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1

TORNADOES IN SANTA CATARINA STATE (SOUTHERN BRAZIL): EVENT DOCUMENTATION, METEOROLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the space and time distributions of tornado events in Santa Catarina state, located in southern Brazil, based on reports obtained from a data set of 27 years of damage assessment files from Santa Catarinas Civil Defense System. We also evaluate the vulnerability of the local residents to such weather phenomenon. For the period analyzed, we

Isabela Pena; Viana de Oliveira Marcelino; Nelson Jesus Ferreira

2

Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

3

The Association of Health and Income in the Elderly: Experience from a Southern State of Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50th-66th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions. Methods Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ?60 (N=6963), in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status), depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale) together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures. Results In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status). For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association), and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes. Conclusion Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled. PMID:24058505

Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.; Pieper, Carl F.; King, Katherine E.; Andreoli, Sergio B.; Gastal, Fábio L.

2013-01-01

4

Simulium (Psaroniocompsa) tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil.  

PubMed

The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season). PMID:11080767

Hamada, N

2000-01-01

5

Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep flocks of Paraná State, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep constitute an important source of zoonotic pathogens as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, the prevalence, serotypes and virulence profiles of STEC were investigated among 130 healthy sheep from small and medium farms in southern Brazil. STEC was isolated from 65 (50%) of the tested animals and detected in all flocks. A total of 70 STEC isolates were characterized, and belonged to 23 different O:H serotypes, many of which associated with human disease, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Among the serotypes identified, O76:H19 and O65:H- were the most common, and O75:H14 and O169:H7 have not been previously reported in STEC strains. Most of the STEC isolates harbored only stx1, whereas the Stx2b subtype was the most common among those carrying stx2. Enterohemolysin (ehxA) and intimin (eae) genes were detected in 61 (87.1%) and four (5.7%) isolates, respectively. Genes encoding putative adhesins (saa, iha, lpfO113) and toxins (subAB and cdtV) were also observed. The majority of the isolates displayed virulence features related to pathogenesis of STEC, such as adherence to epithelial cells, high cytotoxicity and enterohemolytic activity. Ovine STEC isolates belonged mostly to phylogenetic group B1. PFGE revealed particular clones distributed in some farms, as well as variations in the degree of genetic similarity within serotypes examined. In conclusion, STEC are widely distributed in southern Brazilian sheep, and belonged mainly to serotypes that are not commonly reported in other regions, such as O76:H19 and O65:H-. A geographical variation in the distribution of STEC serotypes seems to occur in sheep. PMID:25465174

Martins, Fernando Henrique; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Piazza, Roxane Maria; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Ludovico, Agostinho; Ludovico, Marilúcia Santos; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2015-01-30

6

YIELD COMPARISON OF INDICA AND US CULTIVARS GROWN IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES AND BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two subspecies of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) are indica, grown in tropical areas like southern China, and japonica, grown in temperate areas. Tropical japonicas are the japonica subgroup grown in the southern US. When indica rices are grown in the southern US and compared to tropical japoni...

7

Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

8

Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain. PMID:24516420

Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

9

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

10

PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-01-01

11

[The laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil].  

PubMed

Between 1986 and 1997 a total of 1418 patients were examined at the Clinical Analysis Teaching and Research Laboratory of Maringá State University (LEPAC/UEM) for cutaneous leishmaniasis by direct examination of stained smears made from the lesions, the Montenegro skin test and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Nine hundred and fifty five patients (67.3%) were positive for at least one of the three tests and of these 804 (84.2%) were considered to have contracted the disease in Paraná State; 665 (69.6%) were between 15 and 49 years old; 658 (68.9%) were males; 523 (54.8%) sought medical advice during the first three months of their infections and 74 (7.7%) had mucosal lesions. Of the 83 counties of Paraná State, where the patients had most probably acquired their infections, 44.7% were from the counties of São Jorge do Ivaí (10.2%), Doutor Camargo (9.8%), Terra Boa (7.3%), Maringá (7.3%), Jussara (6.0%) and Cianorte (4.5%). Seventy seven strains of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were isolated and 63.6% of these strains belong to serodema 1. PMID:10495672

Silveira, T G; Arraes, S M; Bertolini, D A; Teodoro, U; Lonardoni, M V; Roberto, A C; Ramos, M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; Ishikawa, E; Shaw, J

1999-01-01

12

[Serologic survey of dogs in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil  

PubMed

Increased reporting of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná points to the need for information on both this disease's epidemiology and pertinent control measures. A serological survey was thus performed, with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) for canine leishmaniasis in farm operations belonging to the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná, in Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in northwestern Paraná. IIF was performed on 132 dogs, of which 24 (18.2%) had significant titers (>/=40). Imprints of six dogs with lesions were made and all were negative for Leishmania sp. PMID:10904311

Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Toledo; Bertolini; Arraes; Vedovello Filho D

1996-01-01

13

Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters. PMID:24871179

Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

2014-01-01

14

Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).  

PubMed

Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology. PMID:19439554

Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

2009-09-01

15

Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

1982-01-01

16

Zirconium mobility in bauxites of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geochemical study of the behaviour of zirconium in bauxites developed on alkaline rocks in southern Brazil is presented. Zirconium, generally considered as an immobile element during weathering, shows an important mobility conditioned to the original Zr bearing parent mineral. In the two areas (Poços de Caldas and Lages) zircon is rare and the zirconium bearing parent minerals are complex

A. J. Melfi; F. Subies; D. Nahon; M. L. L. Formoso

1996-01-01

17

Helminth parasitism in the Neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, in southern Brazil: effect of host size, weight, sex, and maturity state.  

PubMed

Forty-seven specimens of Neotropical cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from Lago Guaíba, Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30° 00' S, 51°15' W), were examined for helminth parasites between 1999 and 2003. Twenty species of helminth parasites were found: ten digeneans: Austrodiplostomum mordax, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum sp., Drepanocephalus olivaceus, Drepanocephalus spathans, Hysteromorpha triloba, Ignavia olivacei, Paryphostomum segregatum, Prosthogonimus ovatus, and Ribeiroia ondatrae; one cestode: Paradilepis caballeroi; eight nematodes: Contracaecum rudolphii, Eucoleus contortus, Eustrongylides sp., Ornithocapillaria appendiculata, Syngamus sp., Syncuaria squamata, Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) sp., and one undetermined capillariid (genus and species); and one acanthocephalan: Andracantha tandemtesticulata. The length and weight of male and female birds, as well as their sexual maturity (juvenile or adult), did not show significant difference regarding the helminth fauna; the standard length did not influence the helminth parasite indices. The prevalence of I. olivacei was higher in larger birds while the intensity of infection by this digenean species was higher in females. The abundance of P. caballeroi was higher in male birds. A. mordax and H. triloba showed higher prevalence and abundance in juvenile hosts, while O. appendiculata was more abundant in juveniles. The remaining species did not have their parasite indices influenced by the host parameters studied. The present work records the richest helminth fauna for any bird of the genus Phalacrocorax and is the first study to evaluate the influence of length, weight, sex, and maturity state on parasitism. PMID:21431903

Monteiro, Cassandra M; Amato, José F R; Amato, Suzana B

2011-09-01

18

Zirconium mobility in bauxites of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geochemical study of the behaviour of zirconium in bauxites developed on alkaline rocks in southern Brazil is presented. Zirconium, generally considered as an immobile element during weathering, shows an important mobility conditioned to the original Zr bearing parent mineral. In the two areas (Poços de Caldas and Lages) zircon is rare and the zirconium bearing parent minerals are complex weathered silicates as "giannettite", eudyalite, astrophyllite, etc. Since the first stages of weathering, zirconium is partially leached of from the bauxite profile and the remaining Zr is incorporated in secondary phases of the bauxite (amorphous ferric oxydes and aluminous goethite).

Melfi, A. J.; Subies, F.; Nahon, D.; Formoso, M. L. L.

1996-07-01

19

Hematological and histopathological changes in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes) exposed to clomazone herbicide in the Madre River, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of the clomazone herbicide (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone) contamination on the hematological parameters and histological changes in gills and liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) from Madre River, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Fish were collected between March 2010 and January 2012 at two different sites of the Madre River, one site receiving residual water (contaminated site) from rice culture (n=49) and another that do not receive residual water (reference site) (n=48). The herbicide clomazone analysis detected 3.40±1.70 ?g/L in the contaminated site and 1.1±0.33 ?g/L in the reference site. Fish from contaminated site showed increased (P<0.05) number of monocytes suggesting the possible defense response as a result of chronic exposure to clomazone. On the other hand, no difference was found in the hematocrit percentage, red blood cell count, total thrombocyte number, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and neutrophils number. Fish from both sites showed histopathological changes in gills and liver, possibly caused by chronic exposure to contamination. The influence of herbicide sub doses on fish health is also discussed. PMID:24380617

Brum, Aline; Dotta, Geovana; Roumbedakis, Katina; Gonçalves, Eduardo L T; Garcia, Laura P; Garcia, Patrícia; Scussel, Vildes M; Martins, Maurício L

2014-01-01

20

Drosophilid assemblages at different urbanization levels in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed the drosophilid assemblages in different levels of urbanization in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Collections were carried out in 2008 in three different environments: a highly urbanized area-"Jardim Botânico," a forested area with intermediary urbanization-"Parque Gabriel Knijnik," and in a relatively well-preserved forested area, although threatened by the urban growth-"Morro Santana." In Jardim Botânico, 36 species belonging to four genera were found, with high abundance of exotic species as Drosophila simulans Sturtevant and Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). In Parque Gabriel Knijnik, 33 species that belonged to four genera were found, with higher abundances of native species belonging to the Drosophila tripunctata species group and Drosophila willistoni species subgroup, and lower abundance of exotic species. As for Morro Santana, 32 species and three genera were found, with higher abundances of native groups, low representativeness of exotic species, and absence of Zaprionus indianus. The analysis of the Jaccard index showed higher similarity in the species composition between samples collected in summer and autumn, and between samples collected in winter and spring. On the other hand, the Morisita index differentiated Jardim Botânico from the other two studied sites. Our results show that Morro Santana is an important area of native biodiversity, reinforcing, therefore, the inclusion of this area in the project for the creation of an ecological corridor as proposed by the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil. PMID:23950007

Garcia, C F; Hochmüller, C J C; Valente, V L S; Schmitz, H J

2012-02-01

21

[Seabathers eruption: report of the six cases in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

Seabathers eruption is an intensely pruriginous form of dermatitis that occurs after contact with the planula larvae of the cnidarian scyphozoan Linuche unguiculata, especially under the bathers clothes. They discharge their poisonous nematocysts from the cnidocytes, causing a typical eruption presenting papules, erythema and intense itching. The first five cases described in Brazil were published in 2001 and occurred on the southeastern coast (Ubatuba, State of São Paulo). Those cases were linked to larvae of Linuche unguiculata, because the occurrence and life cycle of this cnidarian had been studied in the São Sebastião Channel, State of São Paulo. The present authors report the six cases observed in southern Brazil (State of Santa Catarina), with a description of the typical clinical aspects and an investigation linking the cases to Linuche unguiculata in the local seawater. PMID:17486261

Rossetto, André Luiz; Mora, Jamesson de Macedo; Correa, Patrícia Rossetto; Resgalla, Charrid; Proença, Luís Antônio de Oliveira; da Silveira, Fábio Lang; Haddad, Vidal

2007-01-01

22

Landscape genetics of mountain lions ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that mountain lions have suffered a bottleneck and lost their genetic diversity in an area in southern Brazil. In this study, we correlated landscape connectivity and patterns of gene flow to identify landscape permeability and possible sources of migrants for the population of mountain lions in southern Brazil, using circuit theory. Population structure was analyzed with Bayesian

Camila Schlieper Castilho; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Thales O. Freitas

2011-01-01

23

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

24

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

25

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

26

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

27

Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil Carolina Loch *, Paulo C. Simo Catarina, 88040-970, Floriano´polis, Santa Catarina, Brazil 1. Introduction Dental wear is consequence studies of tooth wear in wild mammals have been published in recent years, relating wear of dental tissues

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

28

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

29

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

30

A new species of land flatworm (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Cratera Carbayo et al. was proposed to encompass five species of Geoplaninae from southeastern Brazil that were mainly recorded in the state of São Paulo. Here we describe a new species of the genus, C. steffeni sp. nov., that occurs in areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil, which augments the known distribution of Cratera. The new species is distinguished from others of the genus by its characteristic colour pattern and a combination of internal morphological characters. PMID:24870339

Rossi, Ilana; Fontoura, Marcela; Amaral, Silvana; Leal-Zanchet, Ana M

2014-01-01

31

Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

2014-01-01

32

Inspection of Wooden Poles in Electrical Power Distribution Networks in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims to test an inspection method for wooden utility poles based on a classification system according to qualitative (visual and sounding) and quantitative parameters (excavation and drilling) to assess internal\\/external wood decay. Ten thousand poles were inspected, distributed over 23 cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil). The results indicated a significant quantity of

FlÁvio L. R. Vidor; MarÇal Pires; Berenice A. Dedavid; Pedro D. B. Montani; Adriano Gabiatti

2010-01-01

33

Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes

Doris Sobral Marques Souza; Ana Paula Dores Ramos; Fabrício Flores Nunes; Vanessa Moresco; Satie Taniguchi; Diego Averaldo Guiguet Leal; Silvio Tarou Sasaki; Márcia Caruso Bícego; Rosalinda Carmela Montone; Maurício Durigan; Adriano Luiz Teixeira; Mariana Rangel Pilotto; Nicésio Delfino; Regina Maura Bueno Franco; Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de Melo; Afonso Celso Dias Bainy; Célia Regina Monte Barardi

34

THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BISCUTATE SWIFT (STREPTOPROCNE BISCUTATA) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata) was studied in a cave located in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Besides monitoring of the nests, eggs, and nestlings every 2 days, the field works involved banding of adult birds with metallic bands and phosphorescent markers. Nest building begins in October; the nest material is collected with the bill. Nest

Mauro Pichorim

35

Potassium-argon ages of alkaline rocks from southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present potassium-argon ages for 66 samples (micas, feldspars, fine-grained whole rocks and amphiboles in descending frequency) from 21 alkaline rock localities in southern Brazil. A general geological description is given for each locality. Analytical precision is about one per cent for potassium and two per cent or better for radiogenic argon determinations. It is possible to classify many samples

G. Amaral; J. Bushee; U. G. Cordani; K. Kawashita; J. H. Reynolds

1967-01-01

36

[Intestinal parasites in nursery schools of Lages, southern Brazil].  

PubMed

Two hundred children from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic infections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%), Giardia lamblia (14%) e Trichuris trichiura (13%). PMID:15361963

Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de; Marques, Sandra; Arruda, Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro; Delfes, Patrícia Simone Wolff Rosa; Medeiros, Iris Aparecida Azevedo

2004-01-01

37

Numerical Modelling of the Vargeño Impact Structure, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vargeño impact crater is a circular feature of ~12 km diameter, formed in basalts of the Southern Brazil. Here, we review the results of numerical simulations of Vargño carried out with the iSALE code, which explains its non-clear central uplift.

Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Wünnemann, K.; Reimold, W. U.; Elbeshausen, D.; Crósta, A. P.

2013-08-01

38

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

2013-01-01

39

Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

2014-10-01

40

Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348

Silva, Everton F; Seyffert, Núbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Leihs, Karl P; Athanazio, Daniel A; Valente, Ana L S; Dellagostin, Odir A; Brod, Claudiomar S

2009-04-01

41

The Ribeira fluorite district, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and evolution of different ore deposits grouped in the same district are often complex and may involve inheritance\\u000a from crustal or mantle geochemical anomalies, remobilization of former ore deposits and a polyphase hydrothermal history.\\u000a Localized in a Proterozoic basement in the Parana state, the Ribeira fluorite district is such an example composed of three\\u000a deposit types with distinct

L. H. Ronchi; J. C. Touray; A. Michard; M. A. Dardenne

1993-01-01

42

High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

2014-01-01

43

Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

2008-12-01

44

North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical  

E-print Network

North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

45

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study  

E-print Network

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table/Retention by Cohort and Geographic Origin #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 3

46

Extreme wet events in Southern Brazil during the Heinrich Stadials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are making continuous efforts to improve both the data resolution and chronology of the speleothem d18O record from Botuvera Cave, southern Brazil, one of the very few high-precision and high-resolution records from southern tropical continents covering the last ~ 100 kyr. In this study, we particularly focus on precipitation change in southern Brazil during the extreme cold time intervals in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich (H) Stadials. With precise U/Th dating, high-resolution d18O profiles from multiple Botuvera stalagmites show that the H2, H3 and H4 stadials are about 1,000 years long and centered approximately 24.6 kyr BP, 30.0 kyr BP and 39.0 kyr BP, respectively. Following the earlier studies on Brazilian speleothem d18O records, as well as trace element analysis and modeling simulations, we interpret the calcite d18O as a proxy of monsoonal rainfall in the region. Broadly speaking, the lower calcite d18O, the higher rainfall, and vice versa. The abrupt drops on calcite d18O during these intervals, with an amplitude of ~ 2% VPDB, suggest that climate change in this region is manifested as a dramatic increasing of rainfall. This confirms our previous finding that on millennial timescales, precipitation change in southern Brazil is anti-phased with that in the north, such as eastern Asia, which is probably controlled by the meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The fast growth rates of the samples enable us to characterize detail precipitation changes in southern Brazil during these three Heinrich Stadials. Precipitation increases abruptly in the earlier stage, evidenced by a d18O drop rate of ~ 5%/kyr, whereas during the later stage, precipitation decreases more gradually, with a d18O rising rate of ~ 2.5%/kyr. This asymmetric pattern of change is different from the temperature behavior in the North Atlantic, which warms much more dramatically in the final stage of a Heinrich Stadial than it cools in the initial phase. Such decoupling may suggest that ITCZ meridional migration is preferably controlled by the temperature gradient between the mid and low latitudes in the cold hemisphere. It has been further noticed that calcite d18O values are higher right after the Heinrich Stadials than those immediately preceding the events, hence, an even drier climate after the extreme wet events. These values, in a range between -3.4% and -2.7%, however, are far below the typical value of ~ -1.5% in early Holocene. This observation suggested that, although the Atlantic overturning circulation may "overshoot" directly following its weaken mode during the Heinrich Stadials, the atmospheric response did not react in a proportional manner.

Wang, X.; Rao, Z.; Auler, A.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Edwards, R.

2011-12-01

47

Boise State University College of Southern Idaho  

E-print Network

· Boise State University · College of Southern Idaho · College of Western Idaho IDAHO DUAL CREDIT PROGRAM PARTICIPATING IDAHO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES · Northwest Nazarene University · University of Idaho · Idaho State University · Lewis-Clark State College · North Idaho College COLLEGE CREDIT FOR HIGH

Barrash, Warren

48

Precipitation Anomalies in Southern Brazil Associated with El Niño and La Niña Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Nino and La Nina events (warm and cold phases of the Southern Oscillation) on rainfall over southern Brazil is investigated through the use of a large dataset of monthly precipitation from 250 stations. This region is partly dominated by rough orography and presents different climatic regimes of rainfall. As previous global studies on Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships

Alice M. Grimm; Simone E. T. Ferraz; Júlio Gomes

1998-01-01

49

Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities. PMID:21789415

Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

2011-01-01

50

Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n = 4) and abortion (n = 1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

2013-10-01

51

Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Brazil L. Felipe H. Niencheski a , Herbert L. Windom b,, Willard S. Moore c , Richard A. Jahnke b a Department of Chemistry, Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Brazil b Skidaway Institute the southern coast of Brazil is linked to the coastal ocean by a narrow mouth and by groundwater transport

Jahnke, Richard A.

52

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil  

E-print Network

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil Cla´udio M. R. Melo Æ.V. 2009 Abstract We report on the invasion of Brazil by the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and discuss was found amongst the native species in oyster banks up to 100 km south of oyster farms in South Brazil

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

53

Rickettsial infection in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected on birds in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds of the Semidecidual and Atlantic Rainforest remnants of three municipalities of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Overall, 53 larvae and nymphs collected from birds were checked for the presence of Rickettsia DNA by molecular tests. Five tick species were tested: Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma parkeri Fonseca and Aragão. A. longirostre ticks were infected with the spotted fever group agents Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL (32.3% infection rate) and Rickettsia parkeri strain NOD (5.9% infection rate). A new rickettsial genotype was detected in the tick A. parkeri (50% infection rate), which had never been reported to be infected by rickettsiae. Through phylogenetic analysis, this new genotype, here designated as strain ApPR, grouped in a cluster composed by different strains of Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia sibirica, and R. parkeri. We consider strain ApPR to be a new genotype of R. parkeri. This study reports for the first time rickettsial infection in ticks from birds in southern Brazil. The role of migrating birds in the dispersal of these rickettsial strains should be considered in ecological studies of spotted fever group agents in Brazil. PMID:22679880

Pacheco, Richard C; Arzua, Márcia; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Marcili, Arlei; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

2012-05-01

54

Status of white croaker Micropogonias furnieri exploited in southern Brazil according to alternative hypotheses of stock discreetness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation status of white croaker Micropogonias furnieri in southern Brazil is assessed using a production model constructed according to three hypotheses of stock discreetness: an isolated stock in southern Brazil; a straddling stock shared between Brazil and Uruguay; and a straddling stock shared among Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Estimates of virgin stock size and maximum sustainable yield were more

Marcelo Vasconcellos; Manuel Haimovici

2006-01-01

55

Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

2012-11-01

56

Hospital morbidity among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies on hospital morbidity among Brazilian indigenous peoples are relatively recent, show limited coverage, and lack data sources capable of generating specific indicators according to ethnic group. The current study describes hospital morbidity in the indigenous population living in 83 Guarani villages in Southern and Southeastern Brazil (N=6,483), based on primary data obtained from a hospital admissions surveillance system implemented in 2007-2008, specifically for a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Guarani children. During the study period there were 666 hospitalizations in a total of 497 individuals, the majority under 5 years of age (71.9%). Respiratory illnesses were the main causes of hospitalization (64.6%), especially in children (<5 years: 77.6%; <1 year: 83.4%) and exceeded the proportions of hospital admissions from these causes in other indigenous groups. The overall hospitalization rate (per 100 person-years) was 8.8, or 71.4 under 1 year and 21.0 from 1 to 4 years of age. The ARI hospitalization rate (5.3) was 6.5 and 2.0 times higher than for diarrhea and other causes, respectively, while in children under 5 years of age (ARI=23.7) these differences were 7.4 and 5.4 times, respectively. The standardized Guarani hospitalization rate exceeded the standardized rates for the South and Southeast of Brazil by 40% and 210%, respectively. Hospitalization for primary care sensitive conditions and the high ARI rates indicate the need for studies to understand the epidemiology of ARI and investments to upgrade primary health care for the Guarani. PMID:20683552

Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Tavares, Felipe Guimarães

2010-03-01

57

Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

2013-01-01

58

Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

2014-01-01

59

Environmental pathways and human exposure to manganese in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The study of environmental pathways and human exposure to Manganese (Mn) in Southern Brazil was performed using two steps. The first step consisted of taking water samples from the surface of the Pardinho River. The average results from this technique showed a significant increase of pollutants, including increased levels of Mn, above the environmentally acceptable standard recommended by the Brazilian National Environment Council. Additionally, 64 soil samples were taken from areas with and without agricultural activity. Many results were above the mean crust and did not indicate significant differences of Mn levels between the sampled areas. For the second step, 12 families were selected and assessed for exposure to Mn in a region with high levels of Mn in the soil. Most of the analyzed foods contained amounts of Mn above the reference values, indicating that food can be an important source of exposure. The Mn content from the hair of most subjects studied was also high compared to reference values from non-exposed populations. Although the contamination appeared to come from a natural origin, the results found in the present study showed that the Mn levels present in the Pardinho River Basin are a relevant public health issue. PMID:24346793

Hermes, Nadir; Schneider, Rosana C S; Molin, Daniela D; Riegel, Guilherme Z; Costa, Adilson B; Corbellini, Valeriano A; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

2013-01-01

60

Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

2014-01-01

61

Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

2014-08-01

62

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA  

E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge

63

Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on sea turtle by-catch observed in pelagic longline sets during research cruises in the south Atlantic in the vicinity of the shelf edge break in southern Brazil. The longline gear was set in a similar manner to that employed by the commercial longline fleet operating out of Santos, Brazil that targets swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Nineteen sea turtles

M. C Pinedo; T Polacheck

2004-01-01

64

Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

2014-11-01

65

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

66

Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

1957-01-01

67

A study of Solar-Enso correlation with southern Brazil tree ring index (1955- 1991)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solar activity and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on tree growth in Southern Brazil were studied by correlation analysis. Trees for this study were native Araucaria (Araucaria Angustifolia)from four locations in Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil: Canela (29o18`S, 50o51`W, 790 m asl), Nova Petropolis (29o2`S, 51o10`W, 579 m asl), Sao Francisco de Paula (29o25`S, 50o24`W, 930 m asl) and Sao Martinho da Serra (29o30`S, 53o53`W, 484 m asl). From these four sites, an average tree ring Index for this region was derived, for the period 1955-1991. Linear correlations were made on annual and 10 year running averages of this tree ring Index, of sunspot number Rz and SOI. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the multiple regression between tree ring and SOI and Rz indicates that 20% of the variance in tree rings was explained by solar activity and ENSO variability. However, when the 10 year running averages correlations were made, the coefficient correlations were much higher. A clear anticorrelation is observed between SOI and Index (r=-0.81) whereas Rz and Index show a positive correlation (r=0.67). The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 76% of the variance in tree ring INdex was explained by solar activity and ENSO. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity and ENSO on tree rings are better seen on long timescales.

Rigozo, N.; Nordemann, D.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.

68

Field observations of Ateleia glazioviana poisoning in cattle in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Ateleia glazioviana is an important poisonous plant from southern Brazil. Heavy losses in cattle from this region occur each year due to ingestion of the plant. The epidemiological, clinical, gross and histopathological features of A. glazioviana poisoning in cattle are described here from a 5-year field survey in southern Brazil. A. glazioviana poisoning in cattle induces 3 clinical presentations: abortions, disease characterized by lethargy, and cardiac failure. The latter is associated with marked necrosis and fibrosis of the myocardium and can cause sudden death or congestive heart failure. PMID:11205077

Gava, A; de Barros, C S

2001-02-01

69

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

70

Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

71

BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

72

Fisheries catches and the carrying capacity of marine ecosystems in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carrying capacity of marine shelf ecosystems in southern Brazil for harvestable species is analyzed by (1) quantifying the amount of available primary production appropriated by fisheries catches, (2) evaluating the trend in the mean trophic level of fisheries, and (3) simulating the ecosystem effects of “fishing down the food web” in an intensively exploited shelf region. Fisheries utilize ca.

Marcelo Vasconcellos; Maria A Gasalla

2001-01-01

73

Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

74

Infant mortality in southern Brazil: a population based study of causes of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes of 215 infant deaths occurring in a population based cohort of 5914 infants from southern Brazil were determined. Perinatal problems were responsible for 43% of these deaths and infectious diseases for 32%. In the group who died of infectious diseases, respiratory infections and diarrhoea were equally important, each accounting for 12% of all deaths. A total of 87%

F C Barros; C G Victora; J P Vaughan; A M Teixeira; A Ashworth

1987-01-01

75

New species of Stropharia from Araucaria angustifolia forests of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Two new agaric species of Stropharia are described from Araucaria angustifolia (Brazilian pine) forests of southern Brazil. Stropharia agaricoides presents Agaricus-like basidiomes, small basidiospores (5-7 microm long) and pyriform cheilochrysocystidia. Stropharia venusta is characterized by the reddish to pinkish pileus, large basidiospores (12-15 microm long) and subclavate cheiloleptocystidia. PMID:19623934

da Silva, Paula Santos; Cortez, Vagner Gularte; da Silveira, Rosa Mara Borges

2009-01-01

76

Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

77

Assessment of MODIS LAI retrievals over soybean crop in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper examines the magnitude of the Collection 4 MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product for the soybean crop for two crop seasons, 2001/2002 to 2004/2005, in Southern Brazil. The data indicated that there were a large proportion of digical counts were at a maximum level suggesting that the LAI was...

78

Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

79

Relationships between rainfall anomalies over northeastern Brazil and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure variability modes associated with climate extremes (droughts and floods) over northeastern Brazil (NEB) stratified according to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (El Niño, La Niña, and neutral) are reexamined. The analyses indicate that only 36% of the time an ENSO-based forecast for the NEB climate would be right.

Mary T. Kayano; Rita V. Andreoli

2006-01-01

80

Relationships between rainfall anomalies over northeastern Brazil and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure variability modes associated with climate extremes (droughts and floods) over northeastern Brazil (NEB) stratified according to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (El Niño, La Niña, and neutral) are reexamined. The analyses indicate that only 36% of the time an ENSO-based forecast for the NEB climate would be right.

Mary T. Kayano; Rita V. Andreoli

2006-01-01

81

Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on clinical observation of a flock of approximately 5000 sheep (breed Merino) from southern Brazil, the failure of anthelmintic treatments was suspected. The sensitivity of the gastrointestinal nematodes that infected these sheep to nine drugs (Levamisole, Moxidectin, Albendazole, Ivermectin, Nitroxynil, Disophenol, Trichlorphon, Closantel, and a combination of Ivermectin, Levamisole and Albendazole) was evaluated. None of the drugs reduced the

Alfredo Skrebsky Cezar; Gustavo Toscan; Giovana Camillo; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Henrique Olmedo Ribas; Fernanda Silveira Flôres Vogel

2010-01-01

82

Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

83

Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6  

E-print Network

1 1 2 3 4 Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6 7 8 Brian Cook1 , Ning Zeng1;2 Abstract21 Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit dieback under22 future these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should27 remain largely stable

Zeng, Ning

84

Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first lentivirus isolated from sheep in Brazil was analysed phylogenetically. Evolutionary trees of the proviral 597 nucleotide gag and 432 nucleotide pol sequences obtained by the maximum likelihood method demonstrated that the sheep isolate clustered with prototype Maedi Visna virus whereas three lentiviruses isolated from goats in the same geographic region were close to caprine arthritis encephalitis prototypes. A

Ana Paula Ravazzolo; Dilmara Reischak; Ernst Peterhans; Reto Zanoni

2001-01-01

85

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romão; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

86

Polymorphism of Leukocyte and Erythrocyte Antigens in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

We investigated the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and Duffy erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in southern Brazil. One hundred and eighty-three CKD patients, over 18 years old, on hemodialysis, were included. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 typing was performed using the LABType®SSO (One Lambda, Inc.). Duffy phenotypes were determined by gel column agglutination using anti-Fya and anti-Fyb monoclonal anti-sera. The patients' predominant ages ranged between 51 and 70 years (43%) and the predominant gender, ethnic group and dialysis period were, respectively, male (62%), white (62%) and 1–3 years (40%). The highest and lowest frequencies of Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) and Fy(a?b?), respectively. Nineteen HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 allele groups were identified. The most frequent HLA allele groups were HLA-A*01, -A*02, -A*03, -A*11, -A*24; HLA-B*07, -B*15, -B*35, -B*44, -B*51; HLA-DRB1*03, -DRB1*04, -DRB1*07, -DRB1*11 and -DRB1*13. Statistically significant differences were observed in the Duffy and HLA polymorphisms compared between CKD patients and healthy subjects. The Fy(a+b?) phenotype (p<0.0001, OR?=?2.56, 95% CI?=?1.60–4.07) was the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the Fy(a+b+) phenotype (p?=?0.0039, OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.18–2.51) was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Paraná state (p<0.05). Regarding HLA, the HLA-B*42, -B*45, -B*51 and -DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the HLA-B*44 allele group was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil (p<0.05). The polymorphism of these two markers among CKD patients in southern Brazil and healthy subjects of other studies, suggests that these markers might be involved with CKD development. Further studies should be undertaken to analyze the markers' influence on CKD and the long-term results from kidney transplantation. PMID:24409300

Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patricia Keiko; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

2014-01-01

87

Distribution and Status of the Guiana Dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae) Population in Babitonga Bay, Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

in Babitonga Bay, Southern Brazil Marta J. Cremer1,2, *, Fernando A.S. Hardt1 , Antonio J. Tonello Jr1 Região de Joinville, Caixa Postal 110, Cep 89240-000, São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas ­ Zoologia, Univ. Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil 3

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

88

Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

de Mello, Flávia Cristina

89

Holocene environmental changes in the São Francisco de Paula region, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holocene paleoenvironments have been interpreted from a radiocarbon dated pollen and charcoal record of the São Francisco de Paula region on the southern Brazilian highland. Today the region is characterized by pastureland and small patches of disturbed Araucaria forest. The region receives 2450 mm per annum. This is the highest precipitation rate in southern Brazil. Studied surface samples represent the modern pollen analog of the anthropogenic influenced vegetation. Pollen analytical studies of the 84 cm long core, collected from a small basin with clay, organic matter and peat deposits, show that pollen and spores of the lower core section (84 and 46 cm depth) have been almost destroyed. This period between ca. 7500 and 4000 14C yr BP was too dry for conservation of pollen and spores in the basin. Climate must have been markedly drier than today during early and mid Holocene times. After 4000 14C yr BP, preserved pollen grains reflect wetter conditions than before and indicate the predominance of campos (grassland) vegetation with small areas of Araucaria forest in the study region. Forest expansion is documented since 1060 14C yr BP and expansion of Araucaria angustifolia trees itself since 850 14C yr BP. During the last 1000 yr, rainfall must have been much more intensive with no or only short dry periods such as the modern climate. The results confirm the vegetational and climatic changes documented from the Araucaria forest region of Santa Catarina and Paraná State. Concentration and accumulation rates of carbonized particles are somewhat higher during the last 850 14C yr BP than before, indicating an increased fire frequency.

Behling, Hermann; Bauermann, Soraia Girardi; Pereira Neves, Paulo César

2001-11-01

90

Phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The first lentivirus isolated from sheep in Brazil was analysed phylogenetically. Evolutionary trees of the proviral 597 nucleotide gag and 432 nucleotide pol sequences obtained by the maximum likelihood method demonstrated that the sheep isolate clustered with prototype Maedi Visna virus whereas three lentiviruses isolated from goats in the same geographic region were close to caprine arthritis encephalitis prototypes. A subsequent comparison of sequence data of these viruses with those contained in the EMBL sequence database revealed that, in contrast to caprine prototypic viruses, all prototypic Maedi Visna viruses contain a deletion of six nucleotides in the gag gene resulting in the deletion of two residues in the central region of capsid protein. This deletion may be a useful marker in the analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses, especially when considering possible transmission of lentiviruses between sheep and goats. PMID:11551652

Ravazzolo, A P; Reischak, D; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

2001-11-01

91

Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

2013-06-01

92

Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

2014-11-01

93

Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength. PMID:25511000

Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

2014-01-01

94

Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

2014-08-01

95

English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

96

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

97

STATE OF THE ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEAN CLIMATE SYSTEM  

E-print Network

STATE OF THE ANTARCTIC AND SOUTHERN OCEAN CLIMATE SYSTEM P. A. Mayewski,1 M. P. Meredith,2 C. P of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate and its relation to the global climate system over the last few of abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation and temperature recorded in Antarctic ice core proxies for past

Howat, Ian M.

98

Environmental factors affecting transmission risk for hantaviruses in forested portions of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Using ecological niche modeling approaches, we assessed suites of environmental factors to identify areas of transmission risk in forested regions of southern Brazil. We studied all officially confirmed cases from the Epidemiological Surveillance System of the Brazilian Health Ministry from Atlantic Forest and Araucaria forest areas of southern Brazil (n=264), during 1993-2008. Among climate-related influences associated with hantavirus cases, winter precipitation and high photosynthetic mass (EVI) were particularly closely related to case distributions. Models identified broad risk areas for hantavirus transmission, extending along the coastal Atlantic Forest region from São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul, eastern Paraguay, and Argentina. Host distribution maps indicate overlap of several species of Oligoryzomys in the transmission area, showing the necessity of more detailed reservoir-based studies to detect finer-scale infection foci. PMID:21605537

Donalisio, Maria R; Peterson, A Townsend

2011-08-01

99

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

100

Age distribution of Serra Geral (Parana??) flood basalts, southern Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Parana??) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ???130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35?? and 19??S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140-160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques. ?? 1989.

Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

1989-01-01

101

Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge “valley,” located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between

Hermann Behling; Raquel R. B. Negrelle

2001-01-01

102

On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

1993-01-01

103

Relationships between tree component structure, topography and soils of a riverside forest, Rio Botucaraí, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among floristic, structural and physiognomic variables of the tree component, flooding regime variations\\u000a and soil fertility were investigated in a riparian forest fragment (ca. 43 ha) in the Rio Botucaraí watershed near the confluence\\u000a with the Rio Jacuí, southern Brazil. All the trees with a dbh   ? 15 cm were surveyed in 100 contiguous 10  ×  10 m plots\\u000a and soil chemical and textural

Jean Carlos Budke; João André Jarenkow; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

2007-01-01

104

Intermediary disturbance increases tree diversity in riverine forest of southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floods are frequently associated with disturbance in structuring riverine forests and they lead to environmental heterogeneity\\u000a over space and time. We evaluated the distribution of tree species, ecological groups, species richness and diversity from\\u000a the point bar to the slope of a riverside forest in southern Brazil (Lat. 30°01?S, Long. 52°47?W) to analyze the effects of\\u000a flooding on soil properties

Jean Carlos Budke; João André Jarenkow; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

2010-01-01

105

Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4) to 4.4 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R

2012-11-01

106

Semi-detailed Geomorphological Map of Northeastern Santa Catarina State, Brazil—the Garuva Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please click here to download the map associated with this article.Geomorphological maps can be documents of restricted use due to the complexity of their content. The research project now presented proposes the geomorphological mapping of the area covered by six official topographic sheets at a scale of 1:50,000, located in the northeastern part of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The

Fabiano Antonio De Oliveira; Celso Voos Vieira

2009-01-01

107

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) poisoning in cattle in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data on Pteridium aquilinum intoxication in cattle the state of Santa Catarina were obtained by review of diagnostic records from 1987 to 2001. Of 3,407 necropsied cattle, 244 (7.16%) were diagnosed as intoxicated by Paquilinum; 122 of those were of the hemorrhagic form, 103 had tumors in the upper digestive tract, 19 were cases of chronic hematuria. Annual losses due to this intoxication in this State are estimated at 10,657 cattle. The highest incidence of the hemorrhagic form occurs in 1-3-y-old cattle between March and July, and most cases of tumors of the upper digestive tract affect cattle older than Sy. The highest incidence of digestive tract tumors is at the base of the tongue and pharynx, and the lowest frequency is in the rumen and esophagus. The large economic losses caused PaQuilinum in Santa Catarina call for improved control measures for the disease. PMID:12458643

Gava, Aldo; da Silva Neves, Dalmo; Gava, Daniele; de Moura, Saliba Thiago; Schild, Ana Lucia; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2002-12-01

108

First evaluation of an outbreak of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil using multiplex PCR.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

2014-10-01

109

First Evaluation of an Outbreak of Bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil Using Multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa

2014-01-01

110

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

Rosen, Jay

111

Hepatitis B virus genotypes from European origin explains the high endemicity found in some areas from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Southern Brazil is considered an area of low Hepatitis B endemicity, but some areas of higher endemicity have been described in the Southwest of Paraná and Santa Catarina states. The aim of this study was to evaluate viral genotypes circulating throughout Paraná state. PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the S gene was carried out in 228 samples from HBsAg positive candidate blood donors. Samples have been collected in seven different counties (Cascavel, Curitiba, Foz do Iguaçu, Francisco Beltrão, Maringá, Londrina and Paranaguá). The most common HBV genotype in Paraná state was D (82.9%; 189/228), followed by A (14.1%; 32/228). Genotypes F (1.3%; 3/228), C (1.3%; 3/228) and H (0.4%; 1/228) were also found. Distribution of genotypes was different in the studied counties, but genotype D was the most frequent in all of them. In Francisco Beltrão, all studied samples belonged to genotype D. The high prevalence of HBV genotype D in South of Brazil is explained by the intense migration of settlers from Europeans countries. Subgenotypes A1 and A2 were identified circulating in all cities where HBV/A was found. As observed in other areas of Brazil, HBV/A1 is more frequent than the HBV/A2 in Paraná state and its presence was significantly larger in black and mulatto individuals. Genotype C was found only in individuals with Asian ancestry from Londrina and Maringá. Most HBV/F sequences identified in this study were classified as subgenotype F2a that was previously described in Brazil. The sole case of subgenotype F4 was from Foz do Iguaçu city, near to Northern Argentina, where F4 is highly prevalent. The single genotype H sample was from Curitiba. This is the first case of this genotype described in Brazil. Further studies should be carried out to determine if more genotype H samples can be found in other populations from Brazil. PMID:22538208

Bertolini, Dennis Armando; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Guedes de Carvalho-Mello, Isabel Maria Vicente; Carvalho-Mello, Isabel Maria Vicente Guedes de; Saraceni, Cláudia Patara; Sitnik, Roberta; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Laurino, Jomar Pereira; Laurindo, Jomar Pereira; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello

2012-08-01

112

Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm2. All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm2. Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm2 were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

113

Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2014-07-01

114

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

115

Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

2009-01-01

116

Microhabitat use by three species of egret (Pelecaniformes, Ardeidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: Cocoi heron (Ardea cocoi), Great egret (Ardea alba), and Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), in wetlands of southern Brazil. Ardea alba and A. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level). Conversely, B. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. Relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correlated with the occurrence of these species and supported the plasticity of B. ibis and its predominance in drier habitats. PMID:24789395

Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Bergmann, F B; Tozetti, A M

2013-11-01

117

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and involved 182 farms located in 26 countries. In addition to the three major broad-spectrum anthelmintic groups (viz. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin) the combination benzimidazole and leyamisole and the H. contortus specific anthelmintic, closantel, were tested by the faecal egg count reduction method for the prevalence

F. Echevarria; M. F. S. Borba; A. C. Pinheiro; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

118

Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patos Lagoon is the largest lagoonal system in South America. Its waters are formed by a huge drainage basin (201,600 km2) situated in the most industrialized areas of the Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. On its margins more than 3 million inhabitants live in several cities and towns. The lagoon waters are used for leisure, drinking, industry,

J. S. Yunes; P. S. Salomon; A. Matthiensen; K. A. Beattie; S. L. Raggett; G. A. Codd

1996-01-01

119

Longitudinal clinical and serological survey of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Guaporé, southern Brazil, from 1995 to 1999.  

PubMed

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with an intra-vascular location in the mesentery. Our objective was to address several aspects of the natural history of this parasitosis, in a longitudinal clinical and seroepidemiological study. A total of 179 individuals living in a rural area with active transmission in southern Brazil were followed for five years (1995-1999) resulting in yearly prevalence of 28.2%, 4.2%, 10%, 20.2% and 2.8% and incidences of 0%, 5.9%, 8% and 1.5%, respectively. Both men and woman were affected with higher frequencies at age 30-49 years. In 32 individuals serum samples were collected at all time points and IgG antibody reactivity detected by ELISA was variable and usually persisting not longer than one year. Some individual antibody patterns were suggestive of re-infection. There was no association with occurrence of abdominal pain or of other enteroparasites and there was no individual with a confirmed (histopathologic) diagnosis. Mollusks were found with infective third-stage larvae in some houses with an overall prevalence of 16% and a low parasitic burden. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongyliasis in southern Brazil may be a frequent infection with low morbidity and a gradually decreasing serological reactivity. PMID:16082477

Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Goulart, Aline Hamilton; Brum, Charles de Ornellas; Laitano, Antonio Carlo; Sievers-Tostes, Charlotte; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Bered, Patrícia Leão; Morassutti, Alessandra; Geiger, Stefan; Abrahms-Sandi, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Fernanda Teixeira dos Santos; Maurer, Rafael Lucyk; Aguiar, Luís Felipe; Garrido, Cinara Tentardini; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Rodriguez, Rubens; Schulz-Key, Hartwig; Agostini, Aventino Alfredo

2005-01-01

120

Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest. PMID:25826062

Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

2015-04-01

121

Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivity in a Agricultural Crop Site in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. In the present work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a agricultural crop located at the Cruz Alta city in southern Brazil. Also the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a agricultural crop farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this specific site, there is a crop rotation scheme along the year. The soil type is Rhodic Hapludox (FAO) or Typic Haplorthox (US Soil Taxonomy), characterized as a deep, clay soil. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a known Ks from literature for this type of soil; (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T2-T1)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T1 and T2 are the temperature in different layers above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The general results agree with the literature for the specific agricultural crop for Ks values in the current study for the measurement period.

Zimmer, Tamíres; Roberti, Debora; Moreira, Virnei; Silveira, Marcos

122

Perfil epidemiológico do suicídio no extremo oeste do estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil Epidemiological profile of suicide in the west of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The State of Santa Catarina is located in Southern Brazil. The suicide rate in this state is one of the largest in the country. Preliminary studies showed that the westernmost region of Santa Catarina has the largest rate in the state. Descriptive studies about suicide epidemiological profile in this area are not available. Method: A descriptive study of suicide

Ricardo Schmitt; Maria Gabriela Lang; João Quevedo; Talita Colombo

123

State Nutrient Management Information: CSREES Southern Region  

E-print Network

associated with Nonpoint or agricultural sources. · Yes, 1 · Lake Okeechobee phosphorus TMDL Is there a state through the collection of a special fee associated with fertilizer sales. · Yes · Univ. of Florida pay a per-sample fee that funds the lab. Does your state have rules that regulated fertilizer and

124

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012  

E-print Network

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 College of Southern Idaho Transfer Worksheet College-level transferable academic courses taken at College of Southern Idaho (CSI of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 2. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS The majority of majors

Caughman, John

125

Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.  

PubMed

Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

2012-02-01

126

Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

Stebbins, Chad

2011-01-01

127

REGIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest systems in the southern United States. redictions for this region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. hifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in res...

128

Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m2/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m(2)/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii) were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna. PMID:19738978

Ortêncio-Filho, H; Reis, N R

2009-06-01

129

A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Here we report on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence), collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T) which includes a left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a less inclusive taxon than tritylodontids, and as the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium and Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, intimately related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse. PMID:25424040

Soares, Marina B; Martinelli, Agustín G; Oliveira, Téo V DE

2014-11-28

130

A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We report here on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence), collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T) which includes the left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a more derived taxon than tritylodontids, being the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium plus Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, closely related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse. PMID:25590707

Soares, Marina B; Martinelli, Agustín G; De Oliveira, Téo V

2014-12-01

131

Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

Ruhoff, Anderson

2014-05-01

132

Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

2014-06-01

133

76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-03-07

134

78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2013-05-29

135

Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

Not Available

1990-09-01

136

Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (<15 ?mad) with 2 h resolution using streakers and with impactors for 24 h resolution of 7 particle size fractions (<0.25 to >8 ?mad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (<2.0 ?m) from both fire types. P, S and Cl were mostly small particle, Mg, Al, Si and K showed a bimodal distribution biased towards the small particle range, while Ca, Ti and Fe (crustal elements) predominated in the large particle mode. As Cl was found to be exclusively small particle, a formation mechanism in which HCl gas neutralizes small organic particles containing P and S may be hypothesized. A much more extensive field program for the summer of 1980 is planned to take place in the central Amazon basin using ground and airborne aerosol samplers, to capitalize on the work pioneered in this study.

Leslie, Alistair C. D.

1981-03-01

137

Multiple resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to nine different drugs in a sheep flock in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Based on clinical observation of a flock of approximately 5000 sheep (breed Merino) from southern Brazil, the failure of anthelmintic treatments was suspected. The sensitivity of the gastrointestinal nematodes that infected these sheep to nine drugs (Levamisole, Moxidectin, Albendazole, Ivermectin, Nitroxynil, Disophenol, Trichlorphon, Closantel, and a combination of Ivermectin, Levamisole and Albendazole) was evaluated. None of the drugs reduced the count of nematode eggs per gram of feces (EPG) in the sheep to an adequate extent (defined as a 95% reduction in EPG). Therefore, we found multiple parasite resistance to all classes of anthelmintic drugs available for small ruminants in the Brazilian market. The genera Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp. and Ostertagia spp. had various degrees of resistance (or natural tolerance) to each of the drug treatments. PMID:20619543

Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Toscan, Gustavo; Camillo, Giovana; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Ribas, Henrique Olmedo; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres

2010-10-11

138

Diel variation in fish assemblages in tidal creeks in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Tidal creeks are strongly influenced by tides and are therefore exposed to large differences in salinity and depth daily. Here we compare fish assemblages in tidal creeks between day and night in two tidal creeks in southern Brazil. Monthly day and night, simultaneous collections were carried out in both creeks using fyke nets. Clupeiformes tended to be caught more during the day. Cathorops spixii, Genidens genidens and Rypticus randalli tended to be caught at night. Sciaenidae also tended to be caught more during the night. In general, pelagic species were diurnal, while deep water species were nocturnal. These trends are probably due to a variety of causes, such as phylogeny, predation and net avoidance. PMID:18470376

Oliveira-Neto, J F; Spach, H l; Schwarz-Junior, R; Pichler, H A

2008-02-01

139

Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

140

A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Itajai is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and\\/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability

M. Malta; F. I. Bastos; E. M. Pereira-Koller; M. D. Cunha; C. Marques; S. A. Strathdee

2006-01-01

141

Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

2013-01-01

142

Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2008-01-01

143

Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. METHODS: Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. RESULTS: Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 ± 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 ± 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (30.6%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%). Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%). Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 ± 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. CONCLUSION: This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival. PMID:21552664

de Bem, Ricardo Schmitt; Muzzillo, Dominique Araujo; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Werneck, Lineu César; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

2011-01-01

144

Karyology of the Atlantic forest rodent Juliomys (Cricetidae): A new karyotype from southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patterns were compared with those of the newly described species Juliomys ossitenuis (2n = 20, FN = 36). The 2n = 32 karyomorph presented peculiar features and was very different from those of the other species of the genus: J. pictipes (2n = 36, FN = 34), J. rimofrons (2n = 20, FN = 34) and J. ossitenuis (2n = 20, FN = 36). Differences were mostly due to centric and tandem fusions, pericentric inversion and loss of heterochromatin. The karyotype represents a powerful tool to differentiate Juliomys species and our data suggest that the karyotype described herein belongs to a new species. PMID:21637684

2009-01-01

145

Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

2014-01-01

146

Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses. PMID:21138380

de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

2011-03-01

147

Marine Debris and Human Impacts on Sea Turtles in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus\\/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the

Leandro Bugoni; L??gia Krause; Maria Virg??nia Petry

2001-01-01

148

Impact of the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985-1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous

Carlos Roberto Franke; Mario Ziller; Christoph Staubach; Mojib Latif

2002-01-01

149

[Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population. PMID:25272107

Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

2014-10-01

150

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

151

Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans. PMID:25023635

Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

2014-09-15

152

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

153

Impact of El Niño/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985–1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year’s mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil. PMID:12194766

Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Latif, Mojib

2002-01-01

154

Epidemiology of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in a spotted fever-endemic area of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study was performed in Vila Itoupava, an area of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, in which a tick-borne spotted fever illness has been endemic since 2003. Notably, both the etiological agent and the vector of these spotted fever cases remain unknown. During January 2011, humans, domestic dogs, and their ticks were sampled in households that are typically surrounded by highly preserved Atlantic rainforest fragments. Ticks collected from dogs were Amblyomma ovale (34% prevalence), Amblyomma aureolatum (18.9%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.8%). A total of 7.8% (6/77) A. ovale and 9.3% (4/43) A. aureolatum were infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent recently shown to cause spotted fever illness in southeastern Brazil. Overall, 67.3% (35/52) of the dogs were seroreactive to spotted fever group rickettsiae, mostly with highest endpoint titers to R. parkeri. Among humans, 46.7% (7/15) reacted serologically to rickettsiae at low to moderate endpoint titers. Because canine seroreactivity to R. parkeri was strongly associated with frequent contact with forests (the preferred habitat for A. ovale and A. aureolatum), it is concluded that sampled dogs have been infected by strain Atlantic rainforest through the parasitism of these tick species. The present study provides epidemiological evidence that the spotted fever in the study area has been caused by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, transmitted to humans by either A. ovale or A. aureolatum. Further studies encompassing direct diagnostic methods on clinical specimens from patients are needed to confirm the above epidemiological evidence. PMID:25108786

Barbieri, Amalia R M; Filho, Jonas M; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Souza, Julio C; Szabó, Matias P J; Labruna, Marcelo B

2014-10-01

155

Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

2014-09-01

156

No evidence of HPV DNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southern Brazil. METHODS: We studied 189 esophageal samples from 125 patients from three different groups: (1) 102 biopsies from 51 patients with ESCC, with one sample from the tumor and another from normal esophageal mucosa distant from the tumor; (2) 50 esophageal biopsies from 37 patients with a previous diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and (3) 37 biopsies from esophageal mucosa with normal appearance from 37 dyspeptic patients, not exposed to smoking or alcohol consumption. Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the MY09/11 and GP5/6 L1 primers was used to detect HPV L1 in samples fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks. All PCR reactions were performed with a positive control (cervicovaginal samples), with a negative control (Human Genomic DNA) and with a blank reaction containing all reagents except DNA. We took extreme care to prevent DNA contamination in sample collection, processing, and testing. RESULTS: The histological biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ESCC in 52 samples (51 from ESCC group and 1 from the HNSCC group) and classified as well differentiated (12/52, 23.1%), moderately differentiated (27/52, 51.9%) or poorly differentiated (7/52, 13.5%). One hundred twenty-eight esophageal biopsies were considered normal (51 from the ESCC group, 42 from the HNSCC group and 35 from dyspeptic patients). Nine had esophagitis (7 from the HNSCC and 2 from dyspeptic patients). Of a total of 189 samples, only 6 samples had insufficient material for PCR analysis: 1 from mucosa distant from the tumor in a patient with ESCC, 3 from patients with HNSCC and 2 from patients without cancer. In 183 samples (96.8%) GAPDH, G3PDH and/or ?-globin were amplified, thus indicating the adequacy of the DNA in those samples. HPV DNA was negative in all the 183 samples tested: 52 with ESCC, 9 with esophagitis and 122 with normal esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of HPV infection in different ESCC from southern Brazil. PMID:24151387

Antunes, Luís Carlos Moreira; Prolla, João Carlos; de Barros Lopes, Antonio; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Fagundes, Renato Borges

2013-01-01

157

Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT. The cropping system and NT effects on C stocks were attributed to an increase in the lability of SOM, as evidenced by the higher POC to TOC ratio, which is very important to C and energy flux through the soil. PMID:16825480

Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

2006-01-01

158

Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.  

PubMed

Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

2014-01-01

159

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

160

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, José D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natália S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

161

Telementoring Between Brazil and the United States: Initial Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose : To assess the safety and feasibility of transcontinental telementored and telepres- ence surgery, we report on two procedures carried out with participation by surgeons in Baltimore in the United States and Sã o Paulo and Recife in Brazil. Patients and Methods : Over a period of 3 months, a laparoscopic bilateral varicocelectomy and a percuta- neous

Nelson Rodrigues Netto; Anuar I. Mitre; Salvador Vilar C. Lima; Oscar E. Fugita; Marcelo Lopes Lima; Dan Stoianovici; Alexandru Patriciu; Louis R. Kavoussi

2003-01-01

162

Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

2010-11-01

163

Astyanax douradilho, a new characid fish from the rio Tramandaí system, southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).  

PubMed

Astyanax douradilho, new species, is described from the rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by possessing 37-39 perforated scales along the lateral line, 3-5 maxillary tricuspid teeth, 22-24 branched anal-fin rays, absence of a conspicuous dark stripe from humeral region to caudal peduncle, two vertically elongated humeral spots, head length (26.0-29.9% of standard length), upper jaw length (43.8-50.6% of head length), and snout length (23.0-28.6% of HL). PMID:24870337

Bertaco, Vinicius A

2014-01-01

164

A new species of Paracaprella Mayer, 1890 (Amphipoda: Caprellida: Caprellidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Paracaprella is described based on the specimens associated with the algae Sargassum cymosum and Laurencia obtusa that were collected from infralittoral depths (0.5 to 3.0 m) at Sepultura Beach, Bombinhas and Paciência Beach, Penha, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This new species differs from the others of the genus by the unique morphology of the males' gnathopod 2: its propodus has a grasping margin provided with a deep groove. An identification key for Paracaprella species is also presented. PMID:25543748

Lacerda, Mariana B; Masunari, Setuko

2014-01-01

165

Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

2015-01-01

166

High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains. PMID:25109547

Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W

2014-10-13

167

Early determinants of random blood glucose among adults of the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of socioeconomic variables, birth weight, duration of breastfeeding and income changes on random blood glucose levels among young adults. METHODS: This was a study on the birth cohort from 1982, when the 5,914 hospital births that occurred in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) were identified and the mothers were interviewed. The children whose families lived in the urban area of the city were followed up several times. In 2004-5, 4,927 individuals of the cohort were interviewed and blood was collected from the fingertips of 3,730 of them for random blood glucose measurements. Associations between random blood glucose levels and skin color, family income at birth, maternal schooling, income change between 1982 and 2004-5, birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were evaluated. RESULTS The mean blood glucose level was 97.3 ± 15.1mg/dL, and it was greater among the men. None of the variables studied was associated with the men's blood glucose level. Among the women, maternal schooling, family income at 23 years of age and birth weight were inversely associated with blood glucose levels. However, birth weight lost its statistical significance in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Birth weight and duration of breastfeeding did not present any long-term effect on random blood glucose levels. Only maternal schooling level and present income presented associations with random blood glucose levels among the women. PMID:19142350

Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera

2009-01-01

168

Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

2001-11-01

169

Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

2012-01-01

170

Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest  

PubMed Central

Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time. PMID:21637420

2010-01-01

171

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

2009-10-01

172

Risk Factors for Infection with Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the proportion of different genotypes in countryside microregions in southern Brazil, and their association with risk factors. Methods. Cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of patients who tested positive for HCV-RNA and were referred to a regional health center for genotyping, from December 2003 to January 2008. Data were obtained through the National Disease Surveillance Data System, from laboratory registers and from patient charts. Identification of genotypes was carried out using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism “in house” technique. Independent associations with genotypes were evaluated in multinomial logistic regression and prevalence rates of genotypes were estimated with modified Poisson regression. Results. The sample consisted of 441 individuals, 41.1 ± 12.0 years old, 56.5% men. Genotype 1 was observed in 41.5% (95% CI 37.9–48.1) of patients, genotype 2 in 19.3% (95% CI 15.0–23.6), and genotype 3 in 39.2% (95% CI 35.6–43.0). HCV genotype was significantly associated with gender and age. Dental procedures were associated with higher proportion of genotype 2 independently of age, education, and patient treatment center. Conclusions. The hepatitis C virus genotype 1 was the most frequent. Genotype 2 was associated with female gender, age, and dental procedure exposition. PMID:22666173

Paraboni, Marisa Lúcia Romani; Sbeghen, Marina Dallagasperina; Wolff, Fernando Herz; Moreira, Leila Beltrami

2012-01-01

173

Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40%) were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', with 50/369 (13.55%) positive cats, followed by 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis', 10/369 (2.71%), and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%). Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%), whereas 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' in 5/369 (1.35%). Three cats (0.81%) were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', but not with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic. PMID:25517519

Santos, Andrea Pires dos; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Messick, Joanne Belle; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Oliveira, Simone Tostes de; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sá; Nascimento, Naíla Cannes do; Pedralli, Viviane; Lasta, Camila Serina; González, Félix Hilário Diaz

2014-01-01

174

Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region. PMID:24770455

Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

2014-04-25

175

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

2009-01-01

176

Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Fallén, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves. PMID:17420862

Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

2007-01-01

177

Feeding habits of coypu in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops. PMID:21562696

Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P

2010-09-01

178

HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such

J. Pulerwitz; A. P. Michaelis; S. A. Lippman; M. Chinaglia; J. Díaz

2008-01-01

179

Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region. PMID:22458224

Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

2012-03-01

180

An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

Navarro, Hector

1997-01-01

181

A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2  

E-print Network

1 A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2 S. Dwivedi1-evolving distribution of mixed-layer colored dissolved organic matter13 (CDOM) during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange38 Experiment (SO GasEx). Figure 1 shows the SO GasEx area

Haine, Thomas W. N.

182

Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults, and fractures and folds of events 3 and 4 are consistent with regional extensional tectonics associated with earthquakes that triggered sediment deformation. The 200 km that separate the occurrences of cap carbonates suggest that important seismic events took place during the early Ediacaran in the southern Amazon Craton.

Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

2013-12-01

183

Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

1991-01-01

184

Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

2010-08-27

185

Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 clade C- versus B-infected individuals in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C-infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in Southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS)), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B- and C-infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J

2013-12-01

186

Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages. PMID:18833472

Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

2008-08-01

187

Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-1 Clade C versus B Infected Individuals in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale; IHDS), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T-scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B and C infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J.

2014-01-01

188

Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States  

E-print Network

Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States Peter B and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture

189

[Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

2013-11-01

190

Spatiotemporal distribution and population structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an estuary in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

Freitas, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

191

Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

Freitas-Júnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

192

Neotropical Monogenoidea 59. Polyonchoineans from Characidium spp. (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) are described or reported from three species of Characidium Reinhardt (Crenuchidae), small species of Characiformes, from streams located in southern Brazilian states. Gyrodactylus carolinae sp. n. (Gyrodactylidae) is described from the body surface of Characidium lanei Travassos (type host), C. pterostictum Gomez, and Characidium sp. from streams in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. This new species closely resembles species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 described from species of Poeciliidae, from which it differs by the morphology of the hooks and nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Gyrodactylus inesperatus sp. n. is described from the body surface of Characidium sp. from a stream in the State of São Paulo. The latter new species is characterised by lacking a shield on the superficial bar and by the morphology of the hooks, both unique characteristics for Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus. Marumbius gen. n. (Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate two species, M. dorsivaginatus sp. n. from the gills of Characidium pterostictum (type host) and C. lanei, and M. amplexus sp. n. from the gills of C. lanei (all from the state of Paraná). Both species are characterised by having dorsal vagina, hook pairs 2-4, 6 and 7 composed by two subunits, hook pairs 1 and 5 lacking proximal subunit, and by the length of proximal subunits (when present) varying among hook pairs, completely or partially overlapping gonads, and male copulatory organ (MCO) represented by an incomplete coil of a sclerotized tube articulated to the accessory piece by a copulatory ligament. Cacatuocotyle paranaensis Boeger, Domingues et Kritsky, 1997 is reported from C. lanei at low prevalence in the Rio Marumbi (state of Paraná). The Monogenoidea that parasitize species of Characidium are members of several independent lineages, some of distant evolutionary relationships, suggesting a complex origin for this parasitic fauna. PMID:24822318

Boeger, Walter A; Ferreira, Renata C; Vianna, Rogério T; Patella, Luciana

2014-04-01

193

Evaluation of metals and hydrocarbons in sediments from a tropical tidal flat estuary of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Although the Passagem Channel estuary, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, is located in an urbanized and industrialized region, it has a large mangrove system. Here we examined natural and anthropogenic inputs that may influence trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Pb and Zn) and hydrocarbon (n-alkane and terpane) deposition in three sediment cores collected in the tidal flat zone of the estuary. The cores were also analyzed for carbonate, grain size and stable isotopic composition (?(13)Corg. and ?(15)Ntotal). Metal enrichment and its association to petroleum hydrocarbons in the surficial sediments of one of the cores, indicate crude oil and derivative inputs, possibly from small vessels and road run-off from local heavy automobile traffic. At the landward sites, the major contributions for metals and hydrocarbons are from natural sources, but in one case, Cu may have been enriched by domestic effluent inputs. PMID:25530014

Costa, Eduardo S; Grilo, Caroline F; Wolff, George A; Thompson, Anu; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Neto, Renato Rodrigues

2015-03-15

194

An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate  

E-print Network

An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

Mazloff, Matthew R.

195

Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997

Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

2014-01-01

196

Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used. PMID:24838545

Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

2014-05-14

197

Genetic variability in five populations of Partamona helleri (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Partamona is a Neotropical genus of stingless bees that comprises 33 species distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. These bees are well-adapted to anthropic environments and build their nests in several substrates. In this study, 66 colonies of Partamona helleri from five localities in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (São Miguel do Anta, Teixeiras, Porto Firme, Viçosa and Rio Vermelho) were analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in order to assess their genetic variability. Low levels of observed (Ho = 0.099-0.137) and expected (H e = 0.128-0.145) heterozygosity were encountered and revealed discrete genetic differentiation among the populations (F ST = 0.025). AMOVA further showed that most of the total genetic variation (94.24%) in P. helleri was explained by the variability within local populations. PMID:21637591

2010-01-01

198

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

2014-01-01

199

United States and Brazil : Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely compelling website, dedicated to examining the interactions between Brazil and the United States from the 18th century to the present, grew out of discussions between Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress, and the former President of Brazil, Fernando Hernrique Cardoso. Developed under the auspices of the Global Gateway program at the Library of Congress, the site contains an impressive amount of primary source materials, including maps, rare books, prints, photographs, and manuscripts. When completed, the project will contain materials organized around four primary themes, but currently only the theme of Historical Foundations is complete. As might be expected, the site is presented in both Portuguese and English, and a powerful multifaceted search engine will help guide users to particular documents of interest. Browsing through the Historical Foundations section of the site, visitors will find a timeline (complete with accompanying visual materials), and five separate sections dedicated to exploration, the colonial period, and so on.

Billington, James H.

200

Simulation of hydrosedimentological impacts caused by climate change in the Apucaraninha River watershed, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can cause significant modifications in hydrosedimentological processes. Climate projections indicate the occurrence of extreme events, in terms of precipitation, droughts, floods and temperature. By increasing temperatures and altering precipitation regimes, climate change is expected to affect sediment dynamics. Predictions of the effects of climate change on streamflow and sediment yield vary widely, depending on the geographical location and climate scenarios used. Mathematical modelling can be used to simulate the hydrosedimentological processes in watersheds and enable the simulation of climate change effects on sediment yield. This paper aims to simulate the impacts of climate change hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed (504 km²), southern Brazil, considering the climate change scenarios A2 (pessimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases) and B2 (optimistic about the emissions of greenhouse gases), developed by the IPCC. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the impacts of climate projections on the sediment yield in the Apucaraninha River watershed. The model was calibrated and validated using daily streamflow and sediment data from 1987 to 2012. The model presented satisfactory fit to the observed data allowing the reproduction of the current hydrological conditions of the watershed. Based on the satisfactory results in calibration and validation, the climate scenarios A2 and B2 were inserted to simulate streamflow and sediment conditions for the period 2071-2100. The results for both scenarios indicate that simulations of both climate scenarios resulted in changes in hydrosedimentological dynamics in the Apucaraninha River watershed, mainly in terms of decrease in average sediment yield due to the reduction in precipitation amount and increase in evapotranspiration. Our results also indicate that every 1% change in precipitation has resulted in 2.8% change in soil erosion and 1.6% change in runoff under scenario A2, and 2.3% change in erosion and 1.1% in runoff under scenarios B2, thus suggesting that climate change tends to affect sediment yield more than streamflow, although seasonally both could be impacted in similar ways.

Ramos Iensen, I. R.; Bauer Schultz, G.; Dos Santos, I.

2015-03-01

201

The Pariquera Açu K-alkaline complex and southern Brazil lithospheric mantle source characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the most important K-alkaline magmatic complexes of southern Brazil are associated with two main NW-trending structures. The Lages occurrence is linked to the uplift of a large crustal block, the Lages Dome, tectonically controlled by old NW-trending fault zones. The Jacupiranga, Juquiá and Pariquera Açu (PGAM) occurrences are related to the Ponta Grossa Arch, a NW-trending uplift structure that produced tensional tectonic lineaments with the same direction and influenced the emplacement of both alkaline rocks and dyke swarms associated with Paraná flood basalt activity. The Pariquera Açu complex, petrographically and geochemically described here for the first time, comprises coarse- to fine-grained rocks representing two main suites with different degrees of alkalinity: theralite to essexite and syenogabbro to syenodiorite. In both series highly evolved products are lacking. The presence of carbonatites is inferred. In the Jacupiranga complex (ca. 130 Ma), clinopyroxenite (jacupirangite) cumulates with minor dunites are associated with ankaratrites, alkali gabbros and leucocratic rocks such as syenites, nepheline syenites and peralkaline phonolites. Many phases of both calcic and magnesian carbonatite intrusions, to which relevant fenitization processes of jacupirangite are related, characterize the district. The Juquiá complex (130-135 Ma) consists of prevalent olivine clinopyroxenite cumulates and nepheline syenites, the latter arranged in subanular concentric patterns together with subordinate ijolites-melteigites-urtites, essexites and syenodiorites. The central part of the intrusion is occupied by a small Mg-carbonatite body. The Lages complex (78-63 Ma) is made up of mafic-ultramafic rock-types (olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites) and prevalent leucocratic bodies mainly consisting of peralkaline phonolites. Kimberlitic breccias and carbonatites are also present. Petrography, mineral and bulk-rock chemistry and mass balance calculations show that shallow-level fractional crystallization processes controlled the evolution from mafic to leucocratic rocks in all four complexes. Starting from a mantle source composition as suggested for the eastern Paraguay alkaline (ASU) magmatism, mass balance calculations indicate that primary magmas with high LILE contents and high La/Yb ratios are consistent with a garnet peridotite or phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotite solid residuum and less than 6% melting. The mantle sources are inferred to have been derived by different incompatible element enrichment probably associated with two late Proterozoic metasomatic processes: ASU (1.1 Ga) and Alto Parana?´ba Igneous Province (APIP; 0.5 Ga). Mainly on the basis of geochemical evidence (e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly), mantle sources for PGAM and Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites seem to have been affected by an APIP-like event. On the other hand, an ASU-like metasomatic process is suggested for the Lages basanite mantle source, which may be indicative of vertical mantle heterogeneity. Geochemical data also point to a large-scale northward increase in concentration of incompatible elements (e.g. Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites vs APIP kamafugites). An attempt to correlate the chemical composition of silicate rocks and carbonate metasomatism shows that the mantle sources for PGAM and Lages occurrences plot on a mixing curve linking depleted peridotites and the average Ca-carbonatite. This fact supports the view that carbonatitic fluids/melts have been involved in the metasomatic processes responsible for variable incompatible element enrichment of the lithospheric mantle of SE Brazil.

Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Brotzu, P.; D'Acquarica, S.; Garbarino, C.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

2000-04-01

202

THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH.  

E-print Network

THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH. The southern spring mackerel fishery of the United States if'! important from aev- eral standpoints, and of late has been than the regular fishery for mackerel carried on during the summer and fall months, it- has

203

Emerging zoonoses in the southern United States: toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness.  

PubMed

The majority of emerging diseases in humans have been linked to zoonotic pathogens originating in domestic animals or wildlife. This is a public health concern because zoonotic infections affect several aspects of the society. The complex interactions among pathogen, host and environment also pose challenges in estimating the true burden of those infections. However, the recent development of new molecular diagnostic tools has allowed for better diagnosis of zoonotic infections. This review focuses on 3 emerging zoonoses, namely toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness, and demonstrates that these infections may be more prevalent in the southern United States than previously recognized. This review places special emphasis on the recent epidemiologic trends, intra/interspecies transmission and clinical features of each of these zoonoses. In addition, treatment and prevention for each zoonotic pathogen are discussed. Clinicians working in the southern United States should be aware of the presence of those zoonotic infections. PMID:20697261

Clinton, Rachel M; Carabin, Hélène; Little, Susan E

2010-09-01

204

76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-10-24

205

Gendering Representation: Parties, Institutions, and the Under-Representation Of Women In Brazil's State Legislatures  

E-print Network

This dissertation provides insights on what influences women's descriptive representation in state legislatures in Brazil. The study of female representation in Brazil provides for a good case study as the country uses a ...

dos Santos, Pedro G.

2012-12-31

206

Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

2012-05-01

207

Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between,its anomalies,and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and

Alvaro F. Diaz; Caarem D. Studzinski; Carlos R. Mechoso

1998-01-01

208

Black-fly assemblage distribution patterns in streams in disturbed areas in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black flies (Simuliidae) are considered to be pests in rural and in some urban areas in the south of Brazil due to the bites of females. Little information exists on the factors that contribute to Simuliidae distribution in these areas. We sampled 39 streams in the state of Rio Grande do Sul in September 2004 to address ecological aspects. Of the 18 species collected, those that occurred in more than 50% of the streams were: Simulium subnigrum Lutz 1910, Simulium pertinax Kollar 1882, Simulium subpallidum Lutz 1910 and Simulium incrustatum Lutz 1910. Species richness was not influenced by any of the environmental or geographical variables considered, and there was no pattern of species co-occurrence, corroborating the hypothesis of a stochastic distribution of the Simuliidae assemblage. When analyzed individually, only three of seven species with occurrence frequency >30% were related to any of the variables measured. The probabilities of occurrence of Simulium jujuyense Paterson & Shannon 1927 and S. pertinax were higher in streams with high values of water pH and electrical conductivity, whereas the opposite was observed for S. incrustatum. Therefore, due to stochastic distribution, the population studies of Simuliidae are more suitable for predicting the occurrence of species in rural areas than are studies of assemblages. PMID:25107279

Couceiro, Sheyla Regina Marques; Hamada, Neusa; Sagot, Lúcia Beatriz; Pepinelli, Mateus

2014-12-01

209

76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. FD 35561] Lake State Railway Company...Exemption--Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway Company (LSRC) and Saginaw Bay Southern Railway Company...If the notice contains false or misleading...

2011-12-02

210

Evidence of association between hepatitis C virus genotype 2b and nosocomial transmissions in hemodialysis centers from southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a serious public health problem. Hemodialysis is considered one of the main risk factors of HCV infection, due to several invasive medical procedures and potential nosocomial transmission that patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are continuously submitted. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of HCV and its genotypes in patients with CRF in hemodialysis units in southern Brazil. Methods Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were collected and analyzed. These data were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment from January 2009 to August 2010, on two dialysis units of Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Genotyping was carried out by sequencing analysis of HCV NS5b, core-E1 junction and 5?UTR genomic regions. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients under regular hemodialysis treatment were studied. HCV prevalence was 23.3%. HCV-infected patients had been on dialysis treatment for 91.9 months, a more prolonged period compared to HCV-negative patients (p?=?0.001). While HCV genotypes 1b and 3a were identified as the most frequent strains, a surprisingly high proportion of genotype 2b was observed among patients in one of the dialysis centers compared to the general HCV-infected population of the same area. Hemodialysis treatment exposure time and healthcare working were associated with HCV infection. Conclusions Besides the efforts to minimize nosocomial transmission of HCV, some events of transmission are still evidenced in dialysis units. PMID:23714239

2013-01-01

211

Trends of seasonal maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation in Southern Brazil for the 1913-2006 period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term variations of monthly average maximum and minimum temperature (TMAX and TMIN) and precipitation records in southern Brazil are investigated for the 1913-2006 period. These variations are carefully analyzed for seasonal and annual indices, taken as regional averages. For this purpose, the serial correlation and trend of the indices are investigated using the run and Mann-Kendall tests. The significant trends are obtained from linear least-square fits. The annual and seasonal TMIN indices show significant warming trends with magnitudes (1.7°C per 100 years for annual index) comparable to those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but lower than those found for the southern Brazil in another previous work. Regarding the two other variables, the indices show significant trends only for summer, being a cooling trend of 0.6°C per 100 years for the TMAX and an increasing trend of 93 mm per 100 years over an average summer precipitation of 367 mm. Concerning the decadal analysis, the 1920s present the lowest annual, autumn, and spring TMIN and the 1990s, the highest ones. The 1970s is the decade with the lowest summer TMAX, and the 1940s the decade with the highest one. The driest decade is the 1940s and the wettest, the 1980s.

Sansigolo, Clóvis Angeli; Kayano, Mary Toshie

2010-07-01

212

Comparison of Epidemiological Methods for Estimation of Hepatitis B Incidence and Residual Risk for Blood Donors in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective. The objective of this work was to compare three methods for estimating hepatitis B virus (HBV) incidence and residual risk. Methods. Computerized blood donor records in southern Brazil were examined for the period 2004–2006. The methods for estimating HBV incidence included stand-alone HBsAg, HBsAg yield method, and an extension of the latter which added recent anti-HBc seroconversions as incident HBV cases. Results. HBV incidences for the above methods were 9.91, 20.09, and 22.93 per 100000 repeat donors, respectively. In the same order, corresponding residual risks were 1?:?62482, 1?:?30821, and 1?:?47559, respectively. First-time donors had 52 higher HBV incidence compared to repeat donors. Conclusion. Although the three methods compared produced overlapping 95% confidence intervals, their variation was considerably lower for the method which included recent anti-HBc seroconversions. First-time donors are primary cause for concern regarding HBV transmission via blood transfusion in southern Brazil. PMID:25346858

Kupek, Emil; Petry, Andrea

2011-01-01

213

Does the Lagoa do peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?  

PubMed

The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil. PMID:23894991

Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo

2013-03-01

214

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in Guaraní Indians, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) is found in many New World Indian groups on the American continent. In Brazil, HTLV-II has been found among urban residents and Indians in the Amazon region, in the North. Guaraní Indians in the South of Brazil were studied for HTLV-I/II infection. Among 52 individuals, three (5.76%) showed positive anti-HTLV-II antibodies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot). This preliminary report is the first seroepidemiological study showing HTLV-II infection among Indians in the South of Brazil. PMID:16410882

Menna-Barreto, Marcio; Bender, Ana Ligia; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B; Salzano, Francisco M; Tsuneto, Luiza T; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza

2005-01-01

215

Wavelet analysis of a centennial (1895–1994) southern Brazil rainfall series (Pelotas, 31°46?19?S 52°20? 33?W)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we apply the wavelet transform to the Pelotas (southern Brazil) total annual rainfall series (1894–1995). Classical,\\u000a wavelet and cross-wavelet analyses were performed in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO),\\u000a sunspot number (Rz) and Pelotas rainfall time series. Classical spectral analysis for Pelotas has shown a large number of\\u000a short periods – between 2.2–5.6 years (yr)

M. P. Souza Echer; E. Echer; D. J. Nordemann; N. R. Rigozo; A. Prestes

2008-01-01

216

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors for presence of anti-HCV antibody in blood donors in southern Brazil. Methods One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users. Conclusion Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered. PMID:12169200

Brandão, Ajacio BM; Costa Fuchs, Sandra

2002-01-01

217

Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

2011-09-01

218

An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

G. Coelho de Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

219

An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

G. Coelho De Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

2006-01-01

220

An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

2012-04-01

221

SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

222

Spatially explicit simulations of soil C dynamics in Southern Brazil: Integrating century and GIS with i_Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils requires appropriate cropping systems and conservation practices that increase crop biomass production. No tillage agriculture provides several advantages to establish “carbon friendly” production systems. Conservation agriculture has greatly expanded over the past three decades in the North Central region of Rio Grande de Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, with about 6 million

Carlos G. Tornquist; Phillip W. Gassman; João Mielniczuk; Elvio Giasson; Todd Campbell

2009-01-01

223

Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.  

PubMed

Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

2011-08-01

224

Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern are the `perfume flower' and the `oil flower' pollination syndromes (Dodson 1975, Simpson & Neff 1981, Vogel 1988, Eltz et al. 1999). The perfume flower pollination syndrome is characterized by production of eth

Mathis, Wayne N.

225

Tree community features of two stands of riverine forest under different flooding regimes in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 1 ha plots of a Southern Brazilian subtropical riverine forest, subject to different frequency and duration of floods, were compared to detect the differences in physiognomic structure, tree community composition, richness and diversity. Each plot was made up of 100 contiguous 10 ? 10 m subplots, where 3451 trees with pbh X15 cm were measured and identified. The survey

Jean Carlos Budke; Joao AndreJarenkowb; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

226

Molecular characterization of host strains of Spodoptera frugiperda(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)in southern Brazil :  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fall armyworm infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. Mapping the pattern of migration and the relative contributions of the Texas and Florida populations would contribute both to our understandi...

227

Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States  

E-print Network

Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which...

Giles, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Busch, Joseph D.; Olafson, Pia U.; Scoles, Glen A.; Davey, Ronald B.; Pound, J. Mathews; Kammlah, Diane M.; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H.; Wagner, David M.

2014-04-17

228

Seroepidemiology of abdominal angiostrongyliasis: the standardization of an immunoenzymatic assay and prevalence of antibodies in two localities in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a nematode disease produced by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a metastrongylid parasite of wild rodents. Accidental human infection occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with third-stage larvae present in the mucous secretion of terrestrial molluscs. An ELISA test was standardized for detection of IgG antibodies recognizing a surface antigen prepared from female worms. Competitive absorption of sera with Ascaris suum crude antigen resulted in a test with 86% sensitivity and 83% specificity. The disease is endemic in Southern Brazil and a number of cases are diagnosed every year through anatomo-pathological examination of biopsies or surgical specimens, since no other diagnostic method is available. According to seroepidemiological studies, prevalences in two transmission foci are 29.8 and 66%, attesting to the widespread occurrence of the infection in those endemic areas. PMID:9491104

Graeff-Teixeira, C; Agostini, A A; Camillo-Coura, L; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F

1997-03-01

229

The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis. PMID:22850961

Massaú, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

2012-08-01

230

Influence of extrinsic variables on activity and habitat selection of lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris) in the coastal sand plain shrub, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to: 1. evaluate the circadian activity patterns of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) throughout the seasons and 2. study the influence of moonlight, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns and habitat selection of this species, in the coastal sand shrub in southern Brazil. From June 2005 to June 2006, eight tapirs were monitored in

Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Luiz Carlos P. Machado-Filho; Marcos Adriano Tortato; Luisa Brusius

2010-01-01

231

The last 25,000 years in the Eastern Plateau of Southern Brazil according to Alpes de São Francisco record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeoenvironmental history has been studied based on palynology of a sedimentary profile from the Alpes de São Francisco bog (29°29'35''S, 50°37'18''W), São Francisco de Paula municipality, Rio Grande do Sul eastern Plateau, extreme Southern Brazil. The results indicate a regional cold and dry climate between 25,000 and 12,500 yr BP, interpreted from the grassland vegetation, forest taxa were present in refuges and the shallow local lake began to fill in. Climatic conditions became more aride after 16,000 yr BP, when grassland became rare. From 12,500 yr BP onwards, the climate began to change and at 11,000-9700 yr BP a warm and moist climate permitted the slight migration of pioneer arboreal taxa from refuges and locally a marsh formation. Between 9700 and 6500 yr BP a warm and dry climate resulted in reduction of grassland, confined the forest in refuges, dried out the marsh. The gradual increase of humidity between 6500 and 4000 yr BP allowed migration of forests from refuges and a bog developed. Between 4000 and 2000 yr BP Araucaria forest spread, indicating moister climate. The local bog expanded. From 2000 yr BP onwards, humid but warmer climate seems to result in a lower reproductive capacity of Araucaria forest taxa limiting its expansion. The bog reached the present-day in a decline condition. The results are compared to previous records from Southern Brazil highlands and some places from Argentina in order to better elucidate the climatic and vegetational history of these important South America areas during the late Quaternary.

Leonhardt, Adriana; Lorscheitter, Maria Luisa

2010-03-01

232

Palynological and physicochemical characterization of Apis mellifera L. bee pollen in the Southern region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee pollen has been used for many years in both traditional medicine and supplementary nutrition, as well as in alternative diets, mainly due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Bee pollen production is a recent activity in Brazil, having begun in the late 1980s. However, the country has the potential of being a large world producer of high quality

Solange T. Carpes; Ingridy S. R. Cabral; Cynthia Fernandez; P. Luz; Jailson P. Capeletti; Severino Matias Alencar; Maria Lúcia Masson

2009-01-01

233

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of tillage systems for a dark red latosol in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil tillage may influence CO2 emissions in agricultural systems. Agricultural soils are managed in several ways in Brazil, ranging from no tillage to intensive land preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of common soil tillage treatments (disk harrow, reversible disk plow, rotary tiller and chisel plow tillage systems) on the intermediate CO2 emissions of a

N La Scala; A Lopes; J Marques; G. T Pereira

2001-01-01

234

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

235

Tree community features of two stands of riverine forest under different flooding regimes in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two 1ha plots of a Southern Brazilian subtropical riverine forest, subject to different frequency and duration of floods, were compared to detect the differences in physiognomic structure, tree community composition, richness and diversity. Each plot was made up of 100 contiguous 10×10m subplots, where 3451 trees with pbh ?15cm were measured and identified. The survey observed 30 tree species, in

Jean Carlos Budke; João André Jarenkow; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

2008-01-01

236

Lithospheric to asthenospheric transition in Low-Ti flood basalts from southern Paraná, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two geochemically distinct Low-Ti magma types (Gramado and Esmeralda) are distinguished within the flood basalt sequences of southern Paraná on the basis of certain element abundances and ratios. Esmeralda magmas have lower Ce\\/Sm and (87Sr86Sr),i and higher TiZr and ?Nd, than Gramado magmas. Detailed stratigraphical work indicates that there was a temporal progression from Gramado- to Esmeralda-type magmas. This compositional

David W. Peate; Chris J. Hawkesworth

1996-01-01

237

Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeuskroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeuskroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

2014-01-01

238

Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

2013-06-01

239

April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

240

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

the importance of his role as an elected official of the State of Ohio to set an example to all citizens of OhioIN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION OBAMA FOR AMERICA, et al., Plaintiffs, v. JON HUSTED, in his official capacity As Ohio Secretary of State, et al

241

An Assessment of Maternal Quality of Life in the Postpartum Period in Southern Brazil: A Comparison of Two Questionnaires  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess maternal quality of life (QoL) during the postpartum period and to compare the performance of two QoL questionnaires across a sample of 101 women in southern Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first study that measures maternal quality of life during the postpartum period in Brazil. INTRODUCTION There is limited information about postpartum maternal quality of life in Brazil. The are no Portuguese versions of instruments specifically designed to measure quality of life during the postpartum period. METHODS Research participants completed the Portuguese version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and Multicultural Quality of Life Index (MQLI) questionnaires. The correlations between the MQLI and the discrete areas of WHOQOL-BREF were examined using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. RESULTS We report a significant correlation between the global MQLI and the four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF scores (p < 0.01). An analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in mean scores in the Psychological and Environment domains according to different socio-economic strata: F (3, 97) = 3.81, p = 0.012 and F (3, 97) = 4.03, p = 0.01, respectively. DISCUSSION The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire may be more sensitive than the MQLI in detecting the impact of socioeconomic status on the QoL of postpartum women. CONCLUSION The sample of postpartum women evaluated in this study presented favorable QoL scores according to both the MQLI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Our results also indicate that the WHOQOL-BREF and the MQLI questionnaires have a significant correlation in terms of their assessments of postpartum mothers. PMID:19690658

Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Schumacher, Marina Verdi; Muller, Lucia Cristina; Amoretti, Aline Luz

2009-01-01

242

Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Pará state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajás, Belém, Goianésia do Pará, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairão, all in the Pará state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amapá. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goianésia do Pará), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goianésia do Pará where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belém) to 0.018 (Goianésia do Pará). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ?29 years ago in Anajás, Goianésia do Pará, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairão. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major species of malaria parasite. PMID:25419900

Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, João F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

2014-01-01

243

Comparing phosphorus indices from twelve southern U.S. states against monitored phosphorus loads from six prior southern studies.  

PubMed

Forty-eight states in the United States use phosphorus (P) indices to meet the requirements of their Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Code 590 Standard, which provides national guidance for nutrient management of agricultural lands. The majority of states developed these indices without consultation or coordination with neighboring states to meet specific local conditions and policy needs. Using water quality and land treatment data from six previously published articles, we compared P loads with P-Index values and ratings using the 12 southern P indices. When total measured P loads were regressed with P-Index rating values, moderate to very strong relationships (0.50 to 0.97) existed for five indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) and all but one index was directionally correct. Regressions with dissolved P were also moderate to very strong ( of 0.55 to 0.95) for the same five state P indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina); directionality of the Alabama Index was negative. When total measured P loads were transformed to current NRCS 590 Standard ratings (Low [<2.2 kg P ha], Moderate, [2.2-5.5 kg P ha], and High [>5.5 kg P ha]) and these ratings were then compared to the southern-Index ratings, many of the P indices correctly identified Low losses (77%), but most did not correctly identify Moderate or High loss situations (14 and 31%, respectively). This study demonstrates that while many of the P indices were directionally correct relative to the measured water quality data, there is a large variability among southern P indices that may result in different P management strategies being employed under similar conditions. PMID:23128731

Osmond, D; Sharpley, A; Bolster, C; Cabrera, M; Feagley, S; Lee, B; Mitchell, C; Mylavarapu, R; Oldham, L; Walker, F; Zhang, H

2012-01-01

244

Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992-1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation--8.7 months--was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators. PMID:9924513

do Monte, C M; Ashworth, A; Sá, M L; Diniz, R L

1998-12-01

245

Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini?Tefé; Manacapuru?Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo?São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos?Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. PMID:25528017

da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

2015-03-01

246

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

247

Geochemical and ecotoxicological assessment for estuarine surface sediments from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sediments from Guaratuba Bay (PR, Brazil), a marine protected area, were collected and evaluated for geochemistry and toxicity. High levels of P and acute toxicity were observed in some samples. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were relatively low; however, Cd levels eventually exceeded Threshold Effect Level. Toxicities were associated to nutrients and metals enrichment. Results suggest that impacts are incipient and occur only at specific sites, associated to multiple contamination sources. Despite sediments quality seems to range between good and fair, attention is required to land-use planning around Guaratuba Bay and controlling local pollution sources. PMID:23507043

Rodrigues, Sarah K; Abessa, Denis M S; Machado, Eunice C

2013-10-01

248

A sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Upper Triassic (Carman) of southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three newly discovered skeletons from the Carnian red beds of the Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil, represent one of the oldest dinosaurs ever found. The new taxon Saturnalia tupiniquim, is equivalent in age to the earliest dinosaurs from northwestern Argentina, being the oldest sauropodomorph dinosaur known from plentiful skeletal material. The record of Saturnalia, a 1.5-m-long gracile plant-eating animal, indicates that, like other major dinosaur lineages, the first representatives of the mainly heavy-built sauropodomorphs were gracile animals.

Langer, Max C.; Abdala, Fernando; Richter, Martha; Benton, Michael J.

1999-10-01

249

Neospora spp. antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine occurrences of Neospora spp. IgG antibodies in horses from two geographical regions of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and identify risk factors for infection. Analyses were performed on 615 samples using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT ? 1:50). Out of the 615 samples, 25 (4.1%) were positive for Neospora spp. The titers for Neospora spp. were distributed as follows: 1:50 (13), 1:100 (eight), 1:200 (three) and 1:400 (one). Out of the 311 samples taken in the mountain region, eight were positive (2.6%). Among the samples from the coastal region (304), 17 had Neospora spp. antibodies, thus indicating occurrence of 5.6%. Although no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.06704), the prevalence among animals of the coast was 2.2 times higher than that of the mountain region. Contact with dogs and/or cattle (P = 0.007596) were identified as risk factor for Neospora spp. infection. PMID:24473888

de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; da Silva, Márcio Orides; Farias, Juliana Antunes; Vieira-Neto, Achilles; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Fonteque, Joandes Henrique; Bunn, Silvério

2013-01-01

250

Study of the Drosophilidae (Diptera) communities on Atlantic Forest islands of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A study of the community dynamics of Drosophilidae was carried out in six insular communities and two others on the mainland. Seasonal collections were carried out throughout two years in Santa Catarina State, southern of Brazil. The diversity index calculations show high values when compared with temperate climate communities. The sites on the mainland (Serra do Tabuleiro) presented the highest diversity, which was measured by the Diversity Index (H'). These sites are covered by primary Atlantic Forest and theoretically should have a higher variation of ecological niches. A dendogram showing the similarity between the communities, calculated by Morisita Index, points to a level of similarity equal to 60% for all communities. In this diagram, we can see two clades: one on the mainland and the other on the islands. The six island sites are grouped into one clade and separated into two subclades, one including the sites on Santa Catarina Island and the other consisting of the islands adjacent to this last and very much larger one. These groupings show the very important role of the spatial component on the prediction of the structure of the communities. This fact raises the discussion about the high complexity of the Atlantic Forest ecosystem and consequently the unpredictability of its fauna, highlighting the need of its conservation. PMID:17710319

Toni, Daniela C de; Gottschalk, Marco S; Cordeiro, Juliana; Hofmann, Paulo P R; Valente, Vera L S

2007-01-01

251

Prevalence of Benign Diseases Mimicking Lung Cancer: Experience from a University Hospital of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is the most lethal type of cancer in the world. Several benign lung diseases may mimic lung carcinoma in its clinical and radiological presentation, which makes the differential diagnosis for granulomatous diseases more relevant in endemic regions like Brazil. This study was designed to describe the prevalence and the diagnostic work-up of benign diseases that mimic primary lung cancer in patients hospitalized at a university hospital from south of Brazil. Methods This was a transversal study, which evaluated the medical records of 1,056 patients hospitalized for lung cancer treatment from September 2003 to September 2013 at University Hospital of Santa Maria. Results Eight hundred and four patients underwent invasive procedures for suspected primary lung carcinoma. Primary lung cancer was confirmed in 77.4% of the patients. Benign disease was confirmed in 8% of all patients. Tuberculosis (n=14) and paracoccidioidomycosis (n=9) were the most frequent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of benign diseases was obtained by flexible bronchoscopy in 55.6% of the cases and by thoracotomy in 33.4%. Conclusion Infectious diseases are the most frequent benign diseases mimicking lung cancer at their initial presentation. Many of these cases could be diagnosed by minimally invasive procedures such as flexible bronchoscopy. Benign diseases should be included in the differential diagnosis during the investigation for primary lung cancer in order to avoid higher cost procedures and mortality. PMID:25861339

Andrade, Cristiano Feijó; Marchiori, Roseane Cardoso; Lidtke, Grazielli Dos Santos; Martins, Fabio Pacheco; Santos, Jose Wellington Alves Dos

2015-01-01

252

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

2014-08-01

253

Legal opportunity structure and social movement strategy in Northern Ireland and southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Rights Movements in the southern United States and Northern Ireland were able to mobilize African Americans and Irish Catholics respectively against minority discrimination. These movements initially displayed very similar goals and tactics, looking at courts to counter institutional discrimination, but in successive stages of contention their trajectories fundamentally diverged. While legal mobilization in the United States constituted one

Gianluca De Fazio

2012-01-01

254

Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the earliest complex state-level societies and cities from small sedentary communities took place in southern Mesopotamia between 8000 and 5000 cal yrs BP during the ‘Ubaid and Uruk periods. Attempts to explain this transition often discount the role of environmental change and tend to evaluate available archaeological evidence for urban-based state development either within a static environmental

Douglas J. Kennett; James P. Kennett

2006-01-01

255

252 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATE^ FISH COMMISSION. OO.-FISJH-CULT~BE IN SOUTHERN CHINA.  

E-print Network

252 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATE^ FISH COMMISSION. OO.-FISJH-CULT~BE IN SOUTHERN CHINA. B y CHARLES, although it must be #12;BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 253 statedthat few foreigners ever the list in America. Vegetables take the second place in the Chinese cuiwine. Fish stands next in the list

256

A Manual for Dialect Research in the Southern States. Second edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (LAGS) Project is a survey of regional and social dialects in eight southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. This manual has been prepared both for those who will conduct the research and for those who are interested in the aims and methods of the…

Pederson, Lee, Ed.; And Others

257

Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape units resulting from this relationship may be identified. The species E.edulis is found within these landscape units and is integrated into the livelihood of the community. PMID:23826807

2013-01-01

258

Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The ?13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

2014-12-01

259

Pedogeochemistry and micromorphology of oxisols - A basis for understanding etchplanation in the Araucárias Plateau (Southern Brazil) in the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately five years ago, the Working Group on Ancient Surfaces and Long-Term Landscape Evolution was created to raise planed surfaces in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay with the aim of establishing regional correlations of planed surfaces after the formation of the Gondwanan rocks in South America. In Brazil, planed surfaces were recognized and classified between 1940 and 1960 and were given various designations and different age estimates based on regional morphostratigraphic correlation attempts. In the last twenty years, the assumptions of those attempts began to be questioned on a large scale by studies in which empirical observations, mediated by the use of new methodologies, did not indicate such a direct relationship between the paleosurfaces and their long-term erosive origin. We identified eight staggered surfaces in the Araucárias Plateau, Southern Brazil, between the Iguazu and Uruguay Rivers. Initially, we attempted to understand the planed surfaces as classic pediplains, but we found weathering profiles of different thicknesses with oxisols downstream of the knickpoints, instead of correlative deposits. We understand these surfaces as planed surfaces or paleosurfaces without erosive interrelation between them, resulting from the action of etchplanation processes. This idea contradicts the classical perspective of Brazilian geomorphology that attributes the cyclical alternation of Quaternary paleoclimates to the evolution of the model of the subtropical landscapes. The hypothesis begins from the assumption that the model evolved from the binomial morphogenesis/pedogenesis in phase with the glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the climactic controls on morphogenesis/pedogenesis are mediated by the responses of the weathered mantle on the scale of its chemical and microstructural organization, which does not always validate previous theoretical assumptions. In this article, we use the chemical composition, weathering indices, iron, mineralogy of the clays and micromorphology of the oxisols of surface 6 to propose a first approximation of the evolution of the planed surfaces regarding etchplanation in southern Brazil. The surfaces' pedogeochemical and micromorphological properties reveal the following: a) hydrolysis is the main process of geochemical loss of geomorphic surfaces; b) geochemical erosion is more intense in the glacial periods, when the decreased temperature favors slower weathering in a more continuous manner; c) the pedobioclimatic imbalance generated by the input in interglacial periods favors mechanical erosion of the ground surface due to the substitution of the structure in blocks by microaggregates, which reduces the cohesiveness of the mantles of alteration; d) morphogenesis is most important in interglacial periods, promoting the truncation of oxisols; e) the oxisols from the remnants of the planed surfaces are actually renewed profiles younger than 500 Ky BP; f) models of long-term chemical denudation must take into consideration short-duration changes (?25 Ky) in the pedogeochemical and structural processes of the solum.

Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; de Barros Corrêa, Antônio Carlos; Rech Rodrigues, Rafaela Ana

2013-12-01

260

Identification, occurrence and clinical findings of canine hemoplasmas in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemoplasmas are ubiquitous pleomorphic and epicellular bacteria detected in erythrocytes in several species. In Brazil, studies on hemoplasmas have not included information on occurrence, clinical signs, and risk factors in dogs. This paper investigates the occurrence of hemoplasmas in dogs, focusing on risk factors and clinical status. Conventional PCR for the four types of canine hemoplasmas was performed in 331 blood samples collected from dogs clinically treated at a teaching veterinary hospital. Of all samples, 17/331 (5.1%) were positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis and 6/331 (1.8%) were positive for a 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-like' organism. Risk factors included the presence of vectors, old age, dog bite wounds, and neoplastic diseases. In the multivariate analysis, a 4.40 odds ratio in dogs with vector-borne diseases indicated risk for hemoplasmosis. There was correlation between hemoplasma infection and neoplastic disease, suggesting that neoplastic conditions are a risk factor for hemoplasma infection in dogs. PMID:25159996

Valle, Stella de Faria; Messick, Joanne B; Dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Duda, Naila Cristina Blatt; Machado, Gustavo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; González, Felix Hilario Diaz

2014-09-01

261

Seasonal variation in body size and diet of the sea star Astropecten marginatus (Paxillosida, Astropectinidae) off coast of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sea star Astropecten marginatus has a neotropical distribution and is a highly abundant and frequent species in shrimp trawling by-catchin many places along the Brazilian coast. This has caused its threat to extinction and in addition, its bio-ecological aspects are poorly known. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of population length structure and feeding habits of the sea stars A. marginatus inhabiting off state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The analyzed specimens were collected in February (summer), April (fall), June (winter) and October (spring) of 2008 from shrimp by-catch trawling. In the laboratory, each individual had its length measured and then weighed on an analytical scale. Afterwards, the stomach contents of 10 individuals of each of two most frequent length classes were seasonally analyzed. The relative frequency and abundance for each prey category was determined and, then combined into an index of alimentary importance. A total of 994 individuals of A. marginatus were collected with length ranging from 7.0 to 56.2mm, but most individuals were in the 20.1-25mm length classes. Individuals larger than 40mm were only collected in the spring while a few recruits (<10mm) were found in fall and winter. The total weight of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 15.3g and the weight-length relationships showed a negative allometric growth (b<2.54). Regarding its food consumption, this sea star explored eleven food items, with cumaceans and mollusks as the most frequent items. High frequency of empty stomach was recorded at fall. Seasonal differences in the amount explored preys and ingested items as well as in the prey composition were also observed. Higher amount of explored prey categories and ingested items were recorded at winter-spring than summer-fall periods. Predominance in prey category changed from gastropods (summer and fall) to cumaceans (winter and spring). The importance of gastropods as main prey category at summer and fall should be carefully considered since it was coincidently observed with high frequency of empty stomach and low amount of ingested items. The observed seasonal differences in feeding behavior pattern were mainly associated to low prey availability and to changes in the sea star feeding rates, and probably reflected in some biological traits such as small body size of the population inhabiting waters off the Paraná coast, Southern Brazil. PMID:24912343

Guilherme, Pablo D B; Rosa, Leonardo C

2014-03-01

262

Assessment of inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil: a population-based study*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ? 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ? 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839

de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo

2014-01-01

263

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in São Paulo State, Brazil: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sao Paulo State has had the largest number of paediatric AIDS cases in Brazil. Since 1996, Sao Paulo (and Brazil nationally) has implemented an aggressive programme to reduce perinatal transmission. We have gathered available indicators to examine the programme's impact. Methods: We obtained data on reported AIDS cases from the AIDS surveillance system; data on the number of mother\\/infant

Luiza Harunari Matida; Mariliza Henrique da Silva; Ângela Tayra; Regina Celia de Menezes Succi; Maria Clara Gianna; Alexandre Gonçalves; Heráclito Barbosa de Carvalho; Norman Hearst

2005-01-01

264

SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM SHEEP FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection but little is known of ovine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in sera of 495 sheep from 36 counties of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25) and found in 120...

265

Edge effects on epigeic ant assemblages in a grassland-forest mosaic in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed the influence of vegetation structure variation along a natural vegetation mosaic formed by Araucaria forest and Campos grassland in the southern Brazilian highlands, on the species richness and composition of epigeic ants. The study site consisted of two different grassland-forest ecotones, where 76 pitfall traps were installed. We estimated the area covered by canopy vegetation by hemispherical photographs, and the structure of the understory vegetation by counting the number of vegetation touches, using a graduated stick. We collected 31 species or morphospecies of epigeic ants belonging to 17 genera and 6 subfamilies. Cluster analysis defined three habitat groups (grassland, edge, and forest) with different ant species composition as revealed by ordination analysis. The highest richness was observed at the forest edge, and decreased towards the grassland and the forest interior. Variation in the richness and composition of epigeic ant species was significantly explained by the factor of distance from the forest. The relationship between species richness and understory density was negative. On the other hand, species composition of epigeic ant assemblages was significantly explained by canopy cover. This finding indicates that the ecological responses of ant assemblages resulted predominantly from edge effects mediated by changes in vegetation structure.

Pinheiro, Esther R. S.; Duarte, Leandro da S.; Diehl, Elena; Hartz, Sandra M.

2010-07-01

266

Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts.

Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

2015-01-01

267

Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

2015-04-01

268

[Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute respiratory infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil].  

PubMed

Prevalence of wheezing was studied in Guarani indigenous children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, recruited by a surveillance routine established in villages from May 2007 to June 2008. Data were obtained from hospital records. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios for wheezing were estimated according to categories of target variables, using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence of wheezing was 58.1% (136/234). Risk factors that remained significantly associated with wheezing in the final model were: age bracket, inversely associated (0-11 months: reference; 24-35 months: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99); hospitalization in the autumn (summer: reference; autumn: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.05-2.40); dyspnea (1.41, 95%CI: 1.09-1.83); chest indrawing (1.42, 95%CI: 1.16-1.73); crackles (1.43, 95%CI: 1.09-1.87). The results show a high disease burden related to wheezing and suggest the phenotype of early-onset persistent wheezing related to recurrence of viral respiratory infections. PMID:25166940

Souza, Patrícia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant Anna, Clemax Couto

2014-07-01

269

Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids. PMID:24031300

da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2008-01-01

270

Environmental risk increase due to heavy metal contamination caused by a copper mining activity in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Camaquã Copper Mines (CCM) were the main sulphide deposit in Southern Brazil and have been in operation from last century to 1996. To evaluate water contamination and environmental risk increase by heavy metals from mining operations, two points on the João Dias Creek were sampled (Station 1, background area and Station 2, contaminated area). Mining activity increased the natural weakly heavy metal fluxes by approximately 5424 kg. (approximately 60%) of the total metal flux, 1542 kg. (approximately 49%) of dissolved and 3881 kg (approximately 66%) of particulate metal flux. Total metal flux of anthropic origin was mostly due to Fe followed by Cu > Zn > Mn whereas Cd, As and Pb fluxes were negligible. The potential human health hazards and risk assessment related to daily intake of water from João Dias Creek are mostly due to Mn and should be of concern for the contaminated area. The ingestion of water from station 2 represents incremental risks of 130% and 59% respectively, considering the non-carcinogenic and the carcinogenic effects. The real increase of human health hazards may be greater than those related to the total concentrations since Mn and As dissolved concentrations were 5.5 and 2.0 higher than acceptable, respectively. PMID:11404788

Bidone, E D; Laybauer, L; Castilhos, Z C; Maddock, J L

2001-06-01

271

Pre-vegetation fluvial floodplains and channel-belts in the Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Santa Bárbara group (Southern Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One key element to the understanding of the dynamics of pre-vegetation fluvial systems is the reconstruction of processes operating on their floodplains given that, in modern systems, channel banks and floodplains are the environments most affected by plant colonization. Notwithstanding, few pre-vegetation floodplains have been described, and major questions regarding their most basic characteristics are still unresolved. In order to address these questions, detailed analysis of coeval channel-belt, fluvial floodplain and alluvial-fan deposits from the Santa Bárbara Group (Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian, southern Brazil) was performed. While floodplain facies resemble ephemeral stream deposits, being coarser-grained than modern floodplains and marked by the stacking of flood event cycles, channel-belt deposits show composite bars, which do not present conclusive evidence for high water discharge variation. The floodplain deposits show particular features common to other pre-vegetation fluvial systems, such as better preserved small-scale structures, lack of bioturbation, and abundance of cross-laminated sandstones, while other features differ from previous depositional models, namely abundant mudcracks and evidence of soil formation. The lateral variation of depositional systems recorded in the Santa Bárbara Group shows contrasting signatures of water discharge variation in sand-dominated coeval environments, and offers an example of the relation between different alluvial environments before the evolution of land plants.

Marconato, André; de Almeida, Renato Paes; Turra, Bruno Boito; Fragoso-Cesar, Antônio Romalino dos Santos

2014-03-01

272

Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

2015-03-01

273

Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes  

PubMed Central

Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations. PMID:25075782

Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla EO; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M

2014-01-01

274

Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the coastal waters of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sewage discharge on coastal waters by evaluating the influence of physicochemical parameters on the presence of enteric microorganisms in seawater samples collected from 11 beaches in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, over a one-year period (August 2009 to July 2010). Samples were assessed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV), polyomavirus (JCPyV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses (HuNoV GI and GII). Escherichia coli and physicochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were also evaluated. From the 132 samples analyzed, 55% were positive for HAdV, 51.5% for HAV, 7.5% for HuNoV GI, 4.5% for HuNoV GII, and 3% for JCPyV. E. coli levels ranged from 8 to 1325 CFU/100mL at all sites. The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into coastal waters and confirm that there is no correlation between viral presence and bacterial contamination. PMID:22104718

Moresco, V; Viancelli, A; Nascimento, M A; Souza, D S M; Ramos, A P D; Garcia, L A T; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

2012-01-01

275

[Factors associated with insufficient physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insufficient physical activity and to find the factors associated to this outcome in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil (2007). A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a representative sample of individuals between 20 and 59 years of age (n=2,051). Physical activity was estimated using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Insufficient physical activity was defined as less than 150 minutes per week spent in moderate or vigorous physical activity. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 29.6% (95%CI: 27.6; 31.7). The associated factors were to be male, obese, have high income, and negative self-perception of health status. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was lower than reported by other Brazilian studies. Studies that distinguish different types of physical activity can contribute to a better understanding of the problem. The implementation of public policies that encourage the practice of regular exercises is required. PMID:21180857

Lopes, João Altamiro; Longo, Giana Zarbato; Peres, Karen Glazer; Boing, Antonio Fernando; de Arruda, Marina Patrício

2010-12-01

276

Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.  

PubMed

Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

2014-08-01

277

A study of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation influence on vegetation indices in Brazil using time series analysis from 1995 to 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at improving the understanding of the behaviour of vegetation in Brazil due to the regional influences of climatic events, specifically the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To accomplish this we used a set of filtered data from the European Fourier-Adjusted and Interpolated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (EFAI-NDVI), generated by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), along with

L. M. T. Oliveira; G. B. França; R. M. Nicácio; M. A. H. Antunes; T. C. C. Costa; A. R. Torres JR; J. R. A. França

2010-01-01

278

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide () diversities were 0.5570 0.0697 and 0.0021 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ST

Maíra Carneiro Proietti; Paula Lara-Ruiz; Júlia Wiener Reisser; Luciano da Silva Pinto; Odir Antonio Dellagostin; Luis Fernando Marins

2009-01-01

279

Short-term soil CO 2 emission after conventional and reduced tillage of a no-till sugar cane area in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of tillage systems on soil CO2 emission is a complex issue as different soil types are managed in various ways, from no-till to intensive land preparation. In southern Brazil, the adoption of a new management option has arisen most recently, with no-tillage as well as no burning of crops residues left on soil surface after harvesting, especially in

N. La Scala; D. Bolonhezi; G. T. Pereira

2006-01-01

280

Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

2014-05-01

281

The Ribeira fluorite district, southern Brazil. Geological and geochemical (REE, Sm-Nd isotopes) characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and evolution of different ore deposits grouped in the same district are often complex and may involve inheritance from crustal or mantle geochemical anomalies, remobilization of former ore deposits and a polyphase hydrothermal history. Localized in a Proterozoic basement in the Parana state, the Ribeira fluorite district is such an example composed of three deposit types with distinct

L. H. Ronchi; J. C. Touray; A. Michard; M. A. Dardenne

1993-01-01

282

São Paulo—The “Other” Brazil: Different Pathways on Climate Change for State and Federal Governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of São Paulo, the most populous state in Brazil with 40 million people, is leading the way in Brazilian environmental policies. This article discusses the implications this has particularly for climate change policies. Located in the southeast part of the country, far from the Amazon rainforest, São Paulo state has adopted policies and actions that are leading to

Oswaldo Lucon; José Goldemberg

2010-01-01

283

Sulfate adsorption and its relationships with properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil  

E-print Network

State, Brazil M.E. Alves, A. Lavorenti* Departamento de Cie^ncias Exatas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ``Luiz de Queiroz''--ESALQ/USP, Caixa Postal 09, 13418-900, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil Received 27 August, electrochemical and mineralogical properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil, were

Sparks, Donald L.

284

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

2014-01-01

285

Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

2013-01-01

286

Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

287

Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to…

Owens, Dena Ann

2010-01-01

288

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States for characteristics which we wish to improve. · Test progeny in space plant nurseries and replicated field trials that are superior to the parental checks. Program Benefits · The Center's turfgrass breeding and genetics program

289

AN UNDOCUMENTED ECONOMY OF CONTROL1 Workers, smugglers and State authorities in southern Israel/Palestine  

E-print Network

1 AN UNDOCUMENTED ECONOMY OF CONTROL1 Workers, smugglers and State authorities in southern Israel West Bank to Israel. Relying on ethnographic data, it studies the modes of organization of Palestinian mobility. While Palestinian employment in Israel has been extensively documented, little attention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population 8 Southern States and Maine Cornelis F. de Hoop  

E-print Network

10.0 Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population ­ 8 Southern States and Maine by Cornelis F. de 31, 2002 #12;10.1 SURVEYS OF THE LOGGING CONTRACTOR POPULATION Once the Logging Capacity Study a reliable source of documented knowledge about the population as a whole. One way to do this is to survey

Wu, Qinglin

291

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

292

The Southern Sierra Nevada Drip and the Mantle Wind Direction Beneath the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miocene-Pliocene convective removal of the southern Sierra Nevada batholithic root and its sinking through the upper mantle provides a natural experiment to estimate the direction and velocity of mantle flow beneath the southwestern United States. Xenolith data, volcanism patterns, and geologic evidence are used to constrain the location and timing of the initial detachment. Seismic tomography images of the

George Zandt

2003-01-01

293

EFFECTS OF OUTMIGRATION ON EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF NEGRO MALES IN SOUTHERN UNITED STATES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE EFFECTS OF OUTMIGRATION OF NEGRO MALES ON THE POPULATION EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF SOUTHERN UNITED STATES WERE DETERMINED BY TWO ANALYSES OF CENSUS DATA. RESULTS INDICATED A GENERAL LOWERING OF THE EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE REGION WITH INMIGRANTS INTO THE SOUTH HAVING A LOWER LEVEL OF EDUCATION THAN INMIGRANTS INTO OTHER REGIONS, WHILE OUTMIGRANTS…

PRICE, DANIEL O.

294

Reducing child mortality: the contribution of ceará state, northeast of Brazil, on achieving the millennium development goal 4 in Brazil.  

PubMed

To describe the experience of Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, state on improving child survival, over a 20 year period, and discuss its contribution to Brazil's progress toward the achievement of MDG 4. Five population-based, statewide household surveys, with children <3 years of age, known as PESMIC (Mother and Child Health Survey of Ceará), were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1994, 2001 and 2007. They aimed to investigate levels and causes of mortality and access to child health services. The cluster sampling of 8,000 households identified 2,000 children on average. They used the same methodological approach and indicators. Important changes occurred in demographic and health indicators in the 20 year period, including 81 % reduction in the infant mortality rate, 43 % increase in breastfeeding rate and the achievement of a 95 % immunization rate. The prevalence of chronic malnutrition declined from 28 to 13 % and acute malnutrition from 13 to 5 %. Diarrheal diseases contributed with 36.6 % to the infant mortality in 1986 and 3.9 % in 2007. The major improvements in child health contributed substantially to the progress on MDG 4 in Brazil. Results of the 5 surveys produced reliable information for planning and evaluation that contributed to the remarkable progress made by the state. PMID:25095765

E Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante; Correia, Luciano Lima; Campos, Jocileide Sales; de Oliveira Andrade, Francisca Maria; da Silveira, Dirlene Mafalda Ildefonso; Madeiro Leite, Álvaro Jorge; Rocha, Hermano A L; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; da Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves

2015-04-01

295

Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18° 05' 43.6? S, 43° 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in São João da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mössbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

2014-04-01

296

Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-05-01

297

El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation impacts on precipitation in the southern and central United States: Evaluation of spatial distribution and predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and predicting regional impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on winter (October-March) precipitation can provide valuable inputs to agricultural and water resources managers. Effects of ENSO and PDO on winter precipitation were assessed in 165 climate divisions throughout the southern United States. A continuous region of significantly (P < 0.05) increased (decreased) winter precipitation

Daniel Kurtzman; Bridget R. Scanlon

2007-01-01

298

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

299

Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents. PMID:21248084

Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; França, João B.; Moreira, Suzana; Gonçalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

2011-01-01

300

Outbreaks due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii in southern Brazil: persistence of a single clone from 2007 to 2011.  

PubMed

Outbreaks associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been increasingly reported worldwide, including in Brazil. Among the RGM, the Mycobacterium abscessus complex is the most pathogenic and related to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile of RGM isolates involved in new postsurgical infection outbreaks in Brazil since 2007. Of the 109 cases reported in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2007 and 2011, 43 (39?%) had confirmed mycobacterial growth in culture. Clinical isolates were obtained from biopsy specimens or abscess aspirates. PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern identified the isolates as M. abscessus type 2, and partial rpoB sequencing confirmed the identification as M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and resistant to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin and tobramycin. Most isolates (72?%) were fully susceptible to cefoxitin but six isolates (14?%) were fully resistant to clarithromycin. The latter differed from the susceptibility profiles of the previously described BRA100 clone from other Brazilian regions. Nevertheless, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to a single BRA100 clone. In conclusion, our study reports the persistence of an emergent single and highly resistant clone of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii for several years even after national implementation of infection control measures. PMID:25038135

Nunes, Luciana de S; Baethgen, Ludmila F; Ribeiro, Marta O; Cardoso, Cássia M; de Paris, Fernanda; De David, Simone M M; da Silva, Marlei G; Duarte, Rafael S; Barth, Afonso L

2014-10-01

301

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 942 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a major international health problem, and its identification in developing countries is based exclusively on phenotypic methods. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and related parameters of the modified Hodge test (MHT). The assessment was performed in a large number of isolates obtained from different hospitals in several cities of a south Brazilian state. Bacterial species were identified using an automated method. The MHT was performed according to the guidelines set by the CLSI. The gene blaKPC was amplified in order to confirmation CRE expression. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. A total of 942 isolates were submitted to the reference laboratory for confirmation; 143 showed a negative MHT (15.18%) result, while 784 were positive (83.23%), and 15 samples displayed an indeterminate MHT (1.59%) result. All samples expressed the KPC-2 enzyme. Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive percentiles were 99%, 89%, 98%, and 99% respectively. We conclude that the modified Hodge test is a reliable test for the prediction of KPC-producing bacteria. PMID:25585523

Arend, Lavinia N; Pilonetto, Marcelo; de Alencar Siebra, Christian; Tuon, Felipe F

2015-04-01

302

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

, the government accords aliens who were removed pending judicial review but then prevailed before the courts effective relief by, inter alia, facilitating the aliens' return to the United States by parole under 8 U that deportation of an alien before the resolution of an appeal from her order of removal does not constitute

Huang, Jianyu

303

Breeding Jasmine-Type Aromatic Rice for Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the United States, over 70% of imported rice that currently makes up the 12% of domestic consumption is Jasmine, primarily from Thailand. Development of improved Jasmine-type cultivar with similar specialty characteristics (aroma, texture, and flavor) to those imports and with competitive grain a...

304

The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton Growing.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - BULLETIN NO. 345 JULY, 1926 - The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton,Growing -- GRICULTURAL... Committee 7 ....... hltlster Spinners' ancl 1SiIanufacturers' .Association. 8 ................................. A llission to Brazil 8 ............ Cotton Conference at PLio de.Jaizeiro ill 1922 8 .................... Report of the "First Section" 8...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

1926-01-01

305

Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

2014-04-01

306

Toxoplasma gondii antibodies on domiciled cats from Lages municipality, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Sera were collected from 300 domiciled cats from the municipality of Lages, Southern Brazil, to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and risk factors associated. Tests for T. gondii antibodies were performed using indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Positive reactions with titers ?1:64 were found in 43 (14.33%) cats. A significant number of seropositive cats were ?6 month old (p = 0.03758) and had access to the streets or/and rural areas (p = 0.04185). The results indicate that T. gondii is widespread in cats in Lages with a prevalence of 14.33%. PMID:21184709

Dalla Rosa, Luciana; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Trevisani, Natascha; Medeiros, Alessandra Pereira; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Bellato, Valdomiro

2010-01-01

307

Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in São Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in São Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies,

A. L. Monteiro Novo; Kees Jansen; Maja Slingerland; Ken Giller

2010-01-01

308

Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

309

HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

2010-01-01

310

The limited extent of plume-lithosphere interactions during continental flood-basalt genesis: geochemical evidence from Cretaceous magmatism in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that large areas of the Earth's lithospheric mantle undergo pervasive dehydration melting during the impact of mantle plumes and the Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka continental flood-basalt (CFB) province has repeatedly been cited as evidence of this phenomenon. During the Cretaceous, however, southern Brazil experienced two phases of mafic magmatism. These igneous events occurred 50Ma apart and therefore represent distinct episodes of melt genesis in the underlying mantle. The first phase of magmatism, in the Early Cretaceous, included the emplacement of lava flows associated with the Paraná-Etendeka CFB province and also the intrusion of small-volume mafic alkaline magmas (e.g. Anitápolis, Jacupiranga and Juquiá) in the Dom Feliciano and Ribeira mobile belts. During the Late Cretaceous, both sodic and potassic mafic magmas were emplaced on the margin of the adjacent Luis-Alves craton and intrude the flood-basalts at Lages. On the basis of variations in incompatible trace-element concentrations (e.g. Ba=1000 to 2000ppm), initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048-0.7064) and ?Nd values (-3 to -12), we suggest that all of the Late-Cretaceous mafic potassic magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) which was metasomatically enriched during the Proterozoic. We propose that these relatively low temperature, volatile-rich, mafic melts provide direct evidence that the underlying SCLM did not melt wholesale during the previous Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka CFB event. Late-Cretaceous melting of the SCLM beneath southern Brazil may have been caused by heat conduction from either: (1) ponded 132Ma Tristan plume-head material; or (2) 85Ma Trindade plume-head material channelled southwards between the thick cratonic keels of the Amazonas and São Francisco cratons. The Late-Cretaceous magmatism appears to have been contemporaneous with uplift across southern Brazil and Paraguay; we suggest that both of these phenomena represent the widespread effects of the impact of the Trindade mantle plume on the base of the SCLM. Plate margin stresses and lithospheric extension associated with the opening of the South Atlantic may also have changed the geothermal gradient beneath southern Brazil and contributed to mantle melting.

Gibson, S. A.; Thompson, R. N.; Leonardos, O. H.; Dickin, A. P.; Mitchell, J. G.

311

Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne\\u000a diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the\\u000a year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected\\u000a from 600 apparently healthy indigenous

D. A. Salih; A. M. El Hussein; U. Seitzer; J. S. Ahmed

2007-01-01

312

Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between its anomalies and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The dataset is provided by 40 rainfall stations almost evenly distributed in space and covers the period 1917-80. The tools used in support of this research include principal component and canonical correlation analyses.It is found that total precipitation tends to be evenly distributed during the year. The largest spatial variability in the monthly deviations from the annual mean appears as a west-east (inland-coastal) dipole with the largest positive values in the west during early fall and midspring, and in the east along the Atlantic coast during winter. The second mode of rainfall variability appears as a north-south dipole with the largest positive values in the south during late summer and late fall, and in the north during early spring and early summer. The third mode appears primarily as a north-south dipole along the western boundary with the largest positive values in the southwest during fall and in the northwest during early spring. These modes explain 60%, 19%, and 8% of the total variance. Five subregions are identified according to similarities between the characteristics of the annual cycles in their rainfall stations.It is shown that there are significant relationships between anomalies in rainfall and in SST in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Some of these relationships confirm the results of previous studies, such as the links between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific Ocean and rainfall anomalies in Uruguay during late spring-early summer and late fall-early winter. Other relationships have not been reported before, such as the links between SST anomalies in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and rainfall anomalies in the entire region during October-December and April-July. It is also found that when SST anomalies are considered in both oceans simultaneously, their links with rainfall anomalies are in some cases enhanced and in others weakened.

Diaz, Alvaro F.; Studzinski, Caarem D.; Mechoso, Carlos R.

1998-02-01

313

The effects of unpaved roads on suspended sediment concentration of third- to fifth-order streams- A case study from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg L-1) or a value that was 26 and 9 times higher than upstream and downstream samples, respectively. Event-by-event comparisons for each individual site display a tendency for road crossings to statistically increase mean concentration by an average of 6.9 times relative to upstream values only for those streams with the smallest catchment areas (< 2.6 km2). Meanwhile, for stream segments draining an excess of 9.5 km2 there was a tendency for upstream and downstream mean concentration to be statistically similar, presumably due to the minimal amount of road runoff contributed at a single crossing relative to the discharge being carried by the streams. The localized increase in sediment concentration by unpaved road crossing was not found to be associated to road surface area nor average slope. In summary, these findings suggest that the effect of unpaved roads on the local concentration of suspended sediment being transported by streams is strongly scale-dependent in that the impact tends to be important for the low-order headwater streams and undetectable for their higher order counterparts. These results point to the importance of low-order stream crossings in degrading water quality and the need to further explore the role of unpaved roads as agents of degradation in rural areas.

Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.

2012-12-01

314

High prevalence of rheumatoid factor associated with clinical manifestations of rheumatic disease in Kaingang and Guarani Indians from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to perform a screening for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-nuclear antibody in Kaingang, Guarani and Mestizos individuals from Mangueirinha Reservation, State of Paraná, Brazil, and associate it with demographic and clinical data. Serum samples from 321 aborigines (125 male and 196 female; 4-86 years old) and 180 non-Indians healthy individuals were analysed (62 male and 118 female; 2-81 years old). Antinuclear antibody (ANA) was tested by indirect immunofluorescence, and RF by agglutination in latex and turbidimetry. RF was higher in Kaingang when compared to Guarani (P = 0.009), Mestizos (P = 0.061) and non-Indians (P = 0.010). A significant increase of RF was observed in Kaingang women versus Kaingang men (P = 0.002) and, among the women, in Kaingang when compared to Mestizos and Guarani (P

Ribas, João Luiz Coelho; Utiyama, Shirley Ramos da Rosa; Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Boeira, Maristela; Reason, Iara Taborda de Messias

2009-02-01

315

Palynological analysis of a late Holocene core from Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A sedimentar core collected at Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul State, southmost Brazil, was submitted to pollen analysis to provide the vegetational history of this region, and the paleoecological and paleoclimatic changes. A total of 98 taxa of palynomorphs was identified from 35 subsamples. Three radiocarbonic datings were obtained along a section of 115 cm depth, including the basal age of 4730 ± 50 yr BP. Pollen diagrams and cluster analysis were performed based on palynomorphs frequencies, demonstrating five distinct phases (SAP-I to SAP-V), which reflected different paleoecological conditions. The predominance of plants associated with grasslands in the phase SAP-I suggests warm and dry climate conditions. A gradual increasing of humidity conditions was observed mainly from the beginning of the phase SAP-III, when the vegetation set a mosaic of grasslands and Atlantic rainforest. Furthermore, the presence of some forest taxa ( Acacia-type, Daphnopsis racemosa, Erythrina-type and Parapiptadenia rigida-type), from the phase SAP-IV, is interpreted as an influence of the seasonal semideciduous forest in the study region. From the phase SAP-V (ca. 4000 yrs BP), the vegetation became similar to the modern one (extant Atlantic rainforest Biome), especially after 2000 yrs BP (calibrated age). PMID:21562701

Macedo, Renato B; Souza, Paulo A; Bauermann, Soraia G; Bordignon, Sérgio A L

2010-09-01

316

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-05-01

317

"Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.  

PubMed

This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives. PMID:12321266

Hautzinger, S

1997-01-01

318

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

319

Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

2012-08-01

320

OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

321

Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent used for human consumption in certain areas of South America. In the present study, viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated for the first time from this host. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in the sera of 64 capybaras from 6 counties of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT,

Lúcia E. O. Yai; Alessandra M. A. Ragozo; Daniel M. Aguiar; José T. Damaceno; Luciana N. Oliveira; J. P. Dubey; Solange M. Gennari

2008-01-01

322

Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi natural clones from the state of Paraíba, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from the state of Paraíba, Brazil, isolated from man, wild mammals, and triatomine bugs were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random primed amplified polymorphic DNA. Despite the low number of stocks, a notable genetic, genotypic, and phylogenetic diversity was recorded. The presence of the two main phylogenetic subdivisions, T. cruzi I and II, was recorded.

Christian Barnabé; M Tibayrenc; Carlos Brisola Marcondes

2005-01-01

323

INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

324

Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale (Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa

Suzi M. Ribeiro; Elianne P. Omena; Guilherme Muricy

2003-01-01

325

Mercury Contamination of Fish and Exposures of an Indigenous Community in Pará State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish consumption is an important source of protein among indigenous communities in Amazonian Brazil. Exposures to mercury via fish were studied in an indigenous community of the Munduruku reserve, located in the Tapajós River basin in the state of Pará, one of the oldest and most productive gold mining areas in the Amazon region. This study summarizes the results of

Edilson da Silva Brabo; Elisabeth de Oliveira Santos; Iracina Maura de Jesus; Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas; Kleber de Freitas Faial

2000-01-01

326

The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most

Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho; Adilson Benedito de Almeida; Silvia Cristina Barbosa-Silva; Marinete Amorim; Paulo César Ribeiro; Nicolau Maués Serra-Freire

2003-01-01

327

Drought Quantification and Preparedness in Brazil - The Example of São Paulo State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought in Brazil is a very important phenomenon that affects not only agricultural production but also society. The magnitude and large-scale variation of drought are analyzed specifically for São Paulo State. The quantification and monitoring of drought, rainfall distribution, and agricultural management are discussed. Daily climatological data from 114 localities are used to determine drought indices. These indices take into

O. Brunini; H. S. Pinto; J. Zullo Jr; M. T. Barbano; M. B. P. Camargo; R. R. Alfonsi; G. C. Blain; M. J. Pedro Jr.; G. Q. Pellegrino

328

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

329

Lessons Learned from Implementing the Sustainable Development Program in the State of Acre in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IDB's strategy in Brazil seeks to promote and further the reform and modernization of the public sector, to support efforts to improve the competitiveness of Brazilian goods, to support the efforts to reduce social inequalities and poverty and, finally, to address the problems of environmental and natural resource management. The Sustainable Development Program in the State of Acre supported

Cristina Dengel; John Horton

2011-01-01

330

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response plans: A collection of matrices  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Technical support and services are offered in a variety of areas, including renewable and alternative energy technologies; energy conservation; acid rain; utility regulation; clean coal technologies and technology transfer, oil and natural gas supply; and solid, hazardous and radioactive materials management. SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from affected states and tribes. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of Monitored Retrievable Storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by identifying the major elements of southern state emergency preparedness and response programs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

331

[Spotted fever in Campinas region, State of São Paulo, Brazil].  

PubMed

Brazilian spotted fever was detected for the first time in the State of S o Paulo in 1929. However, there is no systematic reporting of the disease in the State. In 1985, three cases of the disease occurred in the municipality of Pedreira, located in the Campinas Region, belonging to the 5th Administrative Region, in the Northeast part of the State, including 88 municipalities. An investigation was conducted at the time, but the lack of case registry limited its scope. The present study was undertaken with the aim of recovering the history of the disease in the Region. Data recovered from several public health services for 1985-2000 were used to analyze incidence patterns. It was observed that the transmission area expanded and the number of suspected cases increased, especially after 1996, when mandatory reporting was established. Deaths due to spotted fever were observed in most of the years under study. The study concluded that spotted fever incidence is increasing in the Campinas Region. Complementary bio-ecological studies are currently under way to better understand the epidemiology of this disease, recognized worldwide as an emerging public health problem. PMID:12700815

de Lima, Virgília Luna Castor; de Souza, Savina Silvana Lacerra; de Souza, Celso Eduardo; Vilela, Maria Filomena Gouveia; Papaiordanou, Priscila M O; Del Guércio, Vânia M F; Rocha, Marilú M M

2003-01-01

332

Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

2014-05-01

333

Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and for a wet condition, -43% and -36% respectively, relatively to the present land use. If the present pattern of urbanization is applied to the whole area of the basin, an impermeable area of 81% would be achieved and the simulated peak flow and the runoff volume for a dry condition would be changed +24% and +25%, respectively, and for a wet condition, +44% and +25% respectively, relatively to the present land use. Finally, if the entire basin is considered impervious, for a dry condition, these changes would be in +101% and +65% respectively and, for a wet condition, in +158% and +87% respectively, relatively to the present land use.

Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

2011-12-01

334

Measles outbreak in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Brazil has not had endemic circulation of the measles virus since 2000. Between May and June 2011, the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, reported three cases of measles. This report presents a descriptive study of the cases, control measures, and the search for a possible source and secondary cases. The genotypic characterization of the virus identified genotype D4, circulating in Europe. Secondary cases or index case were not found. The control measures and adequate vaccination coverage in Metropolitan Region of Campinas contributed to the interruption of disease transmission. PMID:24626560

Fernandes, Eder Gatti; de Oliveira, Maria Emília Braite; Fred, João; Carelli, Luzia Auxiliadora; Lima, Gisele Dias de Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Yu, Ana Lucia Frugis

2013-01-01

335

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

PubMed Central

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-01-01

336

Geodiversity Assessment of Paraná State (Brazil): An Innovative Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodiversity is considered as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, and soil features, including their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems. A method developed for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was applied to Paraná, a Brazilian state with an area of about 200,000 km2. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales ranging from 1/500,000 to 1/650,000, with the final Geodiversity Index the sum of five partial indexes calculated on a 25 × 25 km grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, including geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, paleontology, and soils. The fifth partial index covers mineral occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters, and springs. The Geodiversity Index takes the form of an isoline map that can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management, and use of natural resources at the state level.

Pereira, Diamantino Insua; Pereira, Paulo; Brilha, José; Santos, Leonardo

2013-09-01

337

Geodiversity assessment of Paraná State (Brazil): an innovative approach.  

PubMed

Geodiversity is considered as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, and soil features, including their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems. A method developed for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was applied to Paraná, a Brazilian state with an area of about 200,000 km(2). The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales ranging from 1/500,000 to 1/650,000, with the final Geodiversity Index the sum of five partial indexes calculated on a 25 × 25 km grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, including geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, paleontology, and soils. The fifth partial index covers mineral occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters, and springs. The Geodiversity Index takes the form of an isoline map that can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management, and use of natural resources at the state level. PMID:23775492

Pereira, Diamantino Insua; Pereira, Paulo; Brilha, José; Santos, Leonardo

2013-09-01

338

Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for 2050. Conclusions Our models indicate the potential for range expansion of climate suitable for survival of R. microplus and R. annulatus in the southern United States by mid-century, which increases the risk of reintroduction of these ticks and cattle tick fever into major cattle producing areas. PMID:24742062

2014-01-01

339

Simulating Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Amazonia: Impacts in Brazil's Roraima State from Reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).  

PubMed

Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19 % (CONSERV) and 42 % (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios. PMID:25472831

Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

2015-02-01

340

Conserving the Grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International's Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing exist- ing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories should provide input to urgent regional conservation

Adrián S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

341

Serosurvey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from urban and rural areas from Parana State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Considering the zoonotic potential of tick-borne disease (TBD) agents and the fact that dogs may act as sentinels for human infection, the aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of TBD agents and risk factors for exposure in two different canine populations from Parana State, Southern Brazil. A total of 138 dog serum samples from urban (UA) (n=68) and rural (RA) (n=70) areas were tested with commercial ELISA rapid test for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis and Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT) for Babesia vogeli. An overall of 92?138 (66.7%) dogs, being 62?68 (91.2%) from UA and 30?70 (42.9%) from RA, were seropositive for at least one TBD agent. From the total number of dogs, sixty-two were positive for E. canis (44.9%), 19 (13.8%) for A. phagocytophilum, and 64 (46.4%) for B. vogeli. Anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were not detected. Dogs from UA showed a higher percentage of tick infestation (p = 0.0135) and were highly associated with seropositivity to E. canis (p = 0.000005), A. phagocytophilum (p = 0.0001), and B. vogeli (p = 0.0012). In summary, the findings indicate that dogs from urban areas present higher potential risk exposure to TBD pathogens than those from rural areas. PMID:24252955

Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Nascimento, Denise Amaral Gomes do; Tamekuni, Kátia; Toledo, Roberta Dos Santos; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

2013-01-01

342

Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination\\u000a to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ?1:100 were considered

Tatiana P. Tavares de Freitas; Alexine Keuroghlian; Donald P. Eaton; Emanuel Barbosa de Freitas; Aline Figueiredo; Luciano Nakazato; Jacqueline M. de Oliveira; Flávia Miranda; Rita Cassia S. Paes; Leticia A. R. Carneiro Monteiro; José Vergílio B. Lima; Aparecida A. da C. Neto; Valéria Dutra; Julio Cesar de Freitas

2010-01-01

343

Overview of the Late Cretaceous Biota of the western São Paulo State, Brazil, Bauru Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turonian-Maastrichtian beds of the Bauru Group, western São Paulo State (Brazil), have yielded a diverse biota. The nine species of mesoecrocodilians are all mesosuchians. There is a single frog, a Neubatrachia. The vertebrates include, four types of fishes, a neobatrachian frog, an anilioid snake, two lizard, six species of podocnemid turtles, nine species of mesosuchian mesoecrocodilians three theropods, two birds, five titanosaurid sauropods, and one mammalian. The invertebrates include one cyclo, one cyclophoroid and eight pulmonates. Plants are represented by only two carophyte species. The biota from western São Paulo State is one the most diverse of the Late Cretaceous in Brazil. The biota from this area confirms that Bauru Group was connected to Patagonia and other Gondwanan areas during the Late Cretaceous.

Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Rich, Thomas

2010-03-01

344

Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.  

PubMed

This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors. PMID:21125724

Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

2010-01-01

345

Third-stage larvae of the enoplid nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) in the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The giant kidney worm Dioctophyme renale is normally found in wild carnivores and domestic dogs, with aquatic oligochaetes acting as intermediate hosts. In the present study a prevalence of 50% of third-stage larvae of D. renale was recorded in 60 specimens of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni from southern Brazil. Larvae were encysted in muscles, the coelomic cavity and mesentery, the serous lining of the stomach and on the surfaces of the lung, heart, liver, pancreas, spleen and intestines. There are no previous records of reptiles being part of the life cycle of D. renale, although fish and amphibians normally act as paratenic hosts. This is the first report of third-stage D. renale larvae in the freshwater turtle, T. dorbigni. PMID:24830883

Mascarenhas, C S; Müller, G

2014-05-15

346

Tropical Rain Forest regeneration in an area degraded by mining in Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The floristic composition and structure of vegetation in natural regeneration were studied in a degraded area in Matupá County, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, originally occupied by Tropical Rain Forest. Three plots were used in the shape of a 20m×160m transect, divided into 10m×20m sub-plots, placed parallel to a remnant fragment. Transect 1 was 0–20m from the fragment; Transect 2, 20–40m,

Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues; Sebastião Venâncio Martins; Luiz Carlos de Barros

2004-01-01

347

[Isolation of rabies virus in Molossus ater in (Chiroptera: Molossidae)in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This is a report of rabies infection in insectivorous bat Molossus ater in the city districts of Araçatuba, Penápolis and São José do Rio Preto, in São Paulo state, Brazil. Fluorescent antibody test detected the virus in the brain and isolation was obtained by intracerebral inoculation of mice with nervous tissue and organs suspension. There was no contact with humans or other animals. PMID:10689381

Silva, L H; Cunha, E M; Pedro, W A; Cardoso, T C; Souza, M d; Ferrari, C I

1999-12-01

348

Tres Marias Reservoir, Rio Sao Francisco, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tres Marias Reservoir on the Rio Sao Francisco in the State of Minas Gerais, (19.0S, 45.0W) occupies about sixty miles of the Rio Sao Francisco in southeastern Brazil. Most of the tributaries of the reservoir are highlighted by sunglint in this photo. Sunglint patterns on the reservoir surface reflect differences in the wind driven surface roughness on this large waterbody.

1991-01-01

349

Effect of sugarcane residue management (mulching versus burning) on organic matter in a clayey Oxisol from southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in residue management may help sustain land productivity, and may have noticeable consequences in the global carbon budget when large areas are involved. The effects of sugarcane residue management on topsoil carbon were assessed in a clayey Oxisol of Brazil, largest world's producer of sugarcane. The carbon concentration of the whole soil and particle-size fractions were determined in a

Tantely Razafimbelo; Bernard Barthès; Marie-Christine Larré-Larrouy; Edgar F. De Luca; Jean-Yves Laurent; Carlos C. Cerri; Christian Feller

2006-01-01

350

Sexual maturity of the deep sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently ex- ploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. Tha management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at

Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Rodrigo Sant’Ana

2009-01-01

351

Supply and Demand Balances of Selected College-Level Fields Projected for the SREB [Southern Regional Education Board] States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few manpower projects in Southern states have focused on the demand for the output of four-year colleges and universities. Even fewer have attempted to link projections of demand for degree programs to the supply of graduates generated by those programs. Moreover, none have set the state outlook for a particular college-trained skill within a…

Engels, Richard A.; Galambos, Eva C.

352

Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

2010-11-01

353

Reliminary survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

In a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan was determined. Three locations were selected (Gumbo, Khor Rumla and Nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. Two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. Total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (Nilotic Zebu breed) kept in six different herds. Four tick genera and ten species were identified. The tick species identified were Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus praetextatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus group. The highest number of ticks was collected in October during the rainy season. A finding of great significance was that R. appendiculatus, vector of East Coast fever, has now firmly established itself throughout the year with possible implications for cattle production in Central Equatoria State. PMID:18575063

Salih, D A; Julla, I I; Hassan, S M; El Hussein, A M; Jongejan, F

2008-03-01

354

Sugar and ethanol production as a rural development strategy in Brazil: Evidence from the state of São Paulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugar and ethanol production are key components of Brazil’s rural development and energy strategies, yet in recent years sugar production has been widely criticized for its environmental and labor practices. This study examines the relationship between rural development and sugarcane, ethanol, and cattle production in the state of São Paulo. Our results suggest that the value added components of sugarcane

Luiz A. Martinelli; Rachael Garrett; Silvio Ferraz; Rosamond Naylor

2011-01-01

355

RESISTANCE OF AEDES AEGYPTI TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN SEVERAL MUNICIPALITIES IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO AND ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical insecticides have been widely used in Brazil for several years. This exposes mosquito populations to an intense selection pressure for resistance to insecticides. In 1999, the Brazilian National Health Foundation started the first program designed to monitor the resistance of Aedes aegypti to insecticides. We analyzed populations from 10 municipalities (from 84 selected in Brazil) in the states of

JOSÉ BENTO PEREIRA LIMA; MARCELLA PEREIRA DA-CUNHA; RONALDO CARNEIRO DA SILVA JÚNIOR; ALLAN KARDEC; RIBEIRO GALARDO; SILVA SOARES; IMA APARECIDA BRAGA; RICARDO PIMENTEL RAMOS; DENISE VALLE

2003-01-01

356

Public policies, political cleavages and urban space: state infrastructure policies in São Paulo, Brazil, 1975-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the state policies of urban infrastructure in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1975 to 2000. Working with primary information about the investments made by the state in public works, we discuss a series of arguments present in the urban studies literature about the patterns of state investment in urban spaces and propose an alternative explanation for state

Eduardo Cesar Marques; Renata Mirandola Bichir

2003-01-01

357

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ?ST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

2009-01-01

358

Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled trees; n = 48). We discuss the impact of the fishermen's harvesting practices in the managed area with an emphasis on three main points: (1) the harvesting practices are likely not contributing to a decrease in diversity in the managed area; (2) the greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition found for the managed area may reflect a mosaic pattern created by the opening of small tree-gaps distributed across this area over the course of more than 50 years; (3) the disturbance promoted by the fishermen's harvesting practices can be compared to natural disturbances of low impact that create mosaic patterns in tropical forests. This study emphasizes the prominence of the human dimension in ecological processes and the importance of considering the perspectives of local people when discussing the conservation of the natural environments in which these people live. PMID:21396767

de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

2011-07-01

359

Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus) from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:21860906

Silva, Luiz Augustinho Menezes da; Machado, José Lindemberg Martins; Melo, Mariluce de Lima; Alencar, Verônica Isabel de Brito; Melo, Robson Soares de; Andrade, Leandro Pimentel de; Silva, Emmanuel Messias Vilar Gonçalves da

2011-01-01

360

Establishing a sediment budget for a small agricultural catchment in southern Brazil, to support the development of effective sediment management strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid expansion of agriculture in Brazil has increased erosion rates and sediment yields, causing many negative environmental and economic impacts, both on- and off-site. However, to date, very few catchment-scale sediment budget investigations have been carried out in Brazil. Given the need to reduce the negative off-site impacts of increasing agricultural activity, there is an important need for such investigations in order to inform the development of effective sediment management strategies. Against this background, 137Cs measurements have been combined with measurements of sediment yield and fingerprinting the source of the fine sediment output, to establish a provisional sediment budget for a small (1.19 km2) agricultural catchment in southern Brazil. The catchment is located in an area of steep highly erodible basaltic terrain, which has been intensively cultivated with tobacco. An ongoing monitoring programme provided information on the sediment yield from the catchment and existing suspended sediment source fingerprinting investigations provided information on the main sediment sources contributing to the sediment load at the catchment outlet. 137Cs measurements have been used to estimate medium-term erosion and deposition rates along 17 transects across the cultivated slopes and to quantify sedimentation rates within valley floor sediment sinks. These data have been used to estimate sediment redistribution rates within the cultivated areas of the study catchment and sediment accumulation in the valley floor sinks. The information provided by the three primary data sources has been integrated to establish the sediment budget for the catchment over the past 57 years. The individual terms of the budget necessarily involve much uncertainty, but its closure adds confidence to the final result. The budget calculations indicate that the study catchment has a sediment delivery ratio of ?15%. The implications of the key features of the budget for developing effective sediment management strategies are discussed.

Minella, Jean P. G.; Walling, Desmond E.; Merten, Gustavo H.

2014-11-01

361

Patterns of pollen and seed dispersal in a small, fragmented population of the wind-pollinated tree Araucaria angustifolia in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity analysis based on eight microsatellite loci was used to investigate pollen and seed dispersal patterns of the dioecious wind-pollinated tree, Araucaria angustifolia. The study sites were a 5.4 ha isolated forest fragment and a small tree group situated 1.7 km away, located in Paran? State, Brazil. In the forest fragment, 121 males, 99 females, 66 seedlings and 92 juveniles

J V M Bittencourt; A M Sebbenn

2007-01-01

362

Host-ectoparasite specificity in a small mammal community in an area of Atlantic Rain Forest (Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro), Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The analyses of the ectoparasite species associated with a small mammal community on Ilha Grande, a coastal island in southern of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, evaluated the level of host-ectoparasite specificity. Was used the Jaccard index for qualitative data to analyse the similarity. The lowest value of similarity occurred between Proechimys iheringi and Marmosops incanus and between Sciurus aestuans and Nectomys squamipes (Cj=0.08) and the highest between P. iheringi and Oxymycterus sp. (Cj=0.33). This index showed a low value of similarity across the ectoparasite community. The only exception from this pattern of high host specificity occurred with P. iheringi and Oxymycterus sp., which shared five species of ectoparasites. The similarity values, for most of the cases, is smaller than 0.2. PMID:14595458

Bittencourt, Emerson Brum; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

2003-09-01

363

[Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador. PMID:21655847

Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

2011-05-01

364

Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species.  

PubMed

Miroculis (Miroculis) eldorado sp. nov. and Ulmeritoides passorum sp. nov. are described based on material from Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil. Additional records of Leptophlebiidae genera and species are made. Askola Peters, 1969, Farrodes Peters, 1971, Microphlebia Savage & Peters, 1983, Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez, 1992, Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth, 1943 and Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947) are recorded for the first time in Roraima State. Simothraulopsis janae Mariano, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Northern Brazil. PMID:25543739

Neto, Jaime De Liege Gama; Hamada, Neusa

2014-01-01

365

Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ?0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ?213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon A.

2014-01-01

366

Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

1996-01-01

367

Choroid plexitis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in southern New York State.  

PubMed

Brains, spinal cords, nerve roots, nerves and muscle tissues were removed from deer in southern New York State and examined for histologic evidence of infection by the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. There was no histologic evidence of this infection and only four of 26 deer had serologic evidence of past infection despite the fact that all were parasitized by the tick vector, Ixodes dammini. Of these ticks, 21% were carrying B. burgdorferi. In contrast, most of the deer had choroid plexitis. All but one of 48 deer tested were infected with Trypanosoma cervi, 20 of 24 deer had sarcocystis in skeletal muscles and two had dural lesions probably due to the nematode Pneumostrongylus tenuis. The causal relationship between choroid plexitis and trypanosomiasis is discussed. PMID:3603961

Levine, S; Fish, D; Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F

1987-05-01

368

Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding system may be a source of NDV. These data can be used to establish appropriate biosecurity and husbandry measures for this type of breeding system to prevent NDV spread in Brazil. PMID:24958456

Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

2014-09-01

369

The roosting behavior of the red-winged blackbird in the southern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report concerns the roosting behavior of the Red-winged blackbird and associated species ; and is based on observations made over a 14-year period mainly in the Southern United States....Th e greatest concentrations of Red-winged Blackbirds in the southern states occur in the Coastal Plain Province in or near major grain growing regions.....Roosts are formed during every month of the year. The largest roosts are usually found in winter; the smallest during the breeding season. Composition of roosts may vary from place to place and from season to season.....The general locality in which roosts are found is probably influenced by food supply. The precise location is determined by the character of the habitat. Wetland situations are preferred by Red-winged Blackbirds. Most of the roosts in the Coastal Plain Province are located in marshes and swamps. Rice fields are important in the southern rice producing area. Coniferous stands and bamboo are frequently used in the Piedmont Province.....Blackbirds move out of roosts each morning at about dawn or shortly after, and return in the evening usually before sunset. Some birds may travel 35 miles or more from the starting point in the course of a day?s feeding activity. On cloudy days blackbirds move into the roost earlier than on sunny days. At a Maryland roost subadult male Redwinged Blackbirds were the first to arrive at the roost. Females and then juveniles followed. Adult males were sporadic in their time of arrival. Stratification in a roost flight was observed where birds were flying downstream to a river marsh roost. Bobolinks flew at the greatest elevations; next in order of height were Starlings, Common Grackles, Brown-headed Cowbirds, and Red-winged Blackbirds. The exodus of a large roosting population is usually of shorter duration that the movement into the roost..... In virtually all roosts some segments of the population are segregated. Stratification by species and by sexes of some species has been noted in roosts. Blackbirds may roost on partly submerged vegetation in a marsh, on the ground in grassy fields, in branches of trees, or in various other sites. In deciduous thickets with high bird densities they may roost at elevations of 1 foot to 30 feet or more. In one Arkansas roost Red-winged Blackbirds were roosting along branches at an average of about three birds per foot.

Meanley, B.

1965-01-01

370

A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

Gondim, Anne I; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L P; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

2013-01-01

371

A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

2013-01-01

372

Siphonaptera of small rodents and marsupials in the Pedra Branca State Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In an region of Atlantic Rainforest corresponding to the geopolitical area of the Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, 160 small mammals were captured, of which 64 rodents and 96 marsupials from October 2005 to October 2007. There were collected in these hosts six flea species from three families (Ctenophthalmidae, Rhopalopsyllidae and Pulicidae), totalizing 162 specimens. Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia was the most common species found, followed by Polygenis (Polygenis) occidentalis occidentalis. Philander frenatus and Micoureus paraguayanus were reported as new hosts to Adoratopsylla (Tritopsylla) intermedia intermedia and P. o. occidentalis was reported for the first time in the city of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:20385060

Oliveira, Heloiza H; Almeida, Adilson B; Carvalho, Raimundo W; Gomes, Valmir; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M; Quinelato, Igor; Carvalho, Acácio G

2010-01-01

373

Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)  

DOE Data Explorer

Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

Blackwell, D.D. and others

374

[Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities. PMID:18660916

d'Avila Viana, Ana Luiza; Rocha, Juan S Yazlle; Elias, Paulo Eduardo; Ibañez, Nelson; Bousquat, Aylene

2008-01-01

375

CONSERVATION m Diversity, Distribution, and Conservation Status of the Native Freshwater Fishes of the Southern United States  

E-print Network

The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the southern United States. The southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a high proportion of its fishes in need of conservation action. The review included 662 native freshwater and diadromous fishes and 24 marine fishes that are significant components of freshwater ecosystems. Of this total, 560 described, freshwater fish species are documented, and 49 undescribed species are included provisionally pending formal description. Described subspecies (86) are recognized within 43 species, 6 fishes have undescribed subspecies, and 9 others are recognized as complexes of undescribed taxa. Extinct, endangered, threatened, or vulnerable status is recognized for 28 % (187 taxa) of southern freshwater and diadromous fishes. To date, 3 southern fishes are known to be extinct throughout their ranges, 2 are extirpated from the study region, and 2 others may be extinct. Of the extant southern fishes, 41 (6%) are regarded as endangered, 46 (7%) are regarded as threatened, and 101 (15%) are regarded as vulnerable. Five marine fishes that frequent fresh water are regarded as vulnerable. Our assessment represents a 75 % increase in jeopardized

L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

376

Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllummacrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo Dos Santos

2015-01-01

377

Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

2015-01-01

378

The Late Cretaceous fauna and flora of the Uberaba area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uberaba area, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, yields a rich continental fauna and flora from the Late Cretaceous Uberaba and Marília formations. This paper reviews the diversity of the biota recorded from these formations. The most significant taxa from Peirópolis are the frog Baurubatrachus pricei, the turtle Cambaremys langertoni, the lizard Pristiguana brasiliensis, the crocodyliforms Itasuchus jesuinoi, Peirosaurus tormini and Uberabasuchus terrificus, the titanosaurian Baurutitan britoi, Trigonosaurus pricei, Aeolosaurus sp., indeterminate titanosaurians, and abelisaurid, carcharodontosaurid and maniraptoran theropods. Together with faunas of a similar age in Argentina and Madagascar, the assemblages contribute to a better understanding of Late Cretaceous Gondwanan faunas as a whole.

Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Santos, Adriano R.; Bergqvist, Lílian P.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos B.; Apesteguía, Sebastián

2008-03-01

379

Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.  

PubMed

The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

2013-01-01

380

Two new species of Haliclona Grant, 1836 (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae) from Sergipe State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Haliclona is one of the most species-rich genera among Demospongiae, but with only 11 species recorded for the Brazilian coast. Here we describe two new species of Haliclona collected by trawling at Sergipe State (Northeastern Brazil). Haliclona (Halichoclona) dura sp. nov. is distinguished by the combination of confused choanosome with dense reticulation, oxeas with stepped and mucronate points, color dark brown externally and light beige internally, consistency firm and incompressible. Haliclona (Soestella) brassica sp. nov. is set apart by the combination of a choanosomal skeleton with rounded meshes, strongyles, raphides, color beige and consistency soft. PMID:24870167

Sandes, Joana; Bispo, André; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

381

Observations of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide in the Troposphere over the Southern United States Measured by TES  

Microsoft Academic Search

TES has been making measurements of both ozone and carbon monoxide in the troposphere globally since August 2004. We examine the data obtained by TES in the troposphere over the Southern portion of the United States and focus on 4 different time periods: November 2004, July\\/August 2005, March 2006 and July 2006. During these time periods TES has made a

G. Osterman; A. Eldering; H. Worden; S. Kulawik; K. Bowman; R. Beer; J. Worden; N. Richards; L. Jourdain; M. Luo

2006-01-01

382

76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing...Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of...

2011-10-26

383

Respondent Perceptions of Quality of Life: Findings from Survey Research in Rural Counties of Seven Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1972 and 1973, 7 southern states (Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) were surveyed to determine household head or spouse's perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in their county of residence and to determine perceptions of change in quality of life for their family situations, within their…

McLean, Edward L.

384

Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

385

Effects of silvicultural activity on ecological processes in floodplain forests of the southern United States: a review of existing reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities associated with timber harvesting have occurred within floodplain forests in the southern United States for nearly two hundred years. However, it is only in the last ten years that any information has become available about the effects of harvesting on the ecological functions of this valuable resource. Hydrology is the driving influence behind all ecological processes in floodplains, and

B. G. Lockaby; J. A. Stanturf; M. G. Messina

1997-01-01

386

On the predominance of state money: Reassessing party financing in the new democracies of Southern and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the patterns of party financing in the relatively recently established democracies of Southern and Eastern Europe, with a particular emphasis on the relative importance of the state and society as financial contributors to political parties. Our reassessment of the practice of party financing in these new democratic polities shows that public funding has become a critical

Ingrid van Biezen; Petr Kopecký

2001-01-01

387

Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

2014-01-01

388

The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

2008-01-01

389

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

390

Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.083–41.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women. PMID:24559309

2014-01-01

391

Sun-earth relationship inferred by tree growth rings in conifers from Severiano De Almeida, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study of Sun-Earth relationships is based on tree growth rings analysis of araucarias (Araucaria angustifolia) collected at Severiano de Almeida (RS) Brazil. A chronology of 359 years was obtained, and the classical method of spectral analysis by iterative regression and wavelet method was applied to find periodicities and trends contained in the tree growth. The analysis of the dendrochronological series indicates representative periods of solar activity of 11 (Schwabe cycle), 22 (Hale cycle), and 80 (Gleissberg cycle) years. The result shows the possible influence of the solar activity on tree growth in the last 350 years. Periods of 2-7 years were also found and could represent a response of the trees to local climatic conditions. Good agreement between the time series of tree growth rings and the 11 year solar cycle was found during the maximum solar activity periods.

Prestes, A.; Rigozo, N. R.; Nordemann, D. J. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Souza Echer, M. P.; Echer, E.; da Rosa, M. B.; Rampelotto, P. H.

2011-07-01

392

New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.  

PubMed

Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and ?-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

2015-04-01

393

Spotted fever group Rickettsia infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

During 2006-2008, a total of 260 adult ticks were collected from domestic and wild animals in different regions of the state of Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil, including areas where human cases of Brazilian spotted fever have been reported. Collected ticks belonging to nine species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rickettsial infection. Overall, eight (3.1%) ticks were found to be infected with Rickettsia species. After sequencing the PCR products, we determined that the sequences generated from three A. aureolatum, one A. ovale and one R. sanguineus from the municipality of Blumenau, one A. ovale from the municipality of Águas Mornas and one A. ovale from the municipality of Urussanga were identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest. The sequence generated from one A. longirostre from Blumenau was 100% identical to the corresponding partial rickettsial ompA gene sequence of Rickettsia amblyommii strain AL. Because R. parkeri strain Atlantic rainforest was recently shown to have caused two cases of human spotted fever in other states of Brazil, the role of this rickettsial agent as a possible etiological agent of spotted fever in SC is discussed. PMID:22241112

Medeiros, Alessandra Pereira; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Moura, Anderson Barbosa de; Lavina, Marcia Sangaletti; Bellato, Valdomiro; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

2011-12-01

394

Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background.?Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods.?A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results.?The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions.?HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries. PMID:22396601

Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

2012-01-01

395

Diversity and genetic structure of mangaba remnants in states of northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of remnants of mangaba populations in states of northeastern Brazil by applying 9 microsatellite markers previously developed to establish conservation strategies for germplasm and species preservation. Six to 20 individuals per population were analyzed, with a total of 94 individuals and 6 populations from the states of Ceará, Pernambuco, and Sergipe, Brazil. The intra-population positive fixation index (f) in all populations indicated inbreeding resulting from the lack of random mating. The mean genetic diversity index values GST, FST, and RST estimated for divergence among the 6 populations were 0.14 (P < 0.05), revealing moderate genetic differentiation. The smallest FST value (P ? 0.05) was observed between the Jacarecoara and Tapera populations (0.005) and the highest between the Barra dos Coqueiros and Jacarecoara populations (0.287). The Jacarecoara population was the most divergent among the populations analyzed. According to analysis of molecular variance results, the largest variation percentage resulted from variability within populations (83.18%). Bayesian clustering analysis showed the formation of 2 sets (K = 2). Our results are important for developing strategies for in situ conservation of the species, seed collection, and ex situ conservation. For both methods, conservation of the greatest possible genetic variability of the species is essential. PMID:25730022

Amorim, J A E; Mata, L R; Lédo, A S; Azevedo, V C R; Silva, A V C

2015-01-01

396

[Family development index: a comparative analysis in 21 municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article presents an adaptation of the family development index, with a detailed description of the results of its application in 21 municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2000. The research is part of the Baseline Study on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy and was proposed as an instrument for monitoring and analyzing the municipal reality in the context of a family-centered public policy. The results show a serious-to-severe situation for families in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The most critical dimensions relate to inequalities in results, availability of resources, and labor market access, in addition to a key aspect involving inequality of opportunities, namely access to knowledge. The most vulnerable groups consist of families headed by individuals over 65 years of age and families headed by women. PMID:18660898

Najar, Alberto Lopes; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de

2008-01-01

397

Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity. PMID:23053578

Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

2013-04-01

398

Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.  

PubMed

We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness. PMID:18278312

Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

2007-11-01

399

Prevalence of group a Beta-hemolytic streptococcus oropharyngeal colonization in children and therapeutic regimen based on antistreptolysin levels: data from a city from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) in pediatric population of Ponta Grossa, a midsize city of southern Brazil; estimate the effectiveness of antistreptolysin-O (ASO), compared to culture, in presence of infection; and design an unpublished investigative algorithm of rheumatic fever's suspicion, based on needs identified in worldwide consensus. It is an epidemiologic, observational and transversal study, involving 180 children younger than 12 years. Secretion of posterior oropharynx was collected for culture; and peripheral blood for determination of ASO. Student-t and chi-square tests, with Yates correction, were performed for statistical analysis. The ASO cutoff was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence encountered was 3.9%, and 25.5% of the children showed reagent ASO. This serological test demonstrated quantitatively and qualitatively significant associations to the GABHS presence (p=0.0001 for both associations) throughout the ROC curve, 200 U Todd was the value that resulted in the best accuracy, demonstrating 100% of sensibility and 80% of specificity in the GAS infection documentation. Also, it was found that the value of 1.200 U represents a specificity of 100%. The results emphasize the need for similar studies in other populations, to provide better targeting of the diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngitis by GABHS, which in turn can prevent up to 80% the cases of rheumatic fever, and consequently, the chronic rheumatic heart disease. PMID:25136388

Merlini, Alexandre B; Stocco, Carolina S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Arruda, Polliane; Bail, Larissa; Borges, Celso L; Dornelles, Cecília F

2014-01-01

400

Feeding ecology and activity pattern of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in a semideciduous tropical forest of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Most aspects of the ecology and behavior of Callicebus nigrifrons are still unknown. The information available about this species is mainly based on a few studies that also focused on other Callicebus. We examined the feeding behavior and activity pattern of a free-ranging pair of C. nigrifrons between March and November 2007 in an area of semideciduous tropical forest of southeastern Brazil. The study site is located at the southern limit of the Tropical Zone and is characterized by pronounced seasonality. As observed for other Callicebus monkeys, fruits were the most consumed food resource, accounting for 53% of the diet, which was complemented mainly by leaves (16%) but also by invertebrates and flowers (10% of each). A great variety of plant families (28) and species (62) were included in the diet. The titis spent 35% of their time feeding, distributing the remaining time between resting (30%) and traveling (24%). Data presented here indicate that C. nigrifrons prefer high-quality food items (fruit pulp), adding low-quality food items (such as leaves) as the availability of the higher-quality foods decreases. The amount of time spent traveling and resting did not change between seasons, but the time invested in feeding increased during the lean period. The activity pattern was not related to fruit availability, but in months with lower temperatures, monkeys spent more time feeding. We suggest that the feeding ecology and activity pattern of C. nigrifrons reflect adaptations related to annual fluctuations in food availability and temperature, respectively. PMID:21861115

Caselli, Christini Barbosa; Setz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire

2011-10-01

401

Time and seasonal patterns of activity of phyllostomid in fragments of a stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Bats may exhibit different patterns of activity, considering aspects concerning niche dynamics as well as the establishment and permanence of the communities in the ecosystems. In this way, the present study analyzed the time and seasonal patterns of activity in different species of frequent phyllostomid bats in remnants of the stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Captures were performed between January and December, 2006, using 32 mist nets set above the soil along the nocturnal period during the four seasons of the year. The daily and seasonal patterns of activity of each species was modeled using generalized linear models with Poisson error. The best model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc). Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) did not exhibit a conspicuous time pattern, whereas A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818) was more frequent after the sixth hour and A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 had an activity increase along the night. Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) was registered during all sampling hours. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) were the most active during the first four hours. Concerning seasonal pattern, the highest activity of these species was verified during the summer. These data contribute to the information about the ecology of bats in the region, highlighting the high adaptive potential of the species studied in relation to the use of space throughout the night and in to variations in environmental conditions. PMID:21180897

Ortêncio Filho, H; Reis, N R; Minte-Vera, C V

2010-11-01

402

Does the way I see you affect the way I see myself? Associations between interviewers' and interviewees' 'color/race' in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study assessed the associations between female interviewers' self-classified 'color/race' and participants' self- and interviewer-classified 'color/race'. A cross-sectional study was carried out among adult individuals living in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Associations were examined by means of contingency tables and multinomial regression models, adjusting for interviewees' socioeconomic and demographic factors. Individuals aged > or = 40 years were 2.1 times more likely to classify themselves as brown (versus white) when interviewed by black (as compared to white) interviewers. Participants in the same age group were 2.5 times less likely to classify themselves as black (versus white), when interviewed by black interviewers. These differences were even greater among men 40 years or older. Compared to white interviewers, black female interviewers were 2.5 times less likely to classify men aged > or = 40 years as black. These results highlight the complexity of racial classification, indicating the influence of the interviewer's physical characteristics on the interviewee's 'color/race'. PMID:19851612

Bastos, João Luiz; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Barros, Aluísio J D; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Gonçalves, Helen; Nunes, Ana Paula

2009-10-01

403

Prevalence of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus Oropharyngeal Colonization in Children and Therapeutic Regimen Based on Antistreptolysin Levels: Data from a City From Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) in pediatric population of Ponta Grossa, a midsize city of southern Brazil; estimate the effectiveness of antistreptolysin-O (ASO), compared to culture, in presence of infection; and design an unpublished investigative algorithm of rheumatic fever's suspicion, based on needs identified in worldwide consensus. It is an epidemiologic, observational and transversal study, involving 180 children younger than 12 years. Secretion of posterior oropharynx was collected for culture; and peripheral blood for determination of ASO. Student-t and chi-square tests, with Yates correction, were performed for statistical analysis. The ASO cutoff was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence encountered was 3.9%, and 25.5% of the children showed reagent ASO. This serological test demonstrated quantitatively and qualitatively significant associations to the GABHS presence (p=0.0001 for both associations) throughout the ROC curve, 200 U Todd was the value that resulted in the best accuracy, demonstrating 100% of sensibility and 80% of specificity in the GAS infection documentation. Also, it was found that the value of 1.200 U represents a specificity of 100%. The results emphasize the need for similar studies in other populations, to provide better targeting of the diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngitis by GABHS, which in turn can prevent up to 80% the cases of rheumatic fever, and consequently, the chronic rheumatic heart disease. PMID:25136388

Merlini, Alexandre B; Stocco, Carolina S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Arruda, Polliane; Bail, Larissa; Borges, Celso L; Dornelles, Cecília F

2014-01-01

404

Abdominal angiostrongylosis in southern Brazil--prevalence and parasitic burden in mollusc intermediate hosts from eighteen endemic foci.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%); Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%); Belocaulus angustipes (8.3%) and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%). Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris. 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. solciformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:9302406

Rambo, P R; Agostini, A A; Graeff-Teixeira, C

1997-01-01

405

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

2012-05-01

406

Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

2013-12-01

407

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Non-Biting Midge Larvae Assemblages in Streams in a Mountainous Region in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

2013-01-01

408

Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

2013-09-01

409

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions. PMID:21604151

Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

2012-05-01

410

Spatial and temporal distribution of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in streams in a mountainous region in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

2013-01-01

411

Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2%) handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9%) was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00). The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p < 0.05). The high overall occurrence of enteroparasites found indicates improper hygiene and sanitation conditions. Effective educational measures should be implemented to prevent the transfer of pathogenic organisms to food via handling. PMID:19229388

Takizawa, Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

2009-01-01

412

A land cover map for the state of Goi's, Brazil: a comparative analysis of different mapping approaches and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assessed how low spatial resolution and coarse scale land use information derived from SPOT Vegetation, MODIS composited reflectances, and Agricultural Census data compare with the new Landsat-based land cover map of the State of Goias. This State, located in the central part of Brazil, is mostly covered by the neotropical savanna, locally known as the Cerrado.

L. G. Ferreira; M. E. Ferreira; M. C. Aguiar; N. C. Ferreira; M. P. Gomes; E. E. Sano

2005-01-01

413

Risk Mapping of the Schistosomiasis in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil, Using Modis and Socioeconomic Spatial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis mansoni is a disease with social and behavioral characteristics, and distributed mainly in poor regions of Brazil. From 1995 to 2005 more than a million positive cases of the disease were reported, 27% of them reported in Minas Gerais state. The objective of this work is to estimate the prevalence risk of schistosomiasis in the Minas Gerais state through

Flávia de Toledo Martins; Corina da Costa Freitas; Luciano Vieira Dutra; Fernanda Rodrigues da Fonseca; Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães; Ronaldo Santos do Amaral; Ana Clara Mourão Moura; Omar dos Santos Carvalho

2008-01-01

414

Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for the Study of Schistosomiasis in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses remote sensing and geographical information system to establish a statistical model for estimating schistosomiasis prevalence in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Remote sensing data were derived from MODIS and SRTM. The final regression model includes the Digital Elevation Model and winter Normalized Difference Vegetation Index variables. A risk map for the entire state of Minas Gerais

Corina C. Freitas; Ricardo J. P. S. Guimarães; Luciano V. Dutra; Flavia T. Martins; Erica J. C. Gouvêa; Ricardo A. T. Santos; Ana C. M. Moura; Sandra C Drummond; Ronaldo S. Amaral; Omar S. Carvalho

2006-01-01

415

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

416

Land use change effects on forest carbon cycling throughout the southern United States.  

PubMed

We modeled the effects of afforestation and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern United States. The model uses historical data on gross (two-way) transitions between forest, pasture, plowed agriculture, and urban lands along with equations describing changes in carbon over many decades for each type of land use change. Use of gross rather than net land use transition data is important because afforestation causes a gradual gain in carbon stocks for many decades, while deforestation causes a much more rapid loss in carbon stocks. In the South-Central region (Texas to Kentucky) land use changes caused a net emission of carbon before the 1980s, followed by a net sequestration of carbon subsequently. In the Southeast region (Florida to Virginia), there was net emission of carbon until the 1940s, again followed by net sequestration of carbon. These results could improve greenhouse gas inventories produced to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Specifically, from 1990 to 2004 for the entire 13-state study area, afforestation caused sequestration of 88 Tg C, and deforestation caused emission of 49 Tg C. However, the net effect of land use change on carbon stocks in soil and forest floor from 1990 to 2004 was about sixfold smaller than the net change in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during this period are dominated by changes in tree carbon stocks. PMID:16825455

Woodbury, Peter B; Heath, Linda S; Smith, James E

2006-01-01

417

Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed debates in the American South between traditional white Southerners and African American Southerners over whether and how symbols from the region's two defining historical events – the Civil War and the Civil Rights movement – are displayed on the region's landscape. This paper examines the most contentious of these debates, the conflict over government sanction for

Jonathan I. Leib; Gerald R. Webster; Roberta H. Webster

2001-01-01

418

Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub

M. S. Devall; B. R. Parresol

1994-01-01

419

A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

2014-01-01

420

Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian malaria outbreaks to the penguins that are maintained throughout summer. PMID:24736326

Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

2014-01-01

421

Magnetostratigraphy and mid-palaeolatitude VGP dispersion during the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron: results from Paraná Basin (Southern Brazil) rhythmites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed magnetostratigraphic and rock-magnetism study of two Late Palaeozoic rhythmite exposures (Itu and Rio do Sul) from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin, Brazil) is presented in this paper. After stepwise alterning-field procedures and thermal cleaning were performed, samples from both collections show reversed characteristic magnetization components, which is expected for Late Palaeozoic rocks. However, the Itu rocks presented an odd, flat inclination pattern that could not be corrected with mathematical methods based on the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) distributions. Correlation tests between the maximum anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility axis (K1) and the magnetic declination indicated a possible mechanical influence on the remanence acquisition. The Rio do Sul sequence displayed medium to high inclinations and provided a high-quality palaeomagnetic pole (after shallowing corrections of f = 0.8) of 347.5°E 63.2°S (N = 119; A95 = 3.3; K = 31), which is in accordance with the Palaeozoic apparent wander pole path of South America. The angular dispersion (Sb) for the distribution of the VGPs calculated on the basis of both the 45° cut-off angle and Vandamme method was compared to the best-fit Model G for mid-latitudes. Both of the Sb results are in reasonable agreement with the predicted (palaeo) latitudinal S-? relationship during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS), although the Sb value after the Vandamme cut-off has been applied is a little lower than expected. This result, in addition to those for low palaeolatitudes during the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS) previously reported, indicates that the low secular variation regime for the geodynamo that has already been discovered in the CNS might have also been predominant during the PCRS.

Franco, Daniel R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Hinnov, Linda A.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Fabris, José D.; Rosière, Carlos A.

2012-12-01

422