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Moreira, Ícaro Thiago Andrade; de Oliveira, Olívia Maria Cordeiro; de Souza Queiroz, Antônio Fernando; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes an extraction procedure for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in sediment samples using slurry sampling and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step of extraction of the species was performed employing a full two-level factorial design (2(3)) and a Box-Behnken matrix where the studied factors in both experiments were: extraction temperature, ultrasonic radiation time, and hydrochloric acid concentration. Using the optimized conditions, antimony species can be extracted in closed system using a 6.0 M hydrochloric acid solution at temperature of 70 °C and an ultrasonic radiation time of 20 min. The determination of antimony is performed in presence of 2.0 M hydrochloric acid solution using HG AAS by external calibration technique with limits of detection and quantification of 5.6 and 19.0 ng L(-1) and a precision expressed as relative standard deviation of 5.6 % for an antimony solution with concentration of 6.0 ?g L(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of two certified reference materials of sediments. For a sample mass of sediment of 0.20 g, the limits of detection and quantification obtained were 0.70 and 2.34 ng g(-1), respectively. During speciation analysis, antimony(III) is determined in presence of citrate, while total antimony is quantified after reduction of antimony(V) to antimony(III) using potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The method was applied for analysis of six sediment samples collected in São Paulo Estuary (Bahia State, Brazil). The antimony contents obtained varied from 45.3 to 89.1 ng g(-1) for total antimony and of 17.7 to 31.4 ng g(-1) for antimony(III). These values are agreeing with other data reported by the literature for this element in uncontaminated sediment samples. PMID:25537284

  16. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews were performed with fishermen with more than 20 years of fishery experience. The interviews were about fisheries (collecting spots, artefacts, etc.) and fish use. The fishes cited by the fishermen were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. Results Considered masters of fishery, they cited 162 vernacular names of fishes, which corresponded to 290 different species, also including other animals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales and manatees. The criteria for the classification of the fishes were well known and utilised by the fishermen, and they were based on morphology, behaviour, habitat and the importance of commercial and fishing activities. Four hierarchical categories were identified in their classification system: kingdom, life-form, generic and specific. The fish nomenclature created by the fishermen was mostly composed of generic and monotypic names. The main uses of fish were for food and commercial purposes. Conclusions The results stress the richness and complexity of the knowledge of the artisanal fishermen of Redonda Beach, and they provide support for the possibility of future studies and for the development of management plans and the management of wildlife resources. PMID:23497491

  17. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n?=?191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2)?=?0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types. PMID:24135921

  18. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

  19. Dental caries profile in Monte Negro, Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, in 2008

    PubMed Central

    BASTOS, Roosevelt Silva; SILVA, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues; MAIA-JUNIOR, Adelson Francisco; CARVALHO, Fábio Silva; MERLINI, Sabrina; CALDANA, Magali Lourdes; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; BASTOS, José Roberto Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    Objective This epidemiological survey assessed the dental caries profile in Monte Negro, a small town in the Amazonian state of Rondônia, Brazil, and its relationship with the northern region, national and global goals for oral health in the years 2000 and 2020. Material and Methods The groups randomly examined were composed of individuals aged 5, 12, 15 to 19, 35 to 44, 65 to 74 years, living in both rural and urban areas. Results The means dft (standard deviation) and DMFT (standard deviation) for the groups were, respectively, 3.15 (3.12), 3.41 (2.69), 5.96 (4.19), 16.00 (7.30) and 25.96 (9.82). Caries-free individuals were 34.42%, 14.81% and 8.16% in the preschoolchildren, schoolchildren and adolescent groups, respectively. The Significant Caries Index percentages applied to the two younger groups were 6.65 and 6.70, and they increased to 32.00 in the individuals aged 65 to 74 years. Care Index percentages for adolescents, adults and elderly groups were, respectively, 29.40, 25.00 and 1.41. The dental caries profile in Monte Negro in 2008 shows that, 8 years after the year 2000, no FDI/WHO goal for any age settled in 1982 has been achieved. Dental caries increased with age and the main dental problem of adult and elderly groups was tooth loss. Conclusion Oral health promotion and prevention of oral disease policies are urgent needs. Setting of oral health goals and targets to people living in Monte Negro or Amazonia to be pursuit and achieved in a near future is an important action to do because of the culture, sanitary conditions and socioeconomic aspects of this particular population. PMID:21085797

  20. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN THE DETECTION RATES OF HEPATITIS B IN THE SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Traebert, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem. The state of Santa Catarina presents areas of high endemicity. The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in detection rates of hepatitis B in the period from 2002 to 2009 in Santa Catarina and in its regions. A time series study was carried out. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. Annual variation percentages were estimated by Joinpoint regression. There were two distinct and significant trends in Santa Catarina. From 2002 to 2006 a significant increase of 5.9% per year was observed. From 2006, there was a significant decrease of 6.4% per year. In this same period the southern and far-western regions had significant increases of 15.9% and 4.6% and significant decreases of 7.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Greater Florianópolis and Northeast also showed significant increases until 2006, of 15.4% and 17.4%, respectively. In the following period, non-significant decreases of 5.8% and 9.8% respectively were observed. Foz do Rio Itajaí and Planalto Serrano showed non-significant increases up to half of the studied period of 21.1% and 12.0%, respectively and after, significant decreases of 21.5% and 18.0%, respectively. Vale do Itajaí showed a significant decrease of 9.7%; Planalto Norte showed a non-significant decrease of 0.6% and Midwest a non-significant increase of 2.7% per year, in the period from 2002 to 2009. PMID:24626418

  1. Meliponiculture in Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, located in Atlantic Rainforest in Southern of Paraíba state, have stories that are interwoven throughout time. The practice of meliponicultura has been carried out for generations in these social groups and provides an elaborate ecological knowledge based on native stingless bees, the melliferous flora and the management techniques used. The traditional knowledge that Quilombola have of stingless bees is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. Methods To deepen study concerning the ecological knowledge of the beekeepers, the method of participant observation together with structured and semi-structured interviews was used, as well as the collection of entomological and botanical categories of bees and plants mentioned. With the aim of recording the knowledge related to meliponiculture previously exercised by the residents, the method of the oral story was employed. Results and discussion Results show that the informants sampled possess knowledge of twelve categories of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini), classified according to morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics. Their management techniques are represented by the making of traditional cortiço and the melliferous flora is composed of many species predominant in the Atlantic Rainforest. From recording the memories and recollections of the individuals, it was observed that an intricate system of beliefs has permeated the keeping of uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris) for generations. Conclusion According to management techniques used by beekeepers, the keeping of stingless bees in the communities is considered a traditional activity that is embedded within a network of ecological knowledge and beliefs accumulated by generations over time, and is undergoing a process of transformation that provides new meanings to such knowledge, as can be observed in the practices of young people. PMID:24410767

  2. Survival, induction and resuscitation of Vibrio cholerae from the viable but non-culturable state in the Southern Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Contreras, Monica; Incani, Renzo Nino; Chirinos, Humberto; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in response to unfavorable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ survival of V. cholerae in an aquatic environment of the Southern Caribbean Sea, and its induction and resuscitation from the VBNC state. V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was inoculated into diffusion chambers placed at the Cuare Wildlife Refuge, Venezuela, and monitored for plate, total and viable cells counts. At 119 days of exposure to the environment, the colony count was < 10 CFU/mL and a portion of the bacterial population entered the VBNC state. Additionally, the viability decreased two orders of magnitude and morphological changes occurred from rod to coccoid cells. Among the aquatic environmental variables, the salinity had negative correlation with the colony counts in the dry season. Resuscitation studies showed significant recovery of cell cultivability with spent media addition (p < 0.05). These results suggest that V. cholerae can persist in the VBNC state in this Caribbean environment and revert to a cultivable form under favorable conditions. The VBNC state might represent a critical step in cholera transmission in susceptible areas. PMID:25651322

  3. SURVIVAL, INDUCTION AND RESUSCITATION OF Vibrio cholerae FROM THE VIABLE BUT NON-CULTURABLE STATE IN THE SOUTHERN CARIBBEAN SEA

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Contreras, Monica; Incani, Renzo Nino; Chirinos, Humberto; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in response to unfavorable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ survival of V. cholerae in an aquatic environment of the Southern Caribbean Sea, and its induction and resuscitation from the VBNC state. V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was inoculated into diffusion chambers placed at the Cuare Wildlife Refuge, Venezuela, and monitored for plate, total and viable cells counts. At 119 days of exposure to the environment, the colony count was < 10 CFU/mL and a portion of the bacterial population entered the VBNC state. Additionally, the viability decreased two orders of magnitude and morphological changes occurred from rod to coccoid cells. Among the aquatic environmental variables, the salinity had negative correlation with the colony counts in the dry season. Resuscitation studies showed significant recovery of cell cultivability with spent media addition (p < 0.05). These results suggest that V. cholerae can persist in the VBNC state in this Caribbean environment and revert to a cultivable form under favorable conditions. The VBNC state might represent a critical step in cholera transmission in susceptible areas. PMID:25651322

  4. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  5. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  6. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Erlane Chaves; Oliveira, Maria de Fátima; Andrade, Mônica Coelho; Vasconcelos, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; Silva Filho, José Damião da; Cândido, Darlan da Silva; Pereira, Laíse Dos Santos; Correia, João Paulo Ramalho; Cruz, José Napoleão Monte da; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  7. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, Erlane Chaves; OLIVEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANDRADE, Mônica Coelho; VASCONCELOS, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros; da SILVA, José Damião; CÂNDIDO, Darlan da Silva; PEREIRA, Laíse dos Santos; CORREIA, João Paulo Ramalho; da CRUZ, José Napoleão Monte; CAVALCANTI, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154) were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease. PMID:26603232

  8. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...731-TA-1089 (Review)] Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil would be likely to lead to...

  9. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  10. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  11. Microbial diversity of soils on the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa da Santos, Ellen Karla Nobrex; Honda, Rubens Tomio; Nozawa, Sérgio Ricardo; Ferreira-Nozawa, Monica Stropa

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of bacterial diversity in soils along the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil, was by partial sequencing of the genes codifying the rDNA16S region. Diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTU) and of the divergent sequences obtained were applied in comparative analysis of microbiological diversity in the two environments, based on richness estimators and OTU diversity indices. The higher OTU diversity in the Solimões was based on the higher number of parameters that evoke this. The interaction between the nucleotide sequences of bacteria inhabiting the two riverine environments indicated that the two microrganism communities are similar in composition. PMID:22481886

  12. Amblyomma dissimile Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) attacking Primolius maracana Vieillot (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Amazon region, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A; Bahia, M; Martins, A L; Góes-Cavalcante, G; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B

    2011-01-01

    The tick Amblyomma dissimile Koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (Squamata), although amphibians (Anura) also seem to be important hosts. We report an A. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana, held in captivity in the Mangal das Garças Park, State of Pará, Brazil. Environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (Iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the A. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged macaw. We provide the second world record of a bird host for A. dissimile, and the first bird record for this species in South America. PMID:21952971

  13. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  14. Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea) larvae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Identification key, new records and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Melissa Ottoboni; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaíde Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The family Elmidae Curtis, 1830 has cosmopolitan distribution and most species inhabit riffles on streams and rivers, hence the name “riffle beetle”. In recent years, this family has been featured in papers addressing the assessment and environmental monitoring of water quality. In Brazil, studies on the family remain scarce and the present investigation is a pioneering study in the state of São Paulo. This study aims to propose a taxonomic key for the identification of larvae of Elmidae genera known to occur in the State, as well as to report new records and the distribution of these genera. The material analyzed was collected from various locations in each of 15 drainage basins from 2005 to 2010. The identification key includes 12 genera (Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1929, Heterelmis Sharp, 1882, Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940, Hexanchorus Sharp, 1882, Huleechius Brown, 1981, Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859, Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935, Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935, Phanocerus Sharp, 1882, Potamophilops Grouvelle, 1896, Stegoelmis Hinton, 1939 and Xenelmis Hinton, 1936) known in Brazil as well as three morphotypes designated herein as Genus A, Genus M and Genus X. The genus Hexanchorus is recorded for the first time in the state of São Paulo. PMID:22368452

  15. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness comparison of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in Brazil and the USA were determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine i...

  16. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Moura, Rodrigo Assunção; Nunes, Mônica; Carreira, Teresa; Vidotto, Odilon; Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil. PMID:26273276

  18. URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

  19. Geochemistry of contaminated komatiites from the Umburanas greenstone belt, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes Leal, Angela Beatriz de; Santos, André Luis Dias; Bastos Leal, Luiz Rogério; Cunha, José Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The late Archaean Umburanas greenstone belt (UGB) is located in the São Francisco Craton, southwest of Bahia State, Brazil. The lower unit of UGB comprises basal komatiite lavas and tholeiitic basalts intercalated with felsic volcanic rocks. The regional crystalline basement rocks, the Gavião block, predominantly consist of granitic, granodioritic and migmatitic gneiss along with tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) associations. Petrographic studies of UGB komatiites reveal characteristic spinifex igneous texture although primary mineralogy is rarely preserved. Based on textural relationships, komatiites are divided into cumulate, spinifex, and massive types. The MgO content varies in the range 31.5-40.4 wt%. The MgO-SiO2 negative correlation in komatiites suggests olivine fractionation trend. The UGB komatiites are of Al-undepleted type, characterized by Al2O3/TiO2 (21-48) ratio, enriched in highly incompatible LILE relative to moderately incompatible HFSE and distinct negative Nb, Sr and Eu anomalies. Also shows depletion of light rare earths, convex-downward rare earth patterns typically not observed in komatiites world-wide, and primitive mantle normalized Gd/Yb (1.03-1.23) and La/Sm (2.36-4.99) ratios. The negative Eu anomaly is attributed to the circulation of H2O-rich fluid, whereas the negative Nb and Sr anomalies are attributed to contamination from granitic basement rocks of the Gavião block. The UGB komatiites are most likely derived from adiabatic decompressional melting of a mantle plume. The melting took place at liquidus temperatures in the range 1572-1711 °C, which is consistent with mantle-plume origin invoked for several other komatiites in Archaean greenstone belts elsewhere. The melts were more likely generated at a depth shallower than 100 km (pressure < 2.5 GPa) where garnet was absent in the source mineralogy. Geochemical characteristics suggest contamination of primary melts with granitic basement rocks either during ascent of melt or during emplacement of magma in a continental basin setting. Greenschist to low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism at ?2Ga may also have played a role in modifying the original komatiite petrography and composition.

  20. Hepatic photosensitization in buffaloes intoxicated by Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, C H S; Barbosa, J D; Oliveira, C M C; Bastianetto, E; Melo, M M; Haraguchi, M; Freitas, L G L; Silva, M X; Leite, R C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the study of hepatogenous photosensitization in buffaloes during two outbreaks provoked by ingestion of Brachiaria decumbens in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Ten young buffaloes in outbreak 1 and seven buffaloes in outbreak 2 were intoxicated by B. decumbens. Nine clinically healthy buffaloes raised under the same conditions as the sick animals served as the control group. All animals were subjected to clinical examination, and serum was collected to measure gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), direct bilirubin (DB), indirect bilirubin (IB) and total bilirubin (TB) as indicators of liver function and urea and creatinine as indicators of renal function. Histopathology of liver fragments from five different animals was carried out. During the outbreaks and every two months for one year, samples of grass from paddocks where the animals got sick were collected for quantitative evaluation of the saponin protodioscin, combined with observations of pasture characteristics and daily rainfall. Clinical signs included apathy, weight loss, restlessness, scar retraction of the ears and intense itching at the skin lesions, mainly on the rump, the tail head, neck and hindlimbs, similar to the signs observed in other ruminants. Only the GGT enzyme presented significantly different (P < 0.01) serum levels between intoxicated animals (n = 17) and healthy animals (n = 9), indicating liver damage in buffaloes bred in B. decumbens pastures. Microscopy of the liver showed foamy macrophages and lesions of liver disease associated with the presence of crystals in the bile ducts, which have also been found in sheep and cattle poisoned by grasses of the genus Brachiaria. During the outbreaks, protodioscin levels were higher than 3%, and shortly after, these levels were reduced to less than 0.80%, suggesting a hepatic injury etiology. The outbreaks took place at the beginning of the rainy season, and there was a positive correlation between saponin and the amount of rainfall, as well as between saponin and the amount of green leaves in the pasture. These findings indicate that the grass was more toxic in this period. This is the first report of photosensitization by B. decumbens in buffalo. PMID:23850427

  1. The Open University System of Brazil: A Study of Learner Support Facilities in the Northern, North-Eastern and Southern Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Cruz Duran, Maria Renata; Da Costa, Celso José; Amiel, Tel

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2011, research on the Open University System of Brazil's (UAB's) official evaluation processes relating to learner support facilities has been carried out by the Teachers' Training, New Information, Communication and Technologies research group, which is linked to the Laboratory of New Technologies for Teaching at…

  2. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives. PMID:25715302

  3. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  4. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia. PMID:26413074

  5. 76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...), Thailand (litchis, longans, mangoes, mangosteens, pineapples, and rambutans), and Vietnam (dragon fruits... additional declaration stating that the longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, or rambutan were treated...

  6. Distribution and molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in patients with chronic infection from Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Mora, Mónica V; Moura, Izolda M; Botelho-Lima, Livia S; Azevedo, Raymundo S; Lopes, Edmundo; Carrilho, Flair J; Pinho, João R R

    2012-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a public health problem throughout the world and 3% of the world population is infected with this virus. It is estimated that 3-4 millions individuals are being infected every year. It has been estimated that around 1.5% of Brazilian population is anti-HCV positive and the Northeast region showed the highest prevalence in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize HCV genotypes circulating in Pernambuco State (PE), Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. This study included 85 anti-HCV positive patients followed up between 2004 and 2011. For genotyping, a 380bp fragment of HCV RNA in the NS5B region was amplified by nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation (MCMC) using BEAST v.1.5.3. From 85 samples, 63 (74.1%) positive to NS5B fragment were successfully sequenced. Subtype 1b was the most prevalent in this population (42-66.7%), followed by 3a (16-25.4%), 1a (4-6.3%) and 2b (1-1.6%). Twelve (63.1%) and seven (36.9%) patients with HCV and schistosomiasis were infected with subtypes 1b and 3a, respectively. Brazil is a large country with many different population backgrounds; a large variation in the frequencies of HCV genotypes is predictable throughout its territory. This study reports HCV genotypes from Pernambuco State where subtype 1b was found to be the most prevalent. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of the different HCV strains circulating within this population. PMID:22766449

  7. Racial Disparities in Preschool Special Education Eligibility for Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    More than 67,000 preschoolers with disabilities across five states were examined for disproportionate special education eligibilities using risk ratios (RRs). Results indicated children classified as American Indian (RR = 2.25) and Black (RR = 1.64) were disproportionate in one state, whereas children classified as Asian, Hispanic, and White…

  8. Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    1996-01-01

    Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

  9. Genetic differences among Anopheles vestitipennis subpopulations collected using different methods in Chiapas state, southern México.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Gimnig, J; Rodríguez, M H; Washino, R K

    1996-09-01

    Biting activity and population genetic studies of the malaria vector Anopheles vestitipennis were conducted in southern México. Three subpopulations were collected from 2 villages; 2 subpopulations were from the same village, one on human bait and one with an animal-baited trap; the third was collected from a cattle corral in the 2nd village (280 km away SSE). The anthropophilic subpopulation had steady activity with 61% of bites occurring before midnight, significantly different from those of the 2 zoophilic subpopulations, which had 78-82% of bites before midnight and 2 biting peaks, one at 1900-2100 h and the other at 0400-0500 h. Isozyme analysis (13 enzymes) of these subpopulations indicated that differences between the 2 sympatric subpopulations (D = 0.07), collected using 2 different methods, were greater than that between the 2 allopatric ones (D = 0.03). These studies suggest the existence of 2 genetically different subpopulations of An. vestitipennis with specific host preferences. PMID:8887216

  10. The hydroclimatology of the United States during El Nino/Southern Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Dracup, J.A.; Piechota, T.C.; Khachikian, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) monthly data are analyzed, building on a previous study that investigated the influence of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on US streamflow. Harmonic analysis is performed using data from 1,035 selected climatological stations, allowing observation of the biennial tendency in climate data. With the middle twelve months defined as the El Nino year (0), an idealized first harmonic fit to a 24-month ENSO composite is computed for each station. By plotting the first harmonic vectors of each station, regions of similar, or coherent, response are identified. The regions identified using PDSI data represent wet conditions in the Gulf of Mexico (Gm1 and GM2) and central (C) US, and dry conditions in the Pacific northwest (PNW) and northeast (NE) US. The PNW region exhibits the strongest interrelationship between ENSO and extreme drought events. Comparing PDSI data results with other hydroclimatic data (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) reveals consistent responses. The most filtered response is seen in the PDSI and streamflow data, and these data are probably the best measure of the overall hydroclimatic response within a region. Results of this study suggest that conditions in the tropical Pacific (e.g., sea surface temperatures) may be excellent precursors of future climate. These conditions may also enhance long range prediction of droughts and floods for certain regions of the US.

  11. Lithostratigraphy and geochronology of fills in small playa basins on the Southern High Plains, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, V.T.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1996-08-01

    Playa basins are small depressions (typically <=1.5 km{sup 2}) on the Southern High Plains of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico. There are about 25000 playas in the region; they lie on the Blackwater Draw Formation (Pleistocene), a widespread eolin deposit, and locally on the Ogallala Formation (Miocene-Pliocene). Understanding the lithostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the fill in the basins is important because it should (1) provide clues to the origin and evolution of playas, which have been long debated; (2) yield a paleoenvironmental record for the region; and (3) aid in understanding the history and future of the regional aquifer because playas are the principal source of recharge. Data from 19 playa basins, combined with published data from 4 other basins, show that the basin fill is composed of six distinctive facies: (1) lacustrine mud; (2) lacustrine carbonate; (3) lacustrine delta deposits; (4) eolian sand and silt; (5) eolian loam; and (6) accretionary eolian deposits (Blackwater Draw Formation). Dating is based on radiocarbon ages from the fill in 12 basins and from lunettes adjacent to 5 basins. All dated basins were present at the end of the Pleistocene and some were present in some form throughout the Pleistocene. These lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic relationships show that some basins have a prolonged history as depressions. 96 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, J.G. )

    1990-11-10

    Quaternary (2-0 Ma) extrusion rates change significantly along the Cascade Range volcanic arc. The extrusion rate north of Mount Rainier is about 0.21 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}; the rate in southern Washington and northern Oregon south to Mount Hood is about 1.6 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}; in central Oregon the rate is 3-6 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1}; and in northern California, the rate is 3.2 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}. Eruption style also changes along the arc but at latitudes different from rate changes. At the ends of the arc, volcanism is focused at isolated intermediate to silicic composite volcanoes. The composite volcanoes represent {approximately}30% of the total volume of the arc. Mafic volcanic fields partly ring some composite volcanoes, especially in the south. In contrast, volcanism is diffused in the middle of the arc, where numerous overlapping mafic shields and a few composite volcanoes have built a broad ridge. Contrasting eruption style may signify diffuse versus focused heat sources or may reflect changes in permeability to ascending magma along the arc.

  13. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock types, landforms, occurrence of fossils, drainage system, soil and other processes that outline the geodiversity. In addition to the wealth index number, which presents a quantity and area ratio, another way of analyzing the geodiversity of a case study is the abundance, dominance or the relative frequency of geodiversity (Carcavilla et al, 2007). As for the southwestern region of Paraná State case study, we used a set of cartographic databases at the 1:250.000 scale; for example: geomorphological and soil compartments, rivers, geological formations, structural lineaments, as well as temperature, rainfall and humidity average maps. The maps were organized relating the attribute tables, quantifying the sum of different elements each sample cell contained in a regular grid of 4km2. As a result, a map of the geodiversity wealth index of the region has been generated. High geodiversity wealth index comprises more carved valleys with steep slopes on some structural lines; on the other hand, less wealthy areas are located on softer relief plateaus with large hills, more homogeneous soils and lower relief structural control. These results, as well as adjustments and efficiency of the method seem to indicate an important tool for area management, especially regarding the selection of priority areas for nature conservation.

  14. State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

  15. Drought in the Southern United States over the 20th century: Variability and its impacts on terrestrial ecosystem productivity and carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is one of the most devastating natural hazards faced by the Southern United States (SUS) today. Although precipitation in the SUS as a whole has been found to increase during 1895-2007, drought events and their adverse impacts on the economy, society and environment have been extensively rep...

  16. 'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

  17. Epidemiology of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area of Montes Claros Municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França-Silva, João C; da Costa, Roberto T; Siqueira, Ari M; Machado-Coelho, George L L; da Costa, Carlos A; Mayrink, Wilson; Vieira, Edva P; Costa, Jaime S; Genaro, Odair; Nascimento, Evaldo

    2003-02-13

    The Montes Claros City is located in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniosis in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. With the implementation of a program for the control of visceral leishmaniosis in 1994, a sectional study was carried out to evaluate the infection by viscerotropic Leishmania in the population of dogs from Montes Claros, basically using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Blood samples were collected on filter paper from 33,937 dogs, representing 96.1% of the canine local population. The prevalence for visceral leishmaniosis was found to be 9.7% in the municipality, being 9.9% in the urban area and 8.8% in the rural area. The annual incidence showed to be 64.3/1000 dogs. Prevalence of infection was not correlated with dogs age. The most affected breeds were: Boxer (24.6%) and Cocker (26.9%); Mongrel dogs had a prevalence of 7.8%. Short-hair animals had a prevalence of 11.9%, while long-furred animals had a prevalence of 8.9%. The isoenzymatic profile indicated that Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi was the visceral leishmaniosis etiological agent in Montes Claros City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main geographical areas for the parasite transmission were identified, and control measures were immediately started. The role of the dog as a reservoir for L. chagasi was confirmed. It was demonstrated that short-furred animals are at a higher risk of acquiring visceral leishmaniosis than the long-furred dogs. PMID:12531292

  18. 76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Thailand (litchis, longans, mangoes, mangosteens, pineapples, and rambutans), and Vietnam (dragon fruits), and the...declaration stating that the longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, or rambutan were treated with irradiation as described...

  19. [Lonomia erucism in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: report of a probable case and review].

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Maria Sueli; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Franco-Barbosa, Adbell; Verzola, Ana Candida Arruda; Oliveira, Fabiana Ribeiro Queiroz de; Squeff, Fabiano Alves; Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício da; Tavares, Renato Henriques; Amorim, Daniela Silva de; De-Maria-Moreira, Nelson Luís; Santos, Sávio Silva

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a 44-year-old male living in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, probably poisoned by contact with a Lonomia caterpillar, who presented hemolytic anemia, decreased platelet count and acute renal insufficiency. Lonomia erucism diagnosis was established by anamnesis and clinical and laboratory manifestations. Therapeutic measures consisting of hemotransfusion and hemodialysis were successful. Physiopathologic and clinical features of erucism by Lonomia are discussed. PMID:15361962

  20. Timing and duration of the Last Glacial Maximum and Termination in the western United States and Southern Alps, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, A. E.; Denton, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Putnam, D. E.; Birkel, S. D.; Quesada, P.; Kaplan, M. R.; Schwartz, R.; Finkel, R. C.; Evenson, E. B.; Andersen, B.; Barrell, D.; Doughty, A.; Broecker, W. S.

    2009-12-01

    The origin of the asymmetric 80-120 kyr glacial cycles of the Late Quaternary Period remains an unsolved mystery of climate dynamics. Each glaciation begins with a long, slow cooling leg that ushers the world into ice-age conditions, and ends with sudden warming that propels Earth into an interglaciation. The abrupt warming spells that end the ~100-kyr glacial cycles have been termed glacial ‘terminations;’ understanding these conspicuous climate changes lies at the heart of deciphering the causes of ice ages. A way to understand what caused the events that constitute a termination is to document the worldwide timing of mountain glacier recession. Using geomorphic mapping of mountain glacier landforms and 10Be surface-exposure dating, we compare the timing, duration, and termination of the last glacial maximum (LGM) recorded by glacier landforms in the western cordillera of the United States, and the Southern Alps, New Zealand. 10Be data indicate that mountain glaciers in the American west achieved their maxima coevally with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whereas New Zealand mountain glaciers reached their maximum positions several millennia earlier. New Zealand glaciers sustained their maxima for at least 12 kyrs, overlapping with the LGM in North America. At the onset of the termination, also called the ‘Mystery Interval’ (MI; ~17.5 to 14.5 kyrs ago), glaciers in the Southern Alps underwent rapid retreat for over two millennia, while glaciers in the western US retreated only slightly from the LGM positions. About halfway through the MI, North American glaciers and ice sheets suddenly receded, whereas the retreat of New Zealand glaciers slowed. We hypothesize that the antiphased behavior of glacier retreat during the MI may be, at least in part, a response to latitudinal wind shifts linked to changes in sea-ice cover over the North Atlantic during the Heinrich-I iceberg armada.

  1. Fatal and nonfatal injuries involving fishing vessel winches--Southern shrimp fleet, United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Workers in the commercial fishing industry have the highest occupational fatality rate in the United States, nearly 35 times higher in 2011 than the rate for all U.S. workers. During 2000-2009, a total of 504 fishermen were killed in the U.S. fishing industry, most commonly by drowning as a result of vessels sinking (51%) and falls overboard (30%). Another 10% of fatalities (51 deaths) were caused by injuries sustained onboard vessels, such as entanglement in machinery. This type of fatality occurred most often in the Gulf of Mexico. To analyze fatal and nonfatal injuries involving deck winches in the Southern shrimp fleet during 2000-2011, CDC obtained data from its Commercial Fishing Incident Database and the U.S. Coast Guard. Injury patterns were examined, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to compare the probability of fatal outcomes from incidents involving different winch mechanisms and operating situations. During 2000-2011, eight fatal and 27 work-related injuries involving deck winches occurred in the Southern shrimp fleet, which operates in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina. Injuries involving the winch drum had a higher risk for fatal outcomes compared with injuries involving the winch cathead. Fatal outcomes also were associated with being alone on the vessel and being alone on deck. Interventions to prevent deck winch injuries might include guarding of winch drums and catheads, avoiding working alone on deck, not wearing baggy clothing, and improvements to cable winding guides. Training of deckhands in first aid and emergency procedures might reduce the severity of injuries when entanglements occur. PMID:23466433

  2. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse. PMID:25760175

  3. Preliminary Map of Potentially Karstic Carbonate Rocks in the Central and Southern Appalachian States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Karst is a landscape produced by dissolution of rocks and the development of integrated subterranean drainages dominated by the flow of ground water in solutionally enlarged conduits. Karst landscapes typically include cave entrances, sinkholes, blind valleys, losing streams, springs, and large and small-scale solution features on bedrock surfaces. Water-bearing rocks beneath the surface containing solutionally enlarged pores, fractures, or conduits are referred to as karst aquifers. About 40 percent of all ground water extracted in the United States comes from karst aquifers (Karst Waters Institute). Karst means many things to many people. To most cavers and many speleologists, karst means areas containing caves. To engineers, home builders, local governments, and insurance companies, karst is exemplified by the occurrence of sinkholes and subsidence hazard. To hydrologists, well drillers, and environmental consultants, the focus on karst may be more limited to karst aquifers and springs. Precise figures are not available, but ground collapses in karst areas in the United States require hundreds of millions of dollars in repair and mitigation costs each year. Most karst in the United States is formed in either carbonate or evaporite rocks. This map depicts only areas of carbonate rock outcrop, the chief host for karst formation in the eastern United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Cave and Karst Research Institute (NCKRI), the National Speleological Society (NSS), and various State geological surveys, is working on a new national karst map that will delineate areas of karst and karst-like features nationwide. This product attempts to identify potentially karstic areas of the Appalachian states as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), with the addition of the state of Delaware. This map is labeled preliminary because there is an expectation that it will be revised and updated as part of a new national karst map.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd signatures of supracrustal sequences and orthogneisses constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the Pernambuco-Alagoas domain, southern part of Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Filho, A. F.; Guimarães, I. P.; Van Schmus, W. R.; Armstrong, R. A.; Rangel da Silva, J. M.; Osako, L. S.; Cocentino, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    The Borborema Province is the western part of a major Brasiliano belt that extends from Brazil through NW Africa in pre-drift reconstructions. This province resulted from convergence and collision among the West African, Congo-São Francisco, and Amazonian cratons about 600 Ma. This study focuses on the Pernambuco-Alagoas (PEAL) domain, which is a complex of magmatic, migmatitic, and metamorphic rocks, located in the southern part of the Borborema Province. U-Pb geochronology and Sm-Nd data for metasedimentary sequences (Rio Una, Inhapi) of the PEAL domain and a sample from a sequence of the Transversal Zone domain suggest that their deposition occurred during a Cryogenian extensional event, within the interval 850-631 Ma (or slightly younger). This extensional event occurred in the PEAL, Transversal Zone, and Sergipano domains before the onset of the Brasiliano collision and was followed by syn- and post-collisional magmatism. The Rio Una sequence and the sequence from Transversal Zone domain were deposited over a Rhyacian (ca. 2.0-2.2) basement having a juvenile Palaeoproterozoic Nd signature, whereas the Inhapi sequence was deposited over an Early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) basement. The deposition of the studied sequences is coeval with metasedimentary sequences to the north and south in other domains of the Borborema Province. However, differences in Nd isotopic signatures between the sequences from PEAL, Transversal Zone, and Sergipano domains suggest that they were formed in distinct basins. Metasedimentary sequences from the PEAL domain have Meso- and Palaeoproterozoic T DM model ages. These data suggest that the orogens where the metasedimentary sequences are located have a strong ensialic component. T DM model ages of ca. 1.0 Ga and ?Nd (0.6 Ga) values around zero recorded in granites from the southern part of the PEAL, suggesting that juvenile material was accreted to the southern part of the PEAL domain crust during the Tonian. The migmatites from the PEAL domain have a wide range of T DM ages along with a wide range of ?Nd (0.6 Ga) values. The transition between the northern and southern parts of the PEAL domain denotes the approximate northern margin of a Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Neoproterozoic rift.

  5. Influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on tornado and hail frequency in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John T.; Tippett, Michael K.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is characterized by changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric convection in the tropical Pacific, and modulates global weather and climate. The phase of ENSO influences United States (US) temperature and precipitation and has long been hypothesized to influence severe thunderstorm occurrence over the US. However, limitations of the severe thunderstorm observational record, combined with large year-to-year variability, have made it difficult to demonstrate an ENSO influence during the peak spring season. Here we use environmental indices that are correlated with tornado and hail activity, and show that ENSO modulates tornado and hail occurrence during the winter and spring by altering the large-scale environment. We show that fewer tornadoes and hail events occur over the central US during El Niño and conversely more occur during La Niña conditions. Moreover, winter ENSO conditions often persist into early spring, and consequently the winter ENSO state can be used to predict changes in tornado and hail frequency during the following spring. Combined with our current ability to predict ENSO several months in advance, our findings provide a basis for long-range seasonal prediction of severe thunderstorm activity.

  6. The Oratory of Southern Demagogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M., Ed.; Dorgan, Howard, Ed.

    This book examines the rhetorical strategies of influential southern United States politicians, termed "southern demagogues," and their particular appeal to the poor working class whites of the South during the early twentieth century. Following an introductory chapter that discusses the origins of the southern demagogue, the remaining chapters…

  7. Augusta, Georgia and Jackson State University: Southern Episodes in a National Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA.

    This report presents an indepth study of the events and psychology in the past of Augusta, Georgia which help explain the violence and the killing of six Blacks on the night of May 11, 1970. The second study in this report deals with the events and killings of two young black men at Jackson State College on May 15, 1970. These two events had…

  8. Screening Practices of Family Physicians and Pediatricians in 2 Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been an increasing emphasis on screening for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during well-child visits (P. A. Filipek et al., 2000; C. P. Johnson & S. M. Myers, 2007). Pediatricians surveyed in 2 mid-Atlantic states reported extremely low rates of screening for ASD (8% of participants) in comparison with higher rates of…

  9. THE BURDEN OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA WORLDWIDE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Anthony C.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) spreads to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito and is a growing public health threat to both industrialized and developing nations worldwide. Outbreaks of autochthonous dengue in the United States occurred extensively in the past but over the past three decades have again taken place in Florida, Hawai’i, and Texas as well as in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. As the Aedes vectors spread worldwide it is anticipated that DENV as well as other viruses also transmitted by these vectors, such as Chikungunya virus (CHKV), will invade new areas of the world, including the US. In this review, we describe the current burden of dengue disease worldwide and the potential introduction of DENV and CHKV into different areas of the US. Of these areas, the state of California saw the arrival and spread of the Aedes aegypti vector beginning in 2013. This invasion presents a developing situation when considering the state’s number of imported dengue cases and proximity to northern Mexico as well as the rising specter of chikungunya in the Western hemisphere. The distribution of Aedes vectors in California as well as a discussion of several factors contributing to the risk of dengue importation are discussed and evaluated. PMID:25960096

  10. 77 FR 42621 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... September 29, 2011, we published in the Federal Register a proposal \\1\\ (76 FR 60390-60395, Docket No. APHIS...), Mexico (guavas), Pakistan (mangoes), Thailand (litchis, longans, mangoes, mangosteens, pineapples, and... declaration ] stating that the longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, or rambutan were treated with...

  11. Complex Type 2 Reactions in Three Patients with Hansen's Disease from a Southern United States Clinic.

    PubMed

    Leon, Kristoffer E; Salinas, Jorge L; McDonald, Robert W; Sheth, Anandi N; Fairley, Jessica K

    2015-11-01

    In non-endemic countries, leprosy, or Hansen's disease (HD), remains rare and is often underrecognized. Consequently, the literature is currently lacking in clinical descriptions of leprosy complications in the United States. Immune-mediated inflammatory states known as reactions are common complications of HD. Type 1 reactions are typical of borderline cases and occur in 30% of patients and present as swelling and inflammation of existing skin lesions, neuritis, and nerve dysfunction. Type 2 reactions are systemic events that occur at the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, and typical symptoms include fever, arthralgias, neuritis, and classic painful erythematous skin nodules known as erythema nodosum leprosum. We report three patients with lepromatous leprosy seen at a U.S. HD clinic with complicated type 2 reactions. The differences in presentations and clinical courses highlight the complexity of the disease and the need for increased awareness of unique manifestations of lepromatous leprosy in non-endemic areas. PMID:26304919

  12. Rate-and-State Southern California Earthquake Forecasts: Resolving Stress Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, A. E.; Jackson, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    In previous studies, we pseudo-prospectively evaluated time-dependent Coulomb stress earthquake forecasts, based on rate-and-state friction (Toda and Enescu, 2011 and Dieterich, 1996), against an ETAS null hypothesis (Zhuang et al., 2002). At the 95% confidence interval, we found that the stress-based forecast failed to outperform the ETAS forecast during the first eight weeks following the 10/16/1999 Hector Mine earthquake, in both earthquake number and spatial distribution. The rate-and-state forecast was most effective in forecasting far-field events (earthquakes occurring at least 50km away from modeled active faults). Near active faults, where most aftershocks occurred, stress singularities arising from modeled fault section boundaries obscured the Coulomb stress field. In addition to yielding physically unrealistic stress quantities, the stress singularities arising from the slip model often failed to indicate potential fault asperity locations inferred from aftershock distributions. Here, we test the effects of these stress singularities on the rate-and-state forecast's effectiveness, as well as mitigate stress uncertainties near active faults. We decrease the area significantly impacted by stress singularities by increasing the number of fault patches and introducing tapered slip at fault section boundaries, representing displacement as a high-resolution step function. Using recent seismicity distributions to relocate fault asperities, we also invert seismicity for a fault displacement model with higher resolution than the original slip distribution, where areas of positive static Coulomb stress change coincide with earthquake locations.

  13. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the United States. PMID:20020815

  14. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi among eleven potential reservoir species from six states across the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M; Gompper, Matthew E; Monello, Ryan J; Wenning, Krista M; Gabriel, Mourad W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0-68%) and opossums (17-52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the United States. PMID:20020815

  15. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  16. On the dynamics of persistent states and their secular trends in the waveguides of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, Terence J.; Risbey, James S.; Monselesan, Didier P.; Horenko, Illia; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-08-01

    We identify the dynamical drivers of systematic changes in persistent quasi-stationary states (regimes) of the Southern Hemisphere troposphere and their secular trends. We apply a purely data-driven approach, whereby a multiscale approximation to nonstationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast vector autoregressive factor processes, to examine a high resolution atmospheric reanalysis over the period encompassing 1958-2013. This approach identifies regimes and their secular trends in terms of the predictability of the flow and is Granger causal. A comprehensive set of diagnostics on both isentropic and isobaric surfaces is employed to examine teleconnections over the full hemisphere and for a set of regional domains. Composite states for the hemisphere obtained from nonstationary nonparametric cluster analysis reveal patterns consistent with a circumglobal wave 3 (polar)-wave 5 (subtropical) pattern, while regional composites reveal the Pacific South American pattern and blocking modes. The respective roles of potential vorticity sources, stationary Rossby waves and baroclinic instability on the dynamics of these circulation modes are shown to be reflected by the seasonal variations of the waveguides, where Rossby wave sources and baroclinic disturbances are largely contained within the waveguides and with little direct evidence of sustained remote tropical influences on persistent synoptic features. Warm surface temperature anomalies are strongly connected with regions of upper level divergence and anticyclonic Rossby wave sources. The persistent states identified reveal significant variability on interannual to decadal time scales with large secular trends identified in all sectors apart from a region close to South America.

  17. Assessing the molecular divergence between Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii populations from Brazil using the timeless gene: further evidence of a species complex

    PubMed Central

    Rona, Luísa DP; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos J; Gentile, Carla; Grisard, Edmundo C; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2009-01-01

    Background Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii was the most important vector of human malaria in southern Brazil between 1930–1960. Nowadays it is still considered an important Plasmodium spp. vector in southern and south-eastern Brazil, incriminated for oligosymptomatic malaria. Previous studies based on the analysis of X chromosome banding patterns and inversion frequencies in An. cruzii populations from these areas have suggested the occurrence of three sibling species. In contrast, two genetically distinct groups among An. cruzii populations from south/south-east and north-east Brazil have been revealed by isoenzyme analysis. Therefore, An. cruzii remains unclear. Methods In this study, a partial sequence of the timeless gene (~400 bp), a locus involved in the control of circadian rhythms, was used as a molecular marker to assess the genetic differentiation between An. cruzii populations from six geographically distinct areas of Brazil. Results The timeless gene revealed that An. cruzii from Itaparica Island, Bahia State (north-east Brazil), constitutes a highly differentiated group compared with the other five populations from south and south-east Brazil. In addition, significant genetic differences were also observed among some of the latter populations. Conclusion Analysis of the genetic differentiation in the timeless gene among An. cruzii populations from different areas of Brazil indicated that this malaria vector is a complex of at least two cryptic species. The data also suggest that further work might support the occurrence of other siblings within this complex in Brazil. PMID:19358734

  18. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  19. Trilobites from Lower Mississippian starved basin facies of the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brezinski, D.K.

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive trilobite fauna occurs within condensed statigraphic sections of the Lower Mississippian (Tournaisian) Chappel Limestone of the Llano region of Texas, the Welden Limestone of Oklahoma, and the Chouteau Limestone of Union County, Illinois. The seven species comprising this fauna are interpreted to have inhabited sediment-starved basinal environments. The starved-basin facies existed in the south-central United States throughout the Tournaisian (Kinderhookian to Osagean). Two species from this fauna, Australosutura llanoensis, and Carbonocoryphe planucauda, are new. The remaining five species, Griffithidella doris (Hall), Griffithidella alternata (Girty), Carbonocoryphe depressa (Girty), Thigiffides roundyi (Girty), and Pudoproetus chappelensis (Hessler), are restricted to starved-basin facies.

  20. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats in the State of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Higino, Severino Silvano Dos Santos; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Alves, Clebert José; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT), using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%). Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7%) tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045) and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014) were identified as risk factors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified risk factors in the epidemiology of the infection. PMID:23184319