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Sample records for state southern brazil

  1. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  2. MRSA from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: intriguing epidemiological differences compared to other Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Alessandro C O; Cunha, Gabriela R; Caiero, Juliana; Cordova, Caio M de; d'Azevedo, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (20.2%) and chloramphenicol (12.9%). We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmec type III was predominant (54%), followed by type II (21.8%), consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58%) isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions. PMID:26119853

  3. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in the State of Parana in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrnio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2009-01-01

    Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18824413

  4. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

  5. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapu State Park, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tacuati, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  6. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espi?rito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espi?rito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espi?rito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention. PMID:23032288

  7. Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

  8. YIELD COMPARISON OF INDICA AND US CULTIVARS GROWN IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) are indica, grown in tropical areas like southern China, and japonica, grown in temperate areas. Tropical japonicas are the japonica subgroup grown in the southern US. When indica rices are grown in the southern US and compared to tropical japoni...

  9. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbrard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  10. Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) as vector of Leishmania (V.) braziliensis in Paran state, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, E; Membrive, N; Castro, E A; Dereure, J; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J A; Pandey, A; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2000-09-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies in the northern areas of the state of Paran, Brazil, particularly those in the '16a' health region, were investigated over a 3-year period. Using CDC light traps (with and without hamster bait) and Shannon traps (with lights and horse or human bait), 16 species were collected from seven municipal districts which were known foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: Arapongas; Apucarana; Cambira; Marumbi; Faxinal; Florestpolis; and Sabudia. Although the frequency at which each species was collected varied with the collection site, Lutzomyia whitmani predominated (62.0% of all the sandflies collected), followed by Lu. fischeri (13.3%), Lu. pessoai (10.8%), Lu. migonei (8.2%) and Lu. intermedia (2.8%). Lutzomyia monticola, Lu. shanonni, Lu. firmatoi, Lu. lanei, Lu. alphabetica, Lu. misionensis, Lu. correalimai, Lu. cortellezzii, Lu. longipenis, Brumptomyia brumpti and B. nitzulescui together represented the remaining 3.0% of the collected sandflies. Three of the 1961 female sandflies collected and dissected in the municipal district of Cambira, where a recent case of cutaneous leishmaniasis had been registered, were found to have flagellates in their guts. All three were Lu. whitmani. The parasites from each of these infections were successfully isolated in NNN and 'Tobie and Evans' media and/or by inoculation into a hind foot of a golden hamster. The results of isoenzyme electrophoresis indicated that all three isolates were of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:11064764

  11. Molecular profiling of drug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Schörner, Marcos André; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Cançado; de Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano; Rovaris, Darcita Bürger; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance is a global threat and one of the main contributing factors to tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks. The goal of this study was to analyse the molecular profile of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Fifty-three MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosisclinical isolates were analysed by spoligotyping and a partial region of therpoB gene, which is associated with rifampicin resistance (RMP-R), was sequenced. Some isolates were also distinguished by their mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). S531L was the most prevalent mutation found within rpoB in RMP-R isolates (58.5%), followed by S531W (20.8%). Only two MDR isolates showed no mutations withinrpoB. Isolates of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family were the most prevalent (45.3%) found by spoligotyping, followed by Haarlem (9.4%) and T (7.5%) families. SIT106 was found in 26.4% of isolates and all SIT106 isolates typed by MIRU-12 (5 out of 14) belong to MIT251. There was a high correlation between the S531W mutation and the LAM family mainly because all SIT2263 (LAM9) isolates carry this mutation. Among isolates with the S531W mutation in rpoB MIRU demonstrates a cluster formed by four isolates (SIT2263 and MIT163) and very similar profiles were observed between eight of the nine isolates. Better characterisation of TB isolates may lead to new ways in which to control and treat TB in this region of Brazil. PMID:26154743

  12. Molecular profiling of drug resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Schrner, Marcos Andr; Senna, Simone Gonalves; Nogueira, Christiane Loureno; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Canado; Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano de; Rovaris, Darcita Brger; Bazzo, Maria Luiza

    2015-08-01

    Drug resistance is a global threat and one of the main contributing factors to tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks. The goal of this study was to analyse the molecular profile of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Fifty-three MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates were analysed by spoligotyping and a partial region of the rpoB gene, which is associated with rifampicin resistance (RMP-R), was sequenced. Some isolates were also distinguished by their mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). S531L was the most prevalent mutation found within rpoB in RMP-R isolates (58.5%), followed by S531W (20.8%). Only two MDR isolates showed no mutations within rpoB. Isolates of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family were the most prevalent (45.3%) found by spoligotyping, followed by Haarlem (9.4%) and T (7.5%) families. SIT106 was found in 26.4% of isolates and all SIT106 isolates typed by MIRU-12 (5 out of 14) belong to MIT251. There was a high correlation between the S531W mutation and the LAM family mainly because all SIT2263 (LAM9) isolates carry this mutation. Among isolates with the S531W mutation in rpoB MIRU demonstrates a cluster formed by four isolates (SIT2263 and MIT163) and very similar profiles were observed between eight of the nine isolates. Better characterisation of TB isolates may lead to new ways in which to control and treat TB in this region of Brazil. PMID:26154743

  13. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  14. Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paran State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Jnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Anglica

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paran State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paran. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters. PMID:24871179

  15. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant’ Anna, Célia Leite

    2008-01-01

    Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR. PMID:24031304

  16. Tephritoid flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea) and their plant hosts from the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 12,540 ripe fruits belonging to 46 species and 25 plant families were sampled either from the trees or from the ground in six municipalities in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil between 2002 and 2006 in order to determine which fruit fly species developed on various host plants. Each fr...

  17. Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

    1982-01-01

    The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  18. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = ?0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  19. Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep flocks of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando Henrique; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Piazza, Roxane Maria; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Ludovico, Agostinho; Ludovico, Marilúcia Santos; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

    2015-01-30

    Sheep constitute an important source of zoonotic pathogens as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, the prevalence, serotypes and virulence profiles of STEC were investigated among 130 healthy sheep from small and medium farms in southern Brazil. STEC was isolated from 65 (50%) of the tested animals and detected in all flocks. A total of 70 STEC isolates were characterized, and belonged to 23 different O:H serotypes, many of which associated with human disease, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Among the serotypes identified, O76:H19 and O65:H- were the most common, and O75:H14 and O169:H7 have not been previously reported in STEC strains. Most of the STEC isolates harbored only stx1, whereas the Stx2b subtype was the most common among those carrying stx2. Enterohemolysin (ehxA) and intimin (eae) genes were detected in 61 (87.1%) and four (5.7%) isolates, respectively. Genes encoding putative adhesins (saa, iha, lpfO113) and toxins (subAB and cdtV) were also observed. The majority of the isolates displayed virulence features related to pathogenesis of STEC, such as adherence to epithelial cells, high cytotoxicity and enterohemolytic activity. Ovine STEC isolates belonged mostly to phylogenetic group B1. PFGE revealed particular clones distributed in some farms, as well as variations in the degree of genetic similarity within serotypes examined. In conclusion, STEC are widely distributed in southern Brazilian sheep, and belonged mainly to serotypes that are not commonly reported in other regions, such as O76:H19 and O65:H-. A geographical variation in the distribution of STEC serotypes seems to occur in sheep. PMID:25465174

  20. Population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 autosomal InDel markers in Santa Catarina State population, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Regina Rachadel; Uehara, Clineu Julien Seki; Sutter-Latorre, Ana Frederica; de Almeida, Bibiana Sgorla; Sauerbier, Tania Streck; Muniz, Yara Costa Netto; Marrero, Andrea Rita; de Souza, Ilada Rainha

    2014-08-01

    The application of DNA technology in forensic investigations has grown rapidly in the last 25 years and with an exponential increase of short tandem repeats (STRs) data, usually presented as allele frequencies, that may be later used as databases for forensic and population genetics purposes. Thereby, classes of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions (InDels) have been presented as another option of genetic marker sets. These markers can be used in paternity cases, when mutations in STR polymorphisms are present, as well as in highly degraded DNA analysis. In the present study, the allele frequencies and heterozygosity (H) of a 30 InDel markers set were determined and the forensic efficacy was evaluated through estimation of discrimination power (DP), match probability, typical paternity index and power of paternity exclusion in 108 unrelated volunteers from the State of Santa Catarina (South Brazil). The observed H per locus showed a range between 0.370 and 0.574 (mean = 0.479). HLD128 was the locus with the highest DP (DP = 0.656). DP for all markers combined was greater than 99.9999999999646 % which provides satisfactory levels of information for forensic demands. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed that the population of Santa Catarina State differs from Korea and USA Afro-American populations but is similar to the Portuguese, German, Polish, Spanish and Basque populations. PMID:24916759

  1. Fungal communities in gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes in forest and cabruca agrosystems of southern Bahia State (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes. PMID:26615740

  2. [Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors. PMID:16751957

  3. Perinatal mortality in lambs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hancock, R D; Coe, A J; Silva, F C

    1996-11-01

    Hypothermia and dystocia were found to be the most common causes of perinatal mortality in 8 commercial wool flocks in one region of southern Brazil. It was established that low birth weight and poor maternal instinct in the ewes predisposed to losses due to hypothermia but that there appeared to be no association with adverse weather conditions. Other factors possibly predisposing to losses are discussed. PMID:8983130

  4. Seroepidemiological survey of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses from a rural and from urban areas of Paran State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Thllitha S W J; Vieira, Rafael F C; Finger, Mariane A P; Nascimento, Denise A G; Sicupira, Patrcia M L; Dutra, Leonardo H; Deconto, Ivan; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroepidemiological data of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in horses from a rural settlement and carthorses from urban areas of Paran State, southern Brazil. A total of 198 horses, including 32 from the rural settlement and 166 carthorses from Colombo (n=48), Pinhais (n=76), Londrina (n=24), and Curitiba city (n=18) was sampled and tested using a commercial competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) test. Out of the 198 horses, 193 (97.5%) were seropositive for at least one piroplasm species. Antibodies to T. equi were detected in 155/198 horses (78.3%), antibodies to B. caballi were detected in 137/198 horses (69.2%), and antibodies to both were detected in 99/198 (50.0%) horses. Horses living in the rural settlement and Colombo were more likely to be seropositive to T. equi than those in Curitiba (p<0.05). Horses older than 5 years were more likely to be seropositive for T. equi than those younger than 5 years (p<0.05). No significant association was found between gender or the presence of ticks and seropositivity to T. equi (p>0.05). In conclusion, the high seroprevalences to B. caballi and T. equi observed in this study emphasize that active surveillance programs are critical for monitoring animal health status, particularly because carthorses may act as urban disseminators of these piroplasms. PMID:24209493

  5. Drosophilid assemblages at different urbanization levels in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C F; Hochmller, C J C; Valente, V L S; Schmitz, H J

    2012-02-01

    The present study analyzed the drosophilid assemblages in different levels of urbanization in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Collections were carried out in 2008 in three different environments: a highly urbanized area-"Jardim Botnico," a forested area with intermediary urbanization-"Parque Gabriel Knijnik," and in a relatively well-preserved forested area, although threatened by the urban growth-"Morro Santana." In Jardim Botnico, 36 species belonging to four genera were found, with high abundance of exotic species as Drosophila simulans Sturtevant and Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). In Parque Gabriel Knijnik, 33 species that belonged to four genera were found, with higher abundances of native species belonging to the Drosophila tripunctata species group and Drosophila willistoni species subgroup, and lower abundance of exotic species. As for Morro Santana, 32 species and three genera were found, with higher abundances of native groups, low representativeness of exotic species, and absence of Zaprionus indianus. The analysis of the Jaccard index showed higher similarity in the species composition between samples collected in summer and autumn, and between samples collected in winter and spring. On the other hand, the Morisita index differentiated Jardim Botnico from the other two studied sites. Our results show that Morro Santana is an important area of native biodiversity, reinforcing, therefore, the inclusion of this area in the project for the creation of an ecological corridor as proposed by the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil. PMID:23950007

  6. Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda I; Barquete, Viviane; Domingues, Beatriz S; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2009-01-01

    The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx shearwater, Cory's shearwater and Antarctic fulmar were found to have greater quantities and frequencies of occurrence of plastic. There was no significant difference in the number of plastics between the birds from longline fisheries and beached birds. No correlation was found between the number of prey and number of plastics in the digestive tract of the birds analyzed, but this does not discard the hypothesis that, in some cases, the presence of plastic in the digestive tract has a negative effect on the feeding efficiency of these birds. PMID:18840384

  7. Automatic interpretation of mss (multispectral scanner)-landsat data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kux, H.J.H.; Valeriano, D.D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The coal mining district from southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. This study presents the preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

  8. Reconstruction in the Southern United States: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressly, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Compares post-emancipation societies in Haiti, Jamaica, Russia, the southern United States, Cuba, Brazil, and Zaria, relative to the acquisition of land by former slaves. Suggests that this information might provide a comparative perspective for instruction about the efforts of Blacks and Whites after abolition. (KO)

  9. Genomic sequences of Piezodorus guildinii from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorus guildinii, is native to Central and South America and a well-studied pest of soybeans in Brazil. Recently, it has been become economically important in the southern U.S. states, damaging soybeans from South Carolina to Texas. We cloned the partial genomic DNA from...

  10. Ichnology of deglaciation deposits from the Upper Carboniferous Rio do Sul Formation (Itararé Group, Paraná Basin) at central-east Santa Catarina State (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa

    2015-11-01

    Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.

  11. Socioeconomic Status of Farmers and Economic Development in Two Communities of Southern Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario

    This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…

  12. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29 20' to 30 10' S and 50 15' to 5120'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km, encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD?), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin. PMID:21225160

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

  14. Determinants of Educational Performance in Southern Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David O.

    The study examined the effects of socioeconomic origin (SES) and mental ability (MA) on levels of educational (EA) and occupational aspiration (OA), academic performance (AP), and significant others' influence (SOI) for 1,950 5th grade elementary and 4th year gymnastic students in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Representative samples of approximately…

  15. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paran and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  16. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paran and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  17. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  18. Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, verton F; Seyffert, Nbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348

  19. Cryptococcus gattii-Induced Infections in Dogs from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcntara, Brgida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegrio; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alcio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paran, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental Brazil. PMID:26025661

  20. Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jernimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-02-01

    Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitria do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management. PMID:22941529

  1. Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Garcia Perez, Herakles A; Costa, Mrcio M; Frana, Raqueli T; De Gasperi, Diego; Zanette, Rgis A; Amado, Joo A; Lopes, Sonia T A; Teixeira, Marta M G; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever, weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or vulva. The diagnosis of T. vivax was confirmed in four horses by morphological parameters of trypomastigotes in blood smears and species-specific PCR. All T. vivax-infected animals showed anemia, and most showed increased levels of beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulins. Horses were treated with diminazene aceturate, but cure was not achieved, and the disease relapsed after therapy. These findings demonstrated that Brazilian T. vivax isolates, which were already reported infecting cattle, buffaloes, goats, and sheep, can be highly pathogenic for horses, causing severe disease and even death of the animals due to the recurrence of the infection. PMID:20820805

  2. Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately after the landslide event. Numerical simulations with the SHALSTAB model were carried out in the basin and the results compared to the original location of the scars in the field. The results suggest that the combination of field mapping with the numerical simulation scenarios may contribute to the definition of better land management practices in such environment. Besides this, the replacement of the natural rain forest by huge banana plantations in this environment may have played a major role in defining the spatial distribution of landslides scars and the magnitude of the landslides generated.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellan penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) found on the northern shore of the state of So Paulo and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldassin, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Gallo, Hugo; Silva, Reinaldo Jos; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 25 livers from Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, found on the state of So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The following concentrations of POPs (wet weight) were found: ? PCBs: 18.9-775.8 ng g(-1); ? DDTs: 2.3-275 ng g(-1); and ? HCHs: 1.0-11.8 ng g(-1). Among the PCBs, there was a predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (138 and 153) and heptachlorobiphenyls (180 and 187). Among the organochlorines, DDT predominated. Through histopathologic exams a positive correlation was found between HCB and cardiovascular failure (p=0.012), as HCB values (wet weight) were 6.33-96.49 ng g(-1) for positive animals and 2.45-19.63 ng g(-1) for negative animals. Studies on POPs in Magellan penguins contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and trends of these pollutants in the western South Atlantic Ocean. PMID:22910330

  4. Extreme wet events in Southern Brazil during the Heinrich Stadials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Rao, Z.; Auler, A.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Edwards, R.

    2011-12-01

    We are making continuous efforts to improve both the data resolution and chronology of the speleothem d18O record from Botuvera Cave, southern Brazil, one of the very few high-precision and high-resolution records from southern tropical continents covering the last ~ 100 kyr. In this study, we particularly focus on precipitation change in southern Brazil during the extreme cold time intervals in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich (H) Stadials. With precise U/Th dating, high-resolution d18O profiles from multiple Botuvera stalagmites show that the H2, H3 and H4 stadials are about 1,000 years long and centered approximately 24.6 kyr BP, 30.0 kyr BP and 39.0 kyr BP, respectively. Following the earlier studies on Brazilian speleothem d18O records, as well as trace element analysis and modeling simulations, we interpret the calcite d18O as a proxy of monsoonal rainfall in the region. Broadly speaking, the lower calcite d18O, the higher rainfall, and vice versa. The abrupt drops on calcite d18O during these intervals, with an amplitude of ~ 2% VPDB, suggest that climate change in this region is manifested as a dramatic increasing of rainfall. This confirms our previous finding that on millennial timescales, precipitation change in southern Brazil is anti-phased with that in the north, such as eastern Asia, which is probably controlled by the meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The fast growth rates of the samples enable us to characterize detail precipitation changes in southern Brazil during these three Heinrich Stadials. Precipitation increases abruptly in the earlier stage, evidenced by a d18O drop rate of ~ 5%/kyr, whereas during the later stage, precipitation decreases more gradually, with a d18O rising rate of ~ 2.5%/kyr. This asymmetric pattern of change is different from the temperature behavior in the North Atlantic, which warms much more dramatically in the final stage of a Heinrich Stadial than it cools in the initial phase. Such decoupling may suggest that ITCZ meridional migration is preferably controlled by the temperature gradient between the mid and low latitudes in the cold hemisphere. It has been further noticed that calcite d18O values are higher right after the Heinrich Stadials than those immediately preceding the events, hence, an even drier climate after the extreme wet events. These values, in a range between -3.4% and -2.7%, however, are far below the typical value of ~ -1.5% in early Holocene. This observation suggested that, although the Atlantic overturning circulation may "overshoot" directly following its weaken mode during the Heinrich Stadials, the atmospheric response did not react in a proportional manner.

  5. Tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Musskopf, Marta L; Fiorini, Tiago; Haddad, Daniel C; Susin, Cristiano

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil. The Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire was used in eight dental schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Of the 663 eligible students, 576 (87%) participated. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.9-25.3%], and 61.6% (95% CI: 54.9-68.3%) of students reported having smoked at least once in their lifetime. The prevalence of dental students who had smoked ? 100 cigarettes in their lifetime was 17.1% (95% CI: 12.5-21.7%). Being frequently exposed to other smokers at home or in other places (second-hand smoke) increased the likelihood of current smoking by two- to threefold. Approximately 6.1% (95% CI: 3.5-8.7%) of the students reported that they currently wanted to stop smoking and 7.5% (95% CI: 5.3-9.6%) had tried to stop smoking in the last year. Friends and family were the most frequent sources of help or counselling, and only a limited proportion of students received help from health professionals. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoking is widespread among dental students in southern Brazil. Smoking-cessation initiatives targeting health care students are urgently needed. PMID:25123054

  6. Canine infection by rickettsiae and ehrlichiae in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tas B; Cunha-Filho, Nilton A; Pacheco, Richard C; Ferreira, Fernando; Pappen, Felipe G; Farias, Nara A R; Larsson, Carlos E; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the infection caused by Rickettsia and Ehrlichia agents among dogs in southern Brazil. A total of 389 dogs were tested by the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia bellii, and Ehrlichia canis. Overall, 42.4% (165/389) of the dogs were seroreactive to at least one Rickettsia species, but only 11 canine sera reacted with another Rickettsia species without reacting with R. parkeri. A total of 100 (25.7%) canine sera showed titers to R. parkeri at least 4-fold higher than those to any of the other rickettsial antigens, allowing us to consider that these dogs were infected by R. parkeri. Dogs that had direct contact with pasture or forest areas were > 2 times more likely to be seroreactive to Rickettsia than dogs with no such direct contact. Only 19 (4.8%) of the 389 dogs were seroreactive to E. canis. PMID:18606772

  7. Southern Colorado State College Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Antonio A.

    Occurring in six elementary schools in Pueblo, the Teacher Corps Program at Southern Colorado State College features the following components: a) a cross-cultural component for all participants; b) a community-based component designed to assist the community to participate in educational decision making; c) a 2-year undergraduate, field- and

  8. Teaching Gerontological Nursing in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, H. Terri; Yurchuck, E. Ruth

    1993-01-01

    A survey of associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs in 15 southern states (n=211) determined the current status of gerontological nursing programs. Findings indicate that, although there are areas of improvement, the status of gerontological nursing education and practice in the undergraduate curriculum is not equal to that of other…

  9. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  10. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

  11. Case report: Feline infection by Lagochilascaris sp. in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Luciana; Oliveira, Camila B; Denardin, Cntia A; Tonin, Alexandre A; Gressler, Lucas T; Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Sampaio, Luzia C L; Stainki, Daniel R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2013-09-23

    Lagochilascariosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Lagochilascaris sp., with the northern of Brazil representing 81.2% of all reports of the disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of feline lagochilascariosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern of Brazil. It was diagnosed through coproparasitologic exam and laboratorial identification of the nematodes. PMID:23582666

  12. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

  13. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jabor Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  14. Chronic low back pain among tobacco farmers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 84%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 165), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 200), working in awkward postures (PR 136), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 163), pesticide poisoning (PR 237), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 255) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930

  15. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Kieling-Rubio, M A; Klauck, C R; Rodrigues, M A S

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos River Basin (SRB) is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W), southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km 2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI) used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI), the Dinius Index (DI) and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI) in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form. PMID:26270221

  16. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania. PMID:22548178

  17. [Unplanned pregnancy in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Prietsch, Silvio Omar Macedo; Gonzlez-Chica, David Alejandro; Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Ral Andrs

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with unplanned pregnancies in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied in 2007 to all pregnant women in the city, including demographic characteristics, childbearing history, socioeconomic status, and prenatal and childbirth care. The study used Poisson multivariate regression analysis with robust adjustment of variance. Among the 2,557 women included in the study, 65% had not planned the current pregnancy. After adjusting for confounders, the following variables were significantly associated with unplanned pregnancy: black or mixed race, age < 20 years, single marital status, low family income, household crowding, smoking, and multiparity. Previous abortion was a protective factor against unplanned pregnancy. The high unplanned pregnancy rate, especially among women with increased risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, highlights the need to target healthcare programs for this group. PMID:22031195

  18. Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corra, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

  19. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  20. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapecó, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046

  1. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Botton, Snia de Avila; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Haag, Karen Luisa; Musskopf, Germano; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Ribeiro, Tatiana Correa; de la Rue, Mrio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were submitted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil. PMID:26154965

  2. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jos D; Zamorano, Martn; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  3. Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mrio

    2013-01-01

    Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.5621.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region. PMID:23457521

  4. Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

  5. Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Kaltchuk dos Santos, Eliane; Eggers, Lilian; Flores, Alice Mainieri; Alves, Eudes M. Stiehl; Fachinetto, Juliana; Lustosa, Juliana; Corra, Laus Brisolara; Tacuati, Luana Olinda; Piccoli, Paula; Miz, Rogria Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed. PMID:23412701

  6. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  7. Human platelet antigen genotyping of platelet donors in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Merzoni, J; Fagundes, I S; Lunardi, L W; Lindenau, J D-R; Gil, B C; Jobim, M; Dias, V G; Merzoni, L; Sekine, L; Onsten, T G H; Jobim, L F

    2015-10-01

    Human platelet antigens (HPA) are immunogenic structures that result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) leading to single amino acid substitutions. This study sought to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5 and HPA-15 in platelet donors from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, and compare their allele frequencies to those observed in other populations. HPA genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP method. The study sample comprised 201 platelet donors (167 Caucasians and 34 non-Caucasians). Allele 'a' was that most commonly found for HPA-1 to 5 in both groups. The HPA-15ab genotype predominated over homozygous genotypes of this system. Fisher's exact test revealed statistically significant differences for the HPA-5 system, with a greater prevalence of the HPA-5b allele in non-Caucasians. The neighbour-joining method and principal components analysis revealed genetic proximity between our Caucasian group and European populations. We conclude that the allele frequencies of HPA-1 to 5 and HPA-15 found in our Caucasian sample are similar to those reported for European populations. These findings corroborate the ethnic makeup of the population of RS. The higher frequency of the HPA-5b allele found in the non-Caucasian group of our sample suggests the possibility of allosensitization in patients who receive platelet transfusions from genetically incompatible donors. PMID:26211915

  8. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Lus H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of So Jos do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (3200'S 5200'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises. PMID:21808923

  9. BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

  10. Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

  11. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

  12. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  13. Assessment of MODIS LAI retrievals over soybean crop in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the magnitude of the Collection 4 MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product for the soybean crop for two crop seasons, 2001/2002 to 2004/2005, in Southern Brazil. The data indicated that there were a large proportion of digical counts were at a maximum level suggesting that the LAI was...

  14. Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

  15. Polymorphism of leukocyte and erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease patients in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patricia Keiko; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and Duffy erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in southern Brazil. One hundred and eighty-three CKD patients, over 18 years old, on hemodialysis, were included. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 typing was performed using the LABType®SSO (One Lambda, Inc.). Duffy phenotypes were determined by gel column agglutination using anti-Fy(a) and anti-Fy(b) monoclonal anti-sera. The patients' predominant ages ranged between 51 and 70 years (43%) and the predominant gender, ethnic group and dialysis period were, respectively, male (62%), white (62%) and 1-3 years (40%). The highest and lowest frequencies of Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) and Fy(a-b-), respectively. Nineteen HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 allele groups were identified. The most frequent HLA allele groups were HLA-A*01, -A*02, -A*03, -A*11, -A*24; HLA-B*07, -B*15, -B*35, -B*44, -B*51; HLA-DRB1*03, -DRB1*04, -DRB1*07, -DRB1*11 and -DRB1*13. Statistically significant differences were observed in the Duffy and HLA polymorphisms compared between CKD patients and healthy subjects. The Fy(a+b-) phenotype (p<0.0001, OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.60-4.07) was the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the Fy(a+b+) phenotype (p = 0.0039, OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.18-2.51) was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Paraná state (p<0.05). Regarding HLA, the HLA-B*42, -B*45, -B*51 and -DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the HLA-B*44 allele group was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil (p<0.05). The polymorphism of these two markers among CKD patients in southern Brazil and healthy subjects of other studies, suggests that these markers might be involved with CKD development. Further studies should be undertaken to analyze the markers' influence on CKD and the long-term results from kidney transplantation. PMID:24409300

  16. A new species of tree crickets Oecanthus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Oecanthinae) in tobacco plantation from Southern Brazil, with body color variation.

    PubMed

    Milach, Elisa Machado; Martins, Luciano De P; Costa, Maria Ktia Matiotti Da; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Oliveira, Gabriel Lobregat De; Red, Darlan Rutz; Neutzling, Alexandre Schneid; Dornelles, Jos Eduardo Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Lucas Azevedo; Zefa, Edison

    2015-01-01

    We provide herein a description of a new species of Oecanthus collected from the tobacco plantation in southern Brazil, municipality of So Loureno do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Description focused metanotal gland features, phallic sclerites, and calling song. A large sampling of individuals was distributed into four groups according to body and appendages color and dotted. We also rank all kind of marks present in the scape and pedicel. We compare linear morphometric variables of the metanotal glands and tegmina, as well as calling song parameters between groups in order do define all of them as the same species. Photographs and measurements are provided. PMID:26624040

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcriptionPCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  18. Cytogenetic description of Ancistrus abilhoai (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Iguau River basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M O; Noleto, R B; Lorscheider, C A; Porto, F E; Prizon, A C; Zawadzki, C H; Oliveira, L C; Portela Castro, A L B

    2015-01-01

    The Iguau River basin is a tributary to the upper Paran River in southern Brazil, and is considered an important aquatic ecoregion that, although having few species of fish, 51-71% of these are apparently endemic. Ancistrus abilhoai is one of three recently described species for this basin and is currently considered endemic to the basin. In this study, we present the chromosomal structure of two populations of Ancistrus abilhoai one collected in the Iguau River, in Paran State, and another collected in the Timb River, a tributary of the Iguau River, in the State of Santa Catarina. Karyotype analyzes were performed in 11 specimens from the Iguau River (four females and seven males) and 12 specimens (all males) from Timb River, revealing 2n = 48 chromosomes with a karyotype formula of 22m + 14sm + 6st + 6a in both populations. Analysis of active nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probes revealed the submetacentric pair 13 bearing marks at terminal positions on the short arms. Considered as plesiomorphic chromosomal markers in Loricariidae, asynteny 18S and 5S rDNA, and small amounts of heterochromatin were observed. In this study, the first chromosomal data of A. abilhoai are presented with comments on karyotypic characteristics of the genus. PMID:25966177

  19. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  20. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)

  1. English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

    This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

  2. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  3. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy ( D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping of Shigella responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Cheila Minia Daniel; Mercedes, Passos Geimba; do Amaral, Patrcia Heidrich; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Little information about Shigella responsible for foodborne shigellosis is available in Brazil. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping patterns of Shigella isolates responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), Southern Brazil in the period between 2003 and 2007. Shigella strains (n=152) were isolated from foods and fecal samples of victims of shigellosis outbreaks investigated by the Surveillance Service. Identification of the strains at specie level indicated that 71.1% of them were S. flexneri, 21.5% S. sonnei, and 0.7% S. dysenteriae. Ten strains (6.7%) were identified only as Shigella spp. An increasing occurrence of S. sonnei was observed after 2004. Most of the strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.6%), followed by ampicillin (84.6%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.5 %). Resistant strains belonged to 73 patterns, and pattern A (resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and intermediate resistance to kanamycin) grouped the largest number of isolates (n=36). PCR-ribotyping identified three banding patterns (SH1, SH2, and SH3). SH1 grouped all S. flexneri and SH2 grouped all S. sonnei. The S. dysenteriae strain belonged to group SH3. According to the results, several Shigella isolates shared the same PCR-rybotyping banding pattern and the same resistance profile, suggesting that closely related strains were responsible for the outbreaks. However, other molecular typing methods need to be applied to confirm the clonal relationship of these isolates. PMID:24031576

  5. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Nilceu P; Sentelhas, Paulo C; Panosso, Alan R; Palhares, Antonio L; Ide, Bernardo Y

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of So Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kgt(-1)). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120days before harvest as an independent variable (R (2) adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R (2) adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE???5%), even in regions with different climatic conditions. PMID:25921362

  6. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of So Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable (R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ? 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  7. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2015-10-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model (R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  8. Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae) parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gallas, Moisés; Silveira, Eliane Fraga da

    2011-01-01

    Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus), 60% (P. yagouaroundi) and 50% (L. geoffroyi). Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil. PMID:21722494

  9. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species. PMID:25075466

  10. Holocene environmental changes in the So Francisco de Paula region, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann; Bauermann, Soraia Girardi; Pereira Neves, Paulo Csar

    2001-11-01

    Holocene paleoenvironments have been interpreted from a radiocarbon dated pollen and charcoal record of the So Francisco de Paula region on the southern Brazilian highland. Today the region is characterized by pastureland and small patches of disturbed Araucaria forest. The region receives 2450 mm per annum. This is the highest precipitation rate in southern Brazil. Studied surface samples represent the modern pollen analog of the anthropogenic influenced vegetation. Pollen analytical studies of the 84 cm long core, collected from a small basin with clay, organic matter and peat deposits, show that pollen and spores of the lower core section (84 and 46 cm depth) have been almost destroyed. This period between ca. 7500 and 4000 14C yr BP was too dry for conservation of pollen and spores in the basin. Climate must have been markedly drier than today during early and mid Holocene times. After 4000 14C yr BP, preserved pollen grains reflect wetter conditions than before and indicate the predominance of campos (grassland) vegetation with small areas of Araucaria forest in the study region. Forest expansion is documented since 1060 14C yr BP and expansion of Araucaria angustifolia trees itself since 850 14C yr BP. During the last 1000 yr, rainfall must have been much more intensive with no or only short dry periods such as the modern climate. The results confirm the vegetational and climatic changes documented from the Araucaria forest region of Santa Catarina and Paran State. Concentration and accumulation rates of carbonized particles are somewhat higher during the last 850 14C yr BP than before, indicating an increased fire frequency.

  11. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

  12. Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Trojan-Rodrigues M; Alves TL; Soares GL; Ritter MR

    2012-01-06

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants are widely as antidiabetics. The study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or their use may even delay or discourage the adoption of the proper and effective treatment.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study surveyed the plant species that are popularly used to treat diabetes mellitus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. Sixteen ethnobotanical surveys performed in the state were consulted, and the species used to treat diabetes were listed. For species cited in at least two of the studies, scientific data related to antidiabetic activity were searched in the ISI Knowledge database. The scientific binomial of each species was used as keywords, and data found in review papers were also included.RESULTS: A total of 81 species in 42 families were mentioned; the most important families were Asteraceae and Myrtaceae. Twenty eight species were cited at least twice as being used to treat diabetes in the state. For 11 of these, no scientific data regarding antidiabetic activity could be located. The species most frequently mentioned for use with diabetes were Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) and Bauhinia forficata (Fabaceae), in 12 studies each, followed by Sphagneticola trilobata (Asteraceae), in six studies; and Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), Cynara scolymus (Asteraceae), and Leandra australis (Melastomataceae) in four studies each. Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini have been studied in more detail for antidiabetic activity.CONCLUSIONS: A considerable number of plant species are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes melitus in the Rio Grande do Sul State. The majority of those plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results, mainly for Bauhinia forficata and Syzygium cumini. However, for most of the plants mentioned, the studies are not sufficient to guarantee the efficacy and safety in the use of these plants in the treatment against diabetes.

  13. Campylobacter species isolated from poultry and humans, and their analysis using PFGE in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiani Teixeira da; Tejada, Talita Schneid; Blum-Menezes, Dulcinea; Dias, Priscila Alves; Timm, Cludio Dias

    2016-01-18

    Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans through ingestion of contaminated food. Six hundred samples were collected, 200 from human stool samples, 200 from poultry products and 200 from poultry feces in Southern Brazil, and then inoculated on blood agar plates. A total of 58% of the poultry feces, 17% of the poultry meat, and 2% the of human stools tested positive for Campylobacter. Positive Campylobacter colonies were identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobactercoli by multiplex PCR. Campylobacter isolates were analyzed using PFGE to compare different profiles according to the source. This study demonstrated that there are different Campylobacter clones distributed in different aviaries in Southern Brazil. In addition, PFGE molecular profiles suggested that broilers can be a source of contamination of poultry products. However, the human isolate studied did not show any relationship with other strains examined. PMID:26561789

  14. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  15. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  16. Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andria Emlia; Boelter, Thase; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

  17. Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength. PMID:25511000

  18. Mercury in sediments from gold and copper exploitation areas in the Camaqu River Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, M. H. D.; Lechler, P.; Formoso, M. L. L.; Miller, J.

    2000-11-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in stream sediments from the Camaqu River Basin, located in the shield region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The resulting geochemical data show that overbank floodplain deposits exhibit higher concentrations than sediments collected from the active channel bed. In addition, higher Hg concentrations were measured in the fine(<63 ?m) sediment fraction of the samples. Total Hg concentrations in the fine fraction of active stream sediments from Lavras do Sul County, which have been influenced by past gold mining activities, have decreased during the last five years to values ?142 ng g -1. However, in a settling pond containing abandoned mine wastes, the Hg concentration of a bulk sample remained exceptionally high (5220 ng g -1). Preliminary speciation results show that Hg 0 is the predominant species in most of the samples. This was the form of Hg released by the gold amalgamation activities in the area, and appears to be relatively stable under the existing Eh and pH conditions.

  19. Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcntara, Brgida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

  20. Paleoproterozoic felsic volcanism of the Tapajós Mineral Province, Southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.

  1. Burden of isolation for multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary public hospital in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia R; Isaakidis, Petros; Hinderaker, Sven G; Ali, Engy; van den Boogaard, Wilma; Viana, Karen S; Cassol, Renato; Falci, Diego Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to describe the use of isolation beds between September 2011 and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital located in Southern Brazil. The main cause for isolation was gram-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Huge costs were associated with isolation practices. Considering the high burden on the isolation ward, practice of surveillance cultures and contact isolation should be balanced with other infection control practices. PMID:25481437

  2. Elevated Toxoplasma gondii Infection Rates for Retinas from Eye Banks, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Commodaro, Alessandra G.; Chiasson, Melissa; Sundar, Natarajan; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Belfort, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    We found significantly higher incidence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in eye bank specimens from Joinville in southern Brazil (13/15, 87%) than in São Paulo (3/42, 7%; p = 2.1 × 10E–8). PCR DNA sequence analysis was more sensitive at locus NTS2 than at locus B1; a high frequency of mixed co-infections was detected. PMID:26982526

  3. Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R

    2012-11-01

    In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from So Joo/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 10(4) to 4.4 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 10(3) to 1.7 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

  4. First evaluation of an outbreak of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil using multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

  5. First Evaluation of an Outbreak of Bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil Using Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

  6. High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies among blood donors in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; de Sena, Anne; Geraldo, Alexandre; Spada, Celso; Granato, Celso F H

    2016-02-01

    Brazil has been classified as moderately endemic for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, data on the seroprevalence of HEV in this region are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection among blood donors in the metropolitan area of Itajai Valley, Southern Brazil, a region of predominant German heritage, where cultural habits result in a high consumption of pork. Serum samples from 300 blood donors were tested in December 2014 using serological and molecular methods. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 30 (10%) subjects, and categorized age groups revealed an age-dependent increase of HEV seroprevalence. Only one subject had anti-HEV IgM, whereas none tested positive for HEV-RNA. The present data demonstrate a higher seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in blood donors than previously reported in Brazil. J. Med. Virol. 88:361-364, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26211918

  7. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; Gonzlez, Flix Hilario Diaz

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre. PMID:24142166

  8. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O

    2007-09-01

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg(-1), which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl(2), demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. PMID:17321651

  9. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  10. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    San Martns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, Jos Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

  11. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  12. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  13. 5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  14. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  15. Serological Investigation into Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection in Dogs from Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teles, Alessandra Jacomelli; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Cabana, Ângela Leitzke; Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2016-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and major cause of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), which is a systemic and endemic mycosis in Brazil. In Southern Brazil, an increased number of cases were detected since the 1990 s. Therefore, in order to determine areas with the presence of the fungus, this study aimed to investigate infection by P. brasiliensis in dogs from Southern Brazil. Indirect ELISA was used to detect antibodies against P. brasiliensis gp43. One hundred and ninety-six stray and semi-domiciled dogs from the municipalities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul were included in this study. P. brasiliensis infection was detected in 58 animals (29.6 %) with no significant difference for gender, age and breed. Seropositive animals were detected in all neighborhoods in the city of Pelotas as well as in the neighboring municipality Capão do Leão. The detection of antibodies against gp43 in dogs suggests the presence and wide distribution of the fungus in Pelotas and Capão do Leão, warning for the possibility of PCM disease in dogs as well as in humans from this region. PMID:26608381

  16. Post-collisional subvolcanic rhyolites associated with the Neoproterozoic Pelotas Batholith, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Diego Skieresz de; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp

    2015-11-01

    Neoproterozoic volcanic and subvolcanic rhyolitic systems in southernmost Brazil are correlated with acid magmatism linked to different petrotectonic associations of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. A portion of this volcanism in the Dom Feliciano Belt is associated with the Pelotas Batholith, which resulted from magmatic episodes associated with the Ediacaran post-collisional evolution of southern Brazil. Ana Dias Rhyolite is the main subvolcanic occurrence of this volcanism that took place in the Quitéria region, in the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State. The acid magmatism has been commonly associated with the most differentiated granite suite phases during the final stages of emplacement of the Pelotas Batholith. The Ana Dias Rhyolite is characterized as an intrusive body with rocks that present a porphyritic to seriated texture and a gradational variation to fine-grained equigranular rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 581.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the Ana Dias Rhyolite. Geochemistry data characterize the rhyolites as belonging to the alkaline series; they present a metaluminous to peraluminous character; elevated SiO2 and alkali concentrations, high FeOt/FeOt + MgO ratios and agpaitic index; and low Al2O3, CaO, and MgO contents. The Zr, Rb, Y, Nb, and Ga concentrations are moderate when compared with the relatively low Ba and Sr contents. These geochemistry characteristics are common in acid magmas with alkaline affinity. The behavior of certain trace elements and REE demonstrate enrichment in more incompatible elements, in addition to the negative anomaly of Ba, the slight enrichment in Ce relative to adjacent elements, as well as the enrichment in K2O and Rb relative to Nb, suggesting magmas derived from mantle sources enriched in incompatible elements with some crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield.

  17. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm2. All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm2. Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm2 were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

  18. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    França, Vivian Francielle; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; D’Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013–2014) conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women) over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day); fish (< 1 serving/week); and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no). Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender. Results The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009). After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day) was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women’s mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001). Conclusion Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging. PMID:26894259

  19. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  20. Three New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Melanophryniscus from the Atlantic Rainforest of Southern Brazil (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

  2. Psychiatry, bio-epistemes and the making of adolescence in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on an ethnographic study in southern Brazil, this paper explores how therapists' attempts to "resist bioreductionist" pharmaceutical use both succeed and crumble. Using a comparative framing, I show that pharmaceuticalization can become an anesthetizing "lid" that interacts with young people's polarizing micro-politics and is an outgrowth of multi-generational medico-political family histories. This lid, however, is not air-tight and exceptionalities are born out of these very same histories. I argue that both pharmaceuticalization and exceptions to it emerge not through "resistance" to biopsychiatric logics but from the transformative possibilities that the patterned co-production of social, political, and psychiatric life affords. PMID:27008078

  3. Microhabitat use by three species of egret (Pelecaniformes, Ardeidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Bergmann, F B; Tozetti, A M

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: Cocoi heron (Ardea cocoi), Great egret (Ardea alba), and Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), in wetlands of southern Brazil. Ardea alba and A. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level). Conversely, B. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. Relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correlated with the occurrence of these species and supported the plasticity of B. ibis and its predominance in drier habitats. PMID:24789395

  4. Bryozoans from rio grande do sul continental shelf, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro

    2015-01-01

    The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani). PMID:25947873

  5. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  6. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural

  7. REGIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest systems in the southern United States. redictions for this region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. hifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in res...

  8. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogrio P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest. PMID:25826062

  9. Wachholz, a new exquisite dinosaur-bearing fossiliferous site from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, tila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Srgio

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution reports a new fossiliferous site from the Caturrita Formation (Upper Triassic of Paran Basin, Southern Brazil), which yields articulate, complete, associated, and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur specimens, together with the sole occurrence of an isolated tooth ascribed to a carnivore indetermined archosauriform. These specimens increase the sauropodomorph record from this geological unit. A preliminary evaluation of such specimens suggests that sauropodomorph dinosaurs could have been more abundant in Norian Faunas from southern Brazil, considering the increased sampling here reported. So far, about six specimens are previously recognized (disregarding Guaibasaurus) from the Caturrita Formation, and here we add four specimens, or even five if consider an additional autopodium. Also, the morphology of the isolated carnivorous-type tooth differs from other described carnivorous archosauriform teeth from the Caturrita Formation. Hence, it might represent a still undescribed taxon. Further studies of these specimens will certainly provide new data regarding biostratigraphy, phylogeny, paleoecology, and taphonomy, as this new fossiliferous locality preserves one of the most representative dinosaur records from the Norian worldwide.

  10. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Fernndez, Heriberto; De Bona, Laura Renata; Neuhauss, Erli; Longo, Larisse; Prolla, Joo Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comit de l'Antibiogramme de la Socit Franaise de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil. PMID:24878996

  11. Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death.

    PubMed Central

    Barros, F C; Victora, C G; Vaughan, J P; Teixeira, A M; Ashworth, A

    1987-01-01

    The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87% of the deaths occurred in the first six months of life, and this proportion remained high (77%) even after perinatal causes had been excluded. On the other hand, 53% of the infants who died were of low birth weight, as opposed to 7.9% of the survivors. This suggests that low birthweight infants need to be carefully followed by health workers at primary level, especially during the first six months. It was estimated that if the incidence of low birth weight was reduced from the present 8.8% to 5% the likely reduction in infant mortality would be 20%. This reduction would be 33% for deaths due to perinatal causes, 14% for respiratory infections, and only 5% for diarrhoea. Efforts for the prevention of infant deaths in southern Brazil are more likely to be effective if they concentrate on improving perinatal health care and environmental conditions. PMID:3606182

  12. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility. PMID:26600554

  13. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  14. Assessing the energy balance over flooded rice cultivation in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D.; Gonalves, L. G.; Comin, A.; Martins, C.; Moraes, O.; Acevedo, O.

    2009-09-01

    Flooded rice cultivation is a common practice in Southern Brazil, region responsible for approximately 50% of the national production with 1100 hectares. However, over these regions, in particular during the flooded cultivation, water, carbon and energy dynamics are still poorly understood. In this work the energy balance is analyzed over a flooded rice crop located in Southern Brazil (29.744S; 53.15W) using one year data set (26jun 2003 -26jun2004). A flux tower was assembled in the rice field and energy related fluxes to the atmosphere were obtained using eddy covariance techniques. Ground heat flux was also measured using probes. The above-ground water depth was not measured during the field experiment therefore the energy stored in water was not computed as part of the energy balance. The results during the flooded period (October to February) show that when the soil is saturated and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) starts to increase as a result of the crop grow, the energy balance is less than the surface radiation budget by approximately 20%. During the remaining months (non-flooded period) there is no significant difference between the energy balance and surface radiation budget. A correction factor is suggested to take in account the differences during the flooded periods. For this particular region the correction factor is found to be 1.2.

  15. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

  16. Wind Power Energy in Southern Brazil: evaluation using a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a associated variation of wind intensity. The monthly average indicate several small regions with a higher value of energy. Average production higher than 1.5 MW, for the area inland, was of 72.9% for a turbine at 150 m height but only 13.1% for one at 50 m height. This initial study indicates the variability of the region in terms of wind power availability. It can be extended to the study of extreme situations, as the case of very strong winds that knocked down 8 wind turbines in this region on the 20 of December of 2014. Simulations with high degree of spacial details will be the next step in this investigation.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  18. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This....-Brazil CEO Forum (Forum), pursuant to the Terms of Reference signed in March 2007 by the U.S....

  19. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum, pursuant to the Terms...

  20. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

  1. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was

  2. Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

  3. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

  4. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission track thermochronology obtained in the adjacent basement units. The main denudation events are 140 ± 20 Ma (rifting), 75 ± 15 Ma, and 30 ± 10 Ma (estimated age of the Cone do Rio Grande structure formation). We conclude that the subsidence, uplift and denudation events that affected the eastern margin of Brazil and Uruguay and western margin of Africa segmented most of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas, difficulting the paleogeographic reconstruction and plate kinematic of the Brasiliano/Pan-African belts.

  5. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  6. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  7. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, Joo Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paran Basin, South of So Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the peridotitic unit; b) the intrusion and probable differentiation of the clinopyroxenites and ijolitic rocks; c) intrusions of several lithotypes forming the heterogeneous zone; d) intrusion of lamprophyric dykes into the syenites; e) the carbonatite intrusion. The precise geochronological sequence is still unknown, since only the syenites (134.9 0.65 Ma this study), the carbonatite (131 Ma) and the clinopyroxenite (131 Ma) were dated at present. Our goal is now to investigate the origin and evolution of the magmas which formed the Jacupiranga Complex using geochronology with Ar/Ar, U-Pb and U-Th/He dating, as well as elemental and isotopic geochemistry. Considering that the Jacupiranga Complex is one of the most differentiated alkaline complexes around the world, this contribution will be important not only for the understanding of the unit itself but also for the general comprehension of the forming process, the evolution of the alkaline and carbonatitic magmas and the concentration of apatite in carbonatites, still controversial subjects among the scientific community.

  8. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiu Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paran, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  9. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23°27'S and 51°15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  10. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  11. Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corra, M F M

    2014-08-01

    The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paran coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

  12. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Leptospira interrogans Isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P

    2015-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis. PMID:26100241

  13. Exobiology at Southern Brazil: Spore Dosimetry and the UV Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampelotto, P. H.; Rosa, M. B.; Schuch, N. J.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Schuch, A. P.; Munakata, N.

    2009-12-01

    The ultraviolet - UV is considered the range of solar radiation most immediately lethal to the life organisms on the Earths surface. In this context, since 2000, the monitoring of the biologically-effective solar radiation using spore dosimeter at the Southern Space Observatory (29.4 S, 53.8 W), South of Brazil, has been performed. The biological dosimeter is based in the spore inactivation doses of Bacillus subtilis strain TKJ6312, who is sensitive to the UV solar radiation. Monthly expositions of biological dosimeter have been compared with solar irradiance obtained by Brewer spectrophotometer. Correlations indices about r > 0.86 shows the potential applicability of the biosensor in the monitoring of biologically-effective solar radiation. Since spores are stabile microorganisms, considering extreme environment variations, the biosensor may be used for studies of the effects of the solar radiation in others planetary environments for future work.

  14. Diel variation in fish assemblages in tidal creeks in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Spach, H l; Schwarz-Junior, R; Pichler, H A

    2008-02-01

    Tidal creeks are strongly influenced by tides and are therefore exposed to large differences in salinity and depth daily. Here we compare fish assemblages in tidal creeks between day and night in two tidal creeks in southern Brazil. Monthly day and night, simultaneous collections were carried out in both creeks using fyke nets. Clupeiformes tended to be caught more during the day. Cathorops spixii, Genidens genidens and Rypticus randalli tended to be caught at night. Sciaenidae also tended to be caught more during the night. In general, pelagic species were diurnal, while deep water species were nocturnal. These trends are probably due to a variety of causes, such as phylogeny, predation and net avoidance. PMID:18470376

  15. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  16. Podocoryna loyola, n. sp. (Hydrozoa, Hydractiniidae): a probably introduced species on artificial substrate from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Maria Anglica; Bettim, Ariane Lima; Miglietta, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Podocoryna loyola, a new hydractiniid species, has been found on artificial substrates in Baa de Paranagu, southern coast of Brazil, since April 2007. Its main morphological characteristics are: (1) polymorphic colonies with reticular stolons or encrusting hydrorhiza not covered by periderm and smooth chitinous spines; (2) newly-released medusae with eight tentacles and small interradial gonads; (3) mature medusae with eight tentacles and unbranched oral lips; gastric peduncle absent. Molecular data show that P. loyola is distinct from all other examined species of Podocoryna, and from P. hayamaensis Hirohito (1988), its sister species from Japan. As the polyps having been noted only quite recently, and in having been found only on man-made objects in port areas and estuaries, the species is most likely exotic to the region. PMID:24870689

  17. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  18. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase. PMID:22852747

  19. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  20. Energy Partitioning and Evapotranspiration over a Rice Paddy in Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timm, Andrea U.; Roberti, Debora R.; Streck, Nereu A.; de Goncalves, Luis G. G.; Acevedo, Otavio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.; Moreira, Virnei S.; Degrazia, Gervasio A.; Ferlan, Mitja; Toll, David L.

    2014-01-01

    During approximately 80% of its growing season, lowland flooded irrigated rice ecosystems in southern Brazil are kept within a 5-10-cm water layer. These anaerobic conditions have an influence on the partitioning of the energy and water balance components. Furthermore, this cropping system differs substantially from any other upland nonirrigated or irrigated crop ecosystems. In this study, daily, seasonal, and annual dynamics of the energy and water balance components were analyzed over a paddy rice farm in a subtropical location in southern Brazil using eddy covariance measurements. In this region, rice is grown once a year in low wetlands while the ground is kept fallow during the remaining of the year. Results show that the energy budget residual corresponded to up to 20% of the net radiation during the rice-growing season and around 10% for the remainder of the year (fallow). The energy and water balance analysis also showed that because of the high water table in the region, soil was near saturation most of the time, and latent heat flux dominated over sensible heat flux by up to one order of magnitude in some cases. The estimate of evapotranspiration ET using the crop coefficient multiplied by the reference evapotranspiration K(sub c)ET(sub o) and the Penman-Monteith equation ET(sub PM), describing the canopy resistance through leaf area index (LAI) obtained by remote sensing, represent well the measured evapotranspiration, mainly in the fallow periods. Therefore, using a specific crop parameter like LAI and crop height can be an easy and interesting alternative to estimate ET in vegetated lowland areas.

  1. Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Bem, Ricardo Schmitt; Muzzillo, Dominique Araujo; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Werneck, Lineu Csar; Teive, Hlio Afonso Ghizoni

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. METHODS: Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. RESULTS: Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (30.6%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%). Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%). Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. CONCLUSION: This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival. PMID:21552664

  2. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

  3. Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flvia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

  4. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Braslia, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (<15 ?mad) with 2 h resolution using streakers and with impactors for 24 h resolution of 7 particle size fractions (<0.25 to >8 ?mad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Braslia and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 ?m) from both fire types. P, S and Cl were mostly small particle, Mg, Al, Si and K showed a bimodal distribution biased towards the small particle range, while Ca, Ti and Fe (crustal elements) predominated in the large particle mode. As Cl was found to be exclusively small particle, a formation mechanism in which HCl gas neutralizes small organic particles containing P and S may be hypothesized. A much more extensive field program for the summer of 1980 is planned to take place in the central Amazon basin using ground and airborne aerosol samplers, to capitalize on the work pioneered in this study.

  5. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  6. Occurrence of three haplotypes of Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Nondillo, A; Martins, V G; Botton, M; Bueno, O C

    2012-02-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is reported to occur from eastern Brazil to central Argentina in pasture or grassland, forest and second growth riparian forest, nesting under stones, rotting wood, and sandy soil. However, information on this species is poor and its ecological interactions and role as pests are unknown. Linepithema humile (Mayr), a closely related species to L. micans, known as the Argentine ant, is native to South America, and was accidentally introduced to several regions of the world. Recent studies have shown that other related species, such as L. micans, could become as pestiferous as L. humile because of its phylogenetic proximity. Samples of L. micans from different habitats in Southern Brazil were characterized by sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA. Sequences were compared to previously obtained sequences from samples of L. humile and the genetic distance and differences in the tRNALeu structure were investigated. Our data identified three haplotypes of L. micans, two of which were observed in ant populations closely associated with the Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hempel) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that is a serious pest of vineyards. The third haplotype was identified in ants from populations invading residences in urban habitats. PMID:23950010

  7. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2012-09-01

    The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region. PMID:22782538

  8. Geological context of the dinosauriform-bearing outcrops from the Triassic of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The Triassic of the western Gondwana (southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina) records the oldest dinosaurs. The Southern Brazilian Triassic fauna is subdivided into four assemblage zones (AZ's), recorded in alluvial (channel and floodplain) deposits, split into three third-order sequences that comprise the Santa Maria Supersequence. These deposits record dinosauriforms in three of these AZ's, mostly in near-channel environments (channel deposits, crevasse splays, distal floodplains) with different types of preservation (mostly partly articulated, with little carbonate deposition). There is faciological homogeneity within the Dinodontosaurus, Santacruzodon and Hyperodapedon AZ's, whereas change in fluvial style is recorded at the Riograndia AZ. So, further stratigraphic studies must include the recognition of post-depositional tectonism, in order to better understand the autogenic and allogenic mechanisms of deposition. It is suggested here that there is a lateral change on main channel deposition, with the areal restriction of the Santacruzodon AZ probably linked to reactivation on the Passo do Sobrado lineament and modification of the basin floor.

  9. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  10. Medicinal plants used by 'Passo da Ilha' rural community in the city of Pato Branco, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchese, José A; Ming, Lin C; Franceschi, Lucia de; Camochena, Rubia C; Gomes, Greice D R; Paladini, Marcos V; Capelin, Diogo; Marchese, Cristine F

    2009-12-01

    The scope of this work was to rescue and document the traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal plants used by Passo da Ilha rural community, in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Southern Brazil (26 degrees 11' S, 52 degrees 36' W and 760 m high). Structured interviews were made in field research with 16 informants who had the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants. The research was carried out from October to December 2000. The plants were collected in the field, identified and their vouchers were housed at the Herbarium 'Irina Delanova De Gemtchjnicov' (BOTU) of São Paulo State University, in Botucatu. A total of 47 botanical families and 114 species of medicinal plants were identified. These plants ere suitable for ore than 30 different edicinal uses. The residents are mainly of European descent, which justify the presence of many exotic plants. The knowledge on how to use medicinal plants properly is held mainly by the females, and decreases in the newer generations, denoting 'cultural erosion' in progress. PMID:19893895

  11. Impact of El Nio/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Latif, Mojib

    2002-01-01

    We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Nio-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 19851999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Nio years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous years mean Nio-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Nio on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil. PMID:12194766

  12. Topographic form stress in the Southern Ocean State Estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masich, Jessica; Chereskin, Teresa K.; Mazloff, Matthew R.

    2015-12-01

    We diagnose the Southern Ocean momentum balance in a 6 year, eddy-permitting state estimate of the Southern Ocean. We find that 95% of the zonal momentum input via wind stress at the surface is balanced by topographic form stress across ocean ridges, while the remaining 5% is balanced via bottom friction and momentum flux divergences at the northern and southern boundaries of the analysis domain. While the time-mean zonal wind stress field exhibits a relatively uniform spatial distribution, time-mean topographic form stress concentrates at shallow ridges and across the continents that lie within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) latitudes; nearly 40% of topographic form stress occurs across South America, while the remaining 60% occurs across the major submerged ridges that underlie the ACC. Topographic form stress can be divided into shallow and deep regimes: the shallow regime contributes most of the westward form stress that serves as a momentum sink for the ACC system, while the deep regime consists of strong eastward and westward form stresses that largely cancel in the zonal integral. The time-varying form stress signal, integrated longitudinally and over the ACC latitudes, tracks closely with the wind stress signal integrated over the same domain; at zero lag, 88% of the variance in the 6 year form stress time series can be explained by the wind stress signal, suggesting that changes in the integrated wind stress signal are communicated via rapid barotropic response down to the level of bottom topography.

  13. First occurrence of blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from a clinical sample in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Gusatti, Carolina; Bertholdo, Lauren Martins; Otton, Letcia Muner; Marchetti, Desire Padilha; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Coro, Gertrudes

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical origin carrying the blaOXA-58 gene in Brazil. The isolate included in this study was from a patient during an outbreak in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2007. It was resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested, it has also the blaOXA-65 gene and the ISAbal sequence located upstream to both blaOXA genes detected and it has a MIC of imipenem of 64 ?g/mL. PMID:24031824

  14. Fire - Southern Oscillation relations in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swetnam, T.W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fire scar and tree growth chronologies (1700 to 1905) and fire statistics (since 1905) from Arizona and New Mexico show that small areas burn after wet springs associated with the low phase of the Southern Oscillation (SO), whereas large areas burn after dry springs associated with the high phase of the SO. Through its synergistic influence on spring weather and fuel conditions, climatic variability in the tropical Pacific significantly influences vegetation dynamics in the southwestern United States. Synchrony of fire-free and severe fire years across diverse southwestern forests implies that climate forces fire regimes on a subcontinental scale; it also underscores the importance of exogenous factors in ecosystem dynamics.

  15. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping technique can be applied on flood zonation to avoid urbanization without planning.

  16. Rectification of the position of the type locality of Brachycephalus tridactylus (Anura: Brachycephalidae), a recently described species from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Maurcio, Giovanni Nachtigall; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this note is to correct the geographical position of the type locality of Brachycephalus tridactylus, a recently described species from southern Brazil (Garey et al. 2012). The type locality of B. tridactylus was designated as follows: "Serra do Morato (2504'54"S; 4819'53"W; 900-930 m above sea level; datum WGS84), Reserva Natural Salto Morato, municipality of Guaraqueaba, state of Paran" (Garey et al. 2012). However, when we plotted this locality data on Google Earth, the type locality was placed 6.80 km to the northwest of the Serra do Morato, falling on a different mountain range (with no common name) and outside Reserva Natural Salto Morato (FGBPN 2011). We therefore performed a fieldtrip to the exact point where the type series was collected (according to a local guide who participated in the collection of specimens with which the species was described). Using a GPS device (Garmin GPSmap 60CSx) we recorded the geographic coordinates and, after plotting this point on Google Earth, we recorded the altitude. We verified that the geographical coordinates of the type locality of B. tridactylus are: 2508'09"S, 4817'59"W (datum WGS84). PMID:26623798

  17. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

    2010-11-01

    Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

  18. Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology.

    PubMed

    Arzua, Mrcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mrio Antonio; Famadas, Ktia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paran, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'. PMID:14974693

  19. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Maurcio B; Curcio, Gustavo R; Roderjan, Carlos V

    2013-01-01

    Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest) in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paran. We performed ?13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas. PMID:23828336

  20. Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

  1. No evidence of HPV DNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Lus Carlos Moreira; Prolla, Joo Carlos; de Barros Lopes, Antonio; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southern Brazil. METHODS: We studied 189 esophageal samples from 125 patients from three different groups: (1) 102 biopsies from 51 patients with ESCC, with one sample from the tumor and another from normal esophageal mucosa distant from the tumor; (2) 50 esophageal biopsies from 37 patients with a previous diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and (3) 37 biopsies from esophageal mucosa with normal appearance from 37 dyspeptic patients, not exposed to smoking or alcohol consumption. Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the MY09/11 and GP5/6 L1 primers was used to detect HPV L1 in samples fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks. All PCR reactions were performed with a positive control (cervicovaginal samples), with a negative control (Human Genomic DNA) and with a blank reaction containing all reagents except DNA. We took extreme care to prevent DNA contamination in sample collection, processing, and testing. RESULTS: The histological biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ESCC in 52 samples (51 from ESCC group and 1 from the HNSCC group) and classified as well differentiated (12/52, 23.1%), moderately differentiated (27/52, 51.9%) or poorly differentiated (7/52, 13.5%). One hundred twenty-eight esophageal biopsies were considered normal (51 from the ESCC group, 42 from the HNSCC group and 35 from dyspeptic patients). Nine had esophagitis (7 from the HNSCC and 2 from dyspeptic patients). Of a total of 189 samples, only 6 samples had insufficient material for PCR analysis: 1 from mucosa distant from the tumor in a patient with ESCC, 3 from patients with HNSCC and 2 from patients without cancer. In 183 samples (96.8%) GAPDH, G3PDH and/or ?-globin were amplified, thus indicating the adequacy of the DNA in those samples. HPV DNA was negative in all the 183 samples tested: 52 with ESCC, 9 with esophagitis and 122 with normal esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of HPV infection in different ESCC from southern Brazil. PMID:24151387

  2. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  3. A new species of Paracaprella Mayer, 1890 (Amphipoda: Caprellida: Caprellidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Mariana B; Masunari, Setuko

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Paracaprella is described based on the specimens associated with the algae Sargassum cymosum and Laurencia obtusa that were collected from infralittoral depths (0.5 to 3.0 m) at Sepultura Beach, Bombinhas and Pacincia Beach, Penha, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This new species differs from the others of the genus by the unique morphology of the males' gnathopod 2: its propodus has a grasping margin provided with a deep groove. An identification key for Paracaprella species is also presented. PMID:25543748

  4. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  5. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32%. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

  6. Sea surface temperature variability off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter O.; Wainer, Ilana; Absy, JoãO. M.

    1999-09-01

    About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1° × 1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the variability off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in a broad range of temporal scales from seasonal to secular. With respect to behavior at these scales, three distinct areas can be identified in the study region. The first one, located over the shelf and controlled by winter invasions of subantarctic water along with Rio de la Plata and Patos-Mirim discharges, is characterized by large annual range of SST (7° to over 10°C), energetic mean square variability (from 1.4 to 2.2°C2, after removal of seasonal signal), and an extremely high secular trend toward warming (1.2 to 1.6°C per 100 years), especially in the proximity of the estuaries. The second one, an area of the Brazil Current influence, exhibits smaller annual range (5° to 7°C) and mean square variability (1 to 1.4°C2). The secular trend is from 1° to 1.2°C per 100 years, smaller than observed in the shelf, but still high compared to the global average. The third area, which encompasses the eastern deep ocean part of the region away from the influence of either major currents or coastal discharges, exhibits less energetic variability at all examined scales, as compared to the rest of the region. Everywhere in the region, 50 to 80% of interannual variability is associated with periods smaller than 10 years; however, compared to the rest of the region, the shelf zone is characterized by a relatively large contribution from decadal and interdecadal scales. In austral winter a thermal front forms in the study region, separating warm tropical water associated with the Brazil Current and cold subantarctic water flowing northward on the shelf with an admixture of coastal freshwater discharges. The position of this frontal zone is subject to strong year-to-year changes. More than a half of the energy of these migrations resides at periods smaller than 10 years where the spectrum is fairly white. In the interdecadal part of the spectrum, at least three significant individual peaks can be identified, corresponding to periods of 47±2, 27±1, and 18 years.

  7. Influence of habitat structure on fish assemblage of an artificial reef in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Flix-Hackradt, Fabiana Czar; Garca-Charton, Jos Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Habitat complexity strongly influences reef fish community composition. An understanding of the underlying reasons for this relationship is important for evaluating the suitability of artificial reef (AR) habitats as a marine resource management tool. We studied the influence of AR habitat structure on fish assemblage composition off the southern coast of Brazil. We found that reef blocks with greater area and number of holes possessed the greatest fish species richness and abundance. Reef blocks with greater complexity had higher abundance of almost 30% of fish species present. Natural reef (NR) and AR were different in their fish species composition, trophic structure and categories of water column occupancy by fish (spatial categories). Although NR was more diverse and harboured more trophic levels, AR presented the higher abundances and the presence of distinct fish species that underlined their importance at a regional scale. The greater availability of sheltering habitat where hard substrate is scarce, together with their frequent use by economically important species, make AR a useful tool for coastal management when certain ecological conditions are met. PMID:22014376

  8. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. PMID:26611972

  9. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  10. Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Vinicius Jos; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. PMID:25119309

  11. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letcia Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

  12. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families. PMID:18797716

  13. Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months), 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months), and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23 years). CONCLUSIONS: Birth cohort studies can be carried out successfully in developing countries, and the methods employed in this life-cycle study have allowed us to investigate the influence of early exposures in determining disease outcomes in adult life. PMID:19142340

  14. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  15. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin), southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Becker, F G; De Fries, L C C; Ferrer, J; Bertaco, V A; Luz-Agostinho, K D G; Silva, J F P; Cardoso, A R; Lucena, Z M S; Lucena, C A S

    2013-02-01

    The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil) are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis), as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado). Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis), restricted range species (21.7% of total species) should be considered in conservation efforts. PMID:23644791

  16. [Probability of dying in the first year of life in an urban area of southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, R K; Gotlieb, S L

    1993-12-01

    A birth-cohort of 4,876 children born alive in hospital were selected and followed through up to the age of one year with a view to estimating the risk of dying in the first year of life. All of them were born in 1989, in one of the seven hospitals of an urban area of Southern Brazil and the only requirement for belonging to the cohort was that of residence on the area. The selected variables were: sex, birthweight, age at moment of death, underlying cause of death, and maternal age. The estimated probability of dying in the first year was of 19.9 per 1,000 (77.3% of the deaths occurred during the neonatal period). Perinatal causes and congenital malformations contributed to 80% of the deaths, and infectious diseases were the underlying cause of death in only 1.1% of the losses. The risk of dying in the first year of life due to afections arising during the perinatal period was higher among vaginally delivered babies (20.3 per 1,000) than it was for those born by cesarean section (9 per 1,000). A higher probability of death was present among infants born to adolescent mothers, and those with low birthweight (less than 2,500g). The results brought out the need for improving the quality of prenatal and infant care. They also suggested the hypothesis of a possible association between higher infant mortality and lower socio-economic level. PMID:7997815

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  18. Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simes-Lopes, Paulo C

    2011-05-01

    Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals. PMID:21790069

  19. Characteristics of whistles from resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexandre F; Oliveira, Alvaro M; Dalla Rosa, L; Lailson-Brito, J

    2007-05-01

    Little is known of the whistles produced by bottlenose dolphins in the South Atlantic Ocean. A total of 788 whistles were recorded from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The mean number of whistles emitted per minute per animal was 0.8. Bottlenose dolphins emitted a varied repertoire of whistles, in which those with more than one inflection point were the most frequent and there was no predominance of ascending or descending whistles. Whistles recorded had a great frequency range, between 1.2 and 22.3 kHz. Whistle duration was 553.3 (+/- 393.9 ms) and 66.6% of the whistles lasted < 800 ms. Differences in the mean values of the whistles' characters were found between this study and other values previously reported for Tursiops. Bottlenose dolphins in the Patos Lagoon estuary emitted repeated whistle contours and individuals may be sharing some whistle types, as it has been suggested for Tursiops. PMID:17550195

  20. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterization of pathogenic bacteria at different stages of cattle slaughtering in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-06-01

    Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil. PMID:26896744

  1. Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

    2007-01-01

    Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Falln, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves. PMID:17420862

  2. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time. PMID:21637420

  3. Nutritional evaluation follow-up of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of over/underweight and its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors. METHODS Longitudinal cohort study of youths born in 1982 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5 we interviewed 4,198 of the 5,914 cohort subjects, obtaining weight and stature measurements that were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Underweight was defined as BMI lower than 18,5 kg/m2; overweight as BMI between 25 and 30kg/m2; and obesity as BMI IMC ? 30kg/m2. The effects of socioeconomic (family income and schooling) and demographic (skin color) variables, birthweight, and breastfeeding on underweight, overweight, and obesity were analyzed separately for men and women using Poisson regression. RESULTS Prevalence of underweight, obesity, and overweight were 6.0%, 8.2%, and 28.9%, respectively. In adjusted analysis, only birthweight remained associated with underweight among men and women. Poor men showed higher risk of underweight, but were protected from obesity and overweight. By contrast, risk of obesity and overweight was higher among poor women. CONCLUSIONS The present results underscore the importance of socioeconomic determinants on nutritional status, with special emphasis on the distinct effects these factors have among men and women in different nutritional conditions. PMID:19142346

  4. Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence in adolescents and young adults of a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study of infants born in 1982, in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and interviewed in 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005. In the 1997 and 2000-2001 follow-up visits, the outcome studied was smoking, defined as the consumption of at least one cigarette in the previous week. In the 2005 follow-up visit, the dependent variable was current smoking. Adjusted analysis was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalences among males were 5.9%, 20.2% and 27.6% in the 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005 follow-up visits, respectively. Among females, respective values were 9.3%, 27.5% and 23.6%. Mean age of smoking onset was 15.1 years (SD=2.5). In the multivariate analysis, lower maternal level of education, low income level in 1982, poverty during the follow-up period and maternal smoking were significantly associated with higher smoking prevalences in both sexes. Being non-white was associated with higher risk of smoking among females exclusively. Breastfeeding was not associated with smoking. Among females, smoking was inversely associated with birth weight in the crude analysis, but lost its significance in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher incidence of smoking in poorer groups suggests that behavior such as avoiding smoking during pregnancy and increasing cigarette prices can have an important population impact. PMID:19142348

  5. Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C; Minten, Gicele C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and assess its association with risk factors in a cohort of young adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p?0.001) when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p?0.001) and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002) increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders. PMID:19142342

  6. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Helosa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  7. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  8. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

    2015-01-01

    This studys aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  9. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among "shantytown" youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an "anti-biologizing" explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven "biopsychiatrization" so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to "resist" pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  10. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  11. The burden of infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina.

    PubMed

    Traebert, Jefferson; Nickel, Daniela A; Traebert, Eliane; Escalante, Juan J C; Schneider, Ione J C

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases are still significant causes of deaths in Brazil. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of selected infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina in 2011. An ecological study was conducted. The infectious diseases included were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease, diarrheal diseases and other infectious diseases. Data were collected from official health information systems. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated by the sum of Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). 45,237.33 DALYs were estimated, with a rate of 685.46 DALYs per 100,000 population. 92.9% was due to YLL and 7.1% to YLD. Men and the age range of 0-4 years presented higher burden. The highest burden was attributed to HIV/AIDS. There was a high concentration of burden rates in the coast regions of the state. It could be concluded that more than 90% of the burden was attributed to the early mortality component. The highest burden was observed among men, children under 5 years of age and at the coast regions of the state. The highest levels of burden were due to HIV/AIDS. PMID:26608780

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Topazio, Josu Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, Andr; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Smia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Sold, Natan Marcos; Brunig, Patrcia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

  13. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Jnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Arajo, Joafrncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

    2013-01-01

    Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itaja-A River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

  14. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. PMID:24566128

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution and population structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an estuary in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Arajo, Joafrncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

    2013-01-01

    Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itaja-A River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

  16. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso Csar Rodrigues; Domingos, Fbio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangar da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults, and fractures and folds of events 3 and 4 are consistent with regional extensional tectonics associated with earthquakes that triggered sediment deformation. The 200 km that separate the occurrences of cap carbonates suggest that important seismic events took place during the early Ediacaran in the southern Amazon Craton.

  17. Tracing anthropogenically driven groundwater discharge into a coastal lagoon from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Niencheski, Felipe; Burnett, William; Peterson, Richard; Chanton, Jeffrey; Andrade, Carlos F. F.; Milani, Idel B.; Schmidt, Axel; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-05-01

    SummaryWe investigated the distribution of naturally occurring geochemical tracers ( 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, CH 4, ?18O, and ?2H) in the water column and adjacent groundwater of Mangueira Lagoon as proxies of groundwater discharge. Mangueira Lagoon is a large (90 km long), shallow (4-5 m deep), fresh, and non-tidal coastal lagoon in southern Brazil surrounded by extensively irrigated rice plantations and numerous irrigation canals. We hypothesized that the annual, intense irrigation for rice agriculture creates extreme conditions that seasonally change groundwater discharge patterns in the adjacent lagoon. We further supposed that dredging of irrigation canals alters groundwater fluxes. While the activities of 222Rn in shallow groundwater were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in surface water, CH 4 and radium isotopes were only 1 order of magnitude higher. Therefore, 222Rn appears to be the preferred groundwater tracer in this system. Radon concentrations and conductivities were dramatically higher near the pump house of rice irrigation canals, consistent with a groundwater source. Modeling of radon inventories accounting for total inputs (groundwater advection, diffusion from sediments, and decay of 226Ra) and losses (atmospheric evasion, horizontal mixing and decay) indicated that groundwater advection rates in the irrigation canals (25 cm/d) are over 2 orders of magnitude higher than along the shoreline (0.1 cm/d). Nearly 75% of the total area of the canals is found in the southern half of the lagoon, where groundwater inputs seem to be higher as also indicated by methane and stable isotope trends. In spite of the relatively small area of the canals, we estimate that they contribute nearly 70% of the total (57,000 m 3/d) groundwater input into the entire Mangueira Lagoon. We suggest that the dredging of these canals cut through aquitards which previously restricted upward advection from the underlying permeable strata. The irrigation channels may therefore represent an important but previously overlooked source of nutrients and other dissolved chemicals derived from agricultural practices into the lagoon.

  18. Variants of the HNF1α gene: A molecular approach concerning diabetic patients from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Naieli; Nogaroto, Viviane; Svidnicki, Paulo V.; Milléo, Fábio Q.; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Almeida, Mara C.; Vicari, Marcelo R.; Artoni, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) presents monogenic inheritance and mutation factors which have already been identified in six different genes. Given the wide molecular variation present in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene (HNF1α) MODY3, the aim of this study was to amplify and sequence the coding regions of this gene in seven patients from the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Brazil, presenting clinical MODY3 features. Besides the synonymous variations, A15A, L17L, Q141Q, G288G and T515T, two missense mutations, I27L and A98V, were also detected. Clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients were compared with the molecular findings, including the I27L polymorphism that was revealed in some overweight/obese diabetic patients of this study, this corroborating with the literature. We found certain DNA variations that could explain the hyperglycemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:23271932

  19. A new species of Caenis Stephens, 1836 (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucas R C; Molineri, Carlos; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Caenis Stephens is described based on the male imago, female imago and egg stages from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The male imago of Caenis gaucha sp. nov. is diagnosed as follows: body length of male 2.0-2.5 mm; base of antennal flagellum not dilated; forceps apically rounded, not fused to lateral margins of styliger plate; styliger plate short with posterior margin slightly sub-triangular; ratio of foreleg 1.7-2.2 × the length of hind leg, forceps length 4.4-6.0 × the width ½ from base, and distance between the extreme lateral points of the forceps bases 1.7-1.8 × forceps length. PMID:25947532

  20. Larval habitats of sand flies in rural areas of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reinhold-Castro, Krin Rosi; de Carvalho Gasparotto, Jaqueline; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2015-12-01

    We report the results of an investigation of natural larval sand fly habitats in the Recanto Marista, Doutor Camargo municipality, Paran state, Brazil, from May, 2010 to August, 2012. We used Alencar emergence traps (AT), experimental traps (ET), and soil samples incubated in a biochemical oxygen demand incubator. Eight sand flies were collected with ATs. One specimen was collected with an ET and 21 were collected in soil samples. The collected species were Brumptomyia brumpti, Micropygomyia ferreirana, Migonemyia bursiformis, Migonemyia migonei, Nyssomyia neivai, Nyssomyia whitmani, and Pintomyia pessoai. The laval habitats of sand flies were located in the Recanto Marista, especially between tree roots, but the number of adults that emerged in the traps and soil samples was small despite the high density of sand flies that has been recorded in the Recanto Marista. PMID:26611961

  1. Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

    2012-05-01

    This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

  2. Growth of very low birth weight infants at 12 months corrected age in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana G; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this article is to describe growth of very low birth weight infants born in southern Brazil. All infants weighing < or =1500 g were followed up until 12 months corrected age (CA). Growth was recorded at 40 weeks, 6 and 12 months CA. Catch up was considered if the measures were > or =-2 SD of World Health Organization growth charts for weight and length; and of National Center for Health Statistics for head circumference. One hundred and ninety three infants born were followed up for the study. At 40 weeks CA, 57.8% patients achieved catch-up in weight and 50.9% in length. At 6 months CA, 82.2% achieved catch-up for weight and length and at 1 year CA, 92% achieved catch-up in weight and 86.9% in length. Catch-up in head circumference was achieved for 93.4%, 85.9% and 85% patients at 40 weeks, 6 months and 12 months CA, respectively. At 12 months CA, no catch-up in weight, length and head circumference was related to higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0.046) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (P = 0.003); longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (P = 0.037), lower maternal education (P = 0.018) and PVL (P = 0,003); higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0,004), PVL (P = 0.005) and longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the NICU (P = 0.044), respectively. In conclusion, PVL and higher SNAPPE-II were important factors to catch-up delay. Catch-up growth was high at 12 months CA. PMID:18156645

  3. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paran coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paran, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  4. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Domiciano, Isabela G.; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Koch, Mariana S.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  5. Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosngela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351

  6. Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

    2008-08-01

    This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucrias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages. PMID:18833472

  7. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 clade C- versus B-infected individuals in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J

    2013-12-01

    HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C-infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in Southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS)), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B- and C-infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

  8. Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranagu Bay, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Carolina Somaio; Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Roper, James J

    2007-01-01

    Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranagu Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 x 20 cm) were taken from fibreglass floats (boardwalks and boat hulls) and concrete columns. A total of 85 species were found of which 50 were classified into three categories: four introduced, 33 cryptogenic and 13 native. The introduced species were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana (on floats, boats and submerged concrete), the polychaete Polydora cornuta (more abundant on floats and submerged concrete) and the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (equally abundant on the three substrata) and Striatobalanus amaryllis (only on floats and submerged concrete). Organisms were most abundant on floating boardwalks, while species richness and composition were similar to that on boat hulls (32 and 37, respectively), which are an important vector for intraregional transport. All substrata supported at least three of the four introduced, and many of the cryptogenic species. The proportion of introduced to the total number of species was greater than observed in other ports. This demonstrates that the introduction potential is great in Paranagu Bay, especially considering that this study was restricted to one site and sampled only hard substrata. None of the introduced species has yet been identified as invasive, but all are generalists with respect to substratum, indicating their invasive potential. The ability to colonise stable concrete walls shows that they could also colonise the natural granite rocky substrata in the bay, and the ability to colonise floating surfaces indicate their capability of spreading in the region on the hulls of recreational boats. PMID:17852067

  9. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. PMID:23571856

  10. Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method?

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997

  11. Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006. Southern Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    "Making the Grade: Online Education in the United States, 2006--Southern Edition" is based on data collected for the fourth annual report on the state of online education in U.S. higher education. Supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and based on responses from over 700 southern colleges and universities, this year's study, like last

  12. Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2005-11-01

    Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x = 11.18 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

  13. Congenital Neosporosis in Goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y.; Guimares, Antnio M.; Santos, Domingos S.; Bezerra, Pedro S.; Costa, Rafael C.; Peconick, Ana P.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil. PMID:22451736

  14. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tom; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Ins Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25%. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95% CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  15. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO... March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... the Brazilian Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO...

  16. Positive inversion of extensional footwalls in the southern Serra do Espinhao, Brazil--insights from sandbox laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Caroline J S; Martins-Neto, Marcelo A; Ribeiro, Valria E

    2006-06-01

    Analogue experiments were carried out to get insights into the processes governing positive inversion during the foreland propagating thrust tectonics in the southern Serra do Espinhao, a Brasiliano/Panafrican foldthrust belt in southeast Brazil. In particular, model listric half-grabens were inverted by applying contractional displacement to the footwall blocks. We investigated two different inversion conditions in listric half-grabens: (i) extensional and contractional detachments at the same level and (ii) at different positions. The models revealed that the development of a forward-breaking thrust system occurs in the basin synrift deposits, by contractional translation of the extensional footwall block when the extensional and contractional master faults do not coincide. Our experiments show the tectonic imbrication between basement and synrift sequences which characterizes the southern Serra do Espinhao, and support the location in the eastern mountain range domain of the Espinhao rift master fault system, which is not exposed at the surface. PMID:16710570

  17. Simulation of hydrosedimentological impacts caused by climate change in the Apucaraninha River watershed, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Iensen, I. R.; Bauer Schultz, G.; Dos Santos, I.

    2015-03-01

    Climate change can cause significant modifications in hydrosedimentological processes. Climate projections indicate the occurrence of extreme events, in terms of precipitation, droughts, floods and temperature. By increasing temperatures and altering precipitation regimes, climate change is expected to affect sediment dynamics. Predictions of the effects of climate change on streamflow and sediment yield vary widely, depending on the geographical location and climate scenarios used. Mathematical modelling can be used to simulate the hydrosedimentological processes in watersheds and enable the simulation of climate change effects on sediment yield. This paper aims to simulate the impacts of climate change hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed (504 km²), southern Brazil, considering the climate change scenarios A2 (pessimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases) and B2 (optimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases), developed by the IPCC. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate projections on the sediment yield in the Apucaraninha River watershed. The model was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and sediment data from 1987 to 2012. The model presented satisfactory fit to the observed data allowing the reproduction of the current hydrological conditions of the watershed. Based on the satisfactory results in calibration and validation, the climate scenarios A2 and B2 were inserted to simulate streamflow and sediment conditions for the period 2071-2100. The results for both scenarios indicate that simulations of both climate scenarios resulted in changes in hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed, mainly in terms of decrease in average sediment yield due to the reduction in precipitation amount and increase in evapotranspiration. Our results also indicate that every 1% change in precipitation has resulted in 2.8% change in soil erosion and 1.6% change in runoff under scenario A2, and 2.3% change in erosion and 1.1% in runoff under scenarios B2, thus suggesting that climate change tends to affect sediment yield more than streamflow, although seasonally both could be impacted in similar ways.

  18. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  19. The isostatic state of the southern Urals crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dring, J.; Gtze, H.-J.

    The Uralide orogen, in Central Russia, is the focus of intense geoscientific investigations during recent years. The international research is motivated by some unusual lithospheric features compared with other collisional belts including the preservation of (a) a collisional architecture with an orogenic root and a crustal thickness of 55-58 km, and (b) large volumes of very low-grade and non-metamorphic oceanic crust and island arc rocks in the upper crust of a low-relief mountain belt. The latter cause anomalous gravity highs along the thickened crust and the isostatic equilibrium inside the Uralides lithosphere as well as the overthrust high-metamorphic rocks. The integrated URSEIS '95 seismic experiment provides fundamentally new data revealing the lithospheric architecture of an intact Paleozoic collisional orogen that allows the construction of density models. In the Urals' lithosphere different velocity structures resolved by wide-angle seismic experiments along both the URSEIS '95- and the Troitsk profile. They can be used to constrain lithospheric density models: a first model consists of a deep subducted continental lower crust which has been highly eclogitized at depths of 60-90 km to a density of 3550 kg/m3. The second model shows a slightly eclogitized lower crust underlying the Uralide orogen with a crustal thickness of 60 km. The eclogitized lower crust causes a too-small impedance contrast to the lithospheric mantle resulting in a lack of reflectors in the area of the largest crustal thickness. Both models fit the measured gravity field. Analyzing the isostatic state of the southern Urals' lithosphere, both density models are in isostatic equilibrium.

  20. Helicobacter pylori and anemia: a community-based cross-sectional study among adults in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, In S; Minten, Gicele Costa; Valle, Neiva C J; Tuerlinckx, Giovana Costa; Boccio, Jos; Barrado, Domingo Andrs; Silva, Alessandra Banaszeski da; Pereira, Guilherme Augusto Reissig

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori and anemia, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 18-45 year old users of the 31 primary health care units in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were carried out in waiting rooms during two work shifts. Anemia (hemoglobin < 11g/dL among pregnant women, < 12g/dL among women and < 13g/dL among men) was diagnosed from capillary blood (HemoCue) and H. pylori by means of a 13C-UBT. Information on socio-demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics was collected. Logistic and linear regression analyses were carried out, taking into account aggregated primary health care units. A total of 1,117 respondents fulfilled the inclusion criteria (losses/refusals: 8.1%). Prevalence of anemia was 20.6% (18.2-23.2%) and of H. pylori, 70.7% (68.0-73.6%). After allowing for age, sex and skin color the odds ratio for anemia among those who were diagnosed H. pylori positive was 0.94 (0.70-1.27). After allowing for sex, skin color, family monthly income, age, and smoking, the reduction in hemoglobin among H. pylori positive respondents was 0.07g/dL (-0.24-0.11; p = 0.4). There is no association between H. pylori and anemia among adults attending primary health care units in Southern Brazil. PMID:20191156

  1. Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 20042006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1?:?62482, 1?:?30821, and 1?:?47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. PMID:25346858

  2. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

  3. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler slaughterhouses in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Arguello, Yuli M; Perdoncini, G; Morgan, R B; Salle, C T P; Moraes, H L S; Gomes, Marcos J P; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading cause of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The over-use of antimicrobials in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antimicrobial-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones and macrolides. The aim of the present study was to provide information of the current status of antimicrobial resistance patterns in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry sources. Fifty strains were recovered from broiler slaughterhouses in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, 2012. The strains were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility against three agents (ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and erythromycin) by minimal inhibitory concentrations. The strains were analysed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for detection of the Thr-86 mutation that confers resistance to ciprofloxacin. In addition, all the strains were tested for the presence of efflux systems (cmeB gene) conferring antimicrobial resistance. The minimum inhibitory concentrations results showed that 98% of isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and most isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (94%) and nalidixic acid (90%). A complete correlation was observed between the minimum inhibitory concentrations and PCR-RFLP assay. Finally, the cmeB gene that is responsible for multidrug resistance was detected in 16 isolates out the 50 strains (32%). PMID:26925976

  4. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bugoni, L; Krause, L; Petry, M V

    2001-12-01

    Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. The ingestion of anthropogenic debris accounted for the death of 13.2% of the green turtles examined. Signs of damage over the body and carapace indicated that fishing activities caused the death of 13.6% (3/22) of loggerheads and 1.5% (1/56) of green turtles. Therefore, it appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters. Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well as the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action. PMID:11827120

  5. Black-fly assemblage distribution patterns in streams in disturbed areas in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa; Sagot, Lcia Beatriz; Pepinelli, Mateus

    2014-12-01

    Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in September 2004 to address ecological aspects. Of the 18 species collected, those that occurred in more than 50% of the streams were: Simulium subnigrum Lutz 1910, Simulium pertinax Kollar 1882, Simulium subpallidum Lutz 1910 and Simulium incrustatum Lutz 1910. Species richness was not influenced by any of the environmental or geographical variables considered, and there was no pattern of species co-occurrence, corroborating the hypothesis of a stochastic distribution of the Simuliidae assemblage. When analyzed individually, only three of seven species with occurrence frequency >30% were related to any of the variables measured. The probabilities of occurrence of Simulium jujuyense Paterson & Shannon 1927 and S. pertinax were higher in streams with high values of water pH and electrical conductivity, whereas the opposite was observed for S. incrustatum. Therefore, due to stochastic distribution, the population studies of Simuliidae are more suitable for predicting the occurrence of species in rural areas than are studies of assemblages. PMID:25107279

  6. Dietary patterns and hypertension: a population-based study with women from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Camey, Suzi; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between dietary pattern and hypertension using the rank reduced regression (RRR). It was a cross-sectional population-based study with a representative sample of 1,026 women living in the city of So Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In order to identify dietary patterns, dietary variables from a dietary frequency questionnaire were used as predictors and sodium, potassium and saturated fat consumption were selected as response variables. The RRR identified three dietary patterns: Factor 1, Factor 2 and Factor 3. The association between hypertension and factors 1, 2 and 3, after adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral and obesity variables, was not significant. After stratification by age, the association between hypertension and factor 2 was present in 40-60 year-old women (tertile 2 compared to 3 RP = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.43-0.91; p = 0,05). The new statistical method (RRR), proved to be a useful tool for identifying dietary patterns. In this study, healthier dietary pattern was directly associated with hypertension in women between 40 and 60 years of age. PMID:24936813

  7. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltro; Bonacin, Jos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

  8. [Decentralization of epidemiological surveillance in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Ana Coelho de; Mota, Eduardo Luiz Andrade; Felisberto, Eronildo

    2015-04-01

    The study aimed to analyze the relationship between decentralization of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the development of epidemiological surveillance activities in municipalities (counties) in Pernambuco State, Brazil. This was an exploratory descriptive qualitative and quantitative study, including a document search, completion of semi-structured interviews by key informants, and an ecological spatial and time trend study of selected health indicators, covering a 10-year period (2001-2010). The study showed that municipalities adhered to the decentralization process, which was making progress in Pernambuco, but with inequalities and weaknesses in its development. There was also a fluctuation in the time series for the selected indicators. Thus, even though the decentralization of epidemiological surveillance is still incipient in some municipalities, their protagonist role in implementing the activities promotes empowerment at the local level by producing key information for decision-making. PMID:25945994

  9. Does the Lagoa do peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?

    PubMed

    Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo

    2013-03-01

    The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil. PMID:23894991

  10. A review of paleogeographical and chronostratigraphical distribution of mesoeucrocodylian species from the upper Cretaceous beds from the Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups, Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2006-11-01

    This article offers a detailed overview of mesoeucrocodylian assemblages recovered from the Late Cretaceous southern South America Bauru and Neuquén groups as a result of extensive research during the past 110 years. The Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups yield numerous mesoeucrocodylian remains, mainly of Turonian-late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) age. The majority of the discoveries were made in the Adamantina and Marília formations of Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, and Candeleros and Bajo de la Carpa formations of Neuquén and Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Sixty formally described species of mesoeucrocodylians are recognized on the basis of disarticulated materials; among them, notosuchians, sebecosuchians, and peirosaurids are the best represented. At least one species is common to the Bauru and Neuquén groups, and close phylogenetic affinities are postulated for the remaining taxa. The fossil record of these two South American units shows three main peaks of diversity: in the Cenomanian of Argentina, the Santonian of Argentina and Brazil, and the Maastrichtian of Brazil. The absence of notosuchians and sebecosuchians in the late Campanian-Maastrichtian of Patagonia is coincident with the paleoenvironmental changes in that landmass by that time, as well as with the increase in diversity of several groups of theropod dinosaurs. In contrast, highly specialized carnivorous mesoeucrocodylians are abundant in the Maastrichtian of the Bauru group of Brazil, whereas other tetrapod carnivorous groups are scarcely represented.

  11. April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

    The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Zika Virus Likely to Spread to Southern United States, Experts Predict

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156825.html Zika Virus Likely to Spread to Southern United States, Experts ... HealthDay News) -- As cases of the mosquito-borne Zika virus are spreading across central and South America and ...

  13. Case Study: Incorporating International Themes into the Business Curriculum at Missouri Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzard, Janet; Block, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Higher education is charged with preparing graduates to be successful in an international society. This paper will examine Missouri Southern State University's approach to internationalizing their campus and curriculum.

  14. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

  15. Phytolith studies applied to geomorphologic analysis in the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.

    2012-12-01

    Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These factors accounts as well for the larger diameter of the gravels in P1, giving evidences of a more effective action of mechanical weathering near the outcrop. The stock of phytoliths of P1 follows a normal trend of decrease with depth, while P2 presents a very large increase in the organic horizon. In the surface horizons, the indexes D/P are characteristic of open vegetation, but in P1 the current tree cover density is slightly higher than in P2, probably because, being closer to the outcrop, it is located in a place that concentrates more humidity, or because phytoliths comes from the more wooded vegetation of the hillside. D/P index decreases with depth, except for a significant increase in the detritic pavement, suggesting a more humid environment. In the deeper horizons the values are lower than today, but the weathering of phytoliths at this depth is so great that the phytolith signal is weak, remaining only phytoliths that are more resistant to dissolution. In this case, the reconstitution of vegetation by the phytoliths is not reliable, and we can only infer that the erosive processes during this period were very noticeable, indicating a high-energy environment.

  16. Thermobarometric and geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Braslia Fold Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Brown, M.; Piccoli, P. M.; Trouw, R. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Usui, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2006-05-01

    The Braslia Fold Belt lies between the So Francisco, Amazonas and Paranapanema cratons in central Brazil. In the southern portion of this belt, the Andrelndia Group comprises a stack of nappes that record metamorphic conditions ranging from greenschist facies at the base to high pressure granulite facies at the top of the stack. Published conventional thermobarometric data indicate peak P-T conditions of ~1.3 GPa and ~900C in the uppermost nappes, and the few published geochronologic data suggest an age of peak metamorphism around 630 Ma. Here we report new thermobarometry for the uppermost nappes calculated using the average P-T method in THERMOCALC, based on new analytical data from our own samples and literature data, in order compare published results based on conventional thermobarometry to results obtained using the average P-T method. In addition, we report new U-Pb zircon ages that constrain the timing of metamorphism in the uppermost nappes of the Andrelndia Group. Maximum average P-T conditions of 1.50.2 GPa and 1020130C were calculated for a mafic granulite in the uppermost Socorro --- Guaxup Nappe, which compares to published results of ~1.1 GPa and ~890C. The Trs Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, immediately below the Socorro --- Guaxup Nappe, yields an average P-T of 1.10.1 GPa and 88040C for literature data, compared with published results of ~1.3 GPa and ~730C. In addition, our new analytical data from the Trs Pontas --- Varginha Nappe yield P-T conditions comparable to the recalculated data, with typical peak P ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 GPa and T ranging from 750 to 880C. These data suggest that the upper nappe was subjected to higher pressures than previously reported, and also may have been subjected to higher temperatures. For the Carmo da Cachoeira Nappe, immediately below the Trs Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, we calculate P-T of 0.6 to 0.7 GPa and 520 to 580C. For the Trs Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, zircons were dated from three samples of Grt-Ky-Kfs gneiss. Cores and rims of zircons from a variety of microstructural settings were dated in situ using a Cameca 1270 secondary ion mass spectrometer. Sixteen 207Pb/206Pb dates inferred to be from metamorphic zircon overgrowths were culled from the dataset; a probability distribution plot of these dates indicates two ages of zircon growth, at 6504 Ma and 6056 Ma (2?). We speculate that the younger age reflects emplacement of the Socorro --- Guaxup Nappe over the Trs Pontas --- Varginha Nappe, in which case the older age may record the peak of subduction related metamorphism prior to arc collision.

  17. Phytoseiid mites from tropical fruit trees in Bahia State, Brazil (Acari, Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542

  18. Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dottie C.

    This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care

  19. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Reveals a New Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) from the Atlantic Forest of the Highlands of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the highland species of the clade. Chromosomal morphology is conservative, supporting the inference of homologies among the karyotypes of the species of this genus. Phyllomedusa rustica is apparently restricted to its type-locality, and we discuss the potential impact on the strategies applied to the conservation of the natural grassland formations found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. We suggest that conservation strategies should be modified to guarantee the preservation of this species. PMID:25141279

  20. SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM SHEEP FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection but little is known of ovine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in sera of 495 sheep from 36 counties of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25) and found in 120...

  1. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Burr, Brooks M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Cashner, Robert C.; Etnier, David A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Kuhajda, Bernard R.; Mayden, Richard L.; Robison, Henry W.; Ross, Stephen T.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the southern United States. The southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a high proportion of its fishes in need of conservation action. The review included 662 native freshwater and diadromous fishes and 24 marine fishes that are significant components of freshwater ecosystems. Of this total, 560 described, freshwater fish species are documented, and 49 undescribed species are included provisionally pending formal description. Described subspecies (86) are recognized within 43 species, 6 fishes have undescribed subspecies, and 9 others are recognized as complexes of undescribed taxa. Extinct, endangered, threatened, or vulnerable status is recognized for 28% (187 taxa) of southern freshwater and diadromous fishes. To date, 3 southern fishes are known to be extinct throughout their ranges, 2 are extirpated from the study region, and 2 others may be extinct. Of the extant southern fishes, 41 (6%) are regarded as endangered, 46 (7%) are regarded as threatened, and 101 (15%) are regarded as vulnerable. Five marine fishes that frequent fresh water are regarded as vulnerable. Our assessment represents a 75% increase in jeopardized southern fishes since 1989 and a 125% increase in 20 years. The trend for fishes in the southern United States is clear; jeopardized fishes are successively being moved from the vulnerable category to that of imminent threat of extinction.

  2. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate

  3. Assessment of Yield with Altered Soybean Traits Under Climate Change in Southern Brazil: Performance of the Crop Model and Genotype Trait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, R.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Boote, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water deficit is the main factor responsible for soybean yield gap in Southern Brazil and tends to increase under climate change scenarios. Alternatives need be identified in order to create options to reduce the yield gap. One alternative is the selection of soybean cultivars with traits associated to drought tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study, via use of crop models, is to evaluate genetic traits that can help to improve soybean yield under climate change scenarios in Southern Brazil by improving the crop tolerance to water deficit. For this, the CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean model was used to simulate soybean yield in Southern Brazil and evaluate yield with altered genetic traits. The first step was to calibrate the model for a Brazilian soybean cultivar, using results from irrigated and rainfed experiments conducted in different sowing dates and locations in Southern Brazil. The CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean estimated a mean yield of 3551 (SD = 1439) kg ha-1, while the mean observed yield was 3313 (SD = 1105) kg ha-1. The mean error was 238 kg ha-1 (7.2%), mean error absolute was 765 kg ha-1 (23%) and modeling efficiency was 0.27, with a good relationship between observed and simulated yield (Figure 1). The model was able to estimate soybean yield for different levels of soil water available during the crop season. The next steps of the project are to manipulate the coefficients related with rooting depth extension, early stomata closure at high soil water contents, transpiration limited to a maximum rate, and N2 fixation drought tolerance in the model in order to identify their impact on yield under current and future climate scenarios in all soybean production regions in Southern Brazil. The soybean yield from different changed traits will be evaluated in order to define guidelines for breeding programs, allowing the saving of resources and time in the new cultivars development process, focused on adaptation to climate change.

  4. Comparing phosphorus indices from twelve southern U.S. states against monitored phosphorus loads from six prior southern studies.

    PubMed

    Osmond, D; Sharpley, A; Bolster, C; Cabrera, M; Feagley, S; Lee, B; Mitchell, C; Mylavarapu, R; Oldham, L; Walker, F; Zhang, H

    2012-01-01

    Forty-eight states in the United States use phosphorus (P) indices to meet the requirements of their Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Code 590 Standard, which provides national guidance for nutrient management of agricultural lands. The majority of states developed these indices without consultation or coordination with neighboring states to meet specific local conditions and policy needs. Using water quality and land treatment data from six previously published articles, we compared P loads with P-Index values and ratings using the 12 southern P indices. When total measured P loads were regressed with P-Index rating values, moderate to very strong relationships (0.50 to 0.97) existed for five indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) and all but one index was directionally correct. Regressions with dissolved P were also moderate to very strong ( of 0.55 to 0.95) for the same five state P indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina); directionality of the Alabama Index was negative. When total measured P loads were transformed to current NRCS 590 Standard ratings (Low [<2.2 kg P ha], Moderate, [2.2-5.5 kg P ha], and High [>5.5 kg P ha]) and these ratings were then compared to the southern-Index ratings, many of the P indices correctly identified Low losses (77%), but most did not correctly identify Moderate or High loss situations (14 and 31%, respectively). This study demonstrates that while many of the P indices were directionally correct relative to the measured water quality data, there is a large variability among southern P indices that may result in different P management strategies being employed under similar conditions. PMID:23128731

  5. Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kffer, Mrcia Isabel; Lemos, Andra T; Apel, Miriam Anders; Rocha, Jocelita Vaz; Martins, Suzana Maria de Azevedo; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferro

    2012-04-01

    Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. PMID:22325427

  6. Seasonal and organ variations in antioxidant capacity, detoxifying competence and oxidative damage in freshwater and estuarine fishes from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, A M; Salomo de Freitas, D P; Burns, M; Vieira, J P; de la Torre, F R; Monserrat, J M

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzed biochemical biomarkers of freshwater and estuarine fish species from Southern Brazil. It analyzed three organs (muscle, liver and gills), in four fish species (Micropogonias furnieri, Pimelodus pintado, Loricariichthys anus and Parapimelodus nigribarbis) in order to perform an environmental diagnosis. Obtained results showed that liver of L. anus and gills of M. furnieri presented higher total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals during fall, whereas a clear seasonality was found for gill reduced glutathione (GSH) levels of all studied species, with higher concentration during spring. In terms of oxidative damage (TBARS), liver of M. furnieri and gills of P. nigribarbis showed higher TBARS levels during fall, whereas P. pintado showed the lowest TBARS value. Finally, a conspicuous seasonal effect was observed for purified and non-purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST), where minimum values were registered during fall, pointing to this season as one where fish species are less competent to perform detoxifying reactions. PMID:19665578

  7. The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Massa, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Arajo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cludia Maria Dornelles

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis. PMID:22850961

  8. Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Par State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Seplveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, Joo F.; Pvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Par state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajs, Belm, Goiansia do Par, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairo, all in the Par state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amap. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goiansia do Par), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goiansia do Par where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belm) to 0.018 (Goiansia do Par). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ?29 years ago in Anajs, Goiansia do Par, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairo. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major species of malaria parasite. PMID:25419900

  9. Evidence of association between hepatitis C virus genotype 2b and nosocomial transmissions in hemodialysis centers from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a serious public health problem. Hemodialysis is considered one of the main risk factors of HCV infection, due to several invasive medical procedures and potential nosocomial transmission that patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are continuously submitted. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of HCV and its genotypes in patients with CRF in hemodialysis units in southern Brazil. Methods Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were collected and analyzed. These data were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment from January 2009 to August 2010, on two dialysis units of Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Genotyping was carried out by sequencing analysis of HCV NS5b, core-E1 junction and 5′UTR genomic regions. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients under regular hemodialysis treatment were studied. HCV prevalence was 23.3%. HCV-infected patients had been on dialysis treatment for 91.9 months, a more prolonged period compared to HCV-negative patients (p = 0.001). While HCV genotypes 1b and 3a were identified as the most frequent strains, a surprisingly high proportion of genotype 2b was observed among patients in one of the dialysis centers compared to the general HCV-infected population of the same area. Hemodialysis treatment exposure time and healthcare working were associated with HCV infection. Conclusions Besides the efforts to minimize nosocomial transmission of HCV, some events of transmission are still evidenced in dialysis units. PMID:23714239

  10. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, Andr L; Lingner, Dbora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

  11. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Par, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Par, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in

  12. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Mrcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4gL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini?Tef; Manacapuru?Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo?So Sebastio do Uatum; and Boa Vista do Ramos?Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. PMID:25528017

  13. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in So Jos da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

  14. Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  15. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  16. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Mercedes; Araujo, Astolfo G M

    2015-12-01

    Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997), Bradbury (1997), Fenenga (1953), Hughes (1998), and Hildebrandt and King (2012) to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads. PMID:26648546

  17. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simes, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  18. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeuskroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simes, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leo

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeuskroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  19. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letcia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.

  20. Report to the Utah State Board of Education on the Teacher Education Programs at Southern Utah State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    In March 1983, a group of professional personnel, under the direction and leadership of the Utah State Office of Education conducted an evaluation of the teacher education program at Southern Utah State College. The report of the on-site evaluation team is presented in this document. The report includes program descriptions, commendations, and

  1. Surveillance for yellow Fever virus in non-human primates in southern Brazil, 2001-2011: a tool for prioritizing human populations for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marco A B; Cardoso, Jader da C; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F; Cruz, Laura L; Faraco, Fernando J C; Bercini, Marilina A; Vettorello, Ktia C; Porto, Mariana A; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M S; Schermann, Maria T; Sperb, Aletha F; Paz, Francisco Z; Nunes, Zenaida M A; Romano, Alessandro P M; Costa, Zouraide G; Gomes, Silvana L; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  2. Surveillance for Yellow Fever Virus in Non-Human Primates in Southern Brazil, 2001–2011: A Tool for Prioritizing Human Populations for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  3. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhao Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajo, Csar A. C.; Braucher, Rgis; Bourls, Didier L.; Salgado, Andr A. R.; Varajo, Anglica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhao Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (So Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and So Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and So Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  4. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  5. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  6. Molecular characterization of host strains of Spodoptera frugiperda(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)in southern Brazil :

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

  7. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    PubMed

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  8. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paran State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmo, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paran State or trap plateau of Paran, at the middle portion between the rivers Iva and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23 53 and 24 10' South Latitude and 52 15' and 52 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km area, being 247 km2 in the municipality of Campo Mouro and 137 km2 in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paran State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mouro River, which flows into the Iva River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mouro River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paran State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated. PMID:26628235

  9. Phylogeography of Plathymenia reticulata (Leguminosae) reveals patterns of recent range expansion towards northeastern Brazil and southern Cerrados in Eastern Tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; De Lemos Filho, Jos Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Accio; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about past vegetation dynamics in Eastern Tropical South America (ETSA). Here we describe patterns of chloroplast (cp) DNA variation in Plathymenia reticulata, a widespread tree in the ETSA Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes, but not found in the xeromorphic Caatinga. Forty one populations, comprising 220 individuals, were analysed by sequencing the trnS-trnG and trnL-trnL-trnF cpDNA regions. Combined, they resulted in 18 geographically structured haplotypes. The central region of the sampling area, comprising Minas Gerais and Gois Brazilian states, is a centre of genetic diversity and probably the most longstanding area of the distribution range of the species. In contrast, populations from northeastern Brazil and the southern Cerrados showed very low diversity levels, almost exclusively with common haplotypes which are also found in the central region. Coupled with a long-branched star-like network, these patterns suggest a recent range expansion of P. reticulata to those regions from central region sources. The recent origin of the species (in the early Pleistocene) or the extinction of some populations due to drier and cooler climate during the last glacial maximum could have been responsible for that phylogeographic pattern. The populations from northeastern Brazil originated from two colonization routes, one eastern (Atlantic) and one western (inland). Due to its high diversity and complex landscape, the central region, especially central-north Minas Gerais (between 15 degrees -18 degrees S and 42 degrees -46 degrees W), should be given the highest priority for conservation. PMID:20149092

  10. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland, and 46.1 cm / h in Native Forest. The infiltration in the secondary forest in January was of 32.3 cm / h (29.9% higher than in August). The pasture indicated infiltration of 12.8 cm / h (32.9% lower) and 49.2 cm / h native forest (6.3% higher). Soil compaction in August was of 2.9 kgf / cm2 in the secondary forest, 3.7 kgf / cm2 in the pasture, and 1.4 kgf / cm2 in the Native Forest. In January, compression was of 2.1 in Secondary Forest (27.6% less than in August), 4.0 kgf / cm2 in the pasture (7.5% higher) and 1.3 kgf / cm2 in the native Forest (7.1% lower). These variations may be associated to the climatic conditions which cause some frost in winter promoting greater mobilization of animals looking for food in secondary forest areas due to reduced pasture. The springs from the pasture in summer enhances the time animals stay in the pasture areas. The influence of animals on hydrogeomorphic conditions in faxinal areas was evident, especially when comparing the data from the two areas with the ones indicated by the Native Forest.

  11. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2010-03-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

  12. A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carman) of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Max C.; Abdala, Fernando; Richter, Martha; Benton, Michael J.

    1999-10-01

    Three newly discovered skeletons from the Carnian red beds of the Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil, represent one of the oldest dinosaurs ever found. The new taxon Saturnalia tupiniquim, is equivalent in age to the earliest dinosaurs from northwestern Argentina, being the oldest sauropodomorph dinosaur known from plentiful skeletal material. The record of Saturnalia, a 1.5-m-long gracile plant-eating animal, indicates that, like other major dinosaur lineages, the first representatives of the mainly heavy-built sauropodomorphs were gracile animals.

  13. A case of Exophiala spinifera infection in Southern Brazil: Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Castrilln, Mauricio Ramrez; Steglich, Raquel; dos Santos, Inajara Silveira; Vettorato, Gerson; Valente, Patrcia; Scroferneker, Maria Lcia

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old Brazilian man, farmer, with lesions on the dorsum of the hand. A direct mycological examination, cultivation and microculture slide observation was performed. The sequencing of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region was carried out and the etiological agent confirmed as Exophiala spinifera. The in vitro susceptibility of this isolate to antifungal agents alone and in combination was evaluated. This is the third case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in Brazil. PMID:24371743

  14. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  15. Pedogeochemistry and micromorphology of oxisols - A basis for understanding etchplanation in the Araucrias Plateau (Southern Brazil) in the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; de Barros Corra, Antnio Carlos; Rech Rodrigues, Rafaela Ana

    2013-12-01

    Approximately five years ago, the Working Group on Ancient Surfaces and Long-Term Landscape Evolution was created to raise planed surfaces in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay with the aim of establishing regional correlations of planed surfaces after the formation of the Gondwanan rocks in South America. In Brazil, planed surfaces were recognized and classified between 1940 and 1960 and were given various designations and different age estimates based on regional morphostratigraphic correlation attempts. In the last twenty years, the assumptions of those attempts began to be questioned on a large scale by studies in which empirical observations, mediated by the use of new methodologies, did not indicate such a direct relationship between the paleosurfaces and their long-term erosive origin. We identified eight staggered surfaces in the Araucrias Plateau, Southern Brazil, between the Iguazu and Uruguay Rivers. Initially, we attempted to understand the planed surfaces as classic pediplains, but we found weathering profiles of different thicknesses with oxisols downstream of the knickpoints, instead of correlative deposits. We understand these surfaces as planed surfaces or paleosurfaces without erosive interrelation between them, resulting from the action of etchplanation processes. This idea contradicts the classical perspective of Brazilian geomorphology that attributes the cyclical alternation of Quaternary paleoclimates to the evolution of the model of the subtropical landscapes. The hypothesis begins from the assumption that the model evolved from the binomial morphogenesis/pedogenesis in phase with the glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the climactic controls on morphogenesis/pedogenesis are mediated by the responses of the weathered mantle on the scale of its chemical and microstructural organization, which does not always validate previous theoretical assumptions. In this article, we use the chemical composition, weathering indices, iron, mineralogy of the clays and micromorphology of the oxisols of surface 6 to propose a first approximation of the evolution of the planed surfaces regarding etchplanation in southern Brazil. The surfaces' pedogeochemical and micromorphological properties reveal the following: a) hydrolysis is the main process of geochemical loss of geomorphic surfaces; b) geochemical erosion is more intense in the glacial periods, when the decreased temperature favors slower weathering in a more continuous manner; c) the pedobioclimatic imbalance generated by the input in interglacial periods favors mechanical erosion of the ground surface due to the substitution of the structure in blocks by microaggregates, which reduces the cohesiveness of the mantles of alteration; d) morphogenesis is most important in interglacial periods, promoting the truncation of oxisols; e) the oxisols from the remnants of the planed surfaces are actually renewed profiles younger than 500 Ky BP; f) models of long-term chemical denudation must take into consideration short-duration changes (?25 Ky) in the pedogeochemical and structural processes of the solum.

  16. Present state of eb removal of so2 and nox from combustion flue gases in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, D. C. R.; Osso, J. A.; Rivelli, V.; Vieira, J. M.; Lugo, A. B.

    1995-09-01

    Environmental problems caused by the increased world energy demands are becoming of growing importance and Brazil is now starting to set limits to the emission of toxic gases. The development of technologies for removal of these gases are therefore necessary and this work shows the present state of the technology of SO2 and NOX removal by electron beam irradiation in Brazil. Data concerning the increasing energy demand in Brazil and the environmental governmental measures are presented, along with the design and implementation of a laboratory pilot plant for the electron beam flue gases removal process located at IPEN-CNEN/SP.

  17. [Development, longevity and reproduction of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) in natural conditions during autumn and winter, in southern Paran, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Doetzer, Augusta K; Foerster, Lus A

    2007-01-01

    The development, longevity and reproduction of Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) and Telenomus podisi Ashmead were investigated under natural conditions during autumn and winter from 1999 to 2001, in Southern Paran State, Brazil, in order to understand how these parasitoids overwinter in subtropical regions. Adults of T. basalis e T. podisi emerged during autumn and winter from eggs parasitized between April and June. Adult longevity in natural conditions was higher than eight and seven months, for T. basalis and T. podisi respectively, showing that both species overwinter in the adult stage. Percentage survival of T. basalis and T. podisi females during autumn and winter was higher than 85% and mortality increased significantly in spring. Females maintained for six months in natural conditions parasitized E. heros eggs after transference to 25 degrees C, and the presence of females in the offspring showed that mating occurred during autumn and winter. Temperature during immature development influenced significantly the adult performance, regulating the longevity and reproductive capacity after dormancy. Female parasitoids that developed in higher temperatures lived longer and parasitized more host eggs after transference to 25 degrees C than females that developed under colder conditions. PMID:17607456

  18. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, A

    2013-05-01

    The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

  19. Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839

  20. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Tas Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lcia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149

  1. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The δ13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

  2. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape units resulting from this relationship may be identified. The species E.edulis is found within these landscape units and is integrated into the livelihood of the community. PMID:23826807

  3. Breeding Jasmine-Type Aromatic Rice for Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 70% of imported rice that currently makes up the 12% of domestic consumption is Jasmine, primarily from Thailand. Development of improved Jasmine-type cultivar with similar specialty characteristics (aroma, texture, and flavor) to those imports and with competitive grain a...

  4. Description of three new species of Eumida Malmgren, 1865 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from Southern and Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Vernica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (rsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two species differ in the size of the prostomium, the distribution of micropapillae on the proboscis, and the shape of the dorsal cirri. Eumida macrophthalma sp. nov. has much larger eyes than the other two species described herein. The dorsal cirri on anterior median segments are rounded and on median and posterior segments they are asymmetrical and cordiform, longer than the dorsal cirri in Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The lanceolate median dorsal cirri in Eumida delicata sp. nov. are only shared with E. ockelmanni Eibye-Jacobsen, 1987. It is also possible to diagnose the three species by their dorsal whitish pigmentation patterns on the first segments of living or well conserved animals. PMID:26249086

  5. Reducing child mortality: the contribution of Cear state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the Millennium Development Goal 4 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante e Silva, Anamaria; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso da; Leite, lvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Mrcia Maria Tavares; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da

    2015-04-01

    To describe the experience of Cear, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Cear), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20year period, including 81% reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43% increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95% immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13% and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5%. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6% to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9% in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state. PMID:25095765

  6. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Braslia belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mnica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrcia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

    2013-12-01

    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Braslia belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Braslia belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe, with the passive margin of the So Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelndia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Braslia belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe (Braslia belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxup Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping indicates that the mylonite zone is not a plate boundary because motion along it is maximum a few tens of kilometres and the same litho-stratigraphic units are present on either side. Based on these arguments, the new interpretation is that the Embu terrane is the continuation of the Socorro-Guaxup Nappe and therefore also part of the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent. The Braslia belt is preserved even further within the central Ribeira belt than previously envisaged.

  7. Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

  8. Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

    2010-01-01

    The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

  9. Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

    2010-01-01

    The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for

  10. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these

  11. Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dena Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to

  12. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  13. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  14. Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poissons regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347

  15. Effects of dredging operations on soft bottom macrofauna in a harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bemvenuti, C E; Angonesi, L G; Gandra, M S

    2005-11-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of dredging on the soft bottom community in the channel of the Rio Grande harbor in the Patos Lagoon estuarine region of southern Brazil. During four seasonal cruises, samples were collected from nine biological stations, one of which was located outside the dredged area. Three macrobenthic samples were collected on each cruise from each station, using a 0.08 m2 van Veen grab. A cluster analysis was applied to group summer and autumn cruise stations before the dredging period, revealing larger numbers of species (35-36 spp.) and higher densities of organisms. The station located outside the dredging area was always included in this group, regardless of the sampling period or conditions of salinity. Another group comprised the winter and spring stations during the dredging period. This group was characterized by stations with the fewest species (20-18 spp.) and the lowest and most variable organism densities. The efficient strategies of resilience of the dominant estuarine species may minimize the effects of dredging on the biota through the rapid recolonization of the soft bottom of the harbor channel. PMID:16532180

  16. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize.

    PubMed

    Silva, Natlia Carolina de Almeida; Vidal, Rafael; Costa, Flaviane Malaquias; Vaio, Magdalena; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4-18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  17. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Snia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids. PMID:24031300

  18. Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate fertilizer factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l(-1) and 5 mg l(-1), respectively, and were dependent on pH. The fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial horizon of soil in quantities comparable to those in the manufactured end-products--up to 23,000 mg kg(-1). Fluoride distribution in the environment is controlled by physical-chemical parameters of emission, rain intensity and soil properties. The highest fluoride concentrations were registered at a close distance of up to 2 km from the factory. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater resembled the same distribution in rainwater due to the high permeability of the local soils. Fluoride penetration to the groundwater also depended on the type of vegetation cover. The groundwater in woodland areas was less affected by contamination of fluoride than in the grassland areas, most probably because of the influence of eucalyptus throughfall, which increases the pH of wet precipitates. PMID:17288010

  19. Observations of Gravity Waves Propagating Through the Mesopause and the Lower Thermosphere Using Airglow in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espindola Antunes, C.; Pimenta, A. A.; Clemesha, B. R.; Andrioli, V. F.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves observed in the night airglow can be often seen at heights near the mesopause. Much less frequent are the cases where the same gravity wave is observed in the mesopause and in the thermosphere. One of the reasons for this is the absorption that occurs in the intermediate region. A whole year of airglow observations conducted in southern Brazil (2926' S, 5349' W) has been analyzed to investigate the gravity waves. The data was acquired by an all-sky imager using filters for sodium, 555.7, 777.4 and 630 nm oxygen emissions from March 2011 to April 2012. Preliminary results show more than 300 gravity waves observed mainly in the O5 and sodium layers. However, less than 10 cases were identified as waves observed both in O5 and/or sodium and in the O6 band (in the thermosphere). In those specific cases the waves have the same general horizontal propagation direction, toward N-NW. Further analyses concerning the parameters and similarities of this kind of gravity wave as well as the possible reasons for the preferred propagation direction will be discussed.

  20. Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

  1. Metabolic Profiling and Classification of Propolis Samples from Southern Brazil: An NMR-Based Platform Coupled with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Maraschin, Marcelo; Somensi-Zeggio, Amélia; Oliveira, Simone K; Kuhnen, Shirley; Tomazzoli, Maíra M; Raguzzoni, Josiane C; Zeri, Ana C M; Carreira, Rafael; Correia, Sara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel

    2016-01-22

    The chemical composition of propolis is affected by environmental factors and harvest season, making it difficult to standardize its extracts for medicinal usage. By detecting a typical chemical profile associated with propolis from a specific production region or season, certain types of propolis may be used to obtain a specific pharmacological activity. In this study, propolis from three agroecological regions (plain, plateau, and highlands) from southern Brazil, collected over the four seasons of 2010, were investigated through a novel NMR-based metabolomics data analysis workflow. Chemometrics and machine learning algorithms (PLS-DA and RF), including methods to estimate variable importance in classification, were used in this study. The machine learning and feature selection methods permitted construction of models for propolis sample classification with high accuracy (>75%, reaching ∼90% in the best case), better discriminating samples regarding their collection seasons comparatively to the harvest regions. PLS-DA and RF allowed the identification of biomarkers for sample discrimination, expanding the set of discriminating features and adding relevant information for the identification of the class-determining metabolites. The NMR-based metabolomics analytical platform, coupled to bioinformatic tools, allowed characterization and classification of Brazilian propolis samples regarding the metabolite signature of important compounds, i.e., chemical fingerprint, harvest seasons, and production regions. PMID:26693586

  2. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries. PMID:26083184

  3. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  4. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  5. Vitamin D Status and VDR Genotype in NF1 Patients: A Case-Control Study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza Mario Bueno, Larissa; Rosset, Clvia; Aguiar, Ernestina; Pereira, Fernando de Souza; Izetti Ribeiro, Patrcia; Scalco, Rosana; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Gischkow Rucatti, Guilherme; Chies, Jos Artur; Camey, Suzi Alves; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency when compared to the general population. This study aimed to determine the levels of 25-OH-vitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with NF1 and disease-unaffected controls and analyze FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms in a case and in a control group. Vitamin D levels were compared between a group of 45 NF1 patients from Southern Brazil and 45 healthy controls matched by sex, skin type, and age. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of VDR gene polymorphisms were obtained from the same NF1 patients and 150 healthy controls. 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency was not more frequent in NF1 patients than in controls (p = 0.074). We also did not observe an association between FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms and vitamin D levels in NF1 patients, suggesting that their deficient or insufficient biochemical phenotypes are not associated with these genetic variants. The differences between the groups in genotypic and allelic frequencies for FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms were small and did not reach statistical significance. These polymorphisms are in partial linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype frequencies also did not differ in a significant way between the two groups (p = 0.613). PMID:26161090

  6. Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonalves, Helen; Bhague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (?13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adults level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes. PMID:19142343

  7. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  8. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Ncleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ? 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  9. Surface water quality in the Sinos River basin, in Southern Brazil: tracking microbiological contamination and correlation with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Andria; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples. PMID:25649392

  10. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  11. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

  12. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. Interflow, overland flow and leaching of natural nutrients on an Alfisol slope of southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Oliveira Leite, J.

    1985-09-01

    Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

  19. Age distribution of Serra Geral (Paraná) flood basalts, southern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ≈130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.

  20. [Health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of teachers in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marcio Neres; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde

    2013-03-01

    Various health complications have been identified among teachers and there is little information available about their lifestyle habits. The scope of this study was to investigate health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of municipal teachers in Bag in the south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving 414 teachers was conducted by asking the teachers to fill out a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques were employed. Most teachers were females (96.1%) and the mean age was 40.1 years (SD 9.4). Average teaching experience was 12.4 years (SD 9.5); 59% of the teachers had a degree; they taught many working hours per week (31.7 hours, SD 10.5) and 62% were absent from work at least once in the last 12 months. Self-rated heath was good (38.5%); 62.5% of them were physically active; 32.3% were overweight and 14.4% obese. They consumed hardly any fruit and vegetables (79.6%), had average stress levels of 14.9 points (SD 6.6) and 20.3% reported hypertension. Self-reported health was associated with teaching time, absenteeism, physical activity, number of meals per day, stress levels and hypertension. The prevalence of teachers who rated their health negatively was low, however several lifestyle issues were identified, which can be prejudicial to the health of these individuals. PMID:23546210

  1. Presence of Torque teno virus (TTV) in tap water in public schools from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vecchia, Andria Dalla; Kluge, Mariana; dos Santos da Silva, Joseane V; Comerlato, Juliana; Rodrigues, Manoela T; Fleck, Juliane D; da Luz, Roger B; Teixeira, Thais F; Roehe, Paulo M; Capalonga, Roberta; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Spilki, Fernando R

    2013-03-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) was surveyed in tap water collected in schools from three municipalities located in the south of Brazil. TTV genomes were found in 11.7 % (4/34) of the samples. TTV DNA was detected in 10.5 % (2/19) of the samples collected at the city of Caxias do Sul and in 25 % (2/8) of the samples from Pelotas. Those cities have a low rate of sewage treatment. All samples from Santa Cruz do Sul, which has nearly 92 % of its sewage treated, were negative. These results suggest that the amount of sewage treated may have an effect on the detection rates of TTV DNA in drinking water in a given urban area, showing a mild negative correlation (r = -0.76), when comparing the percentage of sewage treatment to the detection of TTV genomes. The detection rate of TTV was also compared with Escherichia coli, showing a strong correlation (r = 0.97), indicating that TTV may be a suitable marker of fecal contamination. PMID:23412718

  2. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla EO; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M

    2014-01-01

    Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations. PMID:25075782

  3. Edge effects on epigeic ant assemblages in a grassland-forest mosaic in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Esther R. S.; Duarte, Leandro da S.; Diehl, Elena; Hartz, Sandra M.

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed the influence of vegetation structure variation along a natural vegetation mosaic formed by Araucaria forest and Campos grassland in the southern Brazilian highlands, on the species richness and composition of epigeic ants. The study site consisted of two different grassland-forest ecotones, where 76 pitfall traps were installed. We estimated the area covered by canopy vegetation by hemispherical photographs, and the structure of the understory vegetation by counting the number of vegetation touches, using a graduated stick. We collected 31 species or morphospecies of epigeic ants belonging to 17 genera and 6 subfamilies. Cluster analysis defined three habitat groups (grassland, edge, and forest) with different ant species composition as revealed by ordination analysis. The highest richness was observed at the forest edge, and decreased towards the grassland and the forest interior. Variation in the richness and composition of epigeic ant species was significantly explained by the factor of distance from the forest. The relationship between species richness and understory density was negative. On the other hand, species composition of epigeic ant assemblages was significantly explained by canopy cover. This finding indicates that the ecological responses of ant assemblages resulted predominantly from edge effects mediated by changes in vegetation structure.

  4. Pharmacy practice simulations: performance of senior pharmacy students at a University in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; Frana, Tain F.

    Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients. PMID:24367467

  5. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Regolin, Andr Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos Jos

    2015-01-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  6. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, S.

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuver Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 10 Ma the three granitic suites (So Joo Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianpolis - Pelotas-Aigu magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque Group and the Florianpolis Batholith collided.

  8. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Maurcio Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

    2011-12-01

    During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

  9. Immunological Profile of the Yellow Clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) from the Southern Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva Santos, Juan Jethro; Carvalho, Yuri Bovi; de Alcantara Lopes, Diogo Luiz; Romano, Luis Alberto

    2016-03-01

    The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Mesodesmatidae) is a sandy beach bivalve that is distributed from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to the south of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The yellow clam population has been declining in recent decades. To increase our understanding of this species, we evaluated the immunological status of yellow clams collected during different seasons from various areas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We characterized the hemocytes, determined the differential hemocyte counts (DHCs), calculated the apoptotic index, and evaluated the incidence of parasites in yellow clams through histological analysis. We identified two types of hemocyte (hyaline and granular) that showed significant variation in DHCs among sampling areas during the summer and winter. The apoptotic index only exhibited significant variation during the summer. Histopathological analysis results did not significantly differ among sampling areas. This work demonstrated that environmental variation (e.g., temperature and salinity) associated with anthropogenic actions may be affecting the immune system of yellow clams. However, more studies are needed to determine the full influence of these factors on the yellow clam's immune system and thus contribute to future management and aquaculture of the species. Received May 10, 2015; accepted October 28, 2015. PMID:26913557

  10. HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

  11. Hemorrhagic disease in dogs infected with an unclassified intraendothelial piroplasm in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; Barros, Severo Sales

    2005-12-10

    A hemorrhagic disease affecting dogs in Brazil, referred to popularly as "nambiuv" (bloody ears) and believed to be transmitted by ticks, has been observed in animals infected with an organism described originally in 1910 as a piroplasm, and known locally as Rangelia vitalii. In this series of 10 cases, the disease was characterized by anaemia, jaundice, fever, spleno- and lymphadenomegaly, hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, and persistent bleeding from the nose, oral cavity and tips, margins and outer surface of the pinnae. The ixodid ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma aureolatum infested affected dogs from suburban and rural areas, respectively. Laboratory findings included regenerative anaemia, spherocytosis, icteric plasma and bilirubinuria. Those intracellular organisms were found in bone marrow smears but not in blood smears. Microscopically, zoites were seen within the cytoplasm of blood capillary endothelial cells. Parasitized and non-parasitized endothelial cells were positive immunohistochemically for von Willebrand factor (vWF). Langhans-type multinucleate giant cells were observed in the lymph nodes and choroid plexus. There was prominent erythrophagocytosis by macrophages in the lymph node sinuses and infiltration of the medullary cords by numerous plasma cells. Ultrastructurally, this organism had an apical complex that included a polar ring and rhoptries but no conoid. This parasite was contained within a parasitophorous vacuole that had a trilaminar membrane with villar protrusions and was situated in the cytoplasm of capillary endothelial cells. This organism tested positive by immunohistochemistry for Babesia microti. This pathogen was also positive by in situ hybridization for B. microti. Tentative clinical diagnosis in these cases was based on the history, clinical picture, haemogram and favorable response to therapy, and confirmed through microscopic examination of smears from the bone marrow or histological sections of multiple tissues, especially lymph nodes where zoites were most frequently found. The disease was reproduced by intravenous inoculation of blood from a naturally infected dog into an experimental dog. The authors demonstrate in this study that this organism is a protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa, order Piroplasmorida. This piroplasm seems to be different from Babesia since it has an intraendothelial stage. Molecular phylogenetic analysis is necessary to better characterize this parasite and clarify its taxonomic status. PMID:16153781

  12. Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; Frana, Joo B.; Moreira, Suzana; Gonalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

    2011-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents. PMID:21248084

  13. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  14. A comparative study of Ligophorus uruguayense and L. saladensis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Natalia C; Pariselle, Antoine; Pereira, Joaber; Agnese, Jean-Francois; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were found on the gills of Mugil liza Valenciennes caught in southern Brazil. They were identified as Ligophorus uruguayense Failla Siquier et Ostrowski de Nez, 2009 and Ligophorus saladensis Marcotegui et Martorelli, 2009, even though specific identification proved to be difficult due to inconsistencies in some diagnostic features reported for these two species. Therefore, a combined morphological and molecular approach was used to critically review the validity of these species, by means of phase contrast and confocal fluorescence microscopical examination of sclerotised hard parts, and assessing the genetic divergence between L. saladensis, L. uruguayense and their congeners using rDNA sequences. The main morphological differences between the two species relate to the shape of the accessory piece of the penis and the median process of the ventral bar. The accessory piece in L. uruguayense is shorter than in L. saladensis, has a cylindrical, convex upper lobe and straight lower lobe (vs with the distal tip of the lower lobe turning away from the upper lobe in the latter species). The ventral bar has a V-shaped anterior median part in L. uruguayense (vs U-shaped in L. saladensis). The two species are suggested to be part of a species complex together with L. mediterraneus Sarabeev, Balbuena et Euzet, 2005. We recommend to generalise such comparative assessment of species of Ligophorus for a reliable picture of the diversity and diversification mechanisms within the genus, and to make full use of its potential as an additional marker for mullet taxonomy and systematics. PMID:25960568

  15. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel Dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  16. Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal S; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil), in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004 and 2005. The places where the visits occurred were categorized as public, private or belonging to health plan systems. Descriptive analyses were carried out for utilization and type of health service. Poisson Regression was employed in the adjusted analysis. RESULTS Of the interviewees, 72.0% visited health professionals in the year before the interview; 86.2% (95% CI 84.7;87.7) of the women and 59.3% (95% CI 57.3;61.3) of the men. Even when gynecological visits were excluded, the women still attended more visits than the men, 68.4% (95% CI 66.4;70.4). Health services utilization was more frequent among interviewees of better socioeconomic level. A difference of lower use in relation to non-white skin color was observed only among male youths. There were differences regarding the type of professional visited by men and women and also according to family income. Men and women used more frequently the public system, the health plan system and, in a smaller proportion, the private system. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic situation influenced the utilization and the type of health service, with men and women classified as poor at the moment, which indicates lower utilization of services. Such socioeconomic differences may indicate difficulties in the access to the health system. PMID:19142345

  17. Population structure, growth and production of Thoracophelia furcifera (Polychaeta: Opheliidae) on a sandy beach in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otegui, Mariana B. P.; Blankensteyn, Arno; Pagliosa, Paulo R.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigates aspects of the life history of the polychaete Thoracophelia furcifera on a sandy beach in southern Brazil. Two fixed transects perpendicular to the shoreline in the intertidal zone were sampled fortnightly from May 2008 to April 2009 at low tide. Five T. furcifera samples were collected along each transect and sediment temperature and the salinity of interstitial water were recorded. The material was washed over 0.5- and 0.088-mm sieves, and the width of setiger 8 of each specimen was measured. A total of 5,870 organisms were examined and the estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were L ? 3.60 mm (Wd8S), K 0.63 year-1, C 0.3 and WP 0.97 (Rn 0.132). Life span was 2.6 years, instantaneous mortality rate Z was 3.8 year-1 and the growth index ?' 0.91. Mean density ranged from 644.44 191.77 to 2,783.33 453.64 ind m-2 and mean biomass ranged from 2.52 0.55 to 9.52 1.83 g m-2. Recruitment occurred from April to July and ovigerous females were found from June to November. Annual secondary production was 6.582 g m-2 year-1, mean biomass was 5.638 g m-2 and turnover rate was 1.167. The high values for density, secondary production and biomass suggest that T. furcifera constitute an important food source. These features of T. furcifera' life strategy demonstrate the significant role this species plays in ecosystem dynamics.

  18. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charo, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marlia; Brucker, Natlia; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; vila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  19. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

  20. A county-level analysis of persons living with HIV in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Gray, Simone C; Massaro, Tyler; Chen, Isabel; Edholm, Christina J; Grotheer, Rachel; Zheng, Yiqiang; Chang, Howard H

    2016-02-01

    This study uses county-level surveillance data to systematically analyze geographic variation and clustering of persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWH) in the southern United States in 2011. Clusters corresponding to large metropolitan areas - including Miami, Atlanta, and Baltimore - had HIV prevalence rates higher (p?southern United States at the county level and provide insights for identifying local geographic areas with a high number of PLWH, as well as subpopulations that may have an increased risk of infection. PMID:26332197

  1. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo-environmental accidents resulting from underground erosion phenomena.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to So Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mota, Mnlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Arajo, Joo Pessoa; Nogueira, Maurcio Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of So Jos do Rio Preto, So Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  4. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andra Alice; da Silva, Andra Marques Vieira; Junior, Jos Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

  5. First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tiet watershed (So Paulo State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tiet River watershed, So Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed. PMID:19197480

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus Imported from the Amazon Basin to So Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Mnlio Tasso Oliveira; Vedovello, Danila; Estofolete, Cassia; Malossi, Camila Dantas; Arajo, Joo Pessoa

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro (MAYV) is a neglected arbovirus from the tropical Americas. Here, we report the complete genome of an MAYV isolate from a patient returning from the Amazon basin and complaining of arthralgia, high fever, and headache, who was attended at an emergency service of So Jos do Rio Preto, So Paulo state, Brazil. PMID:26607884

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  8. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  9. The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

    Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of

  10. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  11. Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhao chain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christfaro; Ivashita, Flvio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flvio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, Jos Domingos

    2014-04-01

    A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mssbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mssbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

  12. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the

  13. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  14. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  15. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Gonalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  16. Extending the southern range of four shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidae, Hippolytidae and Alpheidae) in southwestern Atlantic (27o S) and confirming the presence of Mediterranean Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giraldes, Bruno Welter; Freire, Andrea Santarosa

    2015-01-01

    In subtidal zones, certain shrimp species with cryptic behaviour represent a gap in the biodiversity description in many places in the world. This study extends the southern limit of Stenopus hispidus (Oliver, 1811), Alpheus formosus Gibbes, 1850, Alpheus cf. packardii Kingsley, 1880 and Lysmata ankeri Rhyne & Lin, 2006 to Santa Catarina State-Brazil, 27oS. The results also confirm the new occurrence of Stenopus spinosus Risso, 1827 in Brazilian waters. All specimens were collected by scuba diving from rocky islands between 3 and 25 meters depth. We present for each species certain taxonomic features in colour images that will help to identify these decapods in situ in further monitoring programs. PMID:26249501

  17. Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhao chain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18 05' 43.6? S, 43 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in So Joo da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mssbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mssbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

  18. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the So Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the So Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of So Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates contribution from younger sources, such as the Neoproterozoic So Gabriel Arc itself. This Neoproterozoic zircon population with ages ranging from 948 to 803 Ma, suggests that the onset of the magmatic/tectonic evolution of the So Gabriel Arc might have started as early ca. 0.95 Ma.

  19. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Paran Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Menegat, Rualdo; Formoso, Milton Luiz Laquintinie; Basei, Miguel ngelo Stipp; Barboza, Eduardo Guimares; Simas, Margarete Wagner

    2008-03-01

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Paran Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Paran Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 6 Ma and 288 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 3 Ma and 299.2 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 3 Ma and 289.6 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  20. [Meat consumption by adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Assuno, Maria Ceclia Formoso

    2014-08-01

    This paper is the result of a cross-sectional population-based study that evaluated individuals aged 20 or more living in the urban area of Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and sought to describe the frequency of meat consumption and the habit of eating meat with an excess of fat. It evaluated the consumption over the past year of red meat (including bone, steak and ground beef), white meats (chicken and fish) and viscera and processed meats. Of the 2,730 people interviewed, 99.1% (CI95% 98.7 - 99.5) consumed some type of meat over the past year, while around 32% reported daily consumption. The prevalence of consumption of red meat (99.3% CI95% 98.9 - 99.6) and white meat (99.4% CI95% 99.1 - 99.7) was similar. Chicken was the meat most consumed by interviewees (98.0% CI95% 97.4 - 98.5), while viscera were the least consumed (59.1% CI95% 56.4 - 61.7). The processed meats consumed by 85.5% (CI95% 83.7 - 87.2) of the respondents, presented the highest prevalence of daily consumption (16.6%). Meats with excess of fat were consumed by 52.3% (CI95% 49.8 - 54.8) of adults, especially men and people of lower education and economic status. PMID:25119097

  1. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in fish and seafood from the southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayulo, A M; Machado, R A; Scussel, V M

    1994-12-01

    An investigation to evaluate the microbiological condition and safety of fish and seafood commonly harvested at the coast of Santa Catarina State and sold in Florianpolis was undertaken. One hundred and seventy-five samples of fish and fish fillets (Cynoscion leiarchus), shrimp tails (Peneaus paulensis), shellfish-meat (Anomalocardia brasiliensis and Metilus edulis), and crab-meat (Callinectes sapidus) were collected from markets and examined within 4 h of purchase. For isolation and enumeration of Escherichia coli the methods used were those of Speck et al. (1975) (Method 1) and Fishbein et al. (1976) (Method 2); for S. aureus, methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration were used including biochemical identification of the strains. E. coli was more frequently detected with Method 1 than Method 2. Of 317 E. coli strains tested for STG and LT II toxins, only one (isolated from shellfish-meat) produced ST and none produced LT II toxin. S. aureus was isolated from 20% of 175 samples examined, including 60% of samples of shellfish-meat. Only nine of 109 S. aureus strains produced enterotoxins, including enterotoxin A (4), D (1) and AB (4). It is concluded that greater care must be taken to reduce contamination of fish and seafood during harvesting and post-harvest handling. PMID:7703011

  2. Assessing the risk of bovine fasciolosis using linear regression analysis for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Elisa Pereira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2016-02-15

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a disease that triggers a chronic inflammatory process in the liver affecting mainly ruminants and other animals including humans. In Brazil, F. hepatica occurs in larger numbers in the most Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to estimate areas at risk using an eight-year (2002-2010) time series of climatic and environmental variables that best relate to the disease using a linear regression method to municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The positivity index of the disease, which is the rate of infected animal per slaughtered animal, was divided into three risk classes: low, medium and high. The accuracy of the known sample classification on the confusion matrix for the low, medium and high rates produced by the estimated model presented values between 39 and 88% depending of the year. The regression analysis showed the importance of the time-based data for the construction of the model, considering the two variables of the previous year of the event (positivity index and maximum temperature). The generated data is important for epidemiological and parasite control studies mainly because F. hepatica is an infection that can last from months to years. PMID:26827853

  3. [Epidemiological profile of reported beriberi cases in Maranho State, Brazil, 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Estela Maura; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Branco, Maria dos Remdios Freitas Carvalho; Santos, Henrique Jorge dos; Lermen Junior, Nulvio

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of beriberi cases and related deaths reported from 2006 to 2008 in Maranho State, Brazil. Data were obtained from beriberi notification forms at the State Health Department. The global Moran index was used to evaluate spatial auto-correlation. 1207 cases and 40 deaths were reported. The western and central regions of the State showed strong spatial auto-correlation of incidence rates. Cases and deaths were concentrated from May to August, in young men (20-40 years). Regular alcohol consumption and smoking were recorded among fatal cases. Low income and heavy labor were widespread among cases. Common symptoms were asthenia, numbness, and swollen legs, difficulty walking, and calf pain. The profile of cases and their symptoms (except swollen legs) are characteristic of dry beriberi. We recommend further studies on the resurgence of beriberi in Brazil. PMID:21519696

  4. Basaltic lava flows covering active aeolian dunes in the Paran Basin in southern Brazil: Features and emplacement aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Frank, Heinrich T.

    2008-03-01

    Burial of active aeolian dunes by lava flows can preserve the morphology of the dunes and generate diverse features related to interaction between unconsolidated sediments and lavas. In the study area, located in southern Brazil, burial of aeolian deposits by Cretaceous basaltic lava flows completely preserved dunes, and generate sand-deformation features, sand diapirs and peperite-like breccia. The preserved dunes are crescentic and linear at the main contact with basalts, and smaller crescentic where interlayered with lavas. The various feature types formed on sediment surfaces by the advance of the flows reflect the emplacement style of the lavas which are compound pahoehoe type. Four feature types can be recognized: (a) type 1 features are related to the advance of sheet flows in dune-interdune areas with slopes > 5, (b) type 2 is formed where the lava flows advance in lobes and climb the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 8-12), (c) type 3 is generated by toes that descend the face of linear dunes (slopes 17-23) and (d) type 4 occurs when lava lobes descend the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 10-15). The direction of the flows, the disposition and morphology of the dunes and the ground slope are the main factors controlling formation of the features. The injection of unconsolidated sand in lava lobes forms diapirs and peperite-like breccias. Sand diapirs occur at the basal portion of lobes where the lava was more solidified. Peperite-like breccias occur in the inner portion where lava was more plastic, favoring the mingling of the components. The generation of both features is related to a mechanical process: the weight of the lava causes the injection of sand into the lava and the warming of the air in the pores of the sand facilitates this process. The lava-sediment interaction features presented here are consistent with previous reports of basalt lavas with unconsolidated arid sediments, and additional new sand-deformation features formed by lava breakouts and sand diapir injections are presented.

  5. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechanical ventilation. The mortality rate was 51%. The mean age (± standard deviation) was 57±18 years, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 22.6±8.3. The variables independently associated with mortality were (i) conditions present at the beginning of mechanical ventilation, age (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.001); the APACHE II score (hazard ratio: 1.01; p<0.005); acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.38; p=0.009), sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.33; p=0.003), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio: 0.58; p=0.042), and pneumonia (hazard ratio: 0.78; p=0.013) as causes of mechanical ventilation; and renal (hazard ratio: 1.29; p=0.011) and neurological (hazard ratio: 1.25; p=0.024) failure, and (ii) conditions occurring during the course of mechanical ventilation, acute lung injuri/acute respiratory distress syndrome (hazard ratio: 1.31; p<0.010); sepsis (hazard ratio: 1.53; p<0.001); and renal (hazard ratio: 1.75; p<0.001), cardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.32; p≤0.009), and hepatic (hazard ratio: 1.67; p≤0.001) failure. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort study provides a comprehensive profile of mechanical ventilation patients in South America. The mortality rate of patients who required mechanical ventilation was higher, which may have been related to the severity of illness of the patients admitted to our ICU. Risk factors for hospital mortality included conditions present at the start of mechanical ventilation conditions that occurred during mechanical support.

  6. Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogrio; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

    2014-05-01

    There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (? 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil. PMID:25602808

  7. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizlia Leo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  8. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  9. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leo, Mnica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antnio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vnia A; Albinatti, Cludia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agncia Nacional de Telecomunicaes": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 ?W/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 ?W/cm(2). PMID:21741680

  10. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

  11. Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antnio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Renato B; Souza, Paulo A; Bauermann, Soraia G; Bordignon, Srgio A L

    2010-09-01

    A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antnio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V), which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type), from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP), the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome), especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age). PMID:21562701

  12. Feeding ecology of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Sciaenidae: Perciformes) in the Ibicu River, Southern Brazil: ontogenetic, seasonal and spatial variations.

    PubMed

    Lima, D O; Behr, E R

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of the feeding ecology of fish is essential for understanding the functioning of freshwater communities. Here we report on an analysis of the diet of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879, a freshwater sciaenid. Fish were collected bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002 at three locations along the Ibicu River in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. At each location, the specimens were collected in both lentic and lotic environments. The stomachs of 324 fish were analysed for contents and fullness. The main items were Ephemeroptera, Diptera (larvae), Trichoptera and Odonata. Annelida, plant matter, Decapoda, Diptera (pupae), Coleoptera and Mollusca were present in small amounts. The fish consumed smaller amounts of food in winter than in other seasons. The most important source of dietary variation for P. bonariensis was the ontogenetic, related to intrinsic biological characters. However, spatial variation was also found, suggesting that this species can adapt its diet to environmental changes. Although P. bonariensis showed ontogenetic and spatial variations in the main items consumed, the main items were always insects, characterising P. bonariensis as a fish with an insectivorous feeding habit in the Ibicu River. PMID:20730336

  13. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paran, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paran and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

  14. Identification of Risk Areas for Visceral Leishmaniasis in Teresina, Piaui State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Andra S.; de Andrade Medronho, Roberto; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used spatial analysis to identify areas at greatest risk of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the urban area of Teresina, Brazil during 20012006. The results from kernel ratios showed that peripheral census tracts were the most heavily affected. Local spatial analysis showed that in the beginning of the study period local clusters of high incidence of VL were mostly located in the southern and northeastern parts of the city, but in subsequent years those clusters also appeared in the northern region of the city, suggesting that the pattern of VL is not static, and the disease may occasionally spread to other areas of the municipality. We also observed a spatial correlation between VL rates and all socioeconomic and demographic indicators evaluated (P < 0.01). The concentration of interventions in high-risk areas could be an effective strategy to control the disease in the urban setting. PMID:21540375

  15. Serosurvey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from urban and rural areas from Parana State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Nascimento, Denise Amaral Gomes do; Tamekuni, Kátia; Toledo, Roberta Dos Santos; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

    2013-01-01

    Considering the zoonotic potential of tick-borne disease (TBD) agents and the fact that dogs may act as sentinels for human infection, the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of TBD agents and risk factors for exposure in two different canine populations from Parana State, Southern Brazil. A total of 138 dog serum samples from urban (UA) (n=68) and rural (RA) (n=70) areas were tested with commercial ELISA rapid test for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT) for Babesia vogeli. An overall of 92∕138 (66.7%) dogs, being 62∕68 (91.2%) from UA and 30∕70 (42.9%) from RA, were seropositive for at least one TBD agent. From the total number of dogs, sixty-two were positive for E. canis (44.9%), 19 (13.8%) for A. phagocytophilum, and 64 (46.4%) for B. vogeli. Anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were not detected. Dogs from UA showed a higher percentage of tick infestation (p = 0.0135) and were highly associated with seropositivity to E. canis (p = 0.000005), A. phagocytophilum (p = 0.0001), and B. vogeli (p = 0.0012). In summary, the findings indicate that dogs from urban areas present higher potential risk exposure to TBD pathogens than those from rural areas. PMID:24252955

  16. Clinical and epidemiological profile of multiple sclerosis in a reference center in the State of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Fukuda, Thiago; Pereira, Jlio; Seixas, Jamile; Miranda, Rafael; Rodrigues, Bernardo; Saback, Thas; Andrade, Renata; Cardoso, Grace; Martinez, Rosa; Avena, Juliane; Melo, Ailton

    2006-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Its prevalence and clinical aspects vary according to the continent considered, being more frequent in Caucasians and young individuals aged 20 to 40 years. Epidemiological data from Brazil show that prevalence is variable, being more frequent in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the country, rather than in the Northern and Northeastern areas. The purpose of this paper is to describe MS clinical and epidemiological features in the State of Bahia, in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Thus, we held a cross-sectional study over the period from February to May, 2005, in the Multiple Sclerosis Patient Support Center ("Ncleo de Apoio aos Pacientes com Esclerose Mltipla") of Bahia, which included all patients with a diagnosis of MS seen over this period of time. A total of 121 patients were investigated, being 80.2% females (female:male ratio=4:1), with higher frequency in mulatto individuals (64%), and the relapsing-remitting type (91.3%). Most patients (68.7%) had mild MS, and blacks were prone to worse prognosis compared to other patients. PMID:17057875

  17. Alien shrimps in evidence: new records of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 on the coast of So Paulo, southern Brazil (Caridea: Alpheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simes, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogrio C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of So Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of So Paulo is also provided.

  18. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

  19. A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

  20. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    PubMed

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graa, Paulo Maurcio Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios. PMID:25472831

  1. Simulating Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Amazonia: Impacts in Brazil's Roraima State from Reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19 % (CONSERV) and 42 % (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  2. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequm, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Neto, Jaime De Liege Gama; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-01-01

    Miroculis (Miroculis) eldorado sp. nov. and Ulmeritoides passorum sp. nov. are described based on material from Serra do Tepequm, Roraima State, Brazil. Additional records of Leptophlebiidae genera and species are made. Askola Peters, 1969, Farrodes Peters, 1971, Microphlebia Savage & Peters, 1983, Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez, 1992, Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth, 1943 and Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947) are recorded for the first time in Roraima State. Simothraulopsis janae Mariano, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Northern Brazil. PMID:25543739

  3. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and for a wet condition, -43% and -36% respectively, relatively to the present land use. If the present pattern of urbanization is applied to the whole area of the basin, an impermeable area of 81% would be achieved and the simulated peak flow and the runoff volume for a dry condition would be changed +24% and +25%, respectively, and for a wet condition, +44% and +25% respectively, relatively to the present land use. Finally, if the entire basin is considered impervious, for a dry condition, these changes would be in +101% and +65% respectively and, for a wet condition, in +158% and +87% respectively, relatively to the present land use.

  4. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

  5. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

  6. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leo

    2015-06-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P<0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P<0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  7. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2016-01-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  8. El Nio-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in the southern and central United States: Evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtzman, Daniel; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-10-01

    Understanding and predicting regional impacts of El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on winter (October-March) precipitation can provide valuable inputs to agricultural and water resources managers. Effects of ENSO and PDO on winter precipitation were assessed in 165 climate divisions throughout the southern United States. A continuous region of significantly (P < 0.05) increased (decreased) winter precipitation in response to El Nio (La Nia) conditions in the preceding summer (June-September Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)) extends across the entire southern United States and as far north as South Dakota. Within this region stronger correlations (r ? -0.45) are found along the Gulf of Mexico, southern Arizona, and central Nebraska. Winter precipitation differs significantly (P < 0.1) between warm and cold phase PDO periods only in the south central region, with greatest significance centered in Oklahoma. Enhanced negative La Nia anomalies during PDO cold phases are dominant in the central region (Texas to South Dakota) whereas enhanced positive El Nio anomalies during PDO warm phases are dominant in the southwest (Arizona, Nevada, and California) and southeast (Louisiana to Florida). Validation tests of winter precipitation predictions based on summer SOI and/or PDO-phase show a decrease of 9% to 16% in the relative Mean Absolute Error (MAE) from the MAE obtained by using the mean as a predictor in areas with strong correlation (r < -0.45) between SOI and precipitation. Logistic regression probability models of having above or below average winter precipitation had up to 77% successful predictions. The advantage of having probabilities of exceeding certain precipitation thresholds at the beginning of a hydrologic year makes logistic regression models attractive for decision makers.

  9. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraba continentalshelf, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  10. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. PMID:25942692

  11. Southern Higher Education Legislative Report, 1977. A Summary of State Legislation in 1977 Affecting Higher Education in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    In this report of Southern Regional Education Board state legislative action in 1977, an end-of-sessions summary is offered for these states: Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi, Arkansas, West Virginia, Maryland, Alabama, Tennessee, Texas, South Carolina, Florida, North Carolina, and Louisiana. Higher education shared in the benefits of an improved

  12. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence. PMID:26347382

  13. A new species of Pareiorhaphis (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the headwaters of the Arroio Garapi, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Schvambach, Lucas J; Reis, Roberto E

    2015-01-01

    Pareiorhaphis garapia, new species, is described based on specimens collected in the headwaters of the Arroio Garapi, Rio Maquin basin, a coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all other Pareiorhaphis species in having the nuchal plate covered by thick skin, the exposed posterior process of the cleithrum comparatively narrow, and the last segment of the preopercular ramus of the latero-sensory canal reduced to an ossified tubule. The absence of a dorsal-fin spinelet, the reduced number of plates in the dorsal and mid-dorsal series of lateral plates, and morphometric traits also distinguish the new species from its congeners. The restricted geographic distribution of P. garapia, endemic to a headwater stream of the Rio Maquin basin, and the syntopic occurrence of P. nudulus are discussed. PMID:26624457

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fat samples from White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) off southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been gaining much visibility in environmental chemical studies due to their similarity to PCBs and growing reports of harmful effects. The fact that these contaminants have not yet undergone bans or restrictions on the global level underscores the need for data on their occurrence. In the present study, fat samples from 26 White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and 3 Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) collected dead ashore or as bycatch of longline fisheries in southern Brazil were analyzed to determine concentrations of seven congeners (IUPAC #28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183). Concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detectable to 72.70 ng g(-1) (wet weight), comparatively lower than concentrations reported for seabird samples in northern hemisphere. The most detected congeners were 153, 154 and 183. This pattern is close to that previously reported for birds of the same group, but not those from the same region. PMID:24143957

  15. Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

    2015-09-01

    The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni. PMID:24830883

  16. Trends of fumonisin contamination and animal intoxication through monitoring 1991 to 1997 corn crop in the State of Paran, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ono, Elisabete Y S; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Sofia, Silvia Helena; Figueira, Edson L Z; Gerage, Antonio Carlos; Ichinoe, Masakatsu; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Ueno, Y; Hirooka, Elisa Y

    2004-11-01

    Eleven feed samples associated with six animal (horse and poultry) intoxication outbreaks (1991) in the state of Paran, Brazil, were evaluated for fungal and fumonisin contamination. In order to estimate the trend of livestock intoxication, fumonisin contamination was monitored in corn produced both at the commercial level (1991, 1995 crop), and in an experimental field at a local Agronomy Institute (1997 crop). The total mould count in the feed samples ranged from 2.9 x 10(3) to 1.9 x 10(7) CFU/g, with Fusarium verticillioides as the predominant species, at a high count of 2.4 x 10(4)-6.5 x 10(5) CFU/g. Fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) were detected in all corn-based feed samples at levels ranging from 2.89 to 14.54 microg/g. All 27 Northern corn samples (1991 crop) were contaminated with fumonisins at levels ranging from 2.32 to 16.64 microg/g. Twenty-six (96.3%) out of 27 corn samples from the Central-Southern region (1995 crop) were positive for fumonisins (FB1+FB2), with the range of 0.07-3.66 microg/g, while all 37 Northern samples (1995 crop) were contaminated with fumonisins ranging from 0.57 to 9.97 microg/g. Twenty-one out of 37 corn samples from the Northern region (1997 crop) were positive for fumonisins, but at low level (range of 0.05-2.67 microg/g). The results showed a decreasing trend in fumonisin contamination over the years. Nowadays animal intoxication outbreaks rarely occur in this State, as both animal producers and feed industries have become conscious about monitoring of corn and other raw materials at the quality control level. PMID:15630554

  17. Natural Plasmodium infection in neotropical primates in the island of So Lus, state of Maranho, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria Ftima; Figueiredo, Thaysa Araguaia Pereira; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-01-01

    The states that make up the Legal Amazon Region, which include the state of Maranho, account for 99% of registered cases of human malaria in Brazil. It is also believed that transmission of malaria from nonhuman primates (NHP) to humans occurs in this region, because of current reports of seroepidemiological results from samples from humans and NHP coexisting in the same areas. This study aimed to make morphological, serological and molecular diagnoses of Plasmodium spp. in neotropical primates on the island of So Lus, state of Maranho, Brazil. The diagnostic techniques used were optical microscopy, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). From June 2009 to April 2010, 70 NHP were sampled: 50 at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS), located in the municipality of So Lus and 20 free-living individuals that were caught in a private reserve located in the municipality of So Jose de Ribamar, state of Maranho. Under an optical microscope, 140 slides (two from each animal) were evaluated and five animals (7.1%) were found to be positive. IFA did not detect anti-Plasmodium spp. From PCR on the 70 animals sampled, amplified Plasmodium spp. products were observed in 13 samples, of which eight (61.5%) were from free-living animals and five (38.5%) were from animals at CETAS. PMID:26154952

  18. Soybean Crop Area Estimation and Mapping in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusso, A.; Ducati, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation of the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm (MCDA) procedure for estimating historical planted soybean crop areas was done on fields in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. MCDA is based on temporal profiles of EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) derived from satellite data of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imager, and was previously developed for soybean area estimation in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. According to the MCDA approach, in Mato Grosso soybean area estimates can be provided in December (1st forecast), using images from the sowing period, and in February (2nd forecast), using images from sowing and maximum crop development period. The results obtained by the MCDA were compared with Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) official estimates of soybean area at municipal level. Coefficients of determination were between 0.93 and 0.98, indicating a good agreement, and also the suitability of MCDA to estimations performed in Mato Grosso State. On average, the MCDA results explained 96% of the variation of the data estimated by the IBGE. In this way, MCDA calibration was able to provide annual thematic soybean maps, forecasting the planted area in the State, with results which are comparable to the official agricultural statistics.

  19. Staff patterns of epidemiologists in the health departments of 12 southern states.

    PubMed Central

    Woernle, C H

    1991-01-01

    In November 1989, representatives from 12 States attending the Annual Convocation of Southern State Epidemiologists completed a survey to enumerate epidemiologists working in central offices of State health departments. Epidemiologists were classified according to education and program area. A total of 117 epidemiologists were identified, yielding a range among the States of 0.6 to 8.3 (median 1.9) epidemiologists per million population. The most common degree was a medical degree, followed by master's training in epidemiology or biostatistics; only 9 percent had doctoral training in epidemiology or biostatistics. More than one-third of the epidemiologists worked in infectious diseases, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases, and about one-fifth worked in environmental epidemiology. The areas of injuries, cancer, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, and occupational health collectively accounted for about one-fifth of epidemiologists. The results of the survey suggest room for further epidemiologic training among health department epidemiologists. The results also identify areas where additional epidemiologic input would be beneficial. PMID:1910195

  20. Magnetic fabrics and rock magnetism of Archaean and Proterozoic dike swarms in the southern So Francisco Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pinese, Jos Paulo P.

    2007-10-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on three mafic dike swarms (total of 38 dikes) from the southernmost part of the So Francisco Craton (SFC) (Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil). They cut Archaean granite-gneiss-migmatite and paleoprototerozoic terranes. These swarms are classified as basic-noritic (Sm-Nd age 2.65 Ga), basic (Rb-Sr age 1.87 Ga) and metamorphic (Rb-Sr age 1.87 Ga) suites, in which the second is the most important. Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). In most sites magnetic susceptibility is dominantly carried by ferromagnetic minerals, however, in some sites the paramagnetic contribution exceeds 70% of bulk susceptibility. Mainly coarse to fine-grained Ti-poor titanomagnetite up to pure magnetite carry the magnetic fabrics. Three primary AMS fabrics are recognized which are all coaxial with the AARM fabric. Normal AMS fabric is dominant in the basic suite (16 of 20 analyzed dikes) and occurs in 4 and 3 dikes from the basic-noritic and metamorphic suites, respectively. This fabric is interpreted as a result of magma flow in which the analysis of Kmax inclination permitted to infer that the majority of dikes were fed by inclined flows (30 < Kmax < 60), although 44% of dikes from the basic suite were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30). Intermediate AMS fabric was found in 50% of dikes from the basic-noritic and metamorphic suites, but in only 2 dikes from the basic suite. It is interpreted as due to vertical compaction of a static magma column with the minimum stress along the dike strike. Inverse AMS fabric is a minority (2 dikes from each suite). The parallelism between AMS and AARM tensors for dikes with abnormal fabrics suggests a primary origin for them. Gyroremanent magnetization (GRM) effect was negligible for the majority of dikes, but it was found in two dikes from the basic suite with normal AMS fabric. Magnetic fabrics recognized for the three studied swarms do not depend on magnetic mineralogy, geochemical composition, dike strikes, nor the age of the swarms since the same magnetic minerals and magnetic fabric types are found in dikes from all suites. Inclined and horizontal flows allow us to infer the relative position of at least three magma sources (or magma chambers) from which the dikes were fed.

  1. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  2. PREVALENCE AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM FINISHING PIG HERDS AND SLAUGHTER FACILITIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil during 2004. A total of 1,258 samples were colleted and pre-enriched in buffered peptone water, after which, each sample was di...

  3. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  4. The 1986 drought in the southern United States: how rare an event was it

    SciTech Connect

    COOK, E.R.; KABLACK, M.A.; JACOBY, G.C.

    1988-11-20

    The recent drought in the southeastern United States is the most severe episode of moisture deficiency to strike that area in the past 111 years, based on meteorological records. Using those records, the recurrence interval of this event has been estimated to be of the order of 100-200 years. We develop a much longer history of drought occurrence for this region, using tree-ring series of old-age trees growing in the southern Appalachian Mountains. This record, which extends back to 1700, indicates that the 1986 drought was unprecedented in its severity as a single-year event. On this basis we conclude that the 1986 drought is a very rare event, with a probable recurrence interval of at least 287 years.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  6. Establishing a sediment budget for a small agricultural catchment in southern Brazil, to support the development of effective sediment management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minella, Jean P. G.; Walling, Desmond E.; Merten, Gustavo H.

    2014-11-01

    The rapid expansion of agriculture in Brazil has increased erosion rates and sediment yields, causing many negative environmental and economic impacts, both on- and off-site. However, to date, very few catchment-scale sediment budget investigations have been carried out in Brazil. Given the need to reduce the negative off-site impacts of increasing agricultural activity, there is an important need for such investigations in order to inform the development of effective sediment management strategies. Against this background, 137Cs measurements have been combined with measurements of sediment yield and fingerprinting the source of the fine sediment output, to establish a provisional sediment budget for a small (1.19 km2) agricultural catchment in southern Brazil. The catchment is located in an area of steep highly erodible basaltic terrain, which has been intensively cultivated with tobacco. An ongoing monitoring programme provided information on the sediment yield from the catchment and existing suspended sediment source fingerprinting investigations provided information on the main sediment sources contributing to the sediment load at the catchment outlet. 137Cs measurements have been used to estimate medium-term erosion and deposition rates along 17 transects across the cultivated slopes and to quantify sedimentation rates within valley floor sediment sinks. These data have been used to estimate sediment redistribution rates within the cultivated areas of the study catchment and sediment accumulation in the valley floor sinks. The information provided by the three primary data sources has been integrated to establish the sediment budget for the catchment over the past 57 years. The individual terms of the budget necessarily involve much uncertainty, but its closure adds confidence to the final result. The budget calculations indicate that the study catchment has a sediment delivery ratio of ?15%. The implications of the key features of the budget for developing effective sediment management strategies are discussed.

  7. Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: Unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H. D.; Joeckel, P.; Parchatka, U.; Gurk, C.; Koenigstedt, R.; Brookes, D.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant and a green house gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote MBL is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry of O3 and its precursors in the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, accurate and precise measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel, Marion-Dufresne, crossing the Southern Atlantic (28S-57S, 46W-34E) in March 2007 are among the lowest amounts yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions and the calculations indicate deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx, conditions (5 to 25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable and unexpected trend in the Leighton ratio (a ratio used to characterize PSS) dependant on the NO2 mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. Further, a direct comparison of the measured species with model output of an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model (EMAC) is performed along the exact cruise track. To further investigate the consistency of the measurements and our current understanding of atmospheric radical chemistry a steady-state box model is constrained using data obtained during the cruise. The comparison between measured and model calculated ROx concentrations in the low NOx, regime shows that conventional theory fails to reproduce the observations. The possible causes and implications are discussed.

  8. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

  9. Poverty, bridging between injecting drug users and the general population, and "interiorization" may explain the spread of HIV in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Mariana A; Leite, Iuri; Friedman, Samuel R; Carrijo, Renata Gracie; Bastos, Francisco I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study how structural determinants and the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) as a bridging population to the general population affected the AIDS subepidemic in southern Brazil during 1986-2000. Data from 288 southernmost Brazilian municipalities were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling and inputs from a Geographic Information System, a multilevel model was constructed. The dependent variable was the logged AIDS standardized incidence rate (among the heterosexual population aged 15-69-years-old); independent variables included indicators for education, water provision, sewage, and garbage collection, per capita income, Gini coefficient (on income), Human Development Index, indicators of accessibility, and AIDS rate among IDUs. Significant predictors included AIDS rate among IDUs, distance from/to highways/railways, the Human Development Index and the ratio of residents who have access to sanitary installations. Poverty (as measured by socioeconomic indicators) and bridging from IDUs contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian southern municipalities. PMID:19083260

  10. Estimating populations of men who have sex with men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Spencer; Thompson, Daniel R; Misra, Shyam; Gates, Gary J; Duffus, Wayne A; Fallon, Stephen J; Liberti, Thomas M; Foust, Evelyn M; Malow, Robert M

    2009-11-01

    Population estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) by state and race/ethnicity are lacking, hampering effective HIV epidemic monitoring and targeting of outreach and prevention efforts. We created three models to estimate the proportion and number of adult males who are MSM in 17 southern states. Model A used state-specific census data stratified by rural/suburban/urban area and national estimates of the percentage MSM in corresponding areas. Model B used a national estimate of the percentage MSM and state-specific household census data. Model C partitioned the statewide estimates by race/ethnicity. Statewide Models A and B estimates of the percentages MSM were strongly correlated (r = 0.74; r-squared = 0.55; p < 0.001) and had similar means (5.82% and 5.88%, respectively) and medians (5.5% and 5.2%, respectively). The estimated percentage MSM in the South was 6.0% (range 3.6-13.2%; median, 5.4%). The combined estimated number of MSM was 2.4 million, including 1,656,500 (69%) whites, 339,400 (14%) blacks, 368,800 (15%) Hispanics, 34,600 (1.4%) Asian/Pacific Islanders, 7,700 (0.3%) American Indians/Alaska Natives, and 11,000 (0.5%) others. The estimates showed considerable variability in state-specific racial/ethnic percentages MSM. MSM population estimates enable better assessment of community vulnerability, HIV/AIDS surveillance, and allocation of resources. Data availability and computational ease of our models suggest other states could similarly estimate their MSM populations. PMID:19911282

  11. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

  12. [Lutzomyia whitmani periurbanization in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Maranho, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Francisco Santos; Reblo, Jos Manuel Macrio

    2004-01-01

    An entomological survey was performed in the periurban area of the municipality of Dom Pedro in the state of Maranho in 2000, in order to estimate the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis, due to the occurrence of one suspect death caused by kala azar. However, it was surprisingly verified that 82.4% (2,440 specimens) from the total of 2,961 sand flies captured in the peridomicile were Lutzomyia whitmani. This association has indicated a new pattern for cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission (urban), as has been observed with regard to kala azar in the northeast of Brazil. PMID:15330071

  13. Stigmaeid mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Johann, Liana; Carvalho, Gervasio Silva; Majolo, Fernanda; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of the family Stigmaeidae Oudemans on grapevines and weed plants associated with vineyard agroecosystem in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) was studied. Five recognized species were reported: Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli et al., 2002, Agistemus floridanus Gonzales, 1965, Agistemus mendozensis Simons, 1967, Zetzellia agistzellia Hernandes and Feres, 2005, and Zetzellia malvinae Matioli et al., 2002. Two new species were described: Agistemus riograndensis sp. nov. and Zetzellia ampelae sp. nov. A pictorial key was compiled to aid in the recognition of these stigmaeids. PMID:26191580

  14. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond. PMID:25945986

  15. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo Dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families.Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil(e.g.,Macrophyllummacrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  16. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families.Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil(e.g.,Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  17. Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in Haematobia irritans (Muscidae) from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Schumaker, Teresinha Tizu Sato; Koller, Wilson Werner; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Albuquerque, Thais Aguiar de; Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33) from all over the state. All populations were highly resistant to cypermethrin, with resistance factors (RF) ranging from 89.4 to 1,020.6. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation also were performed in 16 samples. The kdr mutation was found in 75% of the tested populations, mostly with relatively low frequencies (<20%), and was absent in some highly resistant populations. Addition of TPP did not significantly reduce the LC50 in any population. However, PBO reduced LC50s above 40-fold in all tested populations, resulting in RFs ? 10 in most cases. Horn fly resistance to cypermethrin is widespread in the state, being primarily caused by an enhanced activity of P450 mono-oxygenases and secondarily by reduced target site sensitivity. PMID:23538495

  18. Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M. ); Brown, Robert A. ); Rosenberg, Norman J. ); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. ); Legler, David; Srinivasan, Ragahvan

    2003-02-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.

  19. Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blackwell, D.D. and others

    Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

  20. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  1. Neoproterozoic anorogenic magmatism in the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province of NE Brazil: U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages of the blue sodalite syenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Conceio, Herbet; Macambira, Moacir Jos Buenano; Galarza, Marco Antonio; Cunha, Mnica Pringsheim; Menezes, Rita Cunha Leal; Marinho, Moacyr Moura; Filho, Baslio Elesbo da Cruz; Rios, Dbora Correia

    2007-08-01

    Blue sodalite syenite is a rare rock, and the Southern Bahia Alkaline Province (SBAP) is the only place in Brazil where economic deposits are found. This province forms part of the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic So Francisco craton, and contains a few batholiths, a large number of stocks and hundreds of dykes. Its southern part lies close to the tectonic contact between the craton and the Neoproterozoic Araua mobile melt. Blue sodalite-bearing syenites are found in almost all the igneous bodies of the SBAP as dykes or pegmatitic masses hosted by nepheline syenite. Economically viable quantities for the production of dimension stones are found only in the Floresta Azul alkaline complex, the Itaju do Colnia and Rio Pardo stocks and the Itarantim batholith.U-Pb ages obtained for titanite from Itaju do Colnia (732 8 Ma) and Rio Pardo (714 8) and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of zircon from Floresta Azul (696 3 Ma) and Itarantim (722 5 Ma). The geochronology of the SBAP shows that the anorogenic alkaline magmatism persisted for at least 58 Ma, demonstrating an extensional tectonic environment in the southern part of the So Francisco craton at this time. The data show that the rift phase which preceded the formation of the Araua orogen was active until at least 700 Ma. The reported ages are similar to those found for the nepheline syenite host bodies, which supports the conclusions of the previous petrologic study demonstrating that blue sodalite is formed during the crystallization of these bodies. Two different processes are involved. In the magmatic process, sodalite occurs as disseminated and interstitial crystals among alkali feldspar crystals, and is associated with calcite and cancrinite formed by destabilization of nepheline. In the metasomatic process, discontinuous bands of sodalite are in sharp contact with nepheline syenite pegmatite, and its crystal aggregates often contain relict textures of nepheline and albite been replaced by sodalite.

  2. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics. PMID:25210917

  3. Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of So Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of So Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Canania Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbrea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Canania Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled trees; n = 48). We discuss the impact of the fishermen's harvesting practices in the managed area with an emphasis on three main points: (1) the harvesting practices are likely not contributing to a decrease in diversity in the managed area; (2) the greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition found for the managed area may reflect a mosaic pattern created by the opening of small tree-gaps distributed across this area over the course of more than 50 years; (3) the disturbance promoted by the fishermen's harvesting practices can be compared to natural disturbances of low impact that create mosaic patterns in tropical forests. This study emphasizes the prominence of the human dimension in ecological processes and the importance of considering the perspectives of local people when discussing the conservation of the natural environments in which these people live. PMID:21396767

  4. Reactional state and nutritional profile among leprosy patients in the primary health care system, Greater Vitria, Esprito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Rosa Maria Natalli; Zandonade, Eliana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Diniz, Lcia Martins

    2012-01-01

    Leprosy may present acute/subacute inflammatory processes (leprosy reactions). The study characterized the reactional states of patients at health clinics in Vitria, Esprito Santo State, Brazil, and associated them with sociodemographic factors and clinical/nutritional variables. between January and December 2009, longitudinal follow-up of patients with leprosy continued until leprosy reactions occurred or patients completed 6 months of multidrug therapy. Of the 151 patients participating, 78 (51.7%) were females, 48 (31.8%) had 5 to 8 years schooling, 93 (61.6%) worked and earned from 1 to 3 minimum wages, and 55 (36.4 %) had leprosy reactions, but with no statistical association to socioeconomic characteristics or nutritional status. However, absence of reaction was more common in the low-weight group, suggesting a trend in this group to protection from the reaction (p = 0.0906). The study found no association between nutritional status and leprosy reaction. PMID:22267063

  5. [Assessment of the performance of Pastoral de Criança, a health support group, in promoting child survival and health education in Criciúma,a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Neumann, N A; Victora, C G; Halpern, R; Guimarães, P R; Cesar, J A

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of children younger than 5 years of age still die all over the world as a result of preventable diseases. Community intervention measures emphasizing primary health and nutritional care have been identified as one of the solutions to this problem. This article describes a population-based cross-sectional study of the Pastoral da Criança, a Roman Catholic health support group in Brazil. The study assesses whether mothers and children assisted by the Pastoral present better health indicators and have a better knowledge of basic child survival actions than non-assisted mothers and children. The study was carried out in 1996 in an urban area of the municipality of Criciúma, in the state of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. The sample was composed of 2,208 children under 3 years of age. The adjusted analysis taking into consideration possible confounding factors showed that the presence of the Pastoral was significantly associated with maternal knowledge of appropriate feeding measures during diarrheal episodes, optimal duration of exclusive breast-feeding, implications of feeding powdered milk to infants, correct interpretation of the infant growth curve, and knowledge of the proper vaccination schedule for infants. Participation in the Pastoral was positively associated with longer total breast-feeding duration, later introduction of bottle-feeding, higher frequency of growth monitoring visits in the quarter before the study, and availability in the home of measuring spoons for oral rehydration. No significant association was found between participation in the Pastoral and duration of predominant or exclusive breast-feeding, or correct diarrhea management. The results showed Pastoral actions have a positive effect and also revealed areas in which greater investments are needed. It is recommended that the Pastoral, as well as other similar institutions, give priority to educating mothers on child care and to recruiting mothers early in pregnancy, when the impact of these actions is potentially greater. PMID:10446506

  6. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  7. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  8. Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  9. A Blueprint for the Future of the Southern Association of Land-Grant Colleges and State Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Future concerns that member institutions of the Southern Association of Land-Grant Colleges and State Universities share and perspectives on academic leadership for the future are considered. Future concerns include implications of the trend to have an abbreviated university week, a tendency toward larger faculty workloads, the need for financial

  10. Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

  11. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrea L; White, William H; Nuessly, Gregg S; Solis, M Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Medina, Raul F

    2014-01-01

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

  12. The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes

  13. A Novel Ilarvirus Is Associated with Privet Necrotic Ringspot Disease in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Lawrence, Amanda; Stephenson, Ronald C; Sabanadzovic, Sead

    2016-01-01

    Necrotic ringspot disease (NRSD) is a graft-transmissible disorder of privet (synonym ligustrum), originally reported from Florida and Louisiana more than 50 years ago. In this communication we report an isometric virus isolated from Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) collected in the southern United States displaying symptoms resembling those of NRSD. In mechanical transmission tests, the virus induced systemic infections in several herbaceous hosts. Double-stranded RNA analysis showed a pattern resembling replicative forms of members of the family Bromoviridae. The genome organization along with phylogenetic analyses and serological tests revealed that the virus belongs to subgroup 1 of the genus Ilarvirus. Pairwise comparisons with recognized ilarviruses indicated that the virus is a distinct, and as yet, undescribed member in the taxon, for which we propose the name Privet ringspot virus (PrRSV). Furthermore, the near-perfect association of PrRSV infections with symptoms, and apparent absence of any other virus(es) in studied samples, strongly suggest an important role of this virus in the etiology of NRSD of privet in the southeastern United States. PMID:26390186

  14. Monitoring of the stress state variations of the Southern California for the purpose of earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M.; Garagash, I.; Bondur, V.; Steblov, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional geomechanical model of Southern California was developed, including a mountain relief, fault tectonics and characteristic internal features such as the roof of the consolidated crust and Moho surface. The initial stress state of the model is governed by the gravitational forces and horizontal tectonic motions estimated from GPS observations. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional geomechanical models allows monitoring of the changes in the stress state during the seismic process in order to constrain the distribution of the future places with increasing seismic activity. This investigation demonstrates one of possible approach to monitor upcoming seismicity for the periods of days - weeks - months. Continuous analysis of the stress state was carried out during 2009-2014. Each new earthquake with ?~1 and above from USGS catalog was considered as the new defect of the Earth crust which has some definite size and causes redistribution of the stress state. Overall calculation technique was based on the single function of the Earth crust damage, recalculated each half month. As a result each half month in the upper crust layers and partially in the middle layers we revealed locations of the maximal values of the stress state parameters: elastic energy density, shear stress, proximity of the earth crust layers to their strength limit. All these parameters exhibit similar spatial and temporal distribution. How follows from observations all four strongest events with ? ~ 5.5-7.2 occurred in South California during the analyzed period were prefaced by the parameters anomalies in peculiar advance time of weeks-months in the vicinity of 10-50 km from the upcoming earthquake. After the event the stress state source disappeared. The figure shows migration of the maximums of the stress state variations gradients (parameter D) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake 04.04.2010 with ?=7.2 in the period of 01.01.2010-01.05.2010. Grey lines show the major faults. In the table the values are sampled by 2 weeks, "-" indicates time before the event, "+" indicates time after the event.

  15. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Esprito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Slvia Regina Ferreira Gonalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Esprito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Esprito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

  16. [An oral health care network organized by large municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Godoi, Heloisa; Mello, Ana Lcia Schaefer Ferreira de; Caetano, Joo Carlos

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to analyze the oral health care network in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in municipalities with 100,000 inhabitants or more, focusing on the identification and integration of the network's essential elements. Primary data were obtained through a structured questionnaire applied to oral health care administrators. Secondary data were collected from official databases and provided by the Municipal and State Health Departments. The municipalities offer oral health services at all levels of care, but they are in different stages in implementation of the network. They have taken some measures to consolidate the network, such as inclusion of tools for integration of primary services to specialized care and reorientation of primary health care as the network's central coordinating element. Limitations include difficulty in defining the network's clientele based on epidemiological criteria, insufficient logistics and governance systems, and the need to expand oral health teams in the family health strategy, operating under health surveillance principles. PMID:24627060

  17. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  18. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cntia H; Hein, Hber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cludio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Lus G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding system may be a source of NDV. These data can be used to establish appropriate biosecurity and husbandry measures for this type of breeding system to prevent NDV spread in Brazil. PMID:24958456

  19. Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, Peter B; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E

    2006-01-01

    We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each type of land use change. Use of gross rather than net land use transition data is important because afforestation causes a gradual gain in carbon stocks for many decades, while deforestation causes a much more rapid loss in carbon stocks. In the South-Central region (Texas to Kentucky) land use changes caused a net emission of carbon before the 1980s, followed by a net sequestration of carbon subsequently. In the Southeast region (Florida to Virginia), there was net emission of carbon until the 1940s, again followed by net sequestration of carbon. These results could improve greenhouse gas inventories produced to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Specifically, from 1990 to 2004 for the entire 13-state study area, afforestation caused sequestration of 88 Tg C, and deforestation caused emission of 49 Tg C. However, the net effect of land use change on carbon stocks in soil and forest floor from 1990 to 2004 was about sixfold smaller than the net change in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during this period are dominated by changes in tree carbon stocks. PMID:16825455

  20. Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

  1. A STATISTICAL SUMMARY, STATE BY STATE, OF SCHOOL SEGREGATION-DESEGREGATION IN THE SOUTHERN AND BORDER AREA FROM 1954 TO THE PRESENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSON, JIM; AND OTHERS

    PROGRESS WHICH HAS BEEN MADE IN SCHOOL DESEGREGATION SINCE 1954 IS REPORTED. EACH OF 17 SOUTHERN AND BORDER STATES, PLUS THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, IS REPORTED SEPARATELY. THE STATUS OF SEGREGATION-DESEGREGATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, INSTITUTES OF HIGHER EDUCATION, FACULTIES, AND SPECIAL SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND, THE DEAF,

  2. Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care. PMID:20807429

  3. Elemental composition and chemical characteristics of five edible nuts (almond, Brazil, pecan, macadamia and walnut) consumed in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-01-01

    The total elemental concentrations and proximate chemical composition of five different tree nuts, almond (Prunus dulcus), Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa), pecan (Carya pecan), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) and walnut (Juglans nigra) that are consumed in South African households were investigated. In addition, six physicochemical properties of the extracted nut oils, namely acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, density and specific gravity were evaluated. A high concentration of Se (36.1 +/- 0.4 microg g(- 1)) was found in the Brazil nuts only. With maximum and minimum limits being set by the almond and pecan nut samples, Cr ranging from 0.94 +/- 0.14-2.02 +/- 0.07 microg g(- 1) was detected in the nut samples. Generally, the order of the concentrations of the elements in all the nut samples is found to be Mg > Ca > Fe > Cu > Cr > As > Se. The concentrations of Mn and Zn showed greater variation amongst the different types of nuts. The extracted oils showed low acid values and high saponification values with the macadamia nut sample having the highest oil content (76.0 +/- 0.5 g per 100 g of sample), the lowest acid value (0.42 +/- 0.01 mg KOH per g of oil) and highest saponification value (193.7 +/- 2.4 mg KOH per g of oil). The present findings are useful in calculating the Dietary Reference Intakes of these nutrients. PMID:17562467

  4. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  5. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered results may guide towards conservation and management of the geologic and natural processes associated with it, preserving geodiversity at the local scale, without the interruption of the geotourism network at Serra da Bocaina National Park. REFERENCES AB'SABER, Aziz NacibBrazil:. The nature of domains in Brazil: Landscape Potentials. São Paulo: Studio Editorial. 2003. GUERRA, Antonio Teixeira. Natural resources of Brazil. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE, 1980. IPHAN. National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage. International Declaration of Rights to the Land of Memory. [Digne-Les-Bains, France, 1991] Available at: http://portal.iphan.gov.br. Accessed on: 03, January 2014. UNESCO. Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural. Paris: UNESCO, 1972.

  6. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil. PMID:26344604

  7. [Demographic profile of Borro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimares de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Borro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garas, Meruri, and Morada dos Borro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Borro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations. PMID:19219240

  8. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), So Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nava, William R; Martinelli, Agustn G

    2011-03-01

    The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata) is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Jnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.). In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group) located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, So Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record. PMID:21437386

  9. Balantidium sp. in ostriches (Struthio camelus L., 1758) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nicole B Ederli Francisco Carlos R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of Balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. The data were compared by a simple linear regression analysis. The cysts found ranged in size from 60.39 by 34.62 mm and 59.13 by 33.92 m in diameters. The spherical shape was confirmed by observing the shape index of 1.05 and r = 0.9630, which suggested there were cysts of different sizes with similar shapes. In spite of polymorphism, cysts measurements were uniform in their distribution, evidencing the possibility of a single species (R2 = 0.9274). The cysts were morphologically indistinguishable from the Balantidium sp. cysts already reported in ostrich feces or B. coli. This is the first report of parasitism by Balantidium sp. in ostriches in Brazil. In spite of the high Balantidium sp. frequency, no clinical sign was observed. PMID:20059871

  10. [Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimares, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Maringela Leal

    2013-09-01

    Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitria da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (? 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

  11. Myxomycetes from mangroves: species occurring in the state of Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Agra, L A N N; Bezerra, A C C; Cavalcanti, L H

    2015-11-01

    Mangrove swamps and forests cover over 137,000 km2 distributed latitudinally among subtropical zones, 7% of which are in Brazil, with a greater density in the country's northernmost region. Considering that the community of Myxomycetes recorded for this environment is hardly known, three areas located in the state of Maranhão were investigated. Two field trips were conducted, one at the beginning of the rainy season and another during the dry season. In each area, two plots (125 m2) equidistant 100 m apart from each other were surveyed. In these areas, standing dead tree trunks and dead branches still attached to the mother plant that were above the tideline, were examined. On these same occasions, samples of the aerial litter and from the cortex of living trees (Rhizophora) were collected for the preparation of moist chambers cultures. Twenty-one specimens were obtained from field and moist chambers, belonging to 11 species, distributed in nine genera and five families. Seven species are new records from Maranhão. There was a predominance of r-strategist (73%) over K-strategist (27%) species. Cribraria violacea, Comatricha tenerrima, Echinostelium minutum, and Fuligo septica are new worldwide records from mangrove environments, and Oligonema flavidum is reported for the first time from Brazil. PMID:26628238

  12. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

  13. Comparison of flavonoid composition of red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) grown in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Bradish, Christine M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Fernandez, Gina E; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-13

    Raspberry flavonoid compounds have significant antioxidant activities, and regular consumption may help prevent and/or moderate chronic diseases. Targeted metabolite profiling is useful to identify compounds contributing to these antioxidant properties and health benefits and for tailored breeding for functional foods. In this study, metabolomic variation was determined among three fall-fruiting red raspberry cultivars ('Autumn Britten', 'Caroline', 'Nantahala') grown at three North Carolina locations differing in elevation and average day/night temperatures. 'Nantahala' was specifically bred for the mountainous regions of the southern United States. Ten flavonoid compounds were detected by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Of those, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and quercetin-3-glucoside were quantified against external standards. Variation in flavonoid composition was primarily attributed to genotype and associated with night temperature and hours exposed to temperatures over 29 C. 'Nantahala' had particularly high levels of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, indicative of its purple raspberry lineage. Quercetin-3-glucoside levels increased the most with elevated temperatures. PMID:22128912

  14. Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under verification required category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under verification required category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

  15. Relating TRMM precipitation radar land surface backscatter response to soil moisture in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Sumit; Stephen, Haroon; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2011-05-01

    SummarySoil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in agronomy, meteorology, and hydrology. It regulates the exchange of water and heat between land surface and atmosphere and thus plays an important role in the development of weather patterns. It is difficult to obtain a comprehensive spatio-temporal map of soil moisture because of expensive installation of soil moisture measuring instruments. In this paper, a model to estimate soil moisture ( m s) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR) backscatter ( ?) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is developed for the Southern United States. Soil moisture data from Soil and Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations is used to calibrate and validate the model. The estimated values of m s compare well with the ground measurements of soil moisture. The model works well for various landcovers but works best for low density vegetated areas (closed shrubland). All the soil moisture estimates in this landcover have an absolute error of less than 8%. The model performance deteriorates with increase in vegetation density (crops and forest). Overall, the model performance is satisfactory for all landcover types with RMSE less than 6.3% and absolute error of 10% or less for 90% of the estimates. Estimation of soil moisture over a large area with low error provides another use of TRMMPR data.

  16. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  17. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n=29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. PMID:23895781

  18. Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.93822.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.96340.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.08341.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women. PMID:24559309

  19. [A method to identify the three cryptic species of Protesilaus, (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from southern Brazil, based on genital morphology].

    PubMed

    Murillo-Hiller, Luis Ricardo

    2007-06-01

    I describe the male genital structures of three species of butterflies from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Their external patterns do not differ enough to determine one species from another. All inhabit the same areas at the same time of the year. In an attempt to find a constant difference among them, as well as to establish the range of variability in each species, series of butterflies from different localities were dissected. The diagnostic structures found in all three species were named and drawn for their identification. Color patterns, width, separateness and presence or absence of the black bands and the color of the frons are not useful for recognizing P. nigricornis from P. stenodesmus or P. helios. The species group studied shows major morphological variability. For that reason, species level identification can be extremely difficult, particularly if the specimens are deteriorated. In conclusion, the only reliable way to correctly identify this species is by dissection of male genitalia. PMID:19069777

  20. Natural Infection of Wild Canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) with the Intraendothelial Piroplasm Rangelia vitalii in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fredo, Gabriela; Bianchi, Matheus V; De Andrade, Caroline P; De Souza, Suyene O; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo V; Bandinelli, Marcele B; Amorim, Derek B; Driemeier, David; Sonne, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a piroplasm that infects canines, causing lesions typical of a hemolytic disorder. Two wild canids, a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and a Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), were presented for necropsy in Setor de Patologia Veterinria at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. On gross examination, both animals had pale mucosae and moderate tick infestation (Amblyomma aureolatum). There was severe splenomegaly, and the liver had a diffusely orange-reddish lobular pattern. The mesenteric lymph nodes were brownish and slightly enlarged. Structures compatible with R. vitalii were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the liver, stomach, heart, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. The agent was characterized by PCR and genetic sequencing of liver samples and ticks. We show that parasitism with R. vitalii follows an epidemiologic cycle in which wild canids act as reservoirs. PMID:26251988

  1. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  2. Use of indicator kriging to investigate schistosomiasis in minas gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Drummond, Sandra C; Tibiriçá, Sandra H C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  3. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  4. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

  5. Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from natural ecosystems in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Gilberto José; Barbosa, Marina Ferraz De Camargo; De Castro, Tatiane Marie Martins Gomes

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the results of a study of the phytoseiid mites collected from plants in two natural ecosystems in the State of São Paulo, Brazil-Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. In this study, 40 phytoseiid species are reported. Measurements of different structures are given for species for which measurements for the respective São Paulo populations were not previously provided. This study also includes the description of two new genera, Breviseius g. n. and Serraseius g. n., and ten new species, Amblydromalus macroatrium n. sp., Amblyseius atlanticus n. sp., Breviseius sennae n. sp., Cocoseius paucisetis n. sp., Proprioseiospsis pariquerassuensis n. sp., Serraseius caicara n. sp., Typhlodromalus ingae n. sp., Typhlodromalus feresisimilis n. sp., Typhlodromips corniformis n. sp. and Typhlodromips robustisetus n. sp. PMID:26106730

  6. Spatial synchrony of a highly endemic fish assemblage (Segredo Reservoir, Iguau River, Paran State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Domingues, W M; Bini, L M; Agostinho, A A

    2005-08-01

    In this study, patterns of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations (cross-correlation) of an endemic fish assemblage of a Neotropical reservoir (Segredo Reservoir, Iguau River, Paran State, Brazil) were reported. First, the level of population synchrony for 20 species was estimated. Second, population synchrony was correlated, using the Mantel test, with geographical distances among sites (n = 11) and also environmental synchrony (temperature). Nine species presented significant correlations between spatial synchrony and geographic distances (Astyanax sp. b, Astyanax sp. c, Pimelodus sp., Hoplias malabaricus, Crenicichla iguassuensis, Hypostomus derbyi, Hypostomus myersi, Rhamdia branneri, and R. voulezi). Considering the ecology of the species and the significant relationship between population and environmental synchronies, it seems that environmental stochasticity is the most plausible hypothesis in explaining the observed synchrony patterns. PMID:16341422

  7. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitria da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  8. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gastauer, Markus; Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S; Meira-Neto, Joo A A

    2015-01-01

    Camposrupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  9. [When and where motorcyclists have accidents and die in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Eugnio Paceli Hatem; Pinheiro, Letcia Cavalari; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze traffic accidents involving motorcycles in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2007 to 2011 and to identify clusters of high-risk and hazardous intersections in and around the city. Data were provided by the Military Police Brigade and the Emergency Medical Service (SAMU). Accident severity rates were used to identify critical intersections. Two techniques were used: kernel analysis and scan statistics (continuous Poisson model). High-risk clusters were located in the downtown area and on major thoroughfares. Surprisingly, the highest risk of accidents and death occurred not at intersections, but between them. Hazardous intersections are part of routes used to access regions around Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte. Two distinct trends in mortality rates and accidents were identified. Most motorcycle deaths occurred after 7:00 PM. The study concludes that there is an urgent need to improve motorcycle and public transportation routes. PMID:26872238

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCORPION ENVENOMATION IN THE STATE OF CEARÁ, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Sanny da Silva; Belmino, José Franscidavid Barbosa; Diniz, Ana Gilza Quaresma; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2016-01-01

    This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 11,134 cases were studied and distributed across all the months of the studied period and they occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 years-old women. Most victims were bitten on the hand; and received medical assistance within 1-3 hours after being bitten. Cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion envenomation in Ceará is an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID:27007558

  11. [Analysis of non-prescription drug radio advertising in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    PubMed

    Heineck; Gallina; Silva; Pizzo; Schenkel

    1998-04-30

    Drug advertisements for non-prescription (over-the-counter) drugs on the main radio stations in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were analyzed as to the information provided about generic names, pharmaceutical company, composition, and dosage. From August 1995 to January 1996, 250 advertisements for 28 products were recorded. More than 80% of these advertisements provided no information on these topics and thus failed to comply with Brazilian legislation. On the contrary, a large number of advertisements (39%) emphasize absence of risks, with claims such as "no contraindications" inducing consumers to use such drugs indiscriminately. The study showed that drugs were advertised like any other merchandise with no concern over fundamental information such as product identification, precautions, and possible side effects. PMID:9592225

  12. [Health, environment, and pesticide use in a farming area in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Peres, Frederico; Moreira, Josino Costa

    2007-01-01

    Pesticide use in agriculture is a nationwide phenomenon in Brazil, and the problem is proportional to this vast country. The widespread and growing use of pesticides for crops and cattle-raising, among other applications, has caused a number of environmental changes and problems, both by contaminating the communities of living beings that comprise the environment and by accumulating in the biotic and abiotic segments of ecosystems (biota, water, air, soil, sediments etc.). Pesticides also cause a number of diseases and health problems in human populations. The current article discusses several pesticide-related implications for human health and the environment in the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, an important farming center. The article presents the results of research in the area, identifying possible determinants of the current situation and some of the main challenges for dealing with the problem. PMID:18038042

  13. [Spatial evolution of cardiovascular mortality in Paran State, Brazil: 1989-1991 and 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Muller, Erildo Vicente; Aranha, Selma Regina Ribeiro; Roza, Willian Samuel Santana da; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho

    2012-06-01

    This ecological study aimed to describe the spatial distribution of cardiovascular mortality in Paran State, Brazil (1989-1991 and 2006-2008) and its correlation with socioeconomic variables, using mortality data from the DATASUS database and population data from IBGE. Mortality rates were adjusted by the local empirical Bayesian method. Correlation analysis used the Moran I index and Spearman coefficient. There were no significant correlations or spatial dependence between mortality and socioeconomic variables. Mortality was higher in males in both periods. Cardiovascular mortality declined from 1989-1991 to 2006-2008 and was higher in females. Construction of thematic maps allowed visualization of the regions with highest cardiovascular risk. The decrease in mortality can be partially explained by expanded access to health services and improved living conditions and income. PMID:22666811

  14. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. PMID:25863697

  15. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  16. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  17. Signatures of continental collisions and magmatic activity in central Brazil as indicated by a magnetotelluric profile across the southern Alto Paranaiba igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Bologna, Mauricio; Vitorello, Icaro; Padua, Marcelo

    2010-05-01

    Broadband and long-period magnetotelluric soundings were collected along a 560 km E-W profile in a region in central Brazil subjected to Neoproterozoic collision tectonics and Archean to Cretaceous magmatic events. The profile crosses the northeast part of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanics of the Parana basin, the southern extension of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Brasilia belt, locally pervaded by Cretaceous alkaline magmas of the Alto Paranaiba igneous province (APIP), and Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover and Archean exposed basement of the southern Sao Francisco craton. 2D conductivity structures derived by joint inversions of the TE and TM polarization modes and a separate inversion of the tipper components show signatures of the past tectonomagmatic events that affected the area. A gravity-defined suture zone beneath the Parana basin related to the Neoproterozoic collision of the Sao Francisco and Parana blocks is detected in the models as a subvertical conductor extending from crustal to upper mantle depths. Deep underthrusting of organic graphite-bearing metasediments in the suture zone is proposed to explain the increase of electrical conductivity. A similar conductivity signature beneath the sedimentary covered region of the Sao Francisco craton is interpreted as another suture zone. This previously undetected feature can be associated either with a trace of a much older event preserved in the cratonic rocks or an expression of accretionary events generating the larger Neoproterozoic San Franciscan plate. Isolated high-conductivity anomalies at midcrustal depths below the Parana and APIP provinces are interpreted as residues of the emplacement of Cretaceous mafic-ultramafic volcanics. A low resistivity wedge into the lithosphere is highlighted at the topmost upper mantle beneath the APIP volcanic complex, coincidental with a zone of low velocity defined by seismic tomography. Geochemical evidences indicate that the alkaline magmatism stemmed from a metasomatized upper mantle at only slightly raised temperatures. Although related to the same magmatic process, the seismic and conductivity anomalies are presently centered at different depths and probably triggered by different sources. Interconnected carbon at the topmost mantle is the most likely candidate to explain the high conductivity whereas the low seismic velocity can be related to either compositional or temperature variations. Conductivity anomalies at different depths in the southern segment of the Sao Francisco cratonic lithosphere suggest that it was significantly affected by the several magmatic episodes it has experienced throughout its geological history. Enhanced conductivity at lower crust can be genetically related to massive basaltic intrusions whereas upper mantle high conductivity can be related to refertilization by infiltrations of low degree basaltic melts from deeper-sourced metasomatic processes.

  18. The Disease Burden Attributable to Smoking in the State Of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Valente, Joaquim Gonalves; Leite, Iuri Costa

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Smoking is one of the main risk factors for morbidity and mortality. An estimated 59 million (4.4%) disability-adjusted life years were lost due to smoking throughout the world in 2000. OBJECTIVE To estimate the disease burden attributable to smoking in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the year 2000. METHODS Based on estimates of smoking prevalence and relative death risks, the smoking-attributable fraction was calculated for each selected cause, by age and gender. The disease burden attributable to smoking was estimated by multiplying the fractions by the corresponding disability-adjusted life years. RESULTS In the State of Rio de Janeiro, 7% of all disability-adjusted life years were due to smoking. For individuals 30 or more years old, the fraction increased to 10.6% (13.6% in males and 7.5% in females). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancer accounted for 32.2%, 15.7%, 13.2%, and 11.1% of the estimated total DALYs, respectively, amounting to 72.2% of the smoking-attributable disease burden. DISCUSSION Limitations related to parameter estimates were not unique to this study, and therefore should not compromise the comparability of our results. Outcomes were similar to those obtained in other countries, despite methodological differences. CONCLUSION Smoking is an important risk factor and places a significant disease burden on Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, showing a pattern similar to that observed in high income countries. PMID:18438576

  19. Early mortality and cause of deaths in patients using HAART in Brazil and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Luz, Paula M.; Campos, Dayse P.; Pilotto, Jos H.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Moore, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the early mortality pattern and causes of death among patients starting HAART in Brazil and the United States. Methods: We analyzed the combined data from two clinical cohorts followed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service in Baltimore, United States, and the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute AIDS Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants included those who entered either cohort between 1999 and 2007 and were antiretroviral naive. Follow-up was at 1 year since HAART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess the role of the city on the risk of death. Results: A total of 859 and 915 participants from Baltimore and Rio de Janeiro, respectively, were included. In Rio de Janeiro, 64.7% of deaths occurred within 90 days of HAART initiation; in Baltimore, 48.9% occurred between 180 and 365 days. AIDS-defining illness (61.8%) and non-AIDS-defining illness (55.6%) predominated as causes of death in Rio de Janeiro and Baltimore, respectively. Risk of death was similar in both cities (hazard ratio 1.04; P value=0.95) after adjusting for CD4+ T cell count, age, sex, HIV risk group, prior AIDS-defining illness, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Mycobacterium avium prophylaxis. Individuals with CD4+ T cell count less than or equal to 50 cells/?l (hazard ratio 4.36; P = 0.001) or older (hazard ratio, 1.03; P = 0.03) were more likely to die. Conclusion: Although late HIV diagnosis is a problem both in developed and developing countries, differences in the timing and causes of deaths clearly indicate that, besides interventions for early HIV diagnosis, different strategies to curb early mortality need to be tailored in each country. PMID:19770698

  20. Genetic diversity of indigenous common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rhizobia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Adalgisa Ribeiro; Cursino, Luciana; Muro-Abad, Jpiter Israel; Gomes, Eliane Aparecida; de Arajo, Elza Fernandes; Hungria, Mariangela; Cassini, Srvio Tlio Alves

    2009-01-01

    We characterized indigenous common bean rhizobia from five districts of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isolates were trapped by two common bean varieties, the Mineiro Precoce (Andean origin) and Ouro Negro (Mesoamerican origin). Analysis by BOX-PCR of selected isolates detected a high level of genetic diversity. PMID:24031433