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1

A new southern limit for the distribution of Alouatta caraya in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of two groups of the black howler monkey,Alouatta caraya, inhabiting two orchards on a cattle farm, Fazenda Casa Branca (2956?S, 5559?W), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, represents\\u000a a new southern limit for the geographic distribution of this species.

Júlio César Bicca-Maroues

1990-01-01

2

Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapu? State Park, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum.

Tacuatia, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

2012-01-01

3

Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

2012-02-02

4

Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espi?rito Santo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espi?rito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espi?rito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention. PMID:23032288

Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

2012-09-01

5

Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented. PMID:21412620

Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Procianoy, Fernando; Maestri, Marcelo Krieger; Rott, Marilise Brittes

6

[Species of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) from Southern Bahia State, Brazil, with description of a new species of Paracloeodes day].  

PubMed

Based on collections in five municipalities from southern Bahia, a new species, Paracloeodes quadridentatus sp. n., is described from Brazil. It can be distinguished, among other characteristics, by the presence of three, often four, well developed denticles on the tarsal claws, a characteristic that has never been found in other species of the genus. Besides the description of the new species, the following 14 taxa of Baetidae are recorded for the first time from the State of Bahia: Americabaetis alphus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Americabaetis labiosus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Aturbina georgei Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Baetodes sp., Callibaetis sp., Camelobaetidius francischettii Salles Andrade & Da-Silva, Camelobaetidius lassance Salles & Serrão, Camelobaetidius sp. 1, Camelobaetidius sp. 2, Cloeodes cf. opacus Nieto & Richard, Cryptonympha dasilvai Salles & Francischetti, Spiritiops silvudus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Waltzoyphius fasciatus McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz e Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. As this is the first survey of Baetidae from Bahia, and it was restricted to the southern part of the state, sampling efforts in other areas are extremely required and should increase considerably the number of species, or even genera, reported from the state. PMID:21120380

Lima, Lucas R C; Salles, Frederico F; Pinheiro, Ulisses S; Quinto, Edilane

7

Epidemiological and biological aspects on Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick), an argasidae tick only found on the highlands region of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...

8

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

9

Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

2011-10-21

10

A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.

de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant' Anna, Celia Leite

2008-01-01

11

Tephritoid flies (Diptera, Tephritoidea) and their plant hosts from the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 12,540 ripe fruits belonging to 46 species and 25 plant families were sampled either from the trees or from the ground in six municipalities in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil between 2002 and 2006 in order to determine which fruit fly species developed on various host plants. Each fr...

12

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

13

Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx

Fernanda I. Colabuono; Viviane Barquete; Beatriz S. Domingues; Rosalinda C. Montone

2009-01-01

14

[Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors. PMID:16751957

Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

2006-05-29

15

Investigation of Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in mares and in precolostral foals from Parana State, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii were measured in mares and precolostral foals from a farm in Parana State, Brazil. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine specific antibodies. Three sampling points, 2003, 2004 and at parturition were included in the study, but not all horses are represented at a parturition time point. In 2003, antibodies to Neospora were detected in 17 mares (47%) at 1:50 dilution and in 5 mares (13.8%) at 1:100 dilution. In 2004, antibodies to Neospora were found in 11/36 (30%) horses with titers of 1:50 and in 6 mares (16.6%) at 1:100 dilution. The prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was 2.7% in mares, either in 2003 and 2004. Evidence for the role of Neospora sp. in equine reproduction failure was not observed in the farm. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Neospora were found in two of the nine precolostrum foals. Four seronegative foals were born from seronegative mothers, and three seronegative foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). Two seropositive precolostrum foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). The foals were born clinically normal, and T. gondii antibodies were not detected in their serum samples. The total immunoglobulins values detected on seronegative precolostrum foals were lower than the levels observed in the seropositive foals. This data warrants additional studies to differentiate N. hughesi and N. caninum serologically and determination if these parasites were associated with equine neurological disease and reproductive failure. PMID:16289863

Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Dittrich, J R; Richartz, R R T B; Gasino Joineau, M E; Antunes, J; Pinckney, R D; Deconto, I; Hoffmann, D C S; Thomaz-Soccol, V

2005-11-11

16

TWO NEW TAXA IN CYRTOPODIUM (ORCHIDACEAE) FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batista, J. A. N. & Bianchetti, L. B. 2005. Two new taxa in Cyrtopodium (Orchidaceae) from southern Brazil. Darwiniana 43(1-4): 74-83. Cyrtopodium kleinii and C. brandonianum subsp. lageanum (Cyrtopodiinae, Cymbidieae, Orchidaceae) from southern Brazil are described and illustrated. Cyrtopodium kleinii is similar to a group of terrestrial species characterized by their small pseudobulbs, buried underground, and small flowers, but it

JOÃO A. N. BATISTA; LUCIANO B. BIANCHETTI

17

First report of Lagochilascaris (Nematoda: Ascarididae) eggs in a public park in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil. PMID:21974947

de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro

2011-09-17

18

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

19

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

Not Available

1990-03-01

20

Genetic polymorphisms of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd systems in a population from the State of Paran?, southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Red blood group genes are highly polymorphic and the distribution of alleles varies among different populations and ethnic groups. Aim To evaluate allele polymorphisms of the Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group systems in a population of the State of Paraná Methods Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd blood group polymorphisms were evaluated in 400 unrelated blood or bone marrow donors from the northwestern region of Paraná State between September 2008 and October 2009. The following techniques were used: multiplex-polymerase chain reaction genotyping for the identification of the RHD gene and RHCE*C/c genotype; allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for the RHD? and restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction for the RHCE*E/e, KEL, FY-GATA and JK alleles. Results These techniques enabled the evaluation of the frequencies of Rh, Kell, Duffy and Kidd polymorphisms in the population studied, which were compared to frequencies in two populations from the eastern region of São Paulo State. Conclusion The RHCE*c/c, FY*A/FY*B, GATA-33 T/T, JK*B/JK*B genotypes were more prevalent in the population from Paraná, while RHCE*C/c, FY*B/FY*B, GATA-33 C/C, JK*A/JK*B genotypes were more common in the populations from São Paulo.

Guelsin, Glaucia Andreia Soares; Sell, Ana Maria; Castilho, Lilian; Masaki, Viviane Lika; de Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante; Hashimoto, Margareth Naomi; Hirle, Loide Souza; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2011-01-01

21

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

22

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

23

The Triassic taphoflora of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil: a biostratigraphical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Triassic taphoflora identified in the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, represents an important biostratigraphical stage in the palæofloristic succession of the Paraná Basin. A megafloristic association composed of compressed leaves, fronds and seeds of a ‘Dicroidium Flora’ shows a predominance of the Dicroidium genus, with several species and other important taxa like

M. Guerra-Sommer; M. Cazzulo-Klepzig; R. Iannuzzi

1999-01-01

24

Inequality of water fluoridation in Southern Brazil—the inverse equity hypothesis revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this ecological study was to investigate the association between social and economic indicators at the municipal level and the presence of water fluoridation and time when water fluoridation was implemented in the 293 municipalities of Santa Catarina State in Southern Brazil. Several social and economic indicators were obtained from official Brazilian agencies as well as from UNICEF.

Marco Aurélio Peres; Liliane Simara Fernandes; Karen Glazer Peres

2004-01-01

25

Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD?), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin. PMID:21225160

Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

2010-12-01

26

Surface air temperature trends in Southern Brazil for 1960 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in minimum and maximum air temperature and in the diurnal thermal range (DTR), and derived indices of extreme temperatures since the 1960's are assessed for southern Brazil. Most meteorological stations show steep increases in the night-time temperatures (depicted by the minimum temperature) as compared to slight increases in the daytime temperature (depicted by the maximum temperature), both year round

Jose A. Marengo; Claudia C. Camargo

2008-01-01

27

Depressive Symptoms in Crack and Inhalant Users in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the authors investigated depressive symptoms and correlated psychopathology in crack cocaine and inhalant users in Southern Brazil. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. General psychopathology, hopelessness and suicidal tendencies were also investigated. Crack and inhalants users presented significant levels of depressive symptoms and psychiatric morbidity. These

Carlos Zubaran; Katia Foresti; Mariana Rossi Thorell; Paulo Franceschini; Wagner Homero

2010-01-01

28

Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S 39,0° W sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S 39,3° W 54 m ASL) and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, Joa~O. C.

2009-03-01

29

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success.

2013-01-01

30

Marine seismic investigations, southern Brazil margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven sonobuoy refraction profiles describe the offshore structure of the Pelotas and Santos basins and the interbasinal shelf section off Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Reflection profiles outline the seaward extension of the ''Torres arch'' between the Pelotas and Santos basins. Seismic sections across the Pelotas shelf show that sediment thickness increases seaward from 1.5 km near the onshore

R. Kowsmann; R. Leyden; O. Francisconi

1977-01-01

31

Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans.

Silva, Everton F; Seyffert, Nubia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.

2009-01-01

32

Potassium-argon dates of basaltic rocks from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium-argon ages are reported for 20 basalts (including a few core samples) and 15 diabases from the Paraná basin of Southern Brazil. Histograms of both basalt and diabase ages exhibit strong peaks close to 120 m.y. Thus the principal Brazilian volcanism was Mid-Lower Cretaceous and not Jurassic as earlier supposed. While the few dates younger than 120 m.y. are likely

G. Amaral; U. G. Cordani; K. Kawashita; J. H. Reynolds

1966-01-01

33

Coffee shade with Mimosa scabrella Benth. for frost protection in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage by radiative frosts is a major limiting factor for coffee cultivation in southern Brazil (south of 20 S latitude).\\u000a The use of Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga) as a shade tree, to modify the local energy balance and thus prevent damage to the coffee plants, has been evaluated\\u000a from 1986 to 1994. The study was carried out near Londrina, Parana State

P. H. Caramori; A. Androcioli Filho; A. C. Leal

1996-01-01

34

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector.

Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

35

Microbiological parameters as indicators of soil quality under various soil management and crop rotation systems in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to identify soil parameters potentially useful to monitor soil quality under different soil management and crop rotation systems. Microbiological and chemical parameters were evaluated in a field experiment in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in response to soil management [no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT)] and crop rotation [including grain (soybean, S; maize,

J. C. Franchini; C. C. Crispino; R. A. Souza; E. Torres; M. Hungria

2007-01-01

36

Subacute and acute fasciolosis in sheep in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Eight outbreaks of acute and subacute fasciolosis are reported in sheep in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, southern Brazil, in areas used for irrigated rice cultivation, which are subject to frequent flooding. Two outbreaks occurred mid-winter during July and August, and six occurred during spring and early summer. Morbidity ranged from 3 to 66.7 %, and mortality ranged from 3 to 50 %. Clinical signs included weight loss, mucosal pallor, apathy, depression, muscle tremors, and drooling; these were followed by death within approximately 24 h. Some sheep were found dead. Gross lesions were characterized by an irregular liver capsule with fibrin deposition and hemorrhages. The liver parenchyma contained hemorrhagic tracts or irregular clear areas alternated with dark hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, hemorrhagic dark red tracts of necrotic liver parenchyma and an inflammatory infiltrate were noted; these lesions coincided with the presence of immature flukes. Langhans-type giant cells, fibrous tissue, and bile duct cell proliferation were observed in subacute cases. Chronic fasciolosis is a well-known disease to farmers in southern Brazil; nevertheless, acute and subacute fasciolosis, which are more difficult to diagnose and treat, may cause important economic losses. Efficient control of fasciolosis requires integration of measures to treat infections in the definitive host, to reduce the population of snails of the genus Lymnaea, and to avoid contact between the parasite and host by appropriate pasture management. PMID:22941529

Fiss, Leticia; de Lourdes Adrien, Maria; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton; Assis-Brasil, Nathalia D; Sallis, Eliza S V; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Ruas, Jerônimo L; Schild, Ana Lucia

2012-09-02

37

Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

2008-12-01

38

Extreme wet events in Southern Brazil during the Heinrich Stadials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are making continuous efforts to improve both the data resolution and chronology of the speleothem d18O record from Botuvera Cave, southern Brazil, one of the very few high-precision and high-resolution records from southern tropical continents covering the last ~ 100 kyr. In this study, we particularly focus on precipitation change in southern Brazil during the extreme cold time intervals in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich (H) Stadials. With precise U/Th dating, high-resolution d18O profiles from multiple Botuvera stalagmites show that the H2, H3 and H4 stadials are about 1,000 years long and centered approximately 24.6 kyr BP, 30.0 kyr BP and 39.0 kyr BP, respectively. Following the earlier studies on Brazilian speleothem d18O records, as well as trace element analysis and modeling simulations, we interpret the calcite d18O as a proxy of monsoonal rainfall in the region. Broadly speaking, the lower calcite d18O, the higher rainfall, and vice versa. The abrupt drops on calcite d18O during these intervals, with an amplitude of ~ 2% VPDB, suggest that climate change in this region is manifested as a dramatic increasing of rainfall. This confirms our previous finding that on millennial timescales, precipitation change in southern Brazil is anti-phased with that in the north, such as eastern Asia, which is probably controlled by the meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The fast growth rates of the samples enable us to characterize detail precipitation changes in southern Brazil during these three Heinrich Stadials. Precipitation increases abruptly in the earlier stage, evidenced by a d18O drop rate of ~ 5%/kyr, whereas during the later stage, precipitation decreases more gradually, with a d18O rising rate of ~ 2.5%/kyr. This asymmetric pattern of change is different from the temperature behavior in the North Atlantic, which warms much more dramatically in the final stage of a Heinrich Stadial than it cools in the initial phase. Such decoupling may suggest that ITCZ meridional migration is preferably controlled by the temperature gradient between the mid and low latitudes in the cold hemisphere. It has been further noticed that calcite d18O values are higher right after the Heinrich Stadials than those immediately preceding the events, hence, an even drier climate after the extreme wet events. These values, in a range between -3.4% and -2.7%, however, are far below the typical value of ~ -1.5% in early Holocene. This observation suggested that, although the Atlantic overturning circulation may "overshoot" directly following its weaken mode during the Heinrich Stadials, the atmospheric response did not react in a proportional manner.

Wang, X.; Rao, Z.; Auler, A.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Edwards, R.

2011-12-01

39

Molecular detection and occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' in dairy cattle of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Bovine hemoplasmas are bacteria found on the erythrocyte surface or free in the plasma of cattle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' ('C. M. haemobos') in Holstein and Jersey cattle raised in Londrina and surroundings, northern region of the State of Parana, Southern Brazil. PCR testing directed to 16S rRNA gene fragment was performed to investigate the occurrence and characterize the molecular identity of 'C. M. haemobos'. A total of 264/433 (60.97%) blood samples were positive by PCR. Further alignment of 500-bp amplicons to available sequences at the GenBank database showed high identity (100%) to 'C. M. haemobos'. To the author's knowledge, this is the first molecular confirmation of the hemoplasma 'C. M. haemobos' in cattle from Brazil. Moreover, 'C. M. haemobos' was observed in high occurrence in dairy cattle, and may have significant impact in livestock production. PMID:23070456

Girotto, Aline; Zangirólamo, Amanda Fonseca; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; Souza, Arnaldo Sotero Luz E; da Silva, Gislaine Cristina Ferreira; Garcia, João Luis; Vilas Boas, Laurival Antônio; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

40

An early freeze in southern Brazil in April 1999 and its NWP guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cold air outbreak occurred in the third week of April 1999 in southern Brazil. A synoptic study of this rare event is undertaken. A surface high pressure cell in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile slowly built up and moved eastward on 14 April. It started crossing the Andes, acquiring the characteristic shape of a bean on 15th, and separated into two cells later in the day. The cell on the lee side of the mountains moved gradually northwards over central South America affecting northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil. The temperature fell 15°C in the state of Mato Grosso (about 15°S). In southern Brazil temperatures below freezing were registered in some places on the 17th and 18th and frost occurred in many states. There was snowfall in the uplands of Santa Catarina on the 17th, and such an early snow had not been recorded for 30 years. Baroclinic synoptic wave intensification followed by surface low development in association with a cut-off low formation in the middle and upper troposphere were responsible for strong surface southerlies over Argentina on the 16th and 17th. Cold air advection by the southerlies in the eastern sector of the high-pressure centre was responsible for the northward projection of the high pressure cell east of the Andes. The whole event was well predicted by the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (CPTEC/INPE) operational global and regional models with lead times of 120 and 60 hours respectively

Satyamurty, Prakki; Ferreira Bustamante Fonseca, Josiane; Bottino, Marcus Jorge; Seluchi, Marcelo E.; Maciel Lourenço, Maria Crstina; Gonçalves de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo

2002-03-01

41

Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities. PMID:21789415

Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

2011-01-01

42

Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n?=?4) and abortion (n?=?1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

2013-03-23

43

Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region.

2013-01-01

44

Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on sea turtle by-catch observed in pelagic longline sets during research cruises in the south Atlantic in the vicinity of the shelf edge break in southern Brazil. The longline gear was set in a similar manner to that employed by the commercial longline fleet operating out of Santos, Brazil that targets swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Nineteen sea turtles

M. C Pinedo; T Polacheck

2004-01-01

45

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.

Diego G Bassani; Lilian S Palazzo; Jorge U Béria; Luciana P Gigante; Andréia CL Figueiredo; Denise RGC Aerts; Beatriz CW Raymann

2009-01-01

46

Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

(1) Dental wear is a common phenomenon in mammals. Its occurrence is influenced by tooth anatomy, animal physiology, biomechanics and behaviour. So far, investigations of dental wear in cetaceans have been scanty and superficial. We compare the frequencies of occurrence, location and intensity of dental wear in some species of dolphins from southern Brazil, South Atlantic Ocean. (2) Teeth of ten species were evaluated using a stereoscopic microscope to identify wear facets, which were classified according to location, anatomical position and wear intensity. (3) Frequencies of dental wear were high for all species with exception of Delphinus capensis, with less than 50% of teeth worn. Simultaneous wear facets in the apex and lateral of teeth were more common than facets restricted to the apex or lateral faces. Wear on the dental crown was more common, but some species showed less frequent wear down to the cingulum or root level. Superficial wear seems to be the general trend for dolphins, but Stenella coeruleoalba and Pseudorca crassidens showed a higher frequency of severe wear. Only for Tursiops truncatus the frequencies of wear were significantly different between males and females. When considering the ontogeny of dental wear, only for T. truncatus and Stenella frontalis indexes of dental wear were correlated with body length. (4) Whether dental wear has implications or not in fitness and feeding behaviour, severely worn teeth may expose the pulp cavity and increase the susceptibility to local infections. PMID:22939372

Loch, Carolina; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

2012-08-28

47

Variants of the recently discovered avian gyrovirus 2 are detected in Southern Brazil and The Netherlands.  

PubMed

A genome of a virus preliminarily named avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2), a close relative to chicken anemia virus, was recently discovered in a chicken in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. To study the occurrence of AGV2 in Rio Grande do Sul and the neighboring state Santa Catarina, a number of adult chickens (n=108 and n=48, respectively) were tested for the presence of AGV2 DNA. An AGV2-specific PCR was developed, optimized and used to analyze DNA extracted from clinical samples. AGV2 DNA was detected in 98/108 (90.7%) of samples collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and 29/48 (60.4%) of the samples collected in the state of Santa Catarina. In order to check whether AGV2 DNA would be detected in samples from a geographically distant region, DNA from brain samples of 21 diseased chickens from the Netherlands were tested independently, by the same method. In such specimens, 9/21 (42.9%) brain tissue samples were found to contain AVG2 DNA. Sequence analysis of some of the PCR products demonstrated that the amplified AGV2 sequences could vary up to 15.8% and could preliminarily be divided in three groups. This indicated the occurrence of variants of AGV2, which may reflect differences in geographical origin and/or in biological properties. The data presented here provides evidence that AGV2 seems fairly distributed in chickens in Southern Brazil and that AGV2 also circulates in the Netherlands. Besides, circulating viruses display genetic variants whose significance should be further examined, particularly to determine whether AGV2 would play any role in chicken diseases. PMID:22018524

dos Santos, Helton F; Knak, Marcus B; de Castro, Fernanda L; Slongo, Josiane; Ritterbusch, Gisele A; Klein, Tânia A P; Esteves, Paulo A; Silva, Alessandra D; Trevisol, Iara M; Claassen, Erwin A W; Cornelissen, Lisette A H M; Lovato, Maristela; Franco, Ana C; Roehe, Paulo M; Rijsewijk, Frans A M

2011-09-25

48

[Unplanned pregnancy in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with unplanned pregnancies in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied in 2007 to all pregnant women in the city, including demographic characteristics, childbearing history, socioeconomic status, and prenatal and childbirth care. The study used Poisson multivariate regression analysis with robust adjustment of variance. Among the 2,557 women included in the study, 65% had not planned the current pregnancy. After adjusting for confounders, the following variables were significantly associated with unplanned pregnancy: black or mixed race, age < 20 years, single marital status, low family income, household crowding, smoking, and multiparity. Previous abortion was a protective factor against unplanned pregnancy. The high unplanned pregnancy rate, especially among women with increased risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth, highlights the need to target healthcare programs for this group. PMID:22031195

Prietsch, Silvio Omar Macedo; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Cesar, Juraci A; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés

2011-10-01

49

Influenza-associated excess mortality in southern Brazil, 1980-2008.  

PubMed

In order to estimate influenza-associated excess mortality in southern Brazil, we applied Serfling regression models to monthly mortality data from 1980 to 2008 for pneumonia/influenza- and respiratory/circulatory-coded deaths for all ages and for those aged ?60 years. According to viral data, 73?5% of influenza viruses were detected between April and August in southern Brazil. There was no clear influenza season for northern Brazil. In southern Brazil, influenza-associated excess mortality was 1?4/100,000 for all ages and 9?2/100,000 person-years for persons aged ?60 years using underlying pneumonia/influenza-coded deaths and 10?0/100,000 for all ages and 86?6/100,000 person-years for persons aged ?60 years using underlying respiratory/circulatory-coded deaths. Influenza-associated excess mortality rates for southern Brazil are similar to those published for other countries. Our data support the need for continued influenza surveillance to guide vaccination campaigns to age groups most affected by this virus in Brazil. PMID:23040669

Freitas, F T M; Souza, L R O; Azziz-Baumgartner, E; Cheng, P Y; Zhou, H; Widdowson, M A; Shay, D K; Oliveira, W K; Araujo, W N

2012-10-08

50

Fertility of Vriesea gigantea Gaud. (Bromeliaceae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Plant fertility is a central subject of many questions in plant evolutionary and conservation biology. Pollen availability, abiotic resources, and flowering pattern can limit fruit and seed production. Open pollination and pollen supplementation studies are used to estimate any pollen limitation in natural populations. To study the impact of these factors on the reproductive success of Vriesea gigantea, an epiphytic bromeliad in the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, its fertility in four natural populations in Itapuã State Park was assessed by considering plant and inflorescence size, flower production, fruit and seed set, flower and fruit set pattern, and seed viability and germination rate. Supplemental pollination in adult plants was used to determine whether fruit production in V. gigantea is limited by reception of pollen. The results showed that V. gigantea has a high production of flowers, fruits, and seeds. Seeds are highly viable in all populations, presenting an average germination rate of 94% (SE ± 3.5). Plants of V. gigantea from Itapuã State Park are highly fertile. The high proportion of fruit and seed set after manual hand pollination indicates that the species is self-compatible. Pollination treatments showed evidence of pollinator limitation in the Itapuã State Park population. PMID:21636436

Paggi, Gecele M; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Silveira, Lucas C T; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Bered, Fernanda

2007-04-01

51

Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. The rice production sector of Rio

J. J. Centeno da Silva

1999-01-01

52

Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

53

First record of Amblyomma scalpturatum Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) in the states of Paraná and Roraima, Brazil.  

PubMed

Amblyomma scalpturatum Neumann has been reported in Brazil in the northern (States of Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia) and mid-western regions (States of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul). It has been found in association with large and medium sized mammals, as Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Xenarthra and Carnivora. In this paper, this tick species is reported for the first time in the Brazilian states of Paraná and Roraima, southern and northern regions, respectively. PMID:20676523

Onofrio, Valeria C; Arzua, Márcia; Labruna, Marcelo B; Faccini, João L H; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

54

Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier  

PubMed Central

Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mario

2013-01-01

55

Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed.

Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Kaltchuk dos Santos, Eliane; Eggers, Lilian; Flores, Alice Mainieri; Alves, Eudes M. Stiehl; Fachinetto, Juliana; Lustosa, Juliana; Correa, Lauis Brisolara; Tacuatia, Luana Olinda; Piccoli, Paula; Miz, Rogeria Beatriz

2012-01-01

56

High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-07-29

57

Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

2007-09-01

58

Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4%) were positive: 2/29 (6.9%) were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2%) between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4%) older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%). Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas. PMID:22534949

Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Furman, Keiko Endo; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Finger, Mariane Angélica; Busch, Ana Paula Brenner; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Biondo, Alexander Welker

59

Research of Education Issues in Southern Regional Education Board States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, which focuses on education in Louisiana, gives the results of research on various education issues in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and provides information on how southern states collect and use different education-related data. The article discusses education costs and revenues, as well as how financial, student,…

Louisiana State Legislative Auditor, Baton Rouge.

60

Phylogenetic analyses of the hemagglutinin gene of wild-type strains of canine distemper virus in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study examined the phylogenetic relationship of strains of canine distemper virus (CDV) collected from Paraná State, Brazil, based on the hemagglutinin gene. Urine samples were collected from 4 dogs from northern Paraná State that demonstrated clinical manifestations of canine distemper. The participation of CDV was initially confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid protein, after which the complete hemagglutinin gene was sequenced from each sample. Sequences were deposited in and compared with those already in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, using amino acid and nucleotide sequences based on the hemagglutinin gene, demonstrated that these strains of CDV are closely related to those from the Europe 1 lineage of CDV, with marked differences from other recognized geographical clusters of CDV isolates and from the vaccine strains. The strains of CDV from this region of southern Brazil appear to be related to those from Europe 1. PMID:23546971

Negrão, F J; Gardinali, N R; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A; Fernandez, M A; Alfieri, A F

2013-07-24

61

BIOLOGIC AND GENETIC COMPARISON OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM THE NORTHERN PARÁ STATE AND THE SOUTHERN STATE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL REVEALED HIGHLY DIVERSE AND DISTINCT PARASITE POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grand...

62

Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

63

Influence of area, altitude and hydroperiod on macroinvertebrate communities in southern Brazil wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands are important ecosystems in southern Brazil because they show high productivity and biological diversity. However, conservative data indicate that ?90% of the wetlands have disappeared as a result of agricultural expansion. In this sense, the understanding of species composition and richness patterns in fragmented and natural wetlands is a priority for biodiversity conservation strategies.The main goal of the present

Cristina Stenert; Leonardo Maltchik

2007-01-01

64

Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

65

Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patos–Mirim Lagoon system along the southern coast of Brazil is linked to the coastal ocean by a narrow mouth and by groundwater transport through a Holocene barrier. Although other groundwater systems are apparently active in this region, the hydraulic head of the lagoon, the largest in South America, drives groundwater transport to the coast. Water levels in wells placed

L. Felipe H. Niencheski; Herbert L. Windom; Willard S. Moore; Richard A. Jahnke

2007-01-01

66

Phenological patterns among plant life-forms in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenological patterns in tropical plants usually are associated with the clear seasonality of rainfall associated with very different wet and dry seasons. In southern Brazil, in a subtropical forest with no pronounced dry season (average annual precipitation = 1389 mm, minimum monthly average c. 75 mm), plant phenology was studied to test for patterns (periodicity), to examine how phenological patterns

Márcia C. M. Marques; James J. Roper; Ana Paula Baggio Salvalaggio

2004-01-01

67

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

68

[Use of medication by the elderly in urban and rural areas in southern Brazil: a population-based study].  

PubMed

The study aimed to measure use of medication and polypharmacy among the elderly in Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and to compare socio-demographic, economic, and health characteristics in relation to area of residence (urban versus rural) in a random sample of 811 persons 60 year of age or older. Interviews were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, chronic illnesses, and self-reported use of medications. The association between area of residence and medication or polypharmacy was adjusted for confounders using Poisson regression with robust variance. Prevalence rates for use of medication and polypharmacy were higher among older persons living in the urban area. Living in the urban area was positively and independently associated with use of medication (PR = 1.10; 95%CI: 1.02-1.20) and polypharmacy (PR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.27-2.65) in this group of elderly in southern Brazil. PMID:22267070

Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Pons, Emilia da Silva; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

2012-01-01

69

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of

Eduardo Barretto de Figueiredo; Alan Rodrigo Panosso; Rangel Romão; Newton La Scala Jr

2010-01-01

70

A History of Forestry Research in the Southern United States  

Treesearch

Title: A History of Forestry Research in the Southern United States ... in part to research scientists who provided scientific knowledge and practical technology for ... Improved methods for managing forest lands for timber and other uses, better ...

71

Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)

Godwin, Winfred L.

1971-01-01

72

Southern State Governments and Higher Education for Negroes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)|

Godwin, Winfred L.

1971-01-01

73

Antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping of Shigella responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Little information about Shigella responsible for foodborne shigellosis is available in Brazil. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping patterns of Shigella isolates responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), Southern Brazil in the period between 2003 and 2007. Shigella strains (n=152) were isolated from foods and fecal samples of victims of shigellosis outbreaks investigated by the Surveillance Service. Identification of the strains at specie level indicated that 71.1% of them were S. flexneri, 21.5% S. sonnei, and 0.7% S. dysenteriae. Ten strains (6.7%) were identified only as Shigella spp. An increasing occurrence of S. sonnei was observed after 2004. Most of the strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.6%), followed by ampicillin (84.6%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.5 %). Resistant strains belonged to 73 patterns, and pattern A (resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and intermediate resistance to kanamycin) grouped the largest number of isolates (n=36). PCR-ribotyping identified three banding patterns (SH1, SH2, and SH3). SH1 grouped all S. flexneri and SH2 grouped all S. sonnei. The S. dysenteriae strain belonged to group SH3. According to the results, several Shigella isolates shared the same PCR-rybotyping banding pattern and the same resistance profile, suggesting that closely related strains were responsible for the outbreaks. However, other molecular typing methods need to be applied to confirm the clonal relationship of these isolates.

de Paula?, Cheila Mineia Daniel; Mercedes, Passos Geimba?; do Amaral?, Patricia Heidrich; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2010-01-01

74

South Goes South: American Perspectives on Southern Immigrants to Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction following the American Civil War led to conditions in the South that caused upwards of 20,000 Americans to go into exile. Of these, approximately 2,500 to 3,500 made the trip to Brazil and established settlements of varying success. One hundred forty one years later descendents of the original settlers, known as the Confederados, still populate the areas of Americana

Ernest R. Rheaume

2006-01-01

75

Pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak in Rhea americana in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Commercial raising of rheas is currently in expansion in the south of Brazil, and many diseases previously restricted to other avian species are currently emerging on rhea farms, especially as a result of careless management of these animals. The objective of the present article is to report a pulmonary aspergillosis outbreak that occurred in great rhea (Rhea americana) in the south of Brazil. About 50 birds aged 30 to 60 days died suddenly and one of them was submitted to autopsy which revealed the presence of white caseous nodules 0.5 mm in diameter occupying 95% of the lung area. One lung was sent to the Federal University of Santa Maria for histopathological and mycological analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed multifocal areas with necrosis and inflammatory infiltrates and the presence of fungal hyphae, giant cells and fibrous tissue proliferation at the periphery. Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered as pure culture from all culture media. This appears to be the first report of aspergillosis among great rhea in Brazil and the second in the world. PMID:15180154

Copetti, Marina V; Segabinazi, Stefanie D; Flores, Maristela L; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M

2004-04-01

76

Mesocestoides sp. (Eucestoda, Mesocestoididae) parasitizing four species of wild felines in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus and Puma yagouaroundi are wild feline species endangered mainly due to habitat destruction and vehicle run overs. Seventeen felines hit on the roads were collected in Southern Brazil and examined for parasites. Cestodes were identified as Mesocestoides sp. The parasites were found in the small intestine of the hosts with a prevalence of 66.7% (L. colocolo and L. tigrinus), 60% (P. yagouaroundi) and 50% (L. geoffroyi). Rodents and lizards were found in the stomach contents and they possibly were intermediate hosts of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides sp. in wild felines in Brazil. PMID:21722494

Gallas, Moisés; Silveira, Eliane Fraga da

77

Spatial Planning of Shrimp Farming in the Patos Lagoon Estuary (Southern Brazil): An Integrated Coastal Management Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

DE FREITAS, D.M., and TAGLIANI, P.R.A., 2007. Spatial planning of shrimp farming in the Patos Lagoon Estuary (southern Brazil): an integrated coastal management approach. Journal of Coastal Research, S1(47), 136-140. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. In recent years, aquaculture has been growing all over the world. In the estuarine region of Patos Lagoon (southern Brazil), small pilot shrimp farms

Debora M. de Freitas; Roberto A. Tagliani

78

Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S. policy of restricting space and missile technology to Brazil under the MTCR has succeeded in stalling Brazil's missile program, but has also: (1) further strained Brazilian security relations with the United States; (2) weakened U.S. influence over Brazil's rocket and missile programs; (3) strengthened Brazilian ties with European suppliers (especially France) of space and missile technology; (4) driven Brazil into closer technological cooperation with the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union; and (5) intensified Brazilian negotiations with Iraq and Libya. As Brazil moves away from the United States (its traditional supplier of space and missile technology), it is becoming relatively more autonomous and less vulnerable to U.S. restrictions on space and missile technology. The successful implementation of an internationalist development strategy by Brazil's new president, Fernando Collor de Mello, could provide the United States with an exceptional opportunity to improve relations with Brazil.

Tollefson, Scott D.

1990-03-01

79

Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

2012-11-13

80

Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have assessed the joint incorporation of heavy metals into agricultural systems based on the range of agrochemicals used on a specific agricultural crop. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals input through application of the main agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields. A total of 56 samples of different batches of 5 fertilizers, 3 substrates, 8 insecticides, 3 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 1 growth regulator commonly used in the cultivation of tobacco in Brazil's Southern Region were collected from 3 warehouses located in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. The total As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content of the samples was then determined and compared with the regulations of different countries and information found in the available literature. The fertilizers were identified as the primary source of heavy metals among the agrochemicals used. Application of pesticides directly to the shoots of tobacco plants contributed very little to the supply of heavy metals. The agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields provide lower inputs of the main heavy metals that are nonessential for plants than those registered in the international literature for the majority of crop fields in different regions of the world. PMID:22729828

Zoffoli, Hugo José Oliveira; do Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Zonta, Everaldo; Luisi, Marcus Vinícius; Marcon, Gracioso; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo

2012-06-23

81

Roadkills of vertebrate species on two highways through the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the magnitude, composition, and spatial and temporal patterns of road mortality of native vertebrates on two highways\\u000a in southern Brazil from 18 January 2003 to 26 January 2004. The highways cross remnants of the Atlantic Rainforest, a global\\u000a biodiversity hotspot, and differ in vehicle traffic and surrounding landscape. We compared the road-kill magnitude and composition\\u000a of birds, mammals,

Igor Pfeifer Coelho; Andreas Kindel; Artur Vicente Pfeifer Coelho

2008-01-01

82

Sea surface temperature variability off southern Brazil and Uruguay as revealed from historical data since 1854  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1°×1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the variability off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in

Peter O. Zavialov; Ilana Wainer; João M. Absy

1999-01-01

83

Recent climate variability and its impacts on soybean yields in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent climate variability in rainfall, temperatures (maximum and minimum), and the diurnal temperature range is studied with\\u000a emphasis on its influence over soybean yields in southern Brazil, during 1969 to 2002. The results showed that the soybean\\u000a (Glycine max L. Merril) yields are more affected by changes in temperature during summer, while changes in rainfall are more important\\u000a during the

Danielle Barros Ferreira; V. Brahmananda Rao

2011-01-01

84

Obesity, overweight and thinness in schoolchildren of the city of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight (including obesity) and thinness in children of the city of Florianopolis (southern Brazil).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:Representative sample of 7–10-y-old schoolchildren of the first four grades of elementary schools (1432 girls, 1504 boys).Methods:Measurements of weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were taken following standard techniques. The body mass index (BMI) was computed as weight\\/height2. Nutritional

M A A de Assis; M F Rolland-Cachera; S Grosseman; F A G de Vasconcelos; M E P Luna; M C M Calvo; M V G Barros; M M S Pires; F Bellisle; MAA de Assis

2005-01-01

85

Shallow gas accumulation in sediments of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution seismic survey was conducted in the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, aboard of the research vessel LARUS of the Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG). Around 400 km of 3.5 kHz seismic profiles were collected, which provided acoustic signals of good penetration depth and resolution. Seismic anomalies, including turbidity and pocket gas, revealed that gas-charged sediments are

Jair Weschenfelder; Salvador Aliotta; Carla M. Pereira; VINICIUS E. B. DE VASCONCELLOS

2006-01-01

86

Tidal frequency dynamics of a Southern Brazil coastal lagoon: Choking and short period forced oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Patos Lagoon is a choked, microtidal coastal laggon situated in southern Brazil between 30°S and 32°S. The response of\\u000a the lagoon to tidal oscillations is studied through data analysis and numerical modeling experiments. Two types of high frequency\\u000a oscillations are observed in the tidal frequency band: mixed tides, predominantly diurnal; and forced oscillations having\\u000a a period of 24 h

Osmar O. Möller; Patrice Castaing; Elisa Helena Leão Fernandes; Pascal Lazure

2007-01-01

87

Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also

Juliana G Assumpção; Ana Luíza Seidinger; Maria José Mastellaro; Raul C Ribeiro; Gerard P Zambetti; Ramapriya Ganti; Kumar Srivastava; Sheila Shurtleff; Deqing Pei; Luiz Carlos Zeferino; Rozany M Dufloth; Silvia Regina Brandalise; José Andres Yunes

2008-01-01

88

A new genus and species of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new genus and a new species of Euptychiina from open grassland habitats (campos de cima da serra) in southern Brazil. The systematic position of this new taxon is discussed based on morphological and molecular data, and it is considered sister to Taydebis Freitas. Since the campos vegetation is considered endangered due to anthropogenic activities, this butterfly species deserves attention and should be included in future conservation plans for this biome. PMID:21584405

Freitas, A V L; Mielke, O H H; Moser, A; Silva-Brandão, K L; Iserhard, C A

89

Assessment of enteric viruses in a sewage treatment plant located in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to verify the microbial quality of the influents and effluents of one STP from southern Brazil, an eight-month survey was conducted to examine the presence of total and fecal coliforms and of adenovirus (HAdV), enterovirus (EV), genogroup A rotaviruses (GARV) and Torque teno virus (TTV), in treated effluent samples from São João/Navegantes STP, Porto Alegre (Brazil). A total of 16 samples were collected, eight of influent (raw sewage, prior to treatment), and the other eight of the effluent (post-treatment sewage). Total and fecal coliform levels ranging from 3.6 × 10(4) to 4.4 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL and 2.9 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7) MPN/100 mL, were detected in all samples. In raw sewage, HAdV (25%) and GARV (28.6%) viral genomes were detected. The analysis of effluent samples revealed the presence of HAdV (50%), EV (37.5%), and TTV (12.5%) genomic fragments. All samples, regardless of the month analysed, presented detection of a least one virus genus, except for in April. Higher virus detection rates were observed in treated sewage samples (62.5%), and in 80% of them (effluent positive samples) HAdV was detected. Results showed that improvements in sewage monitoring and treatment processes are necessary to reduce the viral and bacterial load on the environment in southern Brazil. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study showing the monitoring of viral genomes in influent and effluent samples from a STP located in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), southern Brazil. PMID:23295512

Vecchia, A D; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Comerlato, J; Bergamaschi, B; Luz, R B; Arantes, T S; Silva, J V S; Thewes, M R; Spilki, F R

2012-11-01

90

The present status of artisanal fisheries of extreme Southern Brazil: an effort towards community-based management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental shelf of the extreme southern Brazil is one of the most productive fishing areas in Brazil. Great part of the commercial species is related to the estuary of Patos Lagoon. The estuary serves as spawning, nursery and feeding grounds for several species. The artisanal fishery in the estuarine area exists since the end of the last century but

Enir G Reis; Fernando D'Incao

2000-01-01

91

76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY...In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established...business community in the United States and Brazil. Each government will appoint the...

2011-03-07

92

78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY...In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established...business community in the United States and Brazil. Each government appoints the members...

2013-05-29

93

Trypanosoma cruzi I-III in southern Brazil causing individual and mixed infections in humans, sylvatic reservoirs and triatomines.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterise Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of 28 isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi from humans (15), triatomines (9), and opossums (4) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For this purpose, we analysed the size polymorphism at the 3' end of the 24S? ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the partial 5' sequence of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase subunit II gene (COII). Band patterns of the isolates were compared with reference samples of T. cruzi I (Silvio X10 and Col 17G2), T. cruzi II (Esmeraldo and JG), T. cruzi III (222 and 231), T. cruzi IV (CAN III), T. cruzi V (SO3 cl5), and T. cruzi VI (CL Brener). Our results confirmed that rRNA analysis is of limited use for assessing T. cruzi DTUs. COII RFLP analysis was suitable for screening, but for one isolate it was necessary to determine the COII partial sequence to identify the DTU. Only one of the isolates from humans belonged to T. cruzi I; 13 isolates belonged to T. cruzi II and one to T. cruzi III. The four isolates from opossums and five isolates from triatomines were identified as T. cruzi I. Four isolates from triatomines showed patterns of both T. cruzi I and II, indicating mixed infections. This study contributes to the characterisation of the dynamics of T. cruzi populations in southern Brazil. PMID:21855523

Abolis, Nilce Gomes; Araújo, Silvana Marques de; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

2011-08-09

94

Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Toxocara canis antibodies in children aged from 1 to 12 yr old was evaluated in Pelotas City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human toxocariasis or visceral larva migrans (VLM) was diagnosed with the use of an ELISA based on the T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens; Western blotting was used to confirm the ELISA-positive results. From 427 samples, 50.6% were positive for the presence of anti-TES antibodies. A confirmatory test (Western blot) was carried out on a sample of the ELISA-positive sera (n = 70), and all were positive. The Western blots had specific banding pattern characteristics, where the 30-kDa fraction demonstrated the highest reactivity. This fraction could be important for the specific diagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:23738711

Schoenardie, Elizandra R; Scaini, Carlos J; Brod, Claudiomar S; Pepe, Michele S; Villela, Marcos M; McBride, Alan J A; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria E A

2013-06-01

95

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

Not Available

1990-06-01

96

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

Not Available

1989-02-01

97

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

98

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

2010-01-01

99

REGIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest systems in the southern United States. redictions for this region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. hifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in res...

100

Spatiotemporal Variation of Bacterial Assemblages in a Shallow Subtropical Coastal Lagoon in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the bacterioplankton of Conceição Lagoon (27°34? S–48°27? W), Southern Brazil, was carried out in July 2005 (austral\\u000a winter) and January 2006 (austral summer) to characterize the bacterial spatiotemporal distribution and to determine the heterotrophic\\u000a and photoautotrophic bacterial dominance in hypoxic\\/oxic stratified waters. Bacterial abundance increased significantly (p?5 (winter) to 3.21?×?106 cells mL?1 (summer), heterotrophic coccus\\/rod-shaped (HCR) cells

Maria Luiza Schmitz Fontes; Paulo C. Abreu

2009-01-01

101

Heterogeneity in syntectonic granitoids emplaced in a major shear zone, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two granitoid associations were emplaced during the development of the Major Gercino Shear Zone in eastern Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The 614 Ma Fernandes Granitoid Association is composed mainly of hornblende syenogranites including A-type, and alkali-calcic and calc-alkaline types. Initial Sr isotope ratios are heterogeneous, but systematic isotopic and element variations suggest that different source rocks produced magmas which underwent mixing and fractional crystallization. The Rolador Granitoid Association of biotite-bearing granodiorite is less isotopically heterogeneous, but systematic isotopic and element variations are not obvious.

Passarelli, Cláudia Regina; McReath, Ian; Stipp Basei, Miguel Ângelo; Siga, Oswaldo; da Costa Campos Neto, Mário

2011-12-01

102

Fruits and vegetables intake and characteristics associated among adolescents from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Increased body weight has been associated with an unhealthy diet, low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our objective was to investigate whether adolescents had low intake of fruits and vegetables, and whether gender, age and education could affect the feeding patterns. Methods A population-based sample of adolescents, aged 12–19 years, were randomly selected in southern Brazil and included in this cross-sectional study. The total daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans were investigated in standardized household interviews, using a food frequency questionnaire and questions, being categorized as five or more servings per day as the five-a-day diet. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and modified Poisson regression were used in the analysis. Results Adolescents (n?=?568) were included, 49.5% boys, 14.3% had overweight and 8.8% obesity. Approximately 23% of participants consumed five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. It was observed that 36.7% of boys and 31.0% of girls consumed less than one serving of fruit per day, and 58.4% and 44.6%, respectively, consumed less than one serving of vegetables. The consumption of vegetables, fruits, and rice and beans were not independently associated with gender. Overweight was associated with higher intake of five-a-day, independently of confounding factors. Conclusions Adolescents from southern Brazil have lower frequency of consumption of five servings a day of fruits and vegetables combined.

2012-01-01

103

Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

2009-06-01

104

Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.  

PubMed

Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted. PMID:9199538

Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

1997-06-15

105

Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m2/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m(2)/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii) were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna. PMID:19738978

Ortêncio-Filho, H; Reis, N R

2009-06-01

106

SHARK DATA FROM SANTOS LONGLINERS FISHERY OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1971-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical series from 1971 to 2000 of Chondrichthye s caught by longliners based in Santos City, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, have been reviewed and the fishery biology of some of the species has been studied. The Brazilian Santos fleet started in 1965\\/66 with two boats, increasing gradually until a maximum of 20 boats, in 1998 and 19 in 1999.

S. Bacilieri

107

An agrometeorological–spectral model to estimate soybean yield, applied to southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean yield is modelled from data gathered from crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The model comprises an agrometeorological term, obtained by adjusting the multiplicative model of Jensen, modified by Berlato, and a spectral term, obtained from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite images of the maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The weather data used to

R. W. De Melo; D. C. Fontana; M. A. Berlato; J. R. Ducati

2008-01-01

108

Infant mortality in southern states: a bureaucratic nightmare.  

PubMed

Despite numerous advances in technology, medicine, and health care, infant mortality continues to reach very high levels in southern states. The purpose of this paper is to examine demographic, economic, and health care factors that are likely to affect infant mortality. In so doing, we first compare infant mortality and other critical factors in southern states to other regions of the country. Second, we use cross tabulation tables to determine if there is a correlation between infant mortality and several independent variables. Third, we use regression analysis to determine how each of these variables affects the change in infant mortality for the 1990-2003 periods. The results of the cross tabulation tables indicate relationships between infant mortality and each of the independent variables. When these variables were placed in a regression model, high school graduation rates, race, geographic region, unemployment rates, uninsured rates, teenage pregnancy rates, single parent families, and the number of doctors and hospitals were significant. PMID:19209565

Menifield, Charles E; Dawson, Jacob

2008-01-01

109

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

Not Available

1989-07-01

110

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

111

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and involved 182 farms located in 26 countries. In addition to the three major broad-spectrum anthelmintic groups (viz. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin) the combination benzimidazole and leyamisole and the H. contortus specific anthelmintic, closantel, were tested by the faecal egg count reduction method for the prevalence

F. Echevarria; M. F. S. Borba; A. C. Pinheiro; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

112

First report of coenurosis in sheep in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper reports the first case of coenurosis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. This disease is caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780). The animal in which the disease was diagnosed was an 18-month-old ewe from an endemic area of Southern Brazil as an imported animal among a group of 30 sheep. The clinic-pathological condition was that commonly found in herbivores affected by the disease, especially sheep. Apathy, nystagmus, intermittent blindness, circling and pressing head against obstacles were the neurological signs reported. The necropsy showed that a brain lesion in the subcortex of the right hemisphere was a bladder-like cyst measuring 4 cm in diameter filled with a translucent fluid with a large number of white spherules (protoscolices) floating. In addition to the identification of the Coenurus cerebralis protoscolices, the brain tissue lesion was histopathologically described. PMID:21184708

Batista, Fernando Arévalo; Pizzigatti, Dietrich; Martins, Charles Ferreira; Nunes, Marcelo Monteiro; Megda, Tábata Torres; Ribeiro, Olímpio Crisóstomo; Paiva, Fernando

113

Isolations of yellow fever virus from Haemagogus leucocelaenus in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Following howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) deaths and yellow fever (YF) antigen detection by immunohistochemistry in the liver sample of a dead monkey in April and May 2001 in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, epidemiological field investigations were initiated. Two strains of YF virus were isolated in suckling mice from 23 Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon mosquitoes collected from the study sites. The YF virus was isolated from this species in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Colombia. No human cases were reported during the current epizootic outbreak. The YF virus isolation and the absence of Hg. (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar from the area suggest that Hg. leucocelaenus may be a secondary YF vector and play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease in the Southern Cone. PMID:12892055

Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Sperb, Alethéa F; Monteiro, Hamilton A; Torres, Maria A; Sousa, Maria R; Vasconcelos, Helena B; Mardini, Lúcia B; Rodrigues, Sueli G

114

Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of

Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa; Guilherme Drescher; Franciele Maboni; Shana Weber; Sônia de Avila Botton; Marilene Henning Vainstein; Irene Silveira Schrank; Agueda Castagna de Vargas

2008-01-01

115

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

2008-01-01

116

A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Itajai is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and\\/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability

M. Malta; F. I. Bastos; E. M. Pereira-Koller; M. D. Cunha; C. Marques; S. A. Strathdee

2006-01-01

117

Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-storey residential building in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the use of rainwater and greywater to promote potable water savings have been performed in different countries. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-storey residential building composed of three blocks, located in Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Water end-uses were estimated by applying questionnaires

Enedir Ghisi; Daniel F. Ferreira

2007-01-01

118

Potential for potable water savings by combining the use of rainwater and greywater in houses in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on rainwater and greywater have been performed all over the world as a way of promoting potable water savings. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in two houses in southern Brazil. An economic analysis is performed to evaluate the benefits of using rainwater and greywater

Enedir Ghisi; Sulayre Mengotti de Oliveira

2007-01-01

119

Acute Effects of Microcystis aeruginosa from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil, on the Microcrustacean Kalliapseudes schubartii (Crustacea: Tanaidacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, a microcystin producer, have been observed in the past two decades in the Patos Lagoon estuary (southern Brazil). This cyanobacterium reaches the estuary from northern waters and accumulates as toxic blooms in the shallow margins of the environment. Microcystins are phosphatase (PP1 and PP2A) inhibitors and cause animal death via alteration of the

W. Montagnolli; A. Zamboni; R. Luvizotto-Santos; J. S. Yunes

2004-01-01

120

Mycotic Dermatitis in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Southern Brazil, with a Confirmed Record of Lobomycosis Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobomycosis or lacaziosis is a chronic localized, cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by a dimorphic fungus (Lacazia loboi), that naturally affect humans and, at least, two dolphins species, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis). In cetaceans, the disease is widely distributed occurring from southern Brazil (Tramandaí River) to Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast

Ignacio B. Moreno; Paulo H. Ott; Maurício Tavares; Larissa R. Oliveira; Mauro R. Borba

121

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

122

Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State.

Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marilia; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vania A.; Tercas, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

2012-01-01

123

Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase. PMID:22852747

Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

2012-08-02

124

A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: A case study in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco) from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76) and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species.

Castilho, Camila S.; Gava, Adriana; de Freitas, Thales R.O.

2012-01-01

125

Molecular and biochemical biomarkers responses in the mussel Mytilus edulis collected from Southern Brazil coast.  

PubMed

Marine ecosystems are typically subjected to a variety of stressors containing complex xenobiotics mixtures. This study aims to evaluate the responses of molecular and biochemical biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus edulis providing data for environmental monitoring programs development in Southern Brazil. Mussels were collected at a polluted site, near Patos Lagoon outfall, and at a control site. Gills, muscle and mantle samples were used for biomarker determinations. Mussels collected at the polluted site significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and decreased catalase (CAT) activity. Moreover, an increase in sod1, gst? and hsp70 mRNA expression was observed. Overall, biochemical and molecular biomarkers responses were observed, but these responses varied depending on the analyzed tissue. These results indicate possible contaminants effects on organisms and the need for effective environmental monitoring programs in this ecosystem. PMID:22325321

Rola, Regina Coimbra; Monteiro, Maurício da Costa; Reis, Sérgio Renan da Silva; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

2012-02-10

126

Prevalence of sun exposure and its associated factors in southern Brazil: a population-based study*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Sunlight exposure is responsible for a large number of dermatological diseases. OBJECTIVE We estimated the prevalence of sunlight exposure and its associated factors in adults from southern Brazil in a cross-sectional, population-based study. METHODS We investigated a representative sample of individuals aged ? 20 years (n=3,136). Sunlight exposure and its associated factors were evaluated in two distinct situations: at leisure time and at work. The time period investigated ranged from December 2004 to March 2005, comprising 120 days of the highest ultraviolet index in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, in southern Brazil. The participants were asked about sunlight exposure for at least 20 minutes between 10 A.M. and 4 P.M. The analysis was stratified by sex, and sunlight exposure was grouped into five categories. RESULTS Among the 3,136 participants, prevalence of sunlight exposure at the beach was 32.8% (95% CI, 30.3 - 35.2) and 26.3% (95% CI, 24.2 28.3) among men and women, respectively. The prevalence at work was 39.8% (95% CI, 37.2 - 42.4) among men and 10.5% (95% CI, 9.1 - 12.0) among women. Age was inversely associated with sunlight exposure. Family income and achieved schooling were positively associated with sunlight exposure at leisure time and inversely associated with sunglight exposure at work. Self-reported skin color was not associated. Knowledge of any friend or relative who has been affected by skin cancer was positively associated with sunlight exposure among men at work. CONCLUSION Despite the media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of sunlight exposure during a period of high ultraviolet index.

Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; dos Santos, Ina da Silva; Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2013-01-01

127

Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2008-01-01

128

Assembly rules in muscid fly assemblages in the grasslands biome of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The distribution of muscid species (Diptera) in grasslands fragments of southern Brazil was assessed using null models according to three assembly rules: (a) negatively-associated distributions; (b) guild proportionality; and (c) constant body-size ratios. We built presence/absence matrices and calculated the C-score index to test negatively-associated distributions and guild proportionality based on the following algorithms: total number of fixed lines (F L), total number of fi xed columns (F C), and the effect of the average size of the populations along lines (W) for 5000 randomizations. We used null models to generate random communities that were not structured by competition and evaluated the patterns generated using three models: general, trophic guilds, and taxonomic guilds. All three assembly rules were tested in each model. The null hypothesis was corroborated in all F L X F C co-occurrence analyses. In addition, 11 analyses of the models using the W algorithm showed the same pattern observed previously. Three analyses using the W algorithm indicated that species co-occurred more frequently than expected by chance. According to analyses of co-occurrence and guild proportionality, the coexistence of muscid species is not regulated by constant body size ratios. In fl ies of the grasslands, no rule was identified. Yet, a consensus did emerge from our analyses: species co-occur more frequently than expected by chance, indicating that aggregation is a recurring phenomenon among flies with saprophagous adults and predatory larvae. Therefore, competition does not seem to play an important role in the determination of muscid assemblages in the grasslands in Southern Brazil. PMID:20676506

Krüger, Rodrigo F; de Carvalho, Claudio J B; Ribeiro, Paulo B

129

Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

Gallas, Moisés; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

130

Impact of the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation on Visceral Leishmaniasis, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985-1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous

Carlos Roberto Franke; Mario Ziller; Christoph Staubach; Mojib Latif

2002-01-01

131

Molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing isolates in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have been frequently reported worldwide. They represent a serious concern because of the limited therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of 14 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers among 345 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems recovered from 11 separate hospitals in southern Brazil. The blaKPC-2 gene was detected in 14 isolates (4?%): six Enterobacter cloacae, five K. pneumoniae and three Serratia marcescens. Most of these isolates exhibited high-level resistance against ?-lactams and ciprofloxacin, while the most active drugs were polymyxin B and amikacin. Genetic environment analysis, based on the classical Tn4401 structure, revealed six distinct platforms. Plasmids carrying blaKPC-2 were not typable and most were approximately 20 kb. Only KPC carbapenemases were found among the isolates studied, highlighting the local relevance of these enzymes in acquired resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae. Our results contribute to the understanding of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae and to the molecular characterization of KPC-2-producing isolates in Brazil. PMID:24000225

Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Linhares, Adriano Rostirolla; Barin, Juliana; Darini, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Zavascki, Alexandre P; Barth, Afonso Luis

2013-09-02

132

Zirconium and uranium recoveries from a ZrSiOâ and ZrOâ mineral (Caldasito) from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thesis. A commercial-gnade zirconium dioxide (Zr, Hf)Oâ and a ; sodium diuranate (SDU) or ammonium diuranate (ADU) processing is presented. ; These compounds are obtained from the Caldasito, from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau ; in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The processing scheme ; is developed in three steps: the chemical opening of the

A. E. P

1972-01-01

133

Natural diet of fish and crabs associated with the phytal community of Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh, 1820 (Phaeophyta, Fucales) at Ponta das Garoupas, Bombinhas, Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of fish and crabs associated with Sargassum cymosum beds was analysed at Ponta das Garoupas, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. They are reported to feed on phytal organisms. The relative importance of food items was established for these consumers, and the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods were used for quantitative analysis. The analysis of 272 guts from

Setuko Masunari

2008-01-01

134

Epidemiological findings and laboratory evaluation of sporotrichosis: a description of 103 cases in cats and dogs in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis, which affects mainly small animals, and is considered an important public health disease. This paper describes the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of 103 clinical cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed over a 10-year period in southern Brazil. The 92 cats and 11 dogs from eight municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State developed especially the disseminated cutaneous and fixed cutaneous forms of the disease. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, serous nasal discharge and dyspnea were found in about 57% of the animals. The detection of Sporothrix schenckii in different clinical samples showed highest isolation in testicles (46.6%), oral cavity (45.2%) and conjunctival mucosa (38.1%). A differentiated histological pattern was found between the fixed cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous (DC) manifestations of the disease; well-organized granulomas of nodular distribution and various fungal structures prevailed in the DC form in cats. Melanin detection in S. schenckii cells by the Fontana-Masson technique was positive in 45.4% of the samples. The study revealed that the State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic sporotrichosis area and demonstrated the possibility of involvement of other pathways in the infection and spread of the disease. In addition, it emphasized the importance of laboratory tests for mycosis confirmation, especially in dogs that develop clinical manifestations without the presence of cutaneous lesions. PMID:22143899

Madrid, Isabel Martins; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

2011-12-06

135

76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY...In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established...business community in the United States and Brazil. Each government appoints the members...

2011-10-24

136

The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest) in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed ?13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas. PMID:23828336

Scheer, Maurício B; Curcio, Gustavo R; Roderjan, Carlos V

137

Infection of humans and animals with Echinococcus granulosus (G1 and G3 strains) and E. ortleppi in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, is one of the foci of human cystic echinococcosis (CE). The sheep strain (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi (also known as cattle strain G5) have been reported before to infect livestock. However, up to the present, no molecular data are available on isolates of the E. granulosus complex from humans and dogs. The present study analyzed hydatid cysts from 6 CE patients and adult worms from 12 dogs. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 and 12S rRNA genes detected the E. granulosus G1 genotype from four human cases, the G3 genotype (or buffalo strain) from one human case and E. ortleppi from another human case, respectively. Ten of the twelve dogs were found infected with the G1 genotype, and one dog each harbored worms of the G3 genotype and E. ortleppi. Obvious morphological differences were recognized between the G1 and E. ortleppi adult worms from dogs in this region. The buffalo strain (G3) is for the first time reported from South America. PMID:21273000

de la Rue, Mario L; Takano, Keishi; Brochado, Joaquim F; Costa, Carmem V; Soares, Antonio G; Yamano, Kimiaki; Yagi, Kinpei; Katoh, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Kenichi

2010-11-19

138

Effects of a fire on a population of treefrogs (Scinax cf. alter, Lutz) in a restinga habitat in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover. PMID:18833475

Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D

2008-08-01

139

Community of arthropod ectoparasites of two species of Turdus Linnaeus, 1758 (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at describing the community of arthropod ectoparasites associated with sympatric populations of Turdus amaurochalinus and Turdus rufiventris and analyzing the aggregation patterns of the chewing lice species, during reproductive and nonreproductive periods, of both Turdus species in three areas of the Atlantic forest in southern Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Altogether, we captured 36 specimens of T. amaurochalinus and 53 specimens of T. rufiventris. We identified two families of chewing lice, Menoponidae and Philopteridae, with Myrsidea and Brueelia as the most prevalent and abundant on both host birds. The lowest aggregation levels of chewing lice Myrsidea and Brueelia occurred during the reproductive period of both host species, suggesting a reproductive synchronization and a dispersion period. The most prevalent feather mite on T. amaurochalinus was Proctophyllodes weigoldi, and on T. rufiventris, Trouessartia serrana. Analges sp. and Pteronyssoides sp. were not observed on T. rufiventris. We identified three species of ticks; Ixodes auritulus was the most prevalent and abundant on the birds. Ornithoica vicina was the only hippoboscid fly collected, and only on T. amaurochalinus. The richness of ectoparasites was greater on T. amaurochalinus than on T. rufiventris. For T. amaurochalinus, the mean richness was lesser in winter compared to spring and autumn; however, we observed no variation in the mean richness of ectoparasites for T. rufiventris during the same seasons. PMID:23093206

da Cunha Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Graciolli, Gustavo

2012-10-24

140

Occupation and Urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brazilian Amazon is marked by intra-regional hypermobility. Two major population trends arise: the occupation of remote areas and a rush to the cities. Roraima state is testimony to both trends. Despite its remote location, Roraima was the fastest growing Brazilian State during the 1980s. Most of its growth, however, took place in urban areas. This paper casts light on

Alexandre Diniz

141

Effect of Land-Cover Change on Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-cover change has significant influence on carbon storage and fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. The southern United States is thought to be the largest carbon sink across the conterminous United States. However, the spatial and temporary variability of carbon storage and fluxes due to land-cover change in the southern United States remains unclear. In this study, we first reconstructed the annual

Hua Chen; Hanqin Tian; Mingliang Liu; Jerry Melillo; Shufen Pan; Chi Zhang

2006-01-01

142

Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate\\u000a fertilizer factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l?1 and 5 mg l?1, respectively, and were dependent on pH. The fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial horizon of soil\\u000a in quantities comparable to those

Nicolai Mirlean; Ari Roisenberg

2007-01-01

143

Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of sympatry between Alouatta caraya and A. clamitans are rare despite their extensive range overlap. An example of their current sympatry and the rediscovery of free-ranging\\u000a potential hybrids of A. caraya and A. clamitans in the forests of the Upper Paran River, Southern Brazil, are reported in this paper. Eight groups were observed in the\\u000a study area: five monospecific

Lucas M. Aguiar; Daniel M. Mellek; Kaue C. Abreu; Tiago G. Boscarato; Itiberê P. Bernardi; João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

2007-01-01

144

Carbon and strontium isotope fluctuations and paleoceanographic changes in the late Neoproterozoic Araras carbonate platform, southern Amazon craton, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The late Neoproterozoic Araras Group is exposed along the southern border of the Amazon craton and at the northern Paraguay belt, central Brazil. It comprises carbonate rocks over 600 m thick overlying Marinoan glaciogenic diamictites, and includes the first well-documented cap carbonate sequence in South America. ?13C values for Araras carbonates, interpreted as representative of the original seawater (?18O>?10‰), exhibit a

Afonso C. R. Nogueira; Claudio Riccomini; Alcides N. Sial; Candido A. V. Moura; Ricardo I. F. Trindade; Thomas R. Fairchild

2007-01-01

145

Radiometric age determination of tonsteins and stratigraphic constraints for the Lower Permian coal succession in southern Paraná Basin, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion microprobe (SHRIMP II) dating of zircons from tonsteins interbedded with coal seams from the Candiota and Faxinal coalfields (Early Permian, Rio Bonito Formation, Paraná Basin, Brazil) is presented. The mean ages obtained (290.6±1.5 Ma) are more precise than previously published intervals. Calibrations of chronostratigraphic data with radiometric ages show that the main coal succession from the southern Basin is constrained

Margot Guerra-Sommer; Miriam Cazzulo-Klepzig; João Orestes Schneider Santos; Léo Afraneo Hartmann; João Marcelo Ketzer; Milton Luis Laquintinie Formoso

2008-01-01

146

Nutrient-rich saltwater and its influence on the phytoplankton of the patos lagoon estuary, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five cruises carried out in the main navigation channel of the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil, between June and December 1989, showed high concentrations of ammonium (up to 3.0 muM), nitrate (up to 13.0 muM), and phosphate (up to 3.0 muM) in the surface saltwater close to the lagoon's mouth. High values of chlorophyll a were also measured in euhaline

Paulo Cesar Abreu; Carlos Hartmann; Clarisse Odebrecht

1995-01-01

147

Short and Long-Term Chlorophyll a Variability in the Shallow Microtidal Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the shallow microtidal Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil (32° 07? S–52° 06? W), chlorophyll a (Chl a) variability was studied at different time scales during the last 25 years (hourly–daily sampling in 1984\\/1985; weekly sampling\\u000a in 1986 and from 1988 to 1990; monthly sampling from 1993 to 2008). Phytoplankton biomass variation seems to be most influenced\\u000a by hydrology, which is

Paulo C. Abreu; Marli Bergesch; Luis A. Proença; Carlos A. E. Garcia; Clarisse Odebrecht

2010-01-01

148

Major Ion Chemistry in a Freshwater Coastal Lagoon from Southern Brazil (Mangueira Lagoon): Influence of Groundwater Inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper characterizes major ion distributions and investigates whether groundwater exerts a major control on the chemical\\u000a functioning of Mangueira Lagoon, a large (90 km long), shallow (?4–5 m deep), and fresh coastal lagoon in southern Brazil.\\u000a Water volumes equivalent to ?80% of the total annual input are used in the summer for irrigating nearby rice plantations,\\u000a the most important regional economic

Isaac R. Santos; Maria I. Machado; Luis F. Niencheski; William Burnett; Idel B. Milani; Carlos F. F. Andrade; Richard N. Peterson; Jeffrey Chanton; Paulo Baisch

2008-01-01

149

Pre and Post-Columbian Gene and Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Gaucho from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of the Gaucho, a distinct population of southern Brazil, relating it to their culture, to assess possible parallel continuity. Methods: Six binary polymorphisms, an Alu insertion polymorphism (YAP) and 12 short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome, as well as the sequence of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I)

Andrea Rita Marrero; Claudio Bravi; Steven Stuart; Jeffrey C. Long; Fábio Pereira das Neves Leite; Trícia Kommers; Claudia M. B. Carvalho; Sergio Danilo Junho Pena; Andres Ruiz-Linares; Francisco Mauro Salzano; Maria Cátira Bortolini

2007-01-01

150

HOME RANGES AND MOVEMENT PATTERNS OF THE MARINE TUCUXI DOLPHIN, SOTALIA FLUVIATILIS, IN BAÍA NORTE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract - Marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) studied in Baía Norte, southern Brazil, exhibited very small overall home ranges with daylight movements in consistent water depths of around 3m. Mean overall home range areas calculated through two methodologies were similar, measuring 13.38km² ± 1.92 using the Minimum Convex Polygon method and 15.22km² ± 0.66 through the kernel estimator. Mean

Paulo A. C. Flores; Mariel Bazzalo

2004-01-01

151

Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.

2009-01-01

152

No evidence of HPV DNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southern Brazil. METHODS: We studied 189 esophageal samples from 125 patients from three different groups: (1) 102 biopsies from 51 patients with ESCC, with one sample from the tumor and another from normal esophageal mucosa distant from the tumor; (2) 50 esophageal biopsies from 37 patients with a previous diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and (3) 37 biopsies from esophageal mucosa with normal appearance from 37 dyspeptic patients, not exposed to smoking or alcohol consumption. Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the MY09/11 and GP5/6 L1 primers was used to detect HPV L1 in samples fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks. All PCR reactions were performed with a positive control (cervicovaginal samples), with a negative control (Human Genomic DNA) and with a blank reaction containing all reagents except DNA. We took extreme care to prevent DNA contamination in sample collection, processing, and testing. RESULTS: The histological biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ESCC in 52 samples (51 from ESCC group and 1 from the HNSCC group) and classified as well differentiated (12/52, 23.1%), moderately differentiated (27/52, 51.9%) or poorly differentiated (7/52, 13.5%). One hundred twenty-eight esophageal biopsies were considered normal (51 from the ESCC group, 42 from the HNSCC group and 35 from dyspeptic patients). Nine had esophagitis (7 from the HNSCC and 2 from dyspeptic patients). Of a total of 189 samples, only 6 samples had insufficient material for PCR analysis: 1 from mucosa distant from the tumor in a patient with ESCC, 3 from patients with HNSCC and 2 from patients without cancer. In 183 samples (96.8%) GAPDH, G3PDH and/or ?-globin were amplified, thus indicating the adequacy of the DNA in those samples. HPV DNA was negative in all the 183 samples tested: 52 with ESCC, 9 with esophagitis and 122 with normal esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of HPV infection in different ESCC from southern Brazil.

Antunes, Luis Carlos Moreira; Prolla, Joao Carlos; de Barros Lopes, Antonio; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Fagundes, Renato Borges

2013-01-01

153

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

154

Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region. PMID:22458224

Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

2012-03-01

155

[Mental disorders in a sample of pregnant women receiving primary health care in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders diagnosed during pregnancy and related sociodemographic causative factors among 712 women between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy receiving prenatal care in 18 basic health units in Porto Alegre and Bento Gonçalves in southern Brazil. PRIME-MD was used to assess mental disorders. The prevalence of probable mental disorder occurred in 41.7% of the women. The most prevalent diagnosis was major depressive disorder (21.6%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (19.8%). A multivariate analysis showed that the factors most significantly associated with a probable psychiatric disorder were: the fact that the pregnant woman did not work or study: PR = 1.25 (95%CI: 1.04-1.51);the fact that the pregnant woman did not live with her spouse: PR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52);the fact that the pregnant woman had two or more children: PR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.01-1.46). A high prevalence of probable mental disorder was observed. The increased search for health care by pregnant women provides an opportunity for screening, diagnosing and treating these disorders under the primary health care system. PMID:22331164

Almeida, Michele Scortegagna de; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Camey, Suzi; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

2012-02-01

156

Feeding habits of coypu in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops. PMID:21562696

Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P

2010-09-01

157

[Nutritional status and social determinants of child height in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The nutritional status of under-five children and the association between social conditions and child stature were examined using data from the program to control malnutrition and mortality in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, southern Brazil, 2001-2002. Anthropometric indices were calculated in z-scores of the CDC 2000 reference. At entrance into the program, 34.7% of the children presented stunting, 12.9% low weight for age, 4.2% wasting, and 8.7% overweight. Stunting was most prevalent among boys and children older than one year. Multivariate linear regression showed that, on average, children were shorter when the drinking water was collected directly in the environment (p = 0.046), there was no refrigerator for food preservation (p = 0.021), maternal age was less than 16 years at the birth of the oldest child among the under-fives (p = 0.019), and the mother was illiterate (p = 0.083). Sewage facilities only had an effect on the unadjusted model. There was no evidence that the number of under-five children had an effect on stature. Social inclusion policies and health and social provision which takes these factors into account are potentially relevant for improving health and nutrition in this population. PMID:16501752

Menegolla, Ivone Andreatta; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Rodrigues, Inajara Haubert; Schwingel, Lucio Roberto; Scapinello, Elaine; Pedroso, Maisa Beltrame; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho

2006-02-20

158

Influence of habitat structure on fish assemblage of an artificial reef in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Habitat complexity strongly influences reef fish community composition. An understanding of the underlying reasons for this relationship is important for evaluating the suitability of artificial reef (AR) habitats as a marine resource management tool. We studied the influence of AR habitat structure on fish assemblage composition off the southern coast of Brazil. We found that reef blocks with greater area and number of holes possessed the greatest fish species richness and abundance. Reef blocks with greater complexity had higher abundance of almost 30% of fish species present. Natural reef (NR) and AR were different in their fish species composition, trophic structure and categories of water column occupancy by fish (spatial categories). Although NR was more diverse and harboured more trophic levels, AR presented the higher abundances and the presence of distinct fish species that underlined their importance at a regional scale. The greater availability of sheltering habitat where hard substrate is scarce, together with their frequent use by economically important species, make AR a useful tool for coastal management when certain ecological conditions are met. PMID:22014376

Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Félix-Hackradt, Fabiana Cézar; García-Charton, José Antonio

2011-09-28

159

Trends of karyotypical evolution in the pearl cichlid, Geophagus brasiliensis, from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions can facilitate speciation even in the presence of gene flow. The present study aims to analyze the karyotypic variation in six populations of Geophagus brasiliensis from southern Brazil. All specimens showed 2n=48 chromosomes, but three karyotypes were found to have one, two or three pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. Although G. brasiliensis did not exhibit variation in the diploid number, it presented a wide interpopulational variation mainly regarding the karyotype formula and specific chromosomal markers. Differences in the location of the major and minor rDNA loci were observed among the populations. Moreover, different patterns were observed in the distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin, presenting intra- and interpopulational variation. This supports the hypothesis that this taxon represents a complex species or that cryptic species are included in this group, indicating a possibleprocess of sympatric speciation. By potentially restricting gene flow between heterokaryotypes, the segregating chromosome rearrangements we describe for G. brasiliensis may play a role in diversification in this species complex. PMID:24035646

Perazzo, Giselle X; Noleto, Rafael B; Vicari, Marcelo R; Gava, Adriana; Cestari, Marta M

2013-08-28

160

Dental pathology in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Pathological processes observed in the stomatognathic systems of mammalian species are a useful source of information about the habits, evolution and general health of such animals. Studies of pathological conditions on teeth are common in humans and other primates, but rare in wild animals in general and marine mammals in particular. For cetaceans, previous studies provided scanty records of dental anomalies in a few species. This is the first broad and systematic inventory of dental pathology in dolphins. Specimens stored at scientific collections from the southern coast of Brazil were visually inspected under a stereoscopic microscope using a dental explorer. Diagnosis of lesions and anomalies followed literature descriptions. Abnormalities such as caries-like lesions, mineralized calculus deposits, dental erosion, enamel anomalies (hypoplasia and exogenous pigmentation), root resorption, germination and other shape anomalies, were diagnosed in the delphinids Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus capensis, Stenella frontalis, Stenella coeruleoalba, Lagenodelphis hosei, Pseudorca crassidens, Orcinus orca, Steno bredanensis and Tursiops truncatus. Endogenous causes may be related to the occurrence of certain conditions, but the aetiology of caries-like lesions and calculus accumulation is still unknown for cetaceans. The diagnosis of alveolar anomalies and other bone lesions in specimens with dental pathology lead us to believe these lesions modify the integrity of the periodontal ligament and bony tissues, adding to the burden of morbidity of affected animals. PMID:21790069

Loch, Carolina; Grando, Liliane J; Kieser, Jules A; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C

2011-05-01

161

Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy.

Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

2009-01-01

162

Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. PMID:23571856

Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

2013-04-06

163

Antiproliferative activity of the dimeric phloroglucinol and benzophenone derivatives of Hypericum spp. native to southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A large number of plants are known to possess strong antitumor properties. Previous studies have verified the antiproliferative activity of the extracts and fractions from six species of Hypericum spp. growing in southern Brazil. In the present study, the in-vitro antiproliferative effects of two dimeric phloroglucinols (japonicin A and uliginosin B, isolated from Hypericum myrianthum) and two benzophenones (cariphenone A and cariphenone B, isolated from H. carinatum) were investigated against three tumor cell lines (HT-29 - human colon carcinoma cells; U-251 - human glioma cell line, and OVCAR-3 - human ovarian carcinoma cells). In addition, different doses of these compounds were associated with cytotoxic drugs commonly used as chemotherapy in the clinic. Cariphenone A and cariphenone B showed moderate antiproliferative activity against all tumor cell lines at a dose of 100 ?g/ml. Unlike benzophenones, japonicin A and uliginosin B exerted antiproliferative effects only in the OVCAR-3 cell line. Moreover, a very strong synergistic effect was demonstrated by the association of subeffective doses of japonicin A with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel, decreasing cellular proliferation of the OVCAR-3 cell line. These preliminary results provide a scientific basis to further pursue these compounds as potential combined therapy for certain tumor types. PMID:23669242

Pinhatti, Amanda V; de Barros, Francisco M C; de Farias, Caroline B; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Poser, Gilsane L von; Abujamra, Ana L

2013-08-01

164

[Non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among elementary and high school students in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the non-medical use of psychoactive medicines among students at public and private schools of Passo Fundo, Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to 5,057 students from the 5th grade of elementary school to the 3rd year of high school. The questionnaire contained questions about the use of amphetamines, tranquilizers, barbiturates, anticholinergics, opioids, appetite stimulants, and anabolic steroids. Of the sample total, 7.7% had consumed tranquilizers sometime during their lives, 6.4% had used amphetamines, 2.2% had used anabolic steroids, and 1.1% had used barbiturates. Female students reported significantly greater consumption of tranquilizers and amphetamines, while anabolic steroid use was more prevalent among males. The pattern of psychoactive medicine consumption among children and adolescents students is comparable with the pattern among adults. The findings of this research suggest the need to include children and adolescents in media campaigns and other education programs to prevent the non-medical use and abuse of psychoactive medicines. PMID:16470288

Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Branco, Mirna Maria Nicolai; Carvalho, Rejane Maria Agne de; Pasqualotti, Adriano; Maciel, Elizabeth Nunes; Migott, Ana Maria Bellani

2006-02-06

165

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

2009-12-01

166

Frequencies of MICA alleles in patients from southern Brazil with multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which mainly affects the skin and nervous system. The disease has several clinical forms. This study investigated the MICA and HLA-B genes in 223 samples from leprosy patients and 201 samples from healthy individuals matched for age, gender and ethnical background. Of the patients, 153 had multibacillary, 45 paucibacillary and 25 indeterminate leprosy. The aim of this case-control study was to assess whether the MICA alleles influence susceptibility for leprosy or affect the subtype of the disease in a population of southern Brazil. There were significant differences in frequencies of the MICA*027 allele (4.7% vs 1.8%, P-value = 0.01, OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.16-0.85) between leprosy patients and controls, and of the MICA*010 (4.5% vs 1.6%, P-value = 0.05, OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13-0.97) and MICA*027 alleles (4.7% vs 1.3%, P-value = 0.01; OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.09-0.79) between multibacillary leprosy patients and the control group. There were no significant differences in the frequency of MICA alleles between paucibacillary leprosy patients and controls. Thus, the MICA*027 allele is associated with a protective effect for leprosy per se, while the MICA*010 and MICA*027 alleles are associated with protection against multibacillary leprosy, the most severe clinical subtype. PMID:22168250

do Sacramento, W Sergio; Mazini, P S; Franceschi, D A S; de Melo, F C; Braga, M A; Sell, A M; Tsuneto, L T; Visentainer, J E Laguila

2011-12-14

167

The use of psychoactive substances among medical students in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to investigate the patterns of use of psychoactive substances among students of a medical school in Southern Brazil and to explore a putative role of discrete behavioral and social variables in their drug use. This is a descriptive and transversal cut study. All regularly enrolled medical students at the University of Caxias do Sul were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire, which analyses lifetime drug use as well as drug use in the previous 30 days and 12 months was utilized to collect data. From a total of 318 regularly enrolled students, 183 (57.5%) completed and returned the questionnaires. The highest prevalence rates of lifetime drug use, drug use in the last 12 months and drug use in the last 30 days were observed, according to drug type, as follow in descending order: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalants, tranquilizers, amphetamine and cocaine. A multivariate analysis indicated that research respondents who live with their parents as well as those whose parents live together harmoniously, those who deny close ties to drug users, those who disapprove drug use, those who are not tobacco smokers and those who manifest religious beliefs and practice presented the most reduced levels of illicit drug use. The use of psychoactive substances among medical students in the University of Caxias do Sul is a significant problem. Appropriate and timely initiatives are needed to prevent and curb drug use among medical students. PMID:17454017

Boniatti, Márcio Manozzo; Zubaran, Carlos; Panarotto, Daniel; Delazeri, Gerson Jacob; Tirello, Jacson Luís; Feldens, Maurício De Oliveira; Sperotto, Vagner Francisco Remonti

2007-05-01

168

Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest  

PubMed Central

Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

2010-01-01

169

The hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in young adults from the Southern Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and its associated factors among subjects that have been followed up from birth. In 1982, all maternity hospitals in the city of Pelotas, in the Southern Region of Brazil, were visited and all births were recorded. Babies whose parents lived in the urban area of Pelotas were subsequently followed up on several occasions. A 22 to 23-year follow-up of this birth cohort was carried out in 2004 and 2005. The presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was defined as waist circumference ? 90 cm and triglyceride levels ? 177 mg/dL for males, and waist circumference ? 85 cm and triglyceride levels ? 133 mg/dL for females. The prevalence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype was 5.9% and 4.5% among men and women, respectively. Among males, a sedentary lifestyle during leisure time, smoking and obesity were associated with the presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype, whereas among females the condition was positively associated with skin color, family income, obesity and dietary fat intake. PMID:23703005

Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C; Oliveira, Isabel; Silveira, Vera M

2013-05-01

170

Radioactive Soil Characterization Of The State Of Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The aim of this study is to determine quality reference values for radioactive content in representative soils from the São Paulo State, Brazil. Thirty samples were collected and the concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 137Cs and 40K were

Goro Hiromoto; Ana Claudia Peres; Maria Helena Tadei; Marcio Roberto Soares; Luis Reynaldo Ferracciu Alleoni

2010-01-01

171

The Role of the state in Dependent Capitalist Deveiopment: The Case of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis explores the utility of Marxist conceptions of the state in examining the relationship between the state and development in Bra.zil. The development of the state form in Brazil is analysed as a factor of dependent development, State-class relations, with respect to the ruling class and the subordinate classes, are examined to determine the logic of state intervention in

Geoffrey Arnold Bourne

1983-01-01

172

[Malaria in the state of Paraná, Brazil].  

PubMed

To collect data regarding registered cases of malaria in the state of Paraná, attendance reports of suspected cases of malaria performed by Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Paraná regional center, were analyzed from January, 1994 through December, 1999. Of 31,975 blood samples examined, 7.4% were positive: 86.4% for Plasmodium vivax, 12.7% for P. falciparum, 0.04% for P. malariae and 0.9% for P. vivax and P. falciparum. As to the epidemiological classification, 84.5% represented heterochthonous cases and 15.5% represented autochthonous cases. The municipalities showing higher rates of autochthonous cases were Foz do Iguaçu, Santa Terezinha do Itaipu and Santa Helena, a region influenced by the Itaipu reservoir, where prevention and control actions must be concentrated. PMID:11340496

Bértoli, M; Moitinho Md

173

Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

2012-05-01

174

Mercury fractionation in stream sediments from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold mining region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Iron Quadrangle (IQ) region, located in the state of Minas Gerais, has been the most important gold producing area in Brazil since the end of seventeenth century. The use of mercury for gold amalgamation in small scale mines has been responsible for large release of Hg to aquatic and terrestrial environments during 300 years of mining. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of Hg in stream sediments is the southern region of the IQ by utilizing sequential extraction. Since mobility and availability of Hg are related to its distribution among sediment partitions, fractionation methods provide detailed information on the ecotoxicological impact and risks associated to the presence of Hg in sediments. The total Hg concentration varied from 179.3 to 690.1 microg kg( - 1) and Hg(0) accounted for the majority at all sample sites, ranging from 42% to 56% of the total. PMID:18821025

Varejão, Eduardo V V; Bellato, Carlos R; Fontes, Maurício P F

2008-09-27

175

Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE) form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01), had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01), and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01). No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks. PMID:23982095

Maccarini, Julia De Luca; Nazario, Carlos Alberto Kuntz; Ferreira, Jovino Dos Santos; Ceglio, William Queiroz Guimarães Wiegandt; Serpa, Rômulo Cavalcante; Ferreira, Vera Lúcia Paes Cavalcanti; de Lucca Schiavon, Leonardo; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz

176

Ecological traits of two sympatric species of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work was performed with the aim to test theoretical predictions regarding that the sympatric species Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi might show distinct population biology to facilitate its coexistence. The specimens were collected monthly with nets from August 2003 through July 2004 in two trout ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. In the laboratory, the specimens were measured as cephalothorax length (mm), being the sex and ovigerous conditions checked. The species H. pleoacuta was 2.94 times more frequent than H. castroi. Males were significantly greater in size than females ( H. pleoacuta—males: 0.74 ± 0.002 mm and females: 0.66 ± 0.001 mm; H. castroi—males: 0.84 ± 0.00 mm and females: 0.72 ± 0.003 mm). Males and females of H. castroi showed a greater mean body size than H. pleoacuta. Sexual maturity was attained at 0.53 mm in males and 0.48 mm in females of H. pleoacuta, and 0.72 mm in males and 0.67 mm in females of H. castroi. The frequency distribution in size classes was usually bimodal in H. pleoacuta and polymodal in H. castroi throughout the year. Sex ratio was female-biased in either species of Hyalella. Ovigerous females (carrying eggs or juveniles in the marsupium) were collected throughout the year in both Hyalella species, but H. pleoacuta and H. castroi were found with more frequency during the winter and fall, respectively. Recruitment occurred in all months of sampling, the juvenile frequency being more than 50% of the amphipods collected in almost all months in both species. The biological differences (especially body size, size at sexual maturity, number of specimens collected and reproductive peak) and microhabitat specialization can be facilitating factors in the coexistence of H. pleoacuta and H. castroi in artificial ponds raising trout.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Buckup, Georgina Bond

2008-01-01

177

Marginal malnutrition and reduced physical work capacity of migrant adolescent boys in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We measured the effect of marginal malnutrition on physical work capacity of adolescent children of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil. Nutritional status was evaluated using 24-h dietary recall. Body size was evaluated anthropometrically. Biochemical assessments were also made. Physical work capacity (PWC170) was assessed by measuring heart rate, blood lactic acid levels, and oxygen consumption during submaximal bicycle ergometer work. The same tests were also carried out on a comparable group of local well-to-do boys of the same age in the same community who served as controls. The dietary results suggest that adolescent boys of migrant families were marginally malnourished. Their physical growth and development were retarded by at least 1 yr. They had significantly lower reserves of body fat and less muscle mass when compared with controls. Their Hb levels were normal. At the submaximal work loads measured (0, 25, 50, 75 W) the migrant children exhibited similar oxygen consumption and gross exercise efficiency as the control children, but achieved this work at a higher percentage of their maximum work capacity as shown by significantly higher heart rates for the same oxygen consumption. Higher blood lactic acid levels in the migrant children suggest that the available muscle mass was under greater stress to accomplish the same task. PWC170 was reduced one-third in the migrant children (migrant 643 +/- 162 kpm/min, control 905 +/- 345 kpm/min; p less than 0.005). These differences were largely associated with weight (migrant 20.6 +/- 5.9 kpm/min; control 18.8 +/- 4.3 kpm/kg/min; p greater than 0.1). These observations suggest that marginal as well as severe malnutrition affect physical work capacity at levels low enough to affect growth and development. PMID:6741846

Desai, I D; Waddell, C; Dutra, S; Dutra de Oliveira, S; Duarte, E; Robazzi, M L; Cevallos Romero, L S; Desai, M I; Vichi, F L; Bradfield, R B

1984-07-01

178

Liver retransplantation in adults: a 20-year experience of one center in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Introduction. Liver retransplantation (LReTx) is the therapeutic option for hepatic graft failure. Survival after LReTx is poorer than after primary liver transplantation. Given the organ shortage, it is essential to optimize the use of this resource. Objective. To evaluate rates, indications and patient survival after LReTx and identify factors associated with mortality following LReTx. Material and methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults undergoing LReTx based on registry data from the Liver Transplantation Group (Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre), southern Brazil. Results. Between June 16, 1991 and July 19, 2011, 824 patients underwent 866 liver transplants. Forty-two procedures corresponded to LReTx (4.8% of all liver transplants performed). Thirty-eight patients who underwent a single LReTx procedure were included in this study. The leading indication for LReTx was hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) (31.6%), followed by primary nonfunction (PNF) (18.4%). The main indication for early LReTx was PNF (58.3%) and for late LReTx was HAT (38.5%). During the follow-up period, 26 patients (68.4%) died after LReTx. Patient survival at 1 and 3 years after LReTx was 44.7% and 44.7%, respectively. Patients infected with hepatitis C virus, serum albumin < 2.5 g/dL and receiving mechanical ventilation immediately before LReTx had a significantly lower survival rate than the other patients. Conclusion. Considering the increased mortality when the graft loss is delayed, it is necessary to define the minimum acceptable results to indicate LReTx and identify the patients who would most benefit from this treatment. PMID:24114825

Costabeber, Ane Micheli; Granzotto, Marioni; Fleck, Alfeu de Medeiros; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Zanotelli, Maria Lúcia; Cantisani, Guido; Lionço, Lívia; Musskopf, Maiara Isabel; Brandão, Ajácio; Schlindwein, Eduardo; Kiss, Guillermo; Leipnitz, Ian; Martini, Juliano; Mucenic, Marcos; Meine, Mário Henrique

179

Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

2010-04-18

180

Variants of the HNF1? gene: A molecular approach concerning diabetic patients from southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) presents monogenic inheritance and mutation factors which have already been identified in six different genes. Given the wide molecular variation present in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? gene (HNF1?) MODY3, the aim of this study was to amplify and sequence the coding regions of this gene in seven patients from the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Brazil, presenting clinical MODY3 features. Besides the synonymous variations, A15A, L17L, Q141Q, G288G and T515T, two missense mutations, I27L and A98V, were also detected. Clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients were compared with the molecular findings, including the I27L polymorphism that was revealed in some overweight/obese diabetic patients of this study, this corroborating with the literature. We found certain DNA variations that could explain the hyperglycemic phenotype of the patients.

Bonatto, Naieli; Nogaroto, Viviane; Svidnicki, Paulo V.; Milleo, Fabio Q.; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Almeida, Mara C.; Vicari, Marcelo R.; Artoni, Roberto F.

2012-01-01

181

Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2005-11-01

182

Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

2012-04-12

183

[Quality of life and burnout among public high school and primary school teachers in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

In order to investigate quality of life among public schoolteachers in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and work conditions, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 601 primary and secondary teachers from the State and Municipal public school system in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The study analyzed the following domains from the WHOQOL-BREF scale: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. The mean indices were: 69.2 (SD = 16.8) for physical health, 70.6 (SD = 14.0) for psychological health, 72.5 (SD = 17.3) for social relationships, and 60.7 (SD = 14.0) for environment. Age, time in the teaching career, and total number of students were not significantly associated with quality of life. Teachers in municipal schools scored higher than their counterparts in the State public schools in the physical health domain (p = 0.026). Men scored higher than women in the physical and psychological health domains. Higher family income was associated with better quality of life. Higher classroom workload was associated with better scores in the physical health and environment domains. PMID:22218582

Tabeleão, Viviane Porto; Tomasi, Elaine; Neves, Siduana Facin

2011-12-01

184

Hemophilia care in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In the developing countries of the world, few people with hemophilia receive adequate care. Nevertheless, Brazil has made significant advances in the treatment of hemophilia over the last decade. The provision of factor concentrates imported by the Government of Brazil is gradually increasing, and patients receive the concentrates for free. A national register was established as well as a coordinated program for comprehensive care. Of the 6 297 persons with hemophilia in Brazil who were registered as of January 2001, 689 of them (11.1%) were registered in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of those 689, 664 of them were being monitored at the state's coordinating blood transfusion center, which is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Among those 664, factor VIII inhibitors were identified in 81 of them (12.2%). Among 653 of the Rio de Janeiro patients who were tested for transfusion-transmitted diseases, the overall prevalence found was 41.5%, with the specific rates being 13.3% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 2.9% for hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 39.4% for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The state of Rio de Janeiro has adopted a comprehensive hemophilia management approach that includes medical, psychological, and social care. As a result, the quality of life of hemophilia patients has improved noticeably. For example, the rate of hospitalization among patients fell by 30% between 1998 and 2001, and there has also been a decline in the school and work activities that they have missed. PMID:12744788

Fontes, Eva M A; Amorim, Luiz; Carvalho, Silvia M; Farah, Miguel B

185

Congenital neosporosis in goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil. PMID:22451736

Varaschin, Mary S; Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y; Guimarães, Antônio M; Santos, Domingos S; Bezerra, Pedro S; Costa, Rafael C; Peconick, Ana P; Langohr, Ingeborg M

2012-03-06

186

Congenital Neosporosis in Goats from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Congenital Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in two Saanen goat kids from two distinct herds with a history of abortion and weak newborn goat kids in the Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first kid was weak at birth, had difficulty to rise and was unable to nurse. Gross lesions of porencephaly and hydrocephalus ex vacuo were seen. Multifocal necrosis, gliosis and non-supurative encephalitis were observed in the brain. Several parasitic cysts with a thick wall that reacted strongly only with polyclonal antiserum to Neospora caninum were seen in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and cerebellum. The second kid was born from a Neospora caninum seropositive mother that aborted in the last pregnancy. It was born without clinical signs. The diagnosis of neosporosis was based on antibody titer of 1:800 to N. caninum by indirect fluorescence antibody test obtained from blood collected before the goat kid ingested the colostrum and Neospora caninum DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced from placenta. This is the first report of neosporosis in goats in the southeast region of Brazil.

Hirsch, Christian; Wouters, Flademir; Nakagaki, Karen Y.; Guimaraes, Antonio M.; Santos, Domingos S.; Bezerra, Pedro S.; Costa, Rafael C.; Peconick, Ana P.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

2012-01-01

187

40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2010-07-01

188

40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory...SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory...description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

2009-07-01

189

Southern Higher Education and the 1977 State Legislatures. Regional Spotlight Vol. XXI, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While 1977 was hardly a banner year for southern higher education in terms of legislative appropriations, it was an improvement over the most recent years. Financial stringency in recent years has given way to modest revenue gains in most southern states, with many reporting small but larger than expected surpluses. Budget increases ranged from 6…

Anderson, Laura

190

Southern oscillation effects on daily precipitation in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Southern Oscillation on daily precipitation in the southwestern United States is examined by using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) to perturb parameters of a stochastic daily precipitation model. Daily precipitation is modeled with a Markov chain-mixed exponential model and seasonal variability of model parameters is described by Fourier series. The hypothesized linkage between the SOI and

D. A. Woolhiser; T. O. Keefer; K. T. Redmond

1993-01-01

191

ANALYSIS OF USDA FUNDED RURAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOUTHERN REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of economic and social coordination and allocation of limited research conditions in rural areas has long been a funds. The Southern Rural Development special goal in our nation's history. Rural de- Center (SRDC) maintains a classification of velopment is a broad-scale effort CRIS projects, but only for the Southern encompassing the many dimensions or condi- states (3).' A

Daniel M. Otto; Joseph Havlicek Jr.

1979-01-01

192

SRDC Plan of Work - Southern States' Title V Programs. SRDC Series Publication No. 22, June 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Development Center's 1977 plan focuses on ways to move rural development program and research information to the users. One of four regional centers set by the 1972 Rural Development Act, the southern center works with research and extension staffs in 27 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico. Its publication…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

193

The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new upper mantle seismic model for southern Africa based on the fitting of a large (3622 waveforms) multi-mode surface wave data set with propagation paths significantly shorter (?6000 km) than those in globally-derived surface wave models. The seismic lithosphere beneath the cratonic region of southern Africa in this model is about 175±25 km thick, consistent with other

Keith Priestley; Dan McKenzie; Eric Debayle

2006-01-01

194

Association between HLA genes and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic regions of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The present study sought to investigate the association between HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 genes and susceptibility or resistance to the different clinical manifestations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in southern Brazil. Methods The sample consisted of 169 patients with a diagnosis of ACL and 270 healthy subjects for comparison. HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 were typed by PCR-SSO reverse dot blot. Results Results showed a trend towards susceptibility to cutaneous lesions for alleles HLA-DRB1*13 (P=0.0228; Pc=0.3420; OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.08 – 2.56), HLA-B*35 (P=0.0218; Pc=0.6758; OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.08 – 2.29) and HLA-B*44 (P=0.0290; Pc=0.8990; OR=1.67; 95%CI=1.05 – 2.64). Subjects with allele HLA-B*27 (P=0.0180; Pc=0.5580; OR=7.1111; 95%CI=1.7850 – 28.3286) tended towards susceptibility to mucocutaneous lesions, those with HLA-B*49 (P=0.0101; Pc=0.3131; OR=6.4000; 95%CI=1.8472 – 22.1743) to recurrent ACL, and HLA-B*52 (P=0.0044; Pc=0.1360; OR=12.61; 95%CI=3.08 – 51.66), to re-infection. Presence of HLA-B*45 (P=0.0107; Pc=0.3317) tended to provide protection against the cutaneous form of ACL. The most frequent haplotypes that may be associated with susceptibility to ACL were A*02 B*44 DRB1*07 (P = 0.0236) and A*24 B*35 DRB1*01 (P = 0.0236). Conclusion Some Class I and Class II HLA genes appear to contribute towards susceptibility to and protection against different clinical manifestations of ACL. Other genetic marker studies may contribute toward future prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in ACL.

2013-01-01

195

Upper-air wave trains over the Pacific Ocean and wintertime cold surges in tropical-subtropical South America leading to Freezes in Southern and Southeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?An examination is made of the relationships between circulation and convection over South America as related to strong cooling\\u000a in southern and southeastern Brazil during austral wintertime. Correlations between sub monthly (2–30 days) near-surface air\\u000a temperature in southeastern Brazil reveal the preferred path of a quasi-stationary Rossby wave impinging on to the region\\u000a from mid-latitudes and emanating from the tropical

J. A. Marengo; T. Ambrizzi; G. Kiladis; B. Liebmann

2002-01-01

196

Trends of seasonal maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation in Southern Brazil for the 1913-2006 period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term variations of monthly average maximum and minimum temperature (TMAX and TMIN) and precipitation records in southern Brazil are investigated for the 1913-2006 period. These variations are carefully analyzed for seasonal and annual indices, taken as regional averages. For this purpose, the serial correlation and trend of the indices are investigated using the run and Mann-Kendall tests. The significant trends are obtained from linear least-square fits. The annual and seasonal TMIN indices show significant warming trends with magnitudes (1.7°C per 100 years for annual index) comparable to those reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but lower than those found for the southern Brazil in another previous work. Regarding the two other variables, the indices show significant trends only for summer, being a cooling trend of 0.6°C per 100 years for the TMAX and an increasing trend of 93 mm per 100 years over an average summer precipitation of 367 mm. Concerning the decadal analysis, the 1920s present the lowest annual, autumn, and spring TMIN and the 1990s, the highest ones. The 1970s is the decade with the lowest summer TMAX, and the 1940s the decade with the highest one. The driest decade is the 1940s and the wettest, the 1980s.

Sansigolo, Clóvis Angeli; Kayano, Mary Toshie

2010-07-01

197

Evidence of association between hepatitis C virus genotype 2b and nosocomial transmissions in hemodialysis centers from southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a serious public health problem. Hemodialysis is considered one of the main risk factors of HCV infection, due to several invasive medical procedures and potential nosocomial transmission that patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are continuously submitted. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of HCV and its genotypes in patients with CRF in hemodialysis units in southern Brazil. Methods Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were collected and analyzed. These data were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment from January 2009 to August 2010, on two dialysis units of Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Genotyping was carried out by sequencing analysis of HCV NS5b, core-E1 junction and 5?UTR genomic regions. Results One hundred fifty-nine patients under regular hemodialysis treatment were studied. HCV prevalence was 23.3%. HCV-infected patients had been on dialysis treatment for 91.9 months, a more prolonged period compared to HCV-negative patients (p?=?0.001). While HCV genotypes 1b and 3a were identified as the most frequent strains, a surprisingly high proportion of genotype 2b was observed among patients in one of the dialysis centers compared to the general HCV-infected population of the same area. Hemodialysis treatment exposure time and healthcare working were associated with HCV infection. Conclusions Besides the efforts to minimize nosocomial transmission of HCV, some events of transmission are still evidenced in dialysis units.

2013-01-01

198

United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Potential Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negotiations to launch a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and the five members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland) began on June 3, 2003. In April 2006, negotiators sus...

D. Langton

2008-01-01

199

United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Potential Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negotiations to launch a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and the five members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland) began on June 3, 2003. A potential agreement would el...

D. Langton

2005-01-01

200

United States-Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Background and Potential Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negotiations to launch a free trade agreement (FTA) between the United States and the five members of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland) began on June 3, 2003. In April 2006, negotiators sus...

D. Langton

2007-01-01

201

Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…

Campbell, Dottie C.

202

Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care. Collaboration among Child Care, Head Start, and Pre-Kindergarten: A Telephone Survey of Selected Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…

Campbell, Dottie C.

203

The political economy of the United States policy in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  Former Secretary of State Kissinger’s policies towards and maneuvers in southern Africa must be examined within the context\\u000a of America’s global strategy and imperialist objectives. As in Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, the United\\u000a States aims at giving South Africa sufficient support so that she can play a policing role in southern Africa, if not in sub-Sahara

Rukudzo Murapa

1979-01-01

204

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C markers in adolescents in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers among adolescents aged between 10 and 16 years old, who are elementary school students in the city of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that included 418 volunteers, from March to July, 2008. Serology comprised HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. Tests were performed using automated Microparticle Enzyme Immunosorbant Assay (Abbott, AxSYM System, Wiesbaden, Germany). The prevalence of HBsAg was found to be 0.2% (95%CI: 0.0-1.3), and the prevalence of anti-HBc was found to be 1.4% (95%CI: 0.5-3.1). Regarding anti-HBs, 48.6% had titers greater than 10UI/L. None of the volunteers presented reactive results for anti-HCV. This study showed a low prevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection and a great number of volunteers immunized against HBV. Finally this study shows the importance of proper health campaigns and policies in reducing those prevalences. PMID:21603758

Scaraveli, Natália Gazzoni; Passos, Ana Maria; Voigt, Andréia Royer; Livramento, Andréa do; Tonial, Gabriela; Treitinger, Aricio; Spada, Celso

2011-04-01

205

Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates. PMID:20624353

Freitas, Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira; Grycajuk, Marcelly; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Bonacin, José; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander Welker

206

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors for presence of anti-HCV antibody in blood donors in southern Brazil. Methods One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users. Conclusion Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered.

Brandao, Ajacio BM; Costa Fuchs, Sandra

2002-01-01

207

Does the Lagoa do peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?  

PubMed

The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil. PMID:23894991

Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo

2013-03-01

208

Loblolly pine hydrology and productivity across the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over future changes in water yield and timber production in southern pine forests has increased the need for a well tested and validated forest ecosystem model which can be used to predict potential climate change effects on forest processes. However, before a model is used to project potential climate change impacts on forests, it should first be validated across

S. G. McNulty; J. M. Vose; W. T. Swank

1996-01-01

209

Labor Supply and Underemployment in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze data from selected March Current Pop- ulation Surveys (U. S. Bureau of the Census) spanning the period 1968 to 1998 to provide a statistical portrait of labor force partici- pation and composition, and underemployment in the nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) and metropolitan (metro) South. The southern labor force has been characterized by many of the same trends seen at the

Leif Jensen; Jill L. Findeis; Qiuyan Wang

210

Misoprostol use in obstetrics and gynecology in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate current clinical use of misoprostol for the treatment of a range of reproductive health indications by providers in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States. Methods: Using a ‘snowball’ sampling technique, we surveyed 228 gynecologists and obstetricians in Brazil (n=123), Jamaica (n=52), and the United States (n=53). Results: Providers use misoprostol for labor induction (46%), postpartum hemorrhage (8%),

S. Clark; J. Blum; K. Blanchard; L. Galvão; H. Fletcher; B. Winikoff

2002-01-01

211

Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary. PMID:24031864

Henzel, Andréia; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Lautert, Cláudia; Martins, Mathias; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha; Weiblen, Rudi

2012-06-01

212

Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary.

Henzel, Andreia; Brum, Mario Celso Sperotto; Lautert, Claudia; Martins, Mathias; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha; Weiblen, Rudi

2012-01-01

213

Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

214

Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni), dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil. PMID:18833476

Magalhães, F A; Tosi, C H; Garri, R G; Chellappa, S; Silva, F L

2008-08-01

215

Allanite and chevkinite in A-type granites and syenites of the Graciosa Province, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allanite and chevkinite perrierite are important accessory phases in the granitic and syenitic A-type rocks of the Graciosa Province, southern Brazil. Allanite (Ce) is the main REE phase in the granites of the aluminous association which includes metaluminous to weakly peraluminous granites while chevkinite (Ce) is the typical REE phase in the metaluminous syenites and alkali-feldspar syenites, and the peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites of the alkaline association. Allanite shows complex zoning patterns but is always rich in the ferriallanite molecule and in TiO2, a compositional trait that distinguishes allanite in A-type aluminous associations from allanite in calcic-, alkali-calcic, and calc-alkaline granitoids. Normalized REE patterns show strong fractionation of heavy over light REE, with LaN/NdN ratios between 3 and 5, and LaN/YN ratios between 200 and 400. Primary allanite is variably affected by post-magmatic transformations due to the interaction with a fluid-phase and metamictization caused by radioactive decay. Chevkinite (Ce) is always primary and is only present in the alkaline association. The early crystallization of chevkinite indicates that the parental magmas were probably close to REE-saturation. The REE + Y abundance in chevkinite (43 49 wt.%) is almost twice that observed in primary allanite; yet, the normalized patterns are similar in terms of fractionation between light and heavy REE, as indicated by similar LaN/NdN ratios in chevkinite and allanite. LaN/YN ratios are on average lower in chevkinite (90 300). Chevkinite compositions were altered by interaction with post magmatic fluids, which led to marked increase in TiO2, and a reduction in REE and FeT. Post-magmatic allanite is present in both the alkaline and aluminous associations, and corresponds to ferriallanite (Ce) in the alkaline association, and allanite (Y) in the aluminous association. Compared to primary allanite, post-magmatic allanite (Ce) shows smaller REE fractionation (2 < LaN/NdN < 3), while allanite (Y) shows relative enrichment in the middle REE, with Sm values close to 105 times chondrite. The mineralogy of the rocks indicates crystallization conditions close to the titanite magnetite quartz amphibole ilmenite (TMQAI) buffer for the aluminous association, and close to the fayalite quartz magnetite (FQM) buffer for the alkaline association, and temperatures between 800 and 900 °C (liquidus) and ca. 750 °C (solidus). The experimentally determined stability fields for chevkinite and allanite are in agreement with the textural evidence for early chevkinite crystallization and late allanite crystallization, even though allanite and chevkinite only rarely coexist in the alkaline association. Wherever allanite and chevkinite coexist, they reveal reaction textures, such that it is possible that only allanite or chevkinite is stable at any given condition. The distribution of allanite and chevkinite in the alkaline association suggests that the composition of the magmas is an important control on the stability fields of these minerals, a fact that is supported by the presence of primary allanite in rocks formed by processes of mixing and mingling of magmas. In this sense, the importance of composition on the stability of allanite and chevkinite may be larger than previously suggested.

Vlach, Silvio R. F.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.

2007-08-01

216

A review of paleogeographical and chronostratigraphical distribution of mesoeucrocodylian species from the upper Cretaceous beds from the Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups, Southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a detailed overview of mesoeucrocodylian assemblages recovered from the Late Cretaceous southern South America Bauru and Neuquén groups as a result of extensive research during the past 110 years. The Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups yield numerous mesoeucrocodylian remains, mainly of Turonian late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) age. The majority of the discoveries were made in the

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Agustín G. Martinelli

2006-01-01

217

A review of paleogeographical and chronostratigraphical distribution of mesoeucrocodylian species from the upper Cretaceous beds from the Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups, Southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a detailed overview of mesoeucrocodylian assemblages recovered from the Late Cretaceous southern South America Bauru and Neuquén groups as a result of extensive research during the past 110 years. The Bauru (Brazil) and Neuquén (Argentina) groups yield numerous mesoeucrocodylian remains, mainly of Turonian–late Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) age. The majority of the discoveries were made in the Adamantina

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Agustín G. Martinelli

2006-01-01

218

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through

Ina S Santos; Jose Boccio; Ari S Santos; Neiva CJ Valle; Camila S Halal; Marta Colvara Bachilli; Ricardo D Lopes

2005-01-01

219

Diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to Neospora caninum infection: Importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoa Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. The objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in Southern Brazil with special reference to N. caninum infection. A total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. The cause of abortion was identified in

Luis G. Corbellini; Caroline A. Pescador; Fernanda Frantz; Elsio Wunder; David Steffen; David R. Smith; David Driemeier

2006-01-01

220

Transamazonian Orogeny in the Southern São Francisco Craton Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil: evidence for Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Quadrilátero Ferr??fero  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paleoproterozoic Transamazonian orogeny yielded a series of discrete orogens in Brazil. The present field study in the Quadrilátero Ferr??fero (QF) indicates that the southern São Francisco craton region of the Brazilian highlands preserves a portion of one of these orogens. Two sets of Transamazonian structures occur in this region. The first consists of northwest-verging folds and thrusts affecting supracrustal

Fernando F Alkmim; Stephen Marshak

1998-01-01

221

Causal relationship between leaf litter beetle communities and regeneration patterns of vegetation in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil (Mata Atlântica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old growth forests in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil are increasingly replaced by secondary forests. Effects on arthropods are assumed to be particularly important as they provide the bulk of biodiversity and play an integral role for ecosystem processes and services. During forest regeneration vegetation structure, leaf litter composition and microclimatic conditions were found to strongly affect leaf litter

Richard Ottermanns; Philipp W. Hopp; Maike Guschal; Gustavo Pacheco dos Santos; Stefan Meyer; Martina Roß-Nickoll

2011-01-01

222

Syntectonic Flow and Crystallization Processes Investigated by Qualitative and Quantitative Fabric Analysis: the Piquiri Syenite Massif (Southern Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macro- and microstructures of syntectonic granitoids provide numerous information about (i) crystallization, deformation and rheology history of these rocks, (ii) development of fabric anisotropy and heterogeneity during flow processes, and (iii) relationships between local and regional kinematics. The Piquiri Syenite Massif (611+-3 Ma) is part of the post-collisional magmatism related to the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in southern Brazil. The approximately 150 km2 large pluton is composed of mainly coarse- grained perthite syenites and quartz-syenites and was intruded by high-grade gneisses, syntectonic monzonites and granites, medium-grade metapelites, and acid metavolcanic rocks. In the center of the pluton, co-genetic granites occur with gradational contacts. Border features include local development of chilled margins in the pluton, as well as hornfelses and brecciation of metamorphic wall rocks which are cemented by syenitic or granitic material. The Piquiri Syenite Massif shows several mesoscopic magmatic structures, such as cm-dm thick, locally boudinaged and folded mafic layering, mafic microgranular enclaves, and schlieren structures. Mafic layers are enriched in Cpx and Hb and partly formed by flow segregation. Platy, mm-cm sized K-feldspars as well as pyroxenes and amphiboles form a steep magmatic foliation, locally sub-parallel to the pluton's border. Based on a series of outcrop photographs from three perpendicular cuts, scans of oriented rock slabs, and thin sections, both structures have been analyzed and quantified by modified and automated conventional fractal-geometry methods. The anisotropy obtained on the foliation plane reveals the sub-horizontal orientation of a weak magmatic lineation, not visible in the field or in thin section. The magmatic foliation is oriented parallel to the outer rims of the pluton and locally anastomoses around sub-vertical axes. Together with the lineation, these features indicate sub-horizontal magmatic flow and, at least locally, shearing during emplacement of the pluton. On the micro-scale, nearly no solid-state deformation structures are visible in any of the different minerals. In quartz, a weak, coarse chessboard subgrain pattern is locally developed. Even where the syenite comprises up to 90% well-aligned K-feldspars, neither magmatic fracturing nor high-T deformation structures are visible. This, together with overgrowth structures, indicates that during magmatic flow feldspars were only present to a minor extent or with much smaller sizes. In general, the Piquiri Syenite Massif is a syntectonic pluton with strong flow structures that develop during an early period of emplacement of a crystal-melt mush and, subsequently, static microstructures indicating stress decrease during cooling and final crystallization. The emplacement is related to weak sub-horizontal shearing along NNE-trending transcurrent brittle-ductile shear zones of the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt.

Bitencourt, M.; Kruhl, J. H.; Peternell, M.

2009-05-01

223

Sm Nd isotopic investigation of Neoproterozoic and Cretaceous igneous rocks from southern Brazil: A study of magmatic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd-evolutionary paths for diversified igneous suites from southern Brazil are here re-evaluated using published results. We interpret the ?Nd paths considering the secondary fractionation of 147Sm/144Nd due to major petrogenetic processes. The inclusion of Nd isotopes and geochemical data for Precambrian and Mesozoic basic rocks allow improving the discussion on the subcontinental lithosphere beneath southern Brazil. Late Neoproterozoic rocks, mostly granitoids, are exposed in two regions of the southern Brazilian shield, an eastern collisional belt and a western foreland. The latter included two geotectonic domains amalgamated at this time, the São Gabriel Arc (900 700 Ma), and the Taquarembó cratonic block. Magma genesis mainly involved mixture of crustal and incompatible-element-enriched mantle components, both with a long residence time. Continental segments are the Neoarchaean Paleoproterozoic lower crust (ca. 2.55 Ga) in the western foreland, and Paleoproterozoic Neoproterozoic recycled crust (2.1 0.8 Ga) in the collisional belt. Granitoids with a single crustal derivation are limited in the southern Brazilian Shield. Mixing processes are well-registered in the western foreland, where the re-enriched old mantle was probably mixed with a 900 700 Ma-old subducted lithosphere and a 2.55 Ga-old lower crust. The contribution of the latter increased from the early 605 580 Ma to the later 575 550 Ma Neoproterozoic events, which may be due either to crustal thickening or to delamination of the lithosphere. Magma sources were diversified in the 660 630 Ma collisional belt. Initially, they involved the mixing between two components with similar Nd isotopic ratios, a 2.1 0.8 Ga-old recycled crust and a subduction-processed old mantle. Regional heating and abundant production of granitic melts, with diversified contribution of enriched mantle components, mark the end of the collisional period, at 630 580 Ma. We can also attribute this to the delamination of the lithosphere, so that the same geodynamic process may explain the magmatism in the whole shield at the end of the Dom Feliciano Orogeny. Mesozoic rocks include flood basalts from the Cretaceous Paraná Province and sub-coeval alkalic suites. Multiple processes of metasomatism affected the lithospheric mantle, resulting in some complexity but they mainly register two enriched-mantle components, both generated during Neoarchaean Paleoproterozoic events. One end-member has a more pronounced subduction signature. The other one probably resulted from the re-enrichment of the first component at the end of the Camboriú collisional orogeny (˜2.0 Ga).

Gastal, Maria Do Carmo P.; Lafon, Jean Michel; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Koester, Edinei

2005-06-01

224

The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis. PMID:22850961

Massaú, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

2012-08-01

225

Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. PMID:22325427

Käffer, Márcia Isabel; Lemos, Andréa T; Apel, Miriam Anders; Rocha, Jocelita Vaz; Martins, Suzana Maria de Azevedo; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

2012-01-11

226

Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

2011-09-01

227

HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.

Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osorio, Marta R.; Sanchez, Alexandra; Seuanez, Hector N.; Larouze, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

2013-01-01

228

HIV behind bars: human immunodeficiency virus cluster analysis and drug resistance in a reference correctional unit from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

Prellwitz, Isabel M; Alves, Brunna M; Ikeda, Maria Letícia R; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D; Jarczewski, Carla A; Osório, Marta R; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A

2013-07-09

229

A Manual for Dialect Research in the Southern States. Second edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (LAGS) Project is a survey of regional and social dialects in eight southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. This manual has been prepared both for those who will conduct the research and for those who are interested in the aims and methods of the…

Pederson, Lee, Ed.; And Others

230

AN OVERVIEW OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) in the thirteen states of the Southern Region. The definitions, sources, types, and trends of NPSP are discussed. NPSP is of particular concern to wetlands because it is difficult to manage and most states have little knowledge of the effects on wetlands. Information is very limited on the cumulative effects of different NPSP

D. G. Neary; H. Riekerk

231

Reproductive Biology of Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, from Coastal Waters of the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive biology of the cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is described from four coastal areas in the southern United States. Samples were obtained from recreational fishermen between December 1995 and November 1997 from the southeastern United States (Morehead City, NC, to Cape Canaveral, FL), the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Ft. Myers to Crystal River, FL), the north-central Gulf of Mexico (Destin, FL,

Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; Robin M. Overstreet; Jeffrey M. Lotz; James S. Franks; Karen M. Burns

2000-01-01

232

Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): A Hibernation Site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a Rice-Growing Region of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Tussocks of Andropogon bicornis (Poaceae) make up a significant part of the landscape of the rice-growing region of south Brazil. However, little is known about their role in maintaining insect diversity in anthropized regions. We tested the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) by analyzing the composition, structure, and diversity of pentatomoid assemblages over the course of a year. A total of 208 tussocks were removed at fortnightly intervals from April 2010 to March 2011. We collected 3,423 pentatomoid specimens belonging to 22 species distributed in 13 genera of three families, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, and Thyreocoridae. The most common species was Tibraca limbativentris Stål, the main rice pest in southern Brazil, followed by Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer) and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius). Abundance and species richness were the lowest in January, February, and March and the highest in July, August, and September. A combination of high species diversity observed during the colder months, including several unrelated to rice, and the absence of immature specimens in the tussocks strengthens the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for pentatomoids in the region. PMID:23949805

Klein, J T; Redaelli, L R; Barcellos, A

2013-03-07

233

Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of capsid protein gene in feline calicivirus isolates from Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen that affects domestic cats, inducing acute oral and upper respiratory tract clinical signs. The aim of this study was to analyze the variability of the capsid protein in different FCV isolates from southern Brazil. The sequencing analyses of thirteen Brazilian FCV samples, phylogenetic analyses and assessments of ten previously published sequences were conducted by examining the open reading frame 2 (ORF2, regions B-F). Comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequences of the ORF2 in Brazilian FCV isolates with those of the FCV-F9 strain indicated that the main differences are located within the regions C and hypervariable E (HVR_E). Epitopes that were mapped to the regions D, 5'HVR_E and conserved E also presented with some variability when compared to the strain F9. This is the first study describing sequence analyses and the phylogenetic relationships among FCV isolates from Brazil. The results presented here may expand upon current knowledge regarding aspects of FCV biology, epidemiology and genetic diversity and provide insights into improving the efficacies of current FCV vaccines. PMID:22197423

Henzel, A; Sá e Silva, M; Luo, S; Lovato, L T; Weiblen, R

2011-12-16

234

A study of the anticorrelations between ozone and UV-B radiation using linear and exponential fits in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to study the anticorrelation between ozone and UV-B radiation. The data were collected at the Southern Space Observatory (OES/CRSPE/INPE - MCT), located in the southern part of Brazil, and analyzed by linear and first order exponential fits. The UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) was measured by the UV-B radiometer (Eko Instruments - model MS-210W) and the total ozone column was measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) installed on board of NASA's Earth Probe satellite. The UV-B radiation measurements employed for correlation analysis (from July 1999 to December 2001) had fixed solar zenith angles and were taken on days with clear sky. The mathematical behavior of correlations at different angles was observed and correlation coefficients were determined by linear and first order exponential fits. High correlation coefficient values were obtained for both fits studied and the differences between them can be considered small. The values for linear fits varied from R2=0.64 (SZA 55°) to 0.90 (SZA 30° and 35°) and for exponential fits varied from R2=0.63 (SZA 55°) to 0.85 (SZA 30° and 35°).

Guarnieri, R. A.; Padilha, L. F.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Echer, E.; Makita, K.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Schuch, A. M. P.; Boeira, L. S.; Schuch, N. J.

2004-01-01

235

Palynological and physicochemical characterization of Apis mellifera L. bee pollen in the Southern region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bee pollen has been used for many years in both traditional medicine and supplementary nutrition, as well as in alternative diets, mainly due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Bee pollen production is a recent activity in Brazil, having begun in the late 1980s. However, the country has the potential of being a large world producer of high quality

Solange T. Carpes; Ingridy S. R. Cabral; Cynthia Fernandez; P. Luz; Jailson P. Capeletti; Severino Matias Alencar; Maria Lúcia Masson

2009-01-01

236

Shell selection by the tropical hermit crab Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1791) (Anomura, Diogenidae) from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell preferences, as shown by laboratory choice experiments, are important determinants of shell utilization under natural conditions. Size and shell species preferences of the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen were determined for the three most occupied [Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767), Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791) and Pisania auritula (Link, 1807)] shell species along the rocky shore of Grande beach, Ubatuba, Brazil, taking

Renata B Garcia; Fernando L. M Mantelatto

2001-01-01

237

Reproductive Risk Factors Related to Socioeconomic Status in Pregnant Women in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate patterns of drug use during pregnancy and other potential reproductive risks in pregnant women, we applied a standard questionnaire to 412 pregnant women classified as low socioeconomic status (SES) or as middle\\/high SES, in two cities of South Brazil. 77% of the women used at least one medication during pregnancy. We observed significant differences, when comparing low SES

Wakana Momino; Lenice Minussi; Daniela Woffchuck; Edenir I. Palmero; Maria Teresa Sanseverino; Jandyra Maria Guimarães Fachel; Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

2003-01-01

238

Primitive nest architecture and small monogynous colonies in basal Attini inhabiting sandy beaches of southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species Mycetophylax conformis, M. simplex and Cyphomyrmex morschi, all belonging to the basal Attini, occur exclusively on beaches along the Atlantic shores of South America. In Brazil C. morschi colonies were found sympatrically with the two Mycetophylax species which, however, had no overlap in their geographic distribution. We recorded species?specific nesting site preferences resulting in a zonal colonization of

Christiana Klingenberg; Carlos Roberto Ferreira Brandão; Wolf Engels

2007-01-01

239

Prevalence of Peyronie's disease in men over 50-y-old from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease still remains an enigma and few epidemiological studies are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Peyronie's disease in males older than 50 y. From 26 to 30 July 1998, 1071 men attended the ‘Prostate Cancer Awareness Week of Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil’. In the prostate exam they

EL Rhoden; C Teloken; HY Ting; ML Lucas; C Teodósio da Ros; C Ary Vargas Souto

2001-01-01

240

Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6–970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My? 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My? 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My? 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My? 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

2013-06-01

241

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the inten- sive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35)

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2009-01-01

242

Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas. PMID:17914662

Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto

2007-10-04

243

[Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2008-07-01

244

Chemical and isotopic relationships between peridotite xenoliths and mafic–ultrapotassic rocks from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peridotite xenoliths from the late-Cretaceous Alto Paranaíba and Goiás mafic–alkalic magmatic provinces of central and southeast Brazil reveal the existence of compositionally and temporally distinct lithospheric mantle beneath these areas. Garnet and spinel–lherzolites and spinel–harzburgites from the Alto Paranaíba province are generally depleted in Ca, Al and Re, which indicates that they are residues of melt extraction. Old Re-depletion model

Richard W. Carlson; Ana Lucia N. Araujo; Tereza C. Junqueira-Brod; José Carlos Gaspar; José Affonso Brod; Ivan A. Petrinovic; Maria Helena B. M. Hollanda; Marcio M. Pimentel; Suzanna Sichel

2007-01-01

245

Early Proterozoic Evolution of the Alto Jauru Greenstone Belt, Southern Amazonian Craton, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alto Jauru Greenstone Belt in west-central Brazil comprises three belts of Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary sucessions that were invaded by Early to Middle Proterozoic intrusions, including tonalites, gabbros, and granites. Volcanic rocks represent a bimodal suite with ultrabasic-basic rocks of komatiitic-tholeiitic affinities at the base and intermediate-felsic calc-alkaline lavas and pyroclastic units on the top. Chemical differences exist between basic

Francisco E. C. Pinho; William S. Fyfe; Marcia A. S. B. Pinho

1997-01-01

246

Magnetometry, Radiometry and gamma Spectrometry of the Janjao Diatreme, Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic, radiometric and gamma spectrometric surveys have been carried out on the Janjao diatreme which outcrops near Lajes in central-east Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The body is deeply weathered on the surface and its concentrates contain serpentiniz...

D. P. Svisero

1985-01-01

247

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

248

Lithospheric to asthenospheric transition in Low-Ti flood basalts from southern Paraná, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two geochemically distinct Low-Ti magma types (Gramado and Esmeralda) are distinguished within the flood basalt sequences of southern Paraná on the basis of certain element abundances and ratios. Esmeralda magmas have lower Ce\\/Sm and (87Sr86Sr),i and higher TiZr and ?Nd, than Gramado magmas. Detailed stratigraphical work indicates that there was a temporal progression from Gramado- to Esmeralda-type magmas. This compositional

David W. Peate; Chris J. Hawkesworth

1996-01-01

249

Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. applicati...

S. D. Tollefson

1990-01-01

250

SRDC Plan of Work: Southern States' Title V Programs, 1978. SRDC Series Publication No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Moving rural development program and research information to users summarizes the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) Plan of Work for 1978. One of 4 regional centers set up by the 1972 Rural Development Act, SRDC coordinates cooperation between research and extension at 28 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico which have…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

251

Anthropogenic Indices of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among Children in Delta State, Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and the anthropogenic risk factors of 978 randomly selected primary school children from Igbede community in Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State Southern Nigeria were evaluated. Methods: Subjects were screened for the presence of STH using direct smear method and kato-katz techniques. This study was conducted between April and

JC Nmor; JO Onojafe; BA Omu

2009-01-01

252

United States Streamflow Patterns Associated with the Extreme Phases of the Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for long-term streamflow forecasts based on atmospheric circulation indices in the United States has been assessed. The extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (SO) have been linked to fairly persistent classes of atmospheric anomalies (e.g., precipitation) over the low and middle latitudes at regional and global sale. This study examines the relationships between the extreme phases of the

Ercan Kahya

1993-01-01

253

Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

254

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various

Puneet Dwivedi

2010-01-01

255

Impacts and management implications of ice storms on forests in the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores the ecological and silvicultural impacts of ice storms on forests in the southern United States. Different environmental factors like weather conditions, topography, vegetation, stand density, and management practices influence the degree of glaze damage a particular forest may experience. Additionally, the frequent contradictions in the relationships between these factors and the resulting damage suggests a complexity that

Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; Boris Zeide

2003-01-01

256

PROGRESS TOWARD DEVELOPING STRESS-TOLERANT AND LOW-AFLATOXIN CORN HYBRIDS FOR THE SOUTHERN STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aflatoxin contamination of corn, caused by A. flavus, is a chronic problem in Texas and the southern United States. A hot and dry environment and corn earworm (Heliocoverpa zea) feeding increases the aflatoxin level. Drought and heat tolerant corn have less grain molds under drought stress. We be...

257

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

258

SRDC Plan of Work: Southern States' Title V Programs, 1978. SRDC Series Publication No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving rural development program and research information to users summarizes the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) Plan of Work for 1978. One of 4 regional centers set up by the 1972 Rural Development Act, SRDC coordinates cooperation between research and extension at 28 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico which have rural…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

259

Wildfire Risk Assessment Guide for Homeowners in the Southern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wildfires are an important and necessary occurrence in many natural areas of the southern United States, but they also present a risk to homes constructed in, or next to, such areas. All homes are not equally at risk for a variety of reasons. For homeowne...

2004-01-01

260

Beyond Creole Nationalism? Language Policies, Education and the Challenge of State Building in Post-conflict Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to go beyond a focus on the role of elites in low-capacity states to consider the interaction of language policies and mass responses to these policies in southern Sudan. It reviews processes of elite formation in southern Sudan, the impact of the civil war and the current challenges facing state building there. In common with many post-colonial

Rob Kevlihan

2007-01-01

261

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide () diversities were 0.5570 0.0697 and 0.0021 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ST

Maíra Carneiro Proietti; Paula Lara-Ruiz; Júlia Wiener Reisser; Luciano da Silva Pinto; Odir Antonio Dellagostin; Luis Fernando Marins

2009-01-01

262

Genetic diversity, genetic drift and mixed mating system in small subpopulations of Dyckia ibiramensis , a rare endemic bromeliad from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyckia ibiramensis is a naturally rare, endemic and threatened bromeliad which occurs naturally on 4 km of rocky river outcroppings in Southern\\u000a Brazil. For this study, subpopulations of the species were characterized based on size and genetics, to compile information\\u000a for in situ and ex situ conservation strategies. A census of the rosettes was undertaken for each subpopulation and seven allozyme

Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski; Ademir Reis; Tiago Montagna; Maurício Sedrez dos Reis

2011-01-01

263

Molecular analysis of multiresistant porcine Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bredeney isolates from Southern Brazil: identification of resistance genes, integrons and a group II intron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of 83 porcine Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bredeney isolates obtained at two slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil were analysed by XbaI and BlnI macrorestriction analysis, plasmid profiling and determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns. Twenty-nine XbaI and 30 BlnI macrorestriction patterns were identified. The 72 plasmid-bearing isolates exhibited 20 different plasmid profiles. Multiresistance was detected in 49 isolates (59%),

Geovana Brenner Michael; Marisa Cardoso; Stefan Schwarz

2008-01-01

264

Occurrence of anatoxin-a(s) during a bloom of Anabaena crassa in a water-supply reservoir in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacterial blooms and the accompanying production of cyanotoxins are a serious global problem. Toxic blooms of Anabaena species are common in lagoons and reservoirs of southern Brazil. Worldwide, species of the genus Anabaena produce the majority of the known hepatotoxins (microcystins) and neurotoxins [anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), and saxitoxins].\\u000a This report links a bloom of Anabaena crassa in the Faxinal Reservoir, the

Vanessa Becker; Priscila Ihara; João Sarkis Yunes; Vera Lúcia M. Huszar

2010-01-01

265

[Pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy events, Southern Brazil, 1996-2000].  

PubMed

Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal exposure to pesticides and adverse pregnancy events. An ecological study was conducted to investigate potential relations between per capita pesticide consumption and adverse events in live born infants in micro-regions in the South of Brazil (1996-2000). The data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Health Information Department of the Unified National Health System (DATASUS). Micro-regions were grouped into quartiles of pesticide consumption, and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. Linear trend p-values were obtained with the chi-square test. Premature birth (gestational age < 22 weeks) and low 1 and 5-minute Apgar score (< 8) in both boys and girls showed a significantly higher PR in the upper quartile of pesticide consumption. No significant differences were observed for low birth weight. The findings suggest that prenatal pesticide exposure is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy events such as premature birth and inadequate maturation. PMID:22729257

Cremonese, Cleber; Freire, Carmen; Meyer, Armando; Koifman, Sergio

2012-07-01

266

Ionospheric imaging of the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-dimensional time-dependent tomographic algorithm, named Multi Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS), is used to image the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere over the central-eastern sides of the Brazilian territory. From differential phase data obtained by a chain of ground-based GPS receiver the total electron content (TEC) is estimated and then, together with a modeled ionosphere from International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, the electron density distribution is reconstructed and the parameters of the F2-peak layer are accessed from the images. This paper presents the first study of ionospheric tomography using real dual-frequency data from the Brazilian Network for Continuous GPS Monitoring (RBMC). Ionospheric F2- peak electron density (NmF2) accessed from the images are compared to concurrent measurements from three ionosondes installed across Brazil. One year of data during the solar maximum period from March/2001 to February/2002 is used to analyze the seasonal and hourly variation of the F2-layer peak density. The accuracy with which MIDAS images the electron density during geomagnetic quiet periods is investigated through its correlation and deviation with the ionosonde and IRI model data, respectively. The main aspects of the reconstruction results at the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region over Brazil are highlighted and discussed.

Muella, Marcio; De Paula, Eurico; Batista, Inez S.; Mitchell, Cathryn; Paes, Ricardo R.

2012-07-01

267

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef cattle in three southern states of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to examine the seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef herds from three southern states of\\u000a Mexico and determine the association with several risk factors. A cross-sectional serological survey for Neospora caninum was carried out by sampling a total of 596 animals from 31 herds in Chiapas, Veracruz, and Yucatan States and tested using\\u000a an

Zeferino Garcia-Vazquez; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Felix Mejia-Estrada; Ivan Rodriguez-Vivas; Dora Romero-Salas; Manuel Fernandez-Ruvalcaba; Carlos Cruz-Vazquez

2009-01-01

268

Does inadequate diet during childhood explain the higher high fracture rates in the Southern United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Southern states have the highest age-adjusted hip fracture rates among older adults in the United States. Regional hip fracture\\u000a rates in the United States in 1986–1993 correlate with death rates from rickets in the 1940s. Historical patterns of bone\\u000a nutrition early in life might explain contemporary geographic patterns in bone fragility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  State of residence early in life is a better

L. J. Paulozzi

2010-01-01

269

Foraminifera as indicators of marine pollutant contamination on the inner continental shelf of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Analyses of living foraminiferal and environmental parameters near an outfall at Mar Grosso Beach (Laguna, SC, Brazil) demonstrate its usefulness as indicators of domestic sewage pollution. The low species diversity may be due to sand accumulation in the central part. Higher diversity was noted closer to the mouth of Laguna estuarine system where reduced salinity and higher temperatures indicate freshwater influence, suggesting a relationship between increased diversity and greater availability of terrestrial food. On the basis of foraminiferal diversity and average coliform count the higher values are closer to the mouth of the estuarine system and under the influence of the outfall. Due to the effect of local hydrodynamics, the particulate organic waste derived from the outfall does not settle down locally, and thus, do not accumulate nearby. Our hypothesis is that the fine material derived from the outfall is accumulating on the southwestern and northwestern parts of the beach. PMID:22118897

Eichler, Patricia P B; Eichler, Beatriz B; Gupta, Barun Sen; Rodrigues, André Rösch

2011-11-25

270

Present state of eb removal of so2 and nox from combustion flue gases in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental problems caused by the increased world energy demands are becoming of growing importance and Brazil is now starting to set limits to the emission of toxic gases. The development of technologies for removal of these gases are therefore necessary and this work shows the present state of the technology of SO2 and NOX removal by electron beam irradiation in Brazil. Data concerning the increasing energy demand in Brazil and the environmental governmental measures are presented, along with the design and implementation of a laboratory pilot plant for the electron beam flue gases removal process located at IPEN-CNEN/SP.

Poli, D. C. R.; Osso, J. A.; Rivelli, V.; Vieira, J. M.; Lugão, A. B.

1995-09-01

271

Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids.

da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sonia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2008-01-01

272

Sympatry between Alouatta caraya and Alouatta clamitans and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Records of sympatry between Alouatta caraya and A. clamitans are rare despite their extensive range overlap. An example of their current sympatry and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids of A. caraya and A. clamitans in the forests of the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil, are reported in this paper. Eight groups were observed in the study area: five monospecific groups of A. caraya, two of A. clamitans, and a group containing two adult males and two adult females of A. caraya and a sub-adult male and two adult females identified as Alouatta sp. The color of the last three individuals was a mosaic between the two species; this is consistent with previously described variations in museum specimens collected in the Paraná River in the 1940s that had been identified as potential hybrids. The results from this study emphasize the need for scientific studies in the region of the Ilha Grande National Park, one of the few regions in the Paraná River that currently harbors both howler species. PMID:17310403

Aguiar, Lucas M; Mellek, Daniel M; Abreu, Kaue C; Boscarato, Tiago G; Bernardi, Itiberê P; Miranda, João M D; Passos, Fernando C

2007-02-20

273

Group size and composition of black-and-gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) on the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In social mammals, group size, sex and age-class composition are important parameters that are required to understand population dynamics and determine conservation strategies. These parameters are known only poorly for the black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Here, we studied groups of A. caraya on islands and adjacent banks of the Upper Paraná River of southern Brazil, to examine variability in group size and composition. This location is important for this species because of the high density of howlers. Group size was large, varying from 6 to 18 individuals (average = 11.5, standard deviation = 3.3, n = 13). Groups were multi-male, and adult females outnumbered adult males. On average, groups had the following ratios: 1 adult male: 0.5 subadult male: 1.9 adult females: 0.9 juveniles: 0.5 infants. The ratio of 0.2 infant: 1 adult female is less than that in other species, but typical of other studies of the black-and-gold howlers. Here, we discuss environmental and social pressures that may impose structure on large groups of howlers in terms of strategies for living in high densities. We also compare these data with those of the area of sympatry shared between A. caraya and A. clamitans, and suggest that competition may occur between the two species and that reduced fitness may be a consequence of mixed groups. PMID:19034383

Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Passos, Fernando C

2008-11-27

274

[Association between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference in women living in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and obesity. A cross-sectional population-based study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Waist circumference (WC), height, and weight were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30kg/m(2) and WC > 88cm. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Multivariate analysis used a Poisson regression model to estimate prevalence ratios and respective confidence intervals. After controlling for possible confounders, low consumption of "vegetables" protected against increased BMI (PR = 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.86; p = 0.004), while low consumption of "nuts/oilseeds" protected against increased WC (PR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.89-0.98; p = 0.008). Low consumption of "fruits" was a risk factor for high BMI (PR = 2.18; 95%CI: 1.35-3.53; p = 0.001). The study indicates the complexity of the association between dietary patterns and obesity. New studies are needed to further clarify the subject. PMID:18949244

Perozzo, Gabriela; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Henn, Ruth Liane; Sarriera, Jorge; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

2008-10-01

275

The use of GIS for the integration of traditional and scientific knowledge in supporting artisanal fisheries management in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The integration of local harvesters' knowledge of attitudes and practices toward the resources they harvest with scientific information is essential to natural resources management. However, the development and implementation of management policies have, in most cases, not been effective because of a failure to use all available sources of information and knowledge. In fisheries management, local knowledge is usually not collected in a systematic format and little published literature has discussed the use of local knowledge data collection and analysis methods. This paper describes the implementation of geographic information systems to systematize, analyze, and display traditional and scientific information to support fisheries management in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil. Artisanal fishing data were documented through a series of interviews conducted during and after fishing trips at harvest spots, and scientific data on environmental variables were obtained from different research institutions. A multi-layer GIS database integrating local fishers' and scientific knowledge information was developed with ArcGIS 8.3 ArcView tools to integrate and translate information into an accessible and interpretable format. The geo-spatial database interface allowed the selection of specific data characteristics by target species, harvest areas, fishers' communities, fishing gear, catch-per-unit of effort (CPUE), and monthly landings. The observed fishing spatial dynamics presented among the fishers' communities shows that, in most cases, artisanal fishermen tend to concentrate in shallow estuarine waters surrounding their villages. PMID:18573591

De Freitas, Débora M; Tagliani, Paulo Roberto A

2008-06-24

276

Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our ?11B data are in the range between - 15‰ and 4‰. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite.

Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Koglin, Nikola; Lehmann, Bernd; de Abreu, Francisco R.

2012-05-01

277

Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields.

Behague, Dominique P; Goncalves, Helen

2009-01-01

278

Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil.  

PubMed

Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampling stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal period of mosquito activity. The Shannon Index results from the potential vectors were compared using Student t-test. Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis senso latu seasonal abundance were described with moving average and compared using chi2 test. There were changes in the mosquito frequency in the habitats, except for the "veredas" that was 13 km away from the catchment area. The altering in mosquito species seasonal abundance suggests breeding places expansion. Diversity indexes can be used to monitor changes in mosquito vector population in environments where abrupt disturbance can alter disease transmission cycles. PMID:15361975

Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Cardoso, Rubens Pinto; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino

2004-09-03

279

A rapid fish radiation associated with the last sea-level changes in southern Brazil: the silverside Odontesthes perugiae complex.  

PubMed Central

Coastal freshwater fishes provide valuable models for studying the role of the last glaciations in promoting speciation. To date, the great majority of studies are of Northern Hemisphere taxa, and reflect the influence of vicariant events during, or prior to, the Pleistocene. Microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to investigate patterns of population divergence and evolutionary relationships in a freshwater group of silverside fishes (Odontesthes perugiae complex), endemic to the recently formed coastal plain of southern Brazil. Lacustrine morphotypes showed concordant patterns of genetic and morphological divergence consistent with the geographical history of the coastal plain. The results support the proposal of a silverside radiation chronologically shaped by the sea-level changes of the Pleistocene and Holocene. The radiating lineage comprises a minimum of three allopatric and two sympatric lacustrine species. Four species displayed extremely high levels of genetic variation and some of the most rapid speciation rates reported in fishes. These features were related to a marine-estuarine origin of the radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular phylogeographic survey of a coastal radiation in South America.

Beheregaray, Luciano B; Sunnucks, Paul; Briscoe, David A

2002-01-01

280

Hydrometeorological application of an extratropical cyclone classification scheme in the southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) in the southern United States are often overlooked when compared with tropical cyclones in the region and ETCs in the northern United States. Although southern ETCs are significant weather events, there is currently not an operational scheme used for identifying and discussing these nameless storms. In this research, we classified 84 ETCs (1970-2009). We manually identified five distinct formation regions and seven unique ETC types using statistical classification. Statistical classification employed the use of principal components analysis and two methods of cluster analysis. Both manual and statistical storm types generally showed positive (negative) relationships with El Niño (La Niña). Manual storm types displayed precipitation swaths consistent with discrete storm tracks which further legitimizes the existence of multiple modes of southern ETCs. Statistical storm types also displayed unique precipitation intensity swaths, but these swaths were less indicative of track location. It is hoped that by classifying southern ETCs into types, that forecasters, hydrologists, and broadcast meteorologists might be able to better anticipate projected amounts of precipitation at their locations.

Senkbeil, J. C.; Brommer, D. M.; Comstock, I. J.; Loyd, T.

2011-12-01

281

Hydrometeorological application of an extratropical cyclone classification scheme in the southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extratropical cyclones (ETCs) in the southern United States are often overlooked when compared with tropical cyclones in the region and ETCs in the northern United States. Although southern ETCs are significant weather events, there is currently not an operational scheme used for identifying and discussing these nameless storms. In this research, we classified 84 ETCs (1970-2009). We manually identified five distinct formation regions and seven unique ETC types using statistical classification. Statistical classification employed the use of principal components analysis and two methods of cluster analysis. Both manual and statistical storm types generally showed positive (negative) relationships with El Niño (La Niña). Manual storm types displayed precipitation swaths consistent with discrete storm tracks which further legitimizes the existence of multiple modes of southern ETCs. Statistical storm types also displayed unique precipitation intensity swaths, but these swaths were less indicative of track location. It is hoped that by classifying southern ETCs into types, that forecasters, hydrologists, and broadcast meteorologists might be able to better anticipate projected amounts of precipitation at their locations.

Senkbeil, J. C.; Brommer, D. M.; Comstock, I. J.; Loyd, T.

2012-07-01

282

Early post-collisional Brasiliano magmatism in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil: Evidence from petrology, geochemistry, isotope geology and geochronology of the diabase and lamprophyre dikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-collisional magmatism related to Brasiliano orogeny represented the final stage of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southern Brazil, presenting high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and alkaline chemical signatures. Magmatic episodes related to this early period were found in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina state, represented by diabase and lamprophyre (spessartite-type) dikes intrusive in metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Brusque Metamorphic Complex (CMB). These dikes have massive structure and igneous textures ranging from very fine equigranular to porphyritic, and the latter is characterized by the presence of phenocrysts of plagioclase and hornblende. The dikes have northeast direction and sharp contacts with the metamorphic rocks, indicating that its position was after the main orogenic regional metamorphism that affected the CMB, interpreted as of collisional nature. The diabase has a basic composition, whereas spessartite lamprophyres are intermediate, with geochemical affinities to the tholeiitic series, with a significant enrichment in light rare-earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Cs, Rb, Ba, K and Sr, and negative anomalies for high-field-strength elements (HFS) such as Nb, Ta, U and T. The concentration of standard trace elements and the Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios indicate that these magmas were derived from an enriched mantle source and were strongly contaminated by crust. Except for higher values of K, these features are similar to those found in basaltic volcanic rocks associated with the post-collisional period in south Brazil. The widely dispersed values of ?ND (618), ranging between -13.74 and +5.52, highlights the heterogeneity of the source and reinforces the importance of a crustal component in the generation of these rocks. The extremely low value of ?Nd (618), of -21.67 obtained for spessartite lamprophyres supports the importance of the involvement of crust in the genesis of this rock. Using the U-Pb and LA-ICP-MS method, a concordant age of 618 ± 8.7 Ma was obtained in zircon crystals of a diabase dike of the region of Barra do Areia, in Botuverá, SC. The existence of inherited zircon grains older than 1800 Ma in this sample supports the involvement of Paleoproterozoic continental crust. The data analysis characterizes the first magmatic age related to the post-collisional period of the Brasiliano orogeny in this region of the Santa Catarina Shield.

Sacks de Campos, Roberto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Chemale, Farid

2012-08-01

283

Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the coastal waters of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sewage discharge on coastal waters by evaluating the influence of physicochemical parameters on the presence of enteric microorganisms in seawater samples collected from 11 beaches in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, over a one-year period (August 2009 to July 2010). Samples were assessed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV), polyomavirus (JCPyV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses (HuNoV GI and GII). Escherichia coli and physicochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were also evaluated. From the 132 samples analyzed, 55% were positive for HAdV, 51.5% for HAV, 7.5% for HuNoV GI, 4.5% for HuNoV GII, and 3% for JCPyV. E. coli levels ranged from 8 to 1325 CFU/100mL at all sites. The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into coastal waters and confirm that there is no correlation between viral presence and bacterial contamination. PMID:22104718

Moresco, V; Viancelli, A; Nascimento, M A; Souza, D S M; Ramos, A P D; Garcia, L A T; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

2011-11-20

284

Presence of Torque teno virus (TTV) in tap water in public schools from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Torque teno virus (TTV) was surveyed in tap water collected in schools from three municipalities located in the south of Brazil. TTV genomes were found in 11.7 % (4/34) of the samples. TTV DNA was detected in 10.5 % (2/19) of the samples collected at the city of Caxias do Sul and in 25 % (2/8) of the samples from Pelotas. Those cities have a low rate of sewage treatment. All samples from Santa Cruz do Sul, which has nearly 92 % of its sewage treated, were negative. These results suggest that the amount of sewage treated may have an effect on the detection rates of TTV DNA in drinking water in a given urban area, showing a mild negative correlation (r = -0.76), when comparing the percentage of sewage treatment to the detection of TTV genomes. The detection rate of TTV was also compared with Escherichia coli, showing a strong correlation (r = 0.97), indicating that TTV may be a suitable marker of fecal contamination. PMID:23412718

Vecchia, Andréia Dalla; Kluge, Mariana; dos Santos da Silva, Joseane V; Comerlato, Juliana; Rodrigues, Manoela T; Fleck, Juliane D; da Luz, Roger B; Teixeira, Thais F; Roehe, Paulo M; Capalonga, Roberta; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Spilki, Fernando R

2012-11-09

285

Molecular identification of bovine papillomaviruses associated with cutaneous warts in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are widespread pathogens mainly associated with benign, self-limiting, cutaneous lesions (warts). At least 8 viral types, defined by serology or nucleotide sequences of the L1 gene, have been identified to date. Different serotypes are associated with the specific type and morphology of the lesion and with particular geographical regions. This article describes the molecular identification of papillomaviruses from Brazilian cattle (n = 48) and horses (n = 1) through partial amplification and sequencing of the L1 gene. Bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) was identified in warts from 29 cattle (59%), BPV-6 from 9 cattle (18%), and BPV-2 in 8 lesions (16%). Warts of 2 cattle harbored L1 sequences of a new BPV type (BAA5), otherwise identified almost exclusively in healthy skin. The newly proposed BPV type "BR-UEL-4" was identified in a sarcoid tumor of a horse. Thus, the present report provides information on the main types of BPV involved in bovine papillomatosis in Brazil and reveals a new viral type associated with equine sarcoid, which to date has been attributed exclusively to BPV-1 and BPV-2. PMID:20622233

Silva, Mariana Sá E; Weiss, Marcelo; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Dos Anjos, Bruno Leite; Torres, Fabricio Dias; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

2010-07-01

286

Coronary risk factors in adult children of parents with coronary heart disease: a comparison survey of southeastern Brazil and southeastern United States.  

PubMed

A survey was performed in southeastern Brazil and in the southeastern United States to: 1) compare coronary risk factors in adult children (>18 years old) of parents with coronary heart disease enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation programs in countries with different geographic, social, and economic factors; and 2) to assess the influence of coronary heart disease of parents on alteration of lifestyle in these adult children. There were 286 biological children available for the survey (135 Brazil, 151 United States). Of those, 142 completed the survey (78 Brazil, 64 United States) for an overall compliance rate of 50% (58% Brazil, 42% United States). The following differences were noted: blood pressure > 159/90 mm Hg (23% Brazil, 15% United States [nonsignificant]); total cholesterol > 181 mg/dL (5% Brazil, 30% United States [p < 0.001]); HDL-C < 35 mg/dL (95% Brazil, 21% United States [p < 0.001]); low-fat diet (29% Brazil, 64% United States [p < 0.001]); smoke/ever (41% Brazil, 34% United States [nonsignificant]); currently smoke (72% Brazil, 18% United States [p < 0.001]); any exercise [44% Brazil, 82% United States [p < 0.001]); exercise > 90 minute/week (18% Brazil, 20% United States [nonsignificant]); improved lifestyle habits (39% Brazil, 79% United States [p < 0.001]); improved lifestyle habits related to parent's coronary heart disease (66% Brazil, 35% United States [p < 0.05]). Such differences may reflect geographic, social, and/or economic factors. PMID:16034217

Bueno, Nelia; Fletcher, Barbara J; Fletcher, Gerald F; Serra, Salvador; Cruz, Pedro di Marco da; Kelly, Deborah; Meirelles, Luisa; Atkinson, Elizabeth; Tabor, Leigh Ann; Ramos, Adriana; Castro, Iran

2005-01-01

287

Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was performed to obtain an emerging view of the epidemiology of acaricide resistance in populations of R. microplus from Mato Grosso do Sul state in Brazil. Twenty four tick samples were collected from cities in the state where farmers reported concerns about resistance or failure of tick...

288

The Itajaí foreland basin: a tectono-sedimentary record of the Ediacaran period, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Itajaí Basin located in the southern border of the Luís Alves Microplate is considered as a peripheral foreland basin related to the Dom Feliciano Belt. It presents an excellent record of the Ediacaran period, and its upper parts display the best Brazilian example of Precambrian turbiditic deposits. The basal succession of Itajaí Group is represented by sandstones and conglomerates (Baú Formation) deposited in alluvial and deltaic-fan systems. The marine upper sequences correspond to the Ribeirão Carvalho (channelized and non-channelized proximal silty-argillaceous rhythmic turbidites), Ribeirão Neisse (arkosic sandstones and siltites), and Ribeirão do Bode (distal silty turbidites) formations. The Apiúna Formation felsic volcanic rocks crosscut the sedimentary succession. The Cambrian Subida leucosyenogranite represents the last felsic magmatic activity to affect the Itajaí Basin. The Brusque Group and the Florianópolis Batholith are proposed as source areas for the sediments of the upper sequence. For the lower continental units the source areas are the Santa Catarina, São Miguel and Camboriú complexes. The lack of any oceanic crust in the Itajaí Basin suggests that the marine units were deposited in a restricted, internal sea. The sedimentation started around 600 Ma and ended before 560 Ma as indicated by the emplacement of rhyolitic domes. The Itajaí Basin is temporally and tectonically correlated with the Camaquã Basin in Rio Grande do Sul and the Arroyo del Soldado/Piriápolis Basin in Uruguay. It also has several tectono-sedimentary characteristics in common with the African-equivalent Nama Basin.

Basei, M. A. S.; Drukas, C. O.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Dunyi, L.; Santos, P. R.; Passarelli, C. R.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Siga, O.; Osako, L.

2011-04-01

289

Application of PCR in Serum Samples for Diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Southern Bahia-Brazil  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01). Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail.

Dias, Lucas; de Carvalho, Leila Falcao; Romano, Carla C.

2012-01-01

290

HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

2010-01-01

291

Drought and Regional Hydrologic Variation in the United States: Associations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 years of monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data for 344 climate divisions, this study investigates the hydroclimatic response in the United States to the extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (El Niño and La Nina). Several regions of coherent response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified. The strongest relationship between El Niño and extreme drought years

Thomas C. Piechota; John A. Dracup

1996-01-01

292

Drought and regional hydrologic variation in the United States: Associations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 years of monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data for 344 climate divisions, this study investigates the hydroclimatic response in the United States to the extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (El Niño and La Niña). Several regions of coherent response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified. The strongest relationship between El Niño and extreme drought years

Thomas C. Piechota; John A. Dracup

1996-01-01

293

Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

2011-12-01

294

Bed-Sharing at 3 Months and Breast-Feeding at 1 Year in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between bedsharing at age 3 months and breastfeeding (BF) at age 12 months. Study design Almost all children born in Pelotas, Brazil in 2004 (99.2%) were enrolled in a cohort study. At birth, age 3 months, and age 12 months, mothers were interviewed to gather information on sociodemographic, reproductive, BF, and bedsharing characteristics. Bedsharing was defined as habitual sharing of a bed between mother and child for the entire night or part of the night. The analysis was limited to children from single births who were breastfed at 3 months. Multivariate analyses were carried out using Poisson regression. Results Of 4231 live births, 2889 were breastfed at age 3 months. The prevalence of BF at age 12 months was 59.2% in the children who bedshared at 3 months and 44% in those who did not (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] for weaning= 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.81; P < .001). Among children who were exclusively breastfed at 3 months, 75.1% of those who also bedshared were still breastfed at age 12 months, versus 52.3% of those who did not bedshare (adjusted PR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.53- 0.75; P < .001). The adjusted PR was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60-0.90; P = .003) in children who were predominantly breastfed and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.76-0.90; P < .001) in those who were partially breastfed. Conclusions Bedsharing at 3 months protected against weaning up to age 12 months.

Santos, Ina S.; Mota, Denise M.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.F.

2009-01-01

295

Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa.It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group.The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque Group and the Florianópolis Batholith collided.

Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

2011-12-01

296

Pathways to Social Complexity and State Formation in the Southern Zambezian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theorists have put forth various anthropological perspectives on the variables leading to social complexity and the emergence\\u000a of state-level polities. This paper incorporates data from the Zambezian region of Southern Africa in order to contribute\\u000a to the literature on social evolutionary theory. It traces the cultural trajectories of communities that flourished during\\u000a the region’s Iron Age within the Shashi-Limpopo Basin,

Nam C. Kim; Chapurukha M. Kusimba

2008-01-01

297

Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne\\u000a diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the\\u000a year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected\\u000a from 600 apparently healthy indigenous

D. A. Salih; A. M. El Hussein; U. Seitzer; J. S. Ahmed

2007-01-01

298

Evaluation of integrated harvesting systems in pine stands of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the addition of a small chipper to mechanized, tree-length harvesting systems to produce biomass chips from tops, limbs, and underbrush in planted southern pine stands. The systems were examined in three replicated studies involving clearcuts and thinnings in 2006 and 2007 in the US state of Georgia. Biomass from understory stems ranged from 8.3 to 59.0 green tonnes

Shawn A. Baker; Michael D. Westbrook Jr.; W. Dale Greene

2010-01-01

299

Seasonal and interannual litter dynamics of a tropical semideciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzed how seasonal and interannual variations in climate alter litter dynamics, including production, decomposition, and accumulation. Monthly measurements of leaf, stem, and reproductive (flower plus fruit) litter and the forest floor litter mass were combined with a mass balance model to determine rates of litter decomposition for a semideciduous tropical forest located in the rain forest-savanna ecotone of the southern Amazon Basin for 2001-2007. Annual rates of litter production varied between 8 and 10.5 Mg ha-1 a-1, and leaf litter production accounted for the majority (˜70%) of the total litter production. Leaf litter production peaked at the end of the May-August dry season while stem litter production peaked during the wet season and reproductive litter production peaked during the dry-wet season transition. Forest floor litter mass ranged between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 over the study period and generally declined as litter inputs declined. Litter decomposition rates were remarkably stable from year-to-year and varied between 10.8 and 12.4 Mg ha-1 a-1. On average, rates of litter decomposition were highest during the dry-wet season transition. Overall, our results suggest that rainfall variability directly altered litter production dynamics and indirectly altered forest floor litter mass and decomposition kinetics through its effect on litter production. Future changes in seasonal and/or interannual rainfall patterns, whether in response to El Niño or to anthropogenic climate change, will likely have important consequences for the litter dynamics of Amazonian semideciduous forest.

Sanches, Luciana; Valentini, Carla Maria Abido; Júnior, Osvaldo Borges Pinto; de Souza Nogueira, José; Vourlitis, George Louis; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; da Silva, Carlos José; Bambi, Paulino; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco

2008-12-01

300

Paleomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the early Cretaceous Florianópolis dike swarm (Santa Catarina Island), Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Florianópolis (FL) basaltic dikes are well exposed on Santa Catarina Island, close to the present southeastern border of the Paraná Magmatic Province in Southern Brazil, and their intrusion was related to the tectonic and magmatic evolution of rifting in the southern Atlantic. The dikes are vertical or subvertical, and cut the crystalline basement rocks, mainly Late Proterozoic granites. Most of the dikes exhibit NE trends, corresponding to structural trends of the crystalline basement. A few NW-trending dikes can also be observed, occasionally crosscutting the NE dikes. Samples from 73 dikes were collected for paleomagnetic work, and subjected to both alternating field and thermal demagnetization. Characteristic magnetizations of normal and reversed polarities interpreted as original thermoremanences are carried by Ti-poor magnetites showing remanent coercive forces in the range 18-45 mT. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole (FL pole) is located at 3.3°E, 89.1°S ( N=65; ?95=2.6°; k=47). Samples for 40Ar/ 39Ar dating were collected at the same paleomagnetic sites. Plagioclase samples from nine dikes were analyzed by stepwise heating; the apparent age spectra are strongly discordant due to excess 40Ar contamination, but five samples yielded plateau ages ranging from 119.0±0.9 Ma to 128.3±0.5 Ma. One additional sample yielded an isochron age of 121.5±0.5 Ma. The inferred ages apparently define two modes at ˜119-122 Ma and ˜126-128 Ma, although the data set is probably insufficient to determine whether dike intrusion was continuous or episodic. The ages of 128-119 Ma are coeval with the final stages of the rifting at this latitude, suggesting that the emplacement of the FL dikes is related to extension of the continental crust just prior to the formation of oceanic crust. By comparing the FL pole with the existing paleomagnetic poles for the NW Ponta Grossa dike swarm (mainly 130.5 Ma) to the north, the Paraná volcanics (mainly 133-132 Ma), and the Central Alkaline Province (127-130 Ma) on the western side of the Paraná Province it is concluded that the differences in pole positions reflect plate displacements, and therefore the FL pole is probably dominated by the dikes with ages younger than 127 Ma.

Raposo, Maria Irene Bartolomeu; Ernesto, Marcia; Renne, Paul Randall

1998-08-01

301

Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit. These results are in agreement with the values found by Paiva and Paiva (2006), who evaluated the SWAT in a downstream section, in the same basin, with an area of 18 km2. In the Paiva and Paiva (2006) study, the adjustment to the daily scale showed a R2 of 0.54. The model overestimated the total volume by 12%. Also for these authors, for the monthly scale was obtained a R2 of 0.88 and a NSE of 0.88. In this case, as the basin is larger, daily values resulted in a better fit. Bonumá (2011) also applied the model for a small watershed (4.18 km2) located in Southern Brazil with land use mainly composed of tobacco crops, and obtained a fit with a NSE of 0.87 during calibration and 0.76 during validation. These results show that the SWAT model fits well in this region with monthly discretization. Probably, the low values of the adjustment for the daily scale and the main problems of using the model are due to the size of the basin, the short period of observed data, and the need for more information on the physical characterization of the soil.

Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

2011-12-01

302

Population structure, growth and production of Thoracophelia furcifera (Polychaeta: Opheliidae) on a sandy beach in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates aspects of the life history of the polychaete Thoracophelia furcifera on a sandy beach in southern Brazil. Two fixed transects perpendicular to the shoreline in the intertidal zone were sampled fortnightly from May 2008 to April 2009 at low tide. Five T. furcifera samples were collected along each transect and sediment temperature and the salinity of interstitial water were recorded. The material was washed over 0.5- and 0.088-mm sieves, and the width of setiger 8 of each specimen was measured. A total of 5,870 organisms were examined and the estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth curve were L ? 3.60 mm (Wd8S), K 0.63 year-1, C 0.3 and WP 0.97 (Rn 0.132). Life span was 2.6 years, instantaneous mortality rate Z was 3.8 year-1 and the growth index ?' 0.91. Mean density ranged from 644.44 ± 191.77 to 2,783.33 ± 453.64 ind m-2 and mean biomass ranged from 2.52 ± 0.55 to 9.52 ± 1.83 g m-2. Recruitment occurred from April to July and ovigerous females were found from June to November. Annual secondary production was 6.582 g m-2 year-1, mean biomass was 5.638 g m-2 and turnover rate was 1.167. The high values for density, secondary production and biomass suggest that T. furcifera constitute an important food source. These features of T. furcifera' life strategy demonstrate the significant role this species plays in ecosystem dynamics.

Otegui, Mariana B. P.; Blankensteyn, Arno; Pagliosa, Paulo R.

2012-12-01

303

Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Prescriptions to Patients over 45 Years of Age in Primary Care, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Few cross-sectional studies involving adults and elderly patients with major DDIs have been conducted in the primary care setting. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in patients treated in primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study involving patients aged 45 years or older was conducted at 25 Basic Health Units in the city of Maringá (southern Brazil) from May to December 2010. The data were collected from prescriptions at the pharmacy of the health unit at the time of the delivery of medication to the patient. After delivery, the researcher checked the electronic medical records of the patient. A total of 827 patients were investigated (mean age: 64.1; mean number of medications: 4.4). DDIs were identified in the Micromedex® database. The prevalence of potential DDIs and major DDIs was 63.0% and 12.1%, respectively. In both the univariate and multivariate analyses, the number of drugs prescribed was significantly associated with potential DDIs, with an increasing risk from three to five drugs (OR?=?4.74; 95% CI: 2.90–7.73) to six or more drugs (OR?=?23.03; 95% CI: 10.42–50.91). Forty drugs accounted for 122 pairs of major DDIs, the most frequent of which involved simvastatin (23.8%), captopril/enalapril (16.4%) and fluoxetine (16.4%). Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study on primary care carried out in Latin America. Based on the findings, the estimated prevalence of potential DDIs was high, whereas clinically significant DDIs occurred in a smaller proportion. Exposing patients to a greater number of prescription drugs, especially three or more, proved to be a significant predictor of DDIs. Prescribers should be more aware of potential DDIs. Future studies should assess potential DDIs in primary care over a longer period of time.

Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Crozatti, Marcia Terezinha Lonardoni; dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Romano-Lieber, Nicolina Silvana

2012-01-01

304

Laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza A and community respiratory viral infections in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents. PMID:21248084

Raboni, Sonia M; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R; França, João B; Moreira, Suzana; Gonçalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Almeida, Sergio M; Debur, Maria C; Carraro, Hipolito; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte

2011-01-19

305

Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents.

Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; Franca, Joao B.; Moreira, Suzana; Goncalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

2011-01-01

306

An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).  

PubMed

The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural-urban-industry gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0-5.1 in rural to 5.4-6.1 in industrial sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+, Cl-, NH+(4), NO-(3), and PO(3-)(4), and concentrations increased in urban and industrial sites. Principal component analysis identified the local main anthropogenic sources. Estimated annual amounts of dry deposition were generally greater in both industrial and urban sites than in rural sites. Areas close to industrial activity showed greater S and N total deposition (10.4-10.9 and 20.2-30.6 kg/ha, respectively) than in urban (3.4-7.3 and 14.6-24.1 kg/ha) and in rural (1.7-2.6 and 8.9-12.1 kg/ha) sites. Annual deposition of Ca and P varied from 0.6 and 3.0 kg/ha in rural to 45.4 and 32.4 kg/ha in industrial sites, maximum values being observed closed to the phosphate fertilizer plant of Rio Grande. Deposition in urban and industrial sites may be balanced by the alkaline cations, as bulk precipitation pH varied from 5.4 to 6.1, and was greater than in rural sites (5.0-5.1). PMID:17891507

Casartelli, M R; Mirlean, N; Peralba, M C; Barrionuevo, S; Gómez-Rey, M X; Madeira, M

2007-09-23

307

Detection of new mutations and molecular pathology of mild and moderate haemophilia A patients from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 76 unrelated male patients with mild (n = 55) or moderate (n = 21) haemophilia A living in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul were studied by direct sequencing of all F8 26 exons, the 5' UTR and 3' UTR, intron-exon junctions and the promoter region. When no mutation was found, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed. We identified the disease-causing mutations in 69 patients, who showed 33 different mutations: 27 missense, one small deletion, two small duplications and three splice site mutations. Seven missense and two splice site mutations were not previously reported in HAMSTeRS and were not identified in any current literature search. Nine recurrent mutations were found, one of them never described before (p.Tyr1786Phe). Haplotype analysis indicated that this mutation had originated in the Brazilian population as a single event in a common ancestor. The possible influence of these mutations in the determination of the disease was carefully considered, including bioinformatic tools. These data add to the general knowledge of the disease and can also be useful for HA diagnosis and detection of carriers in the southern Brazilian population. PMID:23711237

Rosset, C; Vieira, I A; Sinigaglia, M; Gorziza, R P; Salzano, F M; Bandinelli, E

2013-05-28

308

Spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae in a subtropical coastal lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the variation in abundance, distribution and composition of ichthyoplankton in a lagoon in southern Brazil through the year and at different stations within the lagoon. Ibiraquera Lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon connected to the sea by a semi-permanent sandbar. Ichthyoplankton samples were collected monthly from December 2003 to December 2004, with a 200 µm mesh net

Luis C. P. Macedo-Soares; Alesandra B. Birolo; Andrea S. Freire

2009-01-01

309

Magnetic Studies of coastal Early-Late Cretaceous mafic dike swarms from São Paulo State (Brazil): Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mesozoic magmatism in Southern Brazil is represented mainly by the basaltic flows of the Serra Geral Formation, the dikes swarms from the Ponta Grossa Arch, Florianópolis, along the coast between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and several alkaline complexes that lie along tectonic features associated with the evolution of the Paraná Basin. The emplacement of the dike swarms

M. B. Raposo; G. K. Malo

2007-01-01

310

Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

1985-09-01

311

The Role of El Niño—Southern Oscillation in Regulating its Background State  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear aspect of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—its regulatory effect on the background state (the climatological\\u000a state)—is described. In particular, it is shown that ENSO acts as a basin-scale heat “mixer” that prevents any significant\\u000a increase from occurring in the time-mean difference between the warm-pool SST (Tw) and the temperature of the thermocline\\u000a water (Tc). When this temperature contrast

De-Zheng Sun

312

40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Southern contiguous States, including North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. The effluent limitations contained in this subpart L are applicable to existing facilities processing more than 908...

2012-07-01

313

Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in patients reporting symptoms of pneumonia, even if these symptoms are only presented for a short period, who are from areas considered endemic for this disease. PMID:22990973

Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

2012-09-01

314

Introns 1 and 22 inversions and factor VIII inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 107 unrelated severe haemophilia A patients living in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul were studied in relation to the prevalence of inversions present in introns 22 and 1 and a subsample of them (95) tested for the presence of Factor VIII inhibitors. These data were then incorporated with those from 15 other countries and 3871 patients. The frequencies of these two inversions show a remarkable homogeneity in series collected in different continents, from people with diverse ethnic extraction. The prevalence of inhibitors among patients with inversion 22, on the other hand, varies widely (5-51%; seven countries, 1482 patients), the value observed by us being the highest. The importance of obtaining data from patients throughout the world to clarify the aetiology of this important complicating factor in the therapeutics of the disease is emphasized. PMID:18759747

Leiria, L B; Roisenberg, I; Salzano, F M; Bandinelli, E

2008-08-27

315

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response plans: A collection of matrices  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Technical support and services are offered in a variety of areas, including renewable and alternative energy technologies; energy conservation; acid rain; utility regulation; clean coal technologies and technology transfer, oil and natural gas supply; and solid, hazardous and radioactive materials management. SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from affected states and tribes. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of Monitored Retrievable Storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by identifying the major elements of southern state emergency preparedness and response programs.

Not Available

1989-07-01

316

Diversity of Hepatozoon species in naturally infected dogs in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon americanum is a protozoan that causes American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) in the southern United States; Hepatozoon canis, the causative agent of canine hepatozoonosis in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America, has not previously been definitively identified in dogs in the United States. To characterize the diversity of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs from Oklahoma, blood samples collected from dogs residing in an endemic area of the state, clinical cases presented to veterinarians with symptoms of ACH, and dogs housed at a local shelter were evaluated by a nested PCR designed to amplify a variable region of the 18S rRNA gene of blood ampicomplexa, including Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon sequences recovered from a dog from an area where ACH is endemic, from clinically ill dogs, and from one shelter dog most closely resembled H. americanum. However, two other shelter dogs had evidence of infection with H. canis or a closely related organism. A subsequent review of real-time PCR results from the Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory at Auburn University revealed that the majority of samples submitted from dogs from across the United States which tested positive for Hepatozoon spp. had H. americanum. However, some submissions were also found which contained DNA sequence of H. canis. Mixed H. americanum and H. canis-like infections also were detected. Our data suggest that H. americanum, H. canis, as well as H. canis-like organisms are present and may cause disease in dogs in the southern U.S. PMID:18485602

Allen, Kelly E; Li, Yihang; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Little, Susan E

2008-04-07

317

The United States, Brazil, and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though virtually ignored in the historiography, Brazil played an intriguing role in the politics and diplomacy of the Cuban missile crisis and in U.S. Cuban relations during the Kennedy administration. In the years after Fidel Castro took power, successive Brazilian governments tried secretly to mediate between the United States and Cuba as the two countries' mutual confrontation intensified. Newly available

James G. Hershberg

2004-01-01

318

[Tabanidae (Diptera) of State of Maranhão, Brazil II. Description of Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) rafaeli, sp. nov].  

PubMed

Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) rafaeli, sp.nov. is described and figured from nine specimens collected in Carolina, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The new species is compared with the species Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) laticlava Wilkerson & Fairchild, 1983; Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) bitriangulata Lutz & Castro, 1935 e Esenbeckia (Esenbeckia) enderleini Kröber, 1931. PMID:18813745

Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco

319

Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report.  

PubMed

The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

2010-03-01

320

INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

321

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

322

Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus,

Claudia M Ríos-Velásquez; Cláudia T Codeço; Nildimar A Honório; Paulo S Sabroza; Mônica Moresco; Ivana CL Cunha; Antônio Levino; Luciano M Toledo; Sérgio LB Luz

2007-01-01

323

Spatial-temporal analysis of water requirements of coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific investigations about crop water requirements are of fundamental importance to the irrigation process. The main objective of this paper is to analyze and to map water requirements of coffee crop in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Poten- tial evapotranspiration values (ET 0) were estimated by the Penman-Monteith-FAO method, using daily data sets available for 42 National Meteorology Institute (INMET) stations

Luis C. de A. Lemos Filho; Carlos R. de Mello; Manoel A. de Faria; Luiz G. de Carvalho

2010-01-01

324

Interannual Variability of Daily Extreme Precipitation Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climatology and interannual variability of heavy, or `extreme,' precipitation events are studied, using station data from the state of São Paulo, Brazil. An extreme event is defined at each station when daily rainfall exceeds a certain percent of its seasonal or annual mean. It is found that these events occur mainly from November to March and that there is

Brant Liebmann; Charles Jones; Leila M. V. de Carvalho

2001-01-01

325

First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed. PMID:19197480

Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

2008-11-01

326

The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758) within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts) of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01) and dogs (p < 0.01) were the most

Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho; Adilson Benedito de Almeida; Silvia Cristina Barbosa-Silva; Marinete Amorim; Paulo César Ribeiro; Nicolau Maués Serra-Freire

2003-01-01

327

Nutrient budgets and trophic state in a hypersaline coastal lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline lagoon with salinity varying spatially from 45 to 56. We collected water samples during monthly cruises throughout the lagoon, and along the streams feeding the system, from April 1991 to March 1992. Nutrients and other water quality parameters exhibited great spatial and temporal variations. Mass balance

Marcelo F. L. Souza; Björn Kjerfve; Bastiaan Knoppers; Weber F. Landim de Souza; Raimundo N. Damasceno

2003-01-01

328

[Drug advertisement in a medicine school in the Southern of Brazil].  

PubMed

This is a quali-quantitative study on drug advertisement in a Medicine school in Santa Catarina state. Participants were medicine students, faculty physicians and patients of school ambulatories, totaling 1,231 interviewees. The focal group technique was used to the qualitative research; the quantitative research with a semistructured questionnaire. 53.6% of the faculty physicians considered they were rarely or never influenced by the propaganda, and 53.7% claimed their colleagues are. Among the students, 43.2% believe that, after graduated, they will rarely or never be influenced; while 42.0% believe that graduated are always or frequently influenced. For 41.7%, the information given by the representatives of the pharmaceutical industry is good or excellent. Also, 74.8% reported that the pharmaceutical industry will be able to contribute for their professional practice. This study identified that the distribution of free drug samples are one of the main advertising and propaganda techniques used by the pharmaceutical industry; as there is a certain pressure of the medical preceptor upon the choice of the prescription; although no direct impact of the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on the ambulatories was observed. Drug prescription is usually not rational. PMID:21120336

Trevisol, Daisson José; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Karnopp, Zuleica Maria Patrício

2010-11-01

329

"Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.  

PubMed

This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives. PMID:12321266

Hautzinger, S

1997-01-01

330

Lead levels in milk and blood from donors to the Breast Milk Bank in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazilian scientific literature on the adverse effects of lead on the general population is still very limited. Lead, a potentially toxic substance, has become a public health problem due to its effects, mainly those affecting the central nervous system and on the synthesis of heme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the level of lead exposure of donors to the Breast Milk Bank in the city of Londrina, Parana, by estimating the levels of that metal in milk and blood samples. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period between January and July 2007. All mothers enrolled as donors in the Breast Milk Bank were included in this study. A total of 92 volunteers presenting the following inclusion criteria were evaluated in the project: volunteers who were healthy, without any chronic disease, full-term pregnancy, breastfeeding between the 15th and 210 th day after giving birth, and living in the city of the study. Lead in milk and blood was quantified using the inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique. All mothers signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee from Londrina State University. The median lead concentration in milk samples was 3.0 microg/L, varying from 1.0 to 8.0 microg/L. The median of lead in blood was of 2.7 microg/dl, varying from 1.0 to 5.5 microg/dl. In Spearman correlation analysis, significant but modest correlations could be observed between the concentration of lead in blood and in milk (r(s)=0.207, p=0.048), hemoglobin and ALAD activity (r(s)=-0.264, p=0.011), level of lead in blood and mother's age (r(s)=0.227, p=0.029). However, for hematocrit and hemoglobin, the correlation was higher (r(s)=0.837, p<0.001). No statistically significant associations were found between concentrations of lead in milk and blood and demographic variables studied, obtained through interviews and validated questionnaire. The mean of milk/blood lead ratio was equal to 0.11. In general, the values found in the present study are similar to those obtained in populations in other countries, and are within background levels. PMID:20079491

Koyashiki, Gina Ayumi Kobayashi; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos; Matsuo, Tiemi; de Oliveira, Márcia Maria Benevenuto; Mezzaroba, Leda; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; Turini, Conceição; Vannuchi, Marli Terezinha Oliveira; Barbosa, Claudia Santiago Dias

2010-01-15

331

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.  

PubMed

Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC. PMID:9341869

Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

1997-10-01

332

Trophic state and water turn-over time in six choked coastal lagoons in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentration, nutrient loading, and water turn-over time in six shallow choked lagoons along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established that water turn-over time is related to the trophic state of the lagoons with additional anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting this relationship. Turnover time was calculated as a flushing half-life from

Bastiaan Knoppers; Björn Kjerfve; Jean-Pierre Carmouze

1991-01-01

333

Genetic Services and Research in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minas Gerais in Brazil has a surface of 586,528 km2, and 18 million inhabitants. Infant mortality rate is 20\\/1,000, and congenital anomalies are its second cause. There are 11 medical schools where basic genetics, but not clinical genetics, is taught. Genetic services in the state include: newborn screening for hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis;

Marcos José Burle Aguiar

2004-01-01

334

Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Shangdong, China in two field investigations in 2003. The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes. The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO, NO NO{3/-}, Mn2+, Fe2+, SO{4/2-} in the brines. The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic, and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction.

Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang; Ning, Jinsong; Chen, Hongtao; Mi, Tiezhu

2008-05-01

335

Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km2 in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant & Watson Ltd. The

Rodrigo O. Bastos; Carlos R. Appoloni; Jose´ P. P. Pinese

2008-01-01

336

Gestational age at birth and morbidity, mortality, and growth in the first 4 years of life: findings from three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background We assessed anthropometric status, breastfeeding duration, morbidity, and mortality outcomes during the first four years of life according to gestational age, in three population-based birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Methods Total breastfeeding duration, neonatal mortality, infant morbidity and mortality, and anthropometric measures taken at 12 and 48 months were evaluated in children of different gestational ages born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Results Babies born <34 weeks of gestation and those born between 34–36 weeks presented increased morbidity and mortality, were breastfed for shorter periods, and were more likely to be undernourished at 12 months of life, in comparison with the 39–41 weeks group. Children born with 37 weeks were more than twice as likely to die in the first year of life, and were also at increased risk of hospitalization and underweight at 12 months of life. Post-term infants presented an increased risk of neonatal mortality. Conclusion The increased risks of morbidity and mortality among preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) and post-term (>41 weeks) are well known. In our population babies born at 37 also present increased risk. As the proportion of preterm and early term babies has increased markedly in recent years, this is a cause for great concern.

2012-01-01

337

Feeding ecology of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Sciaenidae: Perciformes) in the Ibicuí River, Southern Brazil: ontogenetic, seasonal and spatial variations.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the feeding ecology of fish is essential for understanding the functioning of freshwater communities. Here we report on an analysis of the diet of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879, a freshwater sciaenid. Fish were collected bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002 at three locations along the Ibicuí River in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. At each location, the specimens were collected in both lentic and lotic environments. The stomachs of 324 fish were analysed for contents and fullness. The main items were Ephemeroptera, Diptera (larvae), Trichoptera and Odonata. Annelida, plant matter, Decapoda, Diptera (pupae), Coleoptera and Mollusca were present in small amounts. The fish consumed smaller amounts of food in winter than in other seasons. The most important source of dietary variation for P. bonariensis was the ontogenetic, related to intrinsic biological characters. However, spatial variation was also found, suggesting that this species can adapt its diet to environmental changes. Although P. bonariensis showed ontogenetic and spatial variations in the main items consumed, the main items were always insects, characterising P. bonariensis as a fish with an insectivorous feeding habit in the Ibicuí River. PMID:20730336

Lima, D O; Behr, E R

2010-08-01

338

Mutation rate estimates for 13 STR loci in a large population from Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms have been extensively used in forensic genetics analysis. Knowledge about the locus-specific mutation rates of STRs improves forensic probability calculations and interpretations of diversity data. To incorporate single-locus diversity information into autosomal STR mutation rate estimations, 13 STR loci were studied during 2007-2009 in 10,959 paternity investigation cases from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, covering an overall number of 284,934 allelic transfers. A total of 355 mutations were identified; 348 repeats were gains or losses of one step, three were gains or losses of two steps, and four were gains or losses of not stepwise mutation. The mutation rates ranged from 4.6?×?10(-5) to 2.3?×?10(-3), and the overall mutation rate estimate was 1.2?×?10(-3). The average of the paternal mutation rate (1.8?×?10(-3)) was five times higher than the maternal rate (0.36?×?10(-3)). The observed mutational features for STRs have important consequences for forensic applications, including the definition of criteria for exclusion in paternity testing and the interpretation of DNA profiles in identification analysis. PMID:22072310

Mardini, Ana Carolina; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Schumacher, Simone; Chula, Fernanda Goulart Lanes; Michelon, Candice Tosi; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Maciel, Lila Partichelli; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

2011-11-10

339

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 ?W/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 ?W/cm(2). PMID:21741680

Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

2011-07-13

340

RESISTANCE OF AEDES AEGYPTI TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN SEVERAL MUNICIPALITIES IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO AND ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical insecticides have been widely used in Brazil for several years. This exposes mosquito populations to an intense selection pressure for resistance to insecticides. In 1999, the Brazilian National Health Foundation started the first program designed to monitor the resistance of Aedes aegypti to insecticides. We analyzed populations from 10 municipalities (from 84 selected in Brazil) in the states of

JOSÉ BENTO PEREIRA LIMA; MARCELLA PEREIRA DA-CUNHA; RONALDO CARNEIRO DA SILVA JÚNIOR; ALLAN KARDEC; RIBEIRO GALARDO; SILVA SOARES; IMA APARECIDA BRAGA; RICARDO PIMENTEL RAMOS; DENISE VALLE

2003-01-01

341

Thermochronology of the South American platform in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, through apatite fission tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fission-track method (FTM) in apatite was applied to 45 samples collected in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira mountain range), the Serra do Mar (Mar mountain range), regions next to these mountain ranges and the coastal region between Ubatuba and Santos in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study the thermochronology of the South American Platform in southeast Brazil

C. A. Tello Saenz; J. C. Hadler Neto; P. J. Iunes; S. Guedes; P. C. Hackspacher; L. F. B. Ribeiro; S. R. Paulo; A. M. Osorio A

2005-01-01

342

Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

2012-08-01

343

Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.  

PubMed

Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

2006-05-11

344

Overview of Drought and Hydrologic Conditions in the United States and Southern Canada, Water Years 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the drought and hydrologic conditions in the United States and southern Canada during the 1986-90 water years. This drought, which spread from the Eastern United States, where it was referred to as 'the drought of the century,' throug...

S. L. Holmes

1992-01-01

345

Superdeep diamonds from the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial diamonds from the Juina area in Mato Grosso, Brazil, have been characterized in terms of their morphology, syngenetic mineral inclusions, carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents. Morphologically, they are similar to other Brazilian diamonds, showing a strong predominance of rounded dodecahedral crystals. However, other characteristics of the Juina diamonds make them unique. The inclusion parageneses of Juina diamonds are dominated by ultra-high-pressure ("superdeep") phases that differ both from "traditional" syngenetic minerals associated with diamonds and, in detail, from most other superdeep assemblages. Ferropericlase is the dominant inclusion in the Juina diamonds. It coexists with ilmenite, Cr-Ti spinel, a phase with the major-element composition of olivine, and SiO2. CaSi-perovskite inclusions coexist with titanite (sphene), "olivine" and native Ni. MgSi-perovskite coexists with TAPP (tetragonal almandine-pyrope phase). Majoritic garnet occurs in one diamond, associated with CaTi-perovskite, Mn-ilmenite and an unidentified Si-Mg phase. Neither Cr-pyrope nor Mg-chromite was found as inclusions. The spinel inclusions are low in Cr and Mg, and high in Ti (Cr2O3<36.5 wt%, and TiO2>10 wt%). Most ilmenite inclusions have low MgO contents, and some have very high (up to 11.5 wt%) MnO contents. The rare "olivine" inclusions coexisting with ferropericlase have low Mg# (87-89), and higher Ca, Cr and Zn contents than typical diamond-inclusion olivines. They are interpreted as inverted from spinel-structured (Mg, Fe)2Si2O4. This suite of inclusions is consistent with derivation of most of the diamonds from depths near 670 km, and adds ilmenite and relatively low-Cr, high-Ti spinel to the known phases of the superdeep paragenesis. Diamonds from the Juina area are characterized by a narrow range of carbon isotopic composition (?13C=-7.8 to -2.5‰), except for the one majorite-bearing diamond (?13C=-11.4‰). There are high proportions of nitrogen-free and low-nitrogen diamonds, and the aggregated B center is predominant in nitrogen-containing diamonds. These observations have practical consequences for diamond exploration: Low-Mg olivine, low-Mg and high-Mn ilmenite, and low-Cr spinel should be included in the list of diamond indicator minerals, and the role of high-Cr, low-Ti spinel as the only spinel associated with diamond, and hence as a criterion of diamond grade in kimberlites, should be reconsidered.

Kaminsky, F. V.; Zakharchenko, O. D.; Davies, R.; Griffin, W. L.; Khachatryan-Blinova, G. K.; Shiryaev, A. A.

2001-02-01

346

Convective activity in Mato Grosso state (Brazil) from microwave satellite observations: Comparisons between AMSU and TRMM data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a characterization of convective activity at sub-regional scale from two sets of satellite-based microwave observations: the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the combined Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager and precipitation radar data, for the period 2001 to 2011. We focus on the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, located at the southern edge of the so-called "Legal Amazon" which has undergone intense land cover transformation in the last 4 decades. The annual cycle of mean convective activity described by AMSU and TRMM are in good agreement, with a correlation close to 0.80. The mean amplitude of convective activity is maximal early in the rainy season, except for AMSU deep convective area, which presents a maximum in January. The diurnal cycle of convection was examined for the period 2003 to 2007, and it was found that convection is maximal near 1500 local time (LT) and minimal around 0700 LT. Unlike the amplitude, the phase shows little intraseasonal and interannual variability. A slight decrease in convective activity in the studied period was found, possibly indicating an extension of the dry season. Comparisons of convective activity between deforested and forested areas showed no significant differences in the phase of the diurnal cycle, but our analysis shows a tendency for increase (decrease) in convection in deforested (forested) areas for the period considered. A longer time series is however necessary in order to strengthen the robustness of our results.

Funatsu, Beatriz M.; Dubreuil, Vincent; Claud, Chantal; Arvor, Damien; Gan, Manoel A.

2012-08-01

347

Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time.

Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2010-01-01

348

Regulating Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Americas: A Comparison of the Top Down and Bottom Up Approaches in Brazil and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a comparative analysis of the legal approaches to regulate Second Hand Smoke (SHS) in Brazil and the United States. Part II reviews the FCTC, its objective to achieve smoke-free public places, and the legal framework supporting freedom from SHS as a human right. Parts III and IV examine Brazil’s top down and the United States’ bottom up

Leigh Warren

2010-01-01

349

Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution--Goias State, Brazil, 2003.  

PubMed

Barium-containing contrast solutions are commonly used in radiologic studies. On May 22, 2003, three patients at radiology clinics in Goias State, Brazil, were hospitalized after ingesting such solutions; two persons died within 24 hours of hospitalization. Exposure occurred during radiologic examination of the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. An investigation was conducted by municipal and state public health authorities with assistance from the Ministry of Health's National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) and Brazil's Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP), known locally as EPISUS. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 44 persons had suspected barium toxicity, nine of whom died. Eight of the nine deaths were linked to a single lot of brand A contrast solution. A national recall was announced on May 23, and the manufacturing facility was inspected and closed. Clinicians should be alert for signs of barium toxicity in patients in the hours after administration of contrast solutions during radiologic studies. PMID:14586298

2003-10-31

350

Effect of no-till cropping systems on soil organic matter in a sandy clay loam Acrisol from Southern Brazil monitored by electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In weathered tropical and subtropical soils organic matter is crucial for soil productivity and its quantity depends heavily on soil management systems. This study evaluated the effect of no-till cropping systems on organic matter content and quality in a sandy clay loam Acrisol soil (Paleudult in US taxonomy) from Southern Brazil. Ten cropping systems with varying additions of C and

Cimélio Bayer; Ladislau Martin-Neto; João Mielniczuk; Carlos Alberto Ceretta

2000-01-01

351

HST/ACS UV Imaging of Saturn's Southern Aurora in a Quiet State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior observations of Saturn's aurora have suggested that the aurora are highly variable, with much of the activity controlled by conditions in the solar wind. Observations of Saturn's UV aurora on 17 February 2005 were performed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to further test this. The UV Solar Blind Camera (SBC) imaged the UV emissions from 115.0 to 170.0 nm for a period of 5 HST orbits, or 8 hours, corresponding to 74% of a Saturn rotation. In that observation period, HST imaged the southern auroral region in sunlight, but not the northern auroral region because of the tilt of Saturn rotation axis. Saturn's aurora appeared in its most quiet state, comparable or fainter than those observed by HST's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in January 2004. Discrete emissions were detected, with some evidence of latitudinal variations of localized emissions and motions. At the same time, Cassini's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) studied the intensity and spectral distribution of Saturn's northern night side emission region. With the benefit of simultaneous observations, we found that the characteristics of Saturn's emission region in the day side southern aurora appeared correlated with Saturn kilometric radio (SKR) emissions, charged particles and magnetic field measurements in the night side Saturn magnetosphere. The faint UV aurora are consistent with the previously reported correlation between radio and UV emissions, and the low disturbance in Saturn's magnetosphere observed by Cassini. In this quiet state, the auroral oval brightness is a few kilorayleighs (KR). The summed images show evidence of an offset auroral oval toward midnight responding to solar wind pressure and more diffuse features in the dusk side. The specific properties of Saturn's aurora in its minimum state will be presented, and compared with more active periods.

Wannawichian, S.; Clarke, J. T.; Gerard, J.; Grodent, D.; Pryor, W. R.; Ajello, J.; Ben-Jaffel, L.

2005-12-01

352

Use and fate of pesticides in the Amazon State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production\\u000a and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional\\u000a crops introduced several problems unknown to traditional farmers, since they are not well adapted to tropical conditions.\\u000a Their susceptibility to insects,

Andrea Viviana Waichman; Jörg Römbke; Maria Olívia A. Ribeiro; Nailson C. S. Nina

2002-01-01

353

Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata Paleontological District, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution is given a preliminary up-to-date annotated list of all fossil vertebrates from the Turonian–Santonian Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group where it occurs in the Prata Paleontological District which is located 45 km to the west of Prata in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Adamantina Formation is reddish sandstone in the Triângulo Mineiro region. These fluviolacustrine sediments were deposited in

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Adriano R. Santos; Thomas H. Rich; Thiago S. Marinho; Emerson C. Oliveira

354

Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata paleontological district, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution is given a preliminary up-to-date annotated list of all fossil vertebrates from the Turonian–Santonian Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group where it occurs in the Prata paleontological district which is located 45 km to the west of Prata in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Adamantina Formation is a reddish sandstone in the Triângulo Mineiro region. These fluviolacustrine sediments were deposited

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Adriano R. Santos; Thomas H. Rich; Thiago S. Marinho; Emerson C. Oliveira

2006-01-01

355

Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme) essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC\\/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of

Alexandre Porte; RONOEL L. O. GODOY

2008-01-01

356

Carnivore mammals in a fragmented landscape in northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

São Paulo is the most developed state in Brazil and little of its native vegetation remains. In Luiz Antonio and Santa Rita\\u000a do Passa Quatro municipalities, only small fragments of cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies (cerradão, cerrado\\u000a sensu stricto) and of semideciduous forest have been left, surrounded by eucalyptus silviculture and sugar-cane agriculture. However, that\\u000a vegetation mosaic still shelters large mammals,

Maria Carolina Lyra-Jorge; Giordano Ciocheti; Vânia Regina Pivello

2008-01-01

357

Pollen spectrum of honey produced in cerrado areas of Minas Gerais State (Brazil).  

PubMed

The pollen spectra of honey samples collected in five apiaries situated near cerrado areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were studied from April 1996 to April 1998 in order to establish the contribution of different plant species in pollen or nectar production The honey samples were characterized by the following native species: Astronium sp., Alternanthera sp., Schinus sp., and Serjanea sp. The pollinic participation percentage of those species was related to the degree of preservation in the areas. PMID:15029371

Bastos, E M A F; Silveira, V M; Soares, A E E

2004-03-15

358

Urban hospital cesarean section delivery rates in Para?ba State, Brazil, 1977-81.  

PubMed Central

Paraíba State, Brazil is one of the poorest areas in that country; many of the hospitals are not high quality and medical training is not comparable to that of developed countries. Nevertheless, the rate of cesarean section delivery in urban hospitals has risen from 19.0 per cent in 1977 to 28.5 in 1981. Despite the larger volume of obstetric services in government hospitals, these hospitals had lower cesarean section rates than private hospitals, both profit and non-profit.

Rodrigues, J

1988-01-01

359

Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area between São Paulo and Porto Alegre in southeastern Brazil plays a key area to understand and quantify the evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in Brazil. In this contribution, we present new thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 525.1(2.4) Ma, whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.5) and 93.0 (2.5) Ma. The spatial distribution of these ages shows three distinct blocks with a different evolution cut by old fracture zones. While the central block exhibits an old stable block, the Northern and especially the Southern block underwent complex post-rift exhumation. The sample of the Northern block shows two distinct cooling phases in the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleogene to Neogene. After sedimentation of the Permian sandstones the samples of the Central block were never heated up over 100 °C with a following moderate to fast cooling phase in Cretaceous to Eocene time and a fast cooling between Oligocene to Miocene. The five thermal models obtained in the Southern block indicate a complex evolution with three cooling phases. The exhumation events of the three blocks correspond with the Paraná-Etendekka event, the alkaline intrusions due to the Trinidad hotspot, and the evolution of the continental rift basins in SE Brazil and are, therefore, most likely to be the major force for the post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in SE Brazil, which therefore corresponds to the three main phases of the Andean orogeny.

Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Kollenz, Sebastian; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

2013-09-01

360

Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to correlate with air quality and meteorological indicators and quantities. In this paper we should focus on the preliminary results of the Raman LIDAR system and its derived aerosol optical quantities.

Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; Dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

2010-10-01

361

Geodiversity assessment of paraná state (Brazil): an innovative approach.  

PubMed

Geodiversity is considered as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, and soil features, including their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems. A method developed for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was applied to Paraná, a Brazilian state with an area of about 200,000 km(2). The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales ranging from 1/500,000 to 1/650,000, with the final Geodiversity Index the sum of five partial indexes calculated on a 25 × 25 km grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, including geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, paleontology, and soils. The fifth partial index covers mineral occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters, and springs. The Geodiversity Index takes the form of an isoline map that can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management, and use of natural resources at the state level. PMID:23775492

Pereira, Diamantino Insua; Pereira, Paulo; Brilha, José; Santos, Leonardo

2013-06-18

362

Geodiversity Assessment of Paraná State (Brazil): An Innovative Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodiversity is considered as the natural range of geological, geomorphological, and soil features, including their assemblages, relationships, properties, interpretations, and systems. A method developed for the quantitative assessment of geodiversity was applied to Paraná, a Brazilian state with an area of about 200,000 km2. The method is based on the overlay of a grid over different maps at scales ranging from 1/500,000 to 1/650,000, with the final Geodiversity Index the sum of five partial indexes calculated on a 25 × 25 km grid. The partial indexes represent the main components of geodiversity, including geology (stratigraphy and lithology), geomorphology, paleontology, and soils. The fifth partial index covers mineral occurrences of geodiversity, such precious stones and metals, energy and industrial minerals, mineral waters, and springs. The Geodiversity Index takes the form of an isoline map that can be used as a tool in land-use planning, particularly in identifying priority areas for conservation, management, and use of natural resources at the state level.

Pereira, Diamantino Insua; Pereira, Paulo; Brilha, José; Santos, Leonardo

2013-09-01

363

The 1986 drought in the southern United States: how rare an event was it  

SciTech Connect

The recent drought in the southeastern United States is the most severe episode of moisture deficiency to strike that area in the past 111 years, based on meteorological records. Using those records, the recurrence interval of this event has been estimated to be of the order of 100-200 years. We develop a much longer history of drought occurrence for this region, using tree-ring series of old-age trees growing in the southern Appalachian Mountains. This record, which extends back to 1700, indicates that the 1986 drought was unprecedented in its severity as a single-year event. On this basis we conclude that the 1986 drought is a very rare event, with a probable recurrence interval of at least 287 years.

COOK, E.R.; KABLACK, M.A.; JACOBY, G.C.

1988-11-20

364

Cross-resistance profile of mesosulfuron-methyl-resistant Italian ryegrass in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Diclofop-resistant Lolium species (ryegrass) is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to mesosulfuron-methyl, a recently commercialized herbicide for ryegrass control in wheat; to determine the cross-resistance pattern of a Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Italian ryegrass) accession, 03-1, to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors; and to determine the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl. Seventeen ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and Louisiana, including standard resistant and susceptible accessions, were used in this experiment. Fourteen of the 17 accessions were more resistant (four- to > 308-fold) to diclofop than the standard susceptible biotype. One accession, 03-1, was resistant to mesosulfuron-methyl as well as to other ALS inhibitor herbicides such as chlorsulfuron, imazamox and sulfometuron. Accession 03-1, however, did not show multiple resistance to the ACCase inhibitor herbicides diclofop, fluazifop, clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden, nor to glyphosate. The in vivo ALS activity of the 03-1 biotype was less affected by mesosulfuron-methyl than the susceptible biotype. This indicates that the resistance mechanism of Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl is partly due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. It is concluded that diclofop-resistant ryegrass in the southern United States can be generally controlled by mesosulfuron-methyl. However, mesosulfuron-methyl must be used with caution because not all ryegrass populations are susceptible to it. There is a need for more thorough profiling of ryegrass resistance to herbicides. PMID:17315272

Kuk, Yong In; Bugos, Nilda R

2007-04-01

365

The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan.

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

2005-01-01

366

Short communication: intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil is a large developing country where almost all FDA-licensed antiretrovirals are made available to more than 200,000 individuals under antiretroviral treatment. General primary HIV-1 resistance in Brazil is assumed to be low, but data are scarce, especially in the Northeast region. To evaluate the prevalence of primary HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance in the state of Ceará, Brazil, a cross-sectional prospective study of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected individuals was performed between May 2008 and May 2009. Genomic sequences of reverse transcriptase and protease regions of the pol gene of HIV-1 using PCR products were obtained. Mutations related to resistance to NRTI, NNRTI, and PI were evaluated according to the WHO mutation list for primary resistance surveillance, which excludes common polymorphisms. Seventy-four individuals were evaluated (50% male) with a median age 30 years; 55.4% were men who have sex with men. Median CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts were 418 and 960 cells/mm(3) and the median viral loads were 4.41 and 4.46 log(10) RNA copies/ml for individuals older and younger that 18 years, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of patients were symptomatic. Five patients (6.8%) were recently infected, as detected by the BED test. The mutations 41L, 67N, 215D, 219Q, 101E, and 103N in the RT and 32I, 46I, 54V, 82T, and 90M, in the PR were identified in 9.5% of samples, more frequently in HIV subtype B (85.1%). A significant level of primary HIV resistance was detected in urban Northeast Brazil, a region geographically distant from the more highly populated and wealthier areas of Southeast Brazil, and this emphasizes the need for monitoring resistance in the studied area. PMID:20929346

Arruda, Erico; Simões, Leda; Sucupira, Cecília; Medeiros, Melissa; Arruda, Eurico; Diaz, Ricardo S; Lima, Aldo

2010-10-07

367

Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in São Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges.  

PubMed

Bacterial meningitis (BM) is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR) is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil. PMID:24141502

Salgado, Maristela Marques; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; Higa, Fábio Takenori; Paulino, Juliana Thalita; Sacchi, Cláudio Tavares

2013-09-01

368

A Biochemical Upper Ocean State Estimate in the Southern Ocean GasEX Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes controlling colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper ocean are uncertain, specifically, the importance of advection, photodegradation, thermocline entrainment and in-situ biological sources. This issue is addressed using a biochemical/physical state estimate in the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx) region. A high-resolution ocean general circulation model with realistic physics simulates the SO GasEx cruise near South Georgia in March 2008. The state estimate uses in-situ CDOM, temperature, salinity, and deliberately-released sulfur hexafluoride measurements, and remote-sensed CDOM, sea level anomaly, and sea surface temperature measurements. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to find the initial conditions that generate the time-evolving biochemical and physical fields that fit the observations best. Photo-degradation of CDOM is included explicitly, but biological sources of CDOM are not. The state estimate accurately fits the data, implying that the biological CDOM sources and sinks are indistinguishable from zero. Lateral advection is very important for the mixed-layer CDOM, however. Both photo-degradation and thermocline entrainment are moderately important and decrease mixed-layer CDOM with timescales of 2-4 weeks, averaged over the region.

Dwivedi, S.; Haine, T. W. N.; Del Castillo, C. E.

2012-04-01

369

Magnetic Fabrics and Rock Magnetism of Sedimentary Rocks from Itajai Basin (Santa Catarina State), Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fabric is a sensitive indicator of rock deformation, frequently developing before visible evidence. Apparently undeformed rocks may in fact be internally deformed. We have performed our studies on 16 sites from apparently undeformed sedimentary rocks (sandstones, siltites and conglomerates) of the stratigraphic layers from units of the Neoproterozoic (560-580 Ma) formations in the northern part of the Itajai basin, which is considered as a foreland basin of the Dom Feliciano belt. This basin is constituted by large sedimentary layers with an important turbiditic contribution beside of a felsic volcanic activity. Magnetic fabrics were determined on cylindrical specimen (2.54cm x 2.2cm) applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence magnetization (AARM). In some sites the magnetic foliation poles (minimum axes) are vertical and close to bedding poles indicated depositional-compaction fabric. However, in some sites magnetic foliation poles are horizontal and the magnetic lineations (maximum axes) are very well clustered suggesting either current direction or a weak deformation. Rock magnetism analyses reveal that magnetite and hematite with different contributions are the carriers of the AMS fabric while 2-3 µm magnetite grains are the carriers of the AARM fabric.

Raposo, M. B.; Dukas, C. O.; Basei, M. A.

2009-12-01

370

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraba?BA state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog’s environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil.

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Elide; de Azevedo, Adilio Santos; de Sousa Americo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert Jose

2011-01-01

371

Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of Paran?, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas.

Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

2008-01-01

372

Major shear zones of southern Brazil and Uruguay: escape tectonics in the eastern border of Rio de La plata and Paranapanema cratons during the Western Gondwana amalgamation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mantiqueira Province represents a series of supracrustal segments of the South-American counterpart formed during the Gondwana Supercontinent agglutination. In this crustal domain, the process of escape tectonics played a conspicuous role, generating important NE-N-S-trending lineaments. The oblique component of the motions of the colliding tectonic blocks defined the transpressional character of the main suture zones: Lancinha-Itariri, Cubatão-Arcádia-Areal, Serrinha-Rio Palmital in the Ribeira Belt and Sierra Ballena-Major Gercino in the Dom Feliciano Belt. The process as a whole lasted for ca. 60 Ma, since the initial collision phase until the lateral escape phase predominantly marked by dextral and subordinate sinistral transpressional shear zones. In the Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil and Uruguay, transpressional event at 630-600 Ma is recognized and in the Ribeira Belt, despite less coevally, the transpressional event occurred between 590 and 560 Ma in its northern-central portion and between ca. 625 and 595 Ma in its central-southern portion. The kinematics of several shear zones with simultaneous movement in opposite directions at their terminations is explained by the sinuosity of these lineaments in relation to a predominantly continuous westward compression.

Passarelli, C. R.; Basei, M. A. S.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Oyhantçabal, P.

2011-04-01

373

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the very elderly: results of a cohort study in a city in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality have barely been investigated in very elderly persons and there may be differences compared with younger individuals.Methods: This is a cohort study of all inhabitants over 80 years of age in the city of Veranópolis, Brazil. The association of demographic, anthropometric, physical, and medical characteristics with mortality by any cause and by cardiovascular disease

Maria Helena Werle; Emílio Moriguchi; Sandra Costa Fuchs; Neide Maria Bruscato; Waldemar de Carli; Flávio Danni Fuchs

2011-01-01

374

Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 “Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.” These components include sustainable

Chyrel A. Mayfield; C. Darwin Foster; C. Tattersall Smith; Jianbang Gan; Susan Fox

2007-01-01

375

The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

2008-01-01

376

Response of native plants of northeastern United States and southern Spain to ozone exposures; determining exposure\\/response relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric ozone has been identified as the most important regional scale air pollutant across much of eastern United States of America and many areas of Mediterranean climes in southern Europe. Recent field surveys in the northeastern USA and in southeastern Spain have revealed many additional plant species that exhibit symptoms typical of ozone-induced injuries. Objectives of this study were to

T. Orendovici; J. M. Skelly; J. A. Ferdinand; J. E. Savage; M.-J. Sanz; G. C. Smith

2003-01-01

377

Alkaline rocks from continental Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present literature review on Brazilian alkaline rocks stresses mainly the petrographic and geologic aspects. At least eight different rock associations are represented. Agewise, four groups are found among southern Brazilian outcrops: an older one, about 240 m.y. only, that is still poorly known; the massifs clustered around Jacupiranga, about 130 m.y. old; a few occurrences 100-110 m.y. old (Tunas, Itapirapua); and the youngest and most important one, with an age spread from about 80 m.y. to about 53 m.y. Recent research shows a clear tectonic control — both on local and on regional scales — of alkaline occurrences in southern Brazil. Alkaline magmatism was set off by pre-drift and drift activity and is, at its onset, geologically related to basaltic activity. Emplacement of many massifs is also locally controlled by old lineaments (e.g., in the Minas Gerais-Goiás belt), as is emphasized by geophysical data. On a petrographic and chronologic basis, several alkaline provinces are distinguished in southern Brazil. Preliminary data on the Cambrian-Precambrian rocks from southern Bahia State (a province with undersaturated syenites and litchfieldites) and from cratonic areas in northern Brazil are also presented.

Ulbrich, H. H. G. J.; Gomes, C. B.

1981-04-01

378

Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination\\u000a to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ?1:100 were considered

Tatiana P. Tavares de Freitas; Alexine Keuroghlian; Donald P. Eaton; Emanuel Barbosa de Freitas; Aline Figueiredo; Luciano Nakazato; Jacqueline M. de Oliveira; Flávia Miranda; Rita Cassia S. Paes; Leticia A. R. Carneiro Monteiro; José Vergílio B. Lima; Aparecida A. da C. Neto; Valéria Dutra; Julio Cesar de Freitas

2010-01-01

379

Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazil nut samples from different states of the Brazilian Amazon region.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8?g/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2?g/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth. PMID:23072689

Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B

2012-08-11

380

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk

Ajacio BM Brandão; Sandra Costa Fuchs

2002-01-01

381

[The contribution of vulnerability to determining the human development index: studying Santa Catarina State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The concept of Human Development is grounded on the assumption that progress should not be measured just in economic terms, but must also encompass other social, cultural and political characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between vulnerability and human development, proposing an approach for attaining the fourth and fifth Millennium Goals, based on a study of municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data were taken from the Human Development Atlas published in Portuguese by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Brazil during 2000(1) and Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE . After a superficial analysis of this State, all the municipalities were analyzed in greater detail through the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M) ratings for their vulnerability indicators and components. The HDI-M ratings were scored by vulnerability variables, described in quartiles for each HDI-M. The HDI proved useful for the general description of the conditions in this State and distinguishing groups of municipalities. When broken out into groups, some indicators showed significant inequalities. PMID:18813455

Panhoca da Silva, Olga Maria; Panhoca, Luiz

382

Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub

M. S. Devall; B. R. Parresol

1994-01-01

383

Epidemiological aspects of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected individuals in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has been carried out to estimate the prevalence of HCV among HIV-positive individuals in the state of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil, as well as to identify the associated epidemiological factors. One thousand and eight individuals over 18 years of age bearing HIV\\/aids and being attended in the reference public health network of the state of Mato Grosso

Aparecida Duarte Hg Mussi; Rui Alberto Roldão de Almeida Pereira; Vergínia de Azevedo Corrêa e Silva; Regina Maria Bringel Martins; Francisco José Dutra Souto

2007-01-01

384

[Mortality by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis].  

PubMed

Mortality caused by firearms has been increasing at an alarming rate in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in this Brazilian state from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence (capital city, metropolitan area, or the state's interior), and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence. For children 10 to 14 years of age, mortality caused by firearms increased by 10% annually in the same period. The highest annual increase occurred in the state's interior. At the beginning of the period studied, dissemination of firearm mortality was observed to follow a definite direction parallel to the federal road that runs along the east coast of the state. Between 1990 and 1992, however, the increase in deaths by firearms spread out in practically every direction. Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities. Programs for prevention and control of this epidemic should focus on its various aspects and take into consideration both collective issues (such as proliferation of firearms among persons involved with international firearm smuggling, increases in criminal activity, expansion of drug trafficking, and exclusion from social opportunities) and personal issues (relationships and interaction of young people with their families, schools, and social environment). PMID:9796388

Szwarcwald, C L; de Castilho, E A

1998-09-01

385

Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background.?Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods.?A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results.?The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions.?HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries.

Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

2012-01-01

386

Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area. PMID:23740017

Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

2013-01-01

387

Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study  

PubMed Central

Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care.

2010-01-01

388

[Cancer mortality trends in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 1980-2006].  

PubMed

Time trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the Western Amazon remain unknown. This study explored age-standardized cancer mortality rates according to anatomical site in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, by constructing linear regression time trend models. Cancer mortality showed an increasing but inconstant trend in men and stability in women. At the end of the time series, the highest cancer rates among women were for the cervix, lung, liver and intrahepatic biliary tract, stomach, and breast. Among men, the highest rates were for cancer of the lung, prostate, liver and intra-hepatic biliary tract, stomach, and esophagus. The study showed an increasing mortality time trend for cancer of the prostate, breast, and lung and declining mortality rates for cervical cancer in women, lung cancer in men, and stomach cancer in both sexes. The high mortality rate from liver cancer merits attention, considering the high hepatitis B and C infection rates in the State of Acre. PMID:21710013

Nakashima, Juliano de Pádua; Koifman, Sérgio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

2011-06-01

389

Genotypic characteristics of HIV type 1 based on gp120 hypervariable region 3 of isolates from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate HIV-1 molecular diversity and the epidemiological profile of HIV-1-infected patients from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A nested PCR followed by sequencing of a 302-base pair fragment of the env gene (C2-V3 region) was performed in samples from HIV-1-positive patients. A total of 45 sequences were aligned with final manual adjustments. The phylogenetic analyses showed a higher prevalence of HIV-1 subtype B in the studied population (97.8%) with only one sample yielding an F1 subtype. The viral genotyping prediction showed that CCR5 tropism was the most prevalent in the studied cohort. Geno2pheno analysis showed that R5 and CXCR4 prediction were 69% and 31%, respectively. There was no statistical significance, either in viral load or in CD4(+) T cell count when R5 and X4 prediction groups were compared. Moreover, the GPGR tetramer was the most common V3 loop core motif identified in the HIV-1 strains studied (34.1%) followed by GWGR, identified in 18.1% of the samples. The high level of B subtype in this Brazilian population reinforces the nature of the HIV epidemic in Brazil, and corroborates previous data obtained in the Brazilian HIV-infected population. PMID:21087177

Franca, Rafael F O; Castro-Jorge, Luiza A; Neto, Roberto J P; Jorge, Daniel M M; Lima, Danielle M; Colares, Jeová K B; Paula, Sérgio O; da Fonseca, Benedito A Lopes

2011-01-18

390

Exploring the effects of reductions in krill biomass in the Southern Ocean on blue whales using a state-dependent foraging model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of baleen whales were hunted to near extinction in the Southern Hemisphere. The recovery of these populations will be affected by the availability of krill, a major dietary component, in the Southern Ocean. We combine a novel energetics model for baleen whales with a state dependent foraging model to explore the impacts of an expanding krill fishery on

John Wiedenmann; Katherine A. Cresswell; Jeremy Goldbogen; Jean Potvin; Marc Mangel

2011-01-01

391

Major Depression, Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Do Not Appear to Account for the Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV Epidemics in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV infection are occurring at epidemic rates in the southern region of the United States. Depression and substance use disorders are associated with sexual risk behavior, so we investigated whether regionwide societal rates of major depression or substance use disorders could explain the higher southern rates. Methods: Data came from two surveys, the National

Sherry D. Broadwell; Peikang Yao; Deborah Hasin

2006-01-01

392

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post- conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish

Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2009-01-01

393

Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities

Hugh J. W. Sturrock; Diana Picon; Anthony Sabasio; David Oguttu; Emily Robinson; Mounir Lado; John Rumunu; Simon Brooker; Jan H. Kolaczinski

2009-01-01

394

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-03-01

395

Oxidation photochemistry in the Southern Atlantic boundary layer: unexpected deviations of photochemical steady state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) is a photochemical oxidant, an air pollutant and a greenhouse gas. As the main precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) it strongly affects the oxidation power of the atmosphere. The remote marine boundary layer (MBL) is considered an important region in terms of chemical O3 loss; however surface-based atmospheric observations are sparse and the photochemical processes are not well understood. To investigate the photochemistry under the clean background conditions of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, ship measurements of NO, NO2, O3, JNO2, J(O1D), HO2, OH, ROx and a range of meteorological parameters were carried out. The concentrations of NO and NO2 measured on board the French research vessel Marion-Dufresne (28° S-57° S, 46° W-34° E) in March 2007, are among the lowest yet observed. The data is evaluated for consistency with photochemical steady state (PSS) conditions, and the calculations indicate substantial deviations from PSS (?>1). The deviations observed under low NOx conditions (5-25 pptv) demonstrate a remarkable upward tendency in the Leighton ratio (used to characterize PSS) with increasing NOx mixing ratio and JNO2 intensity. It is a paradigm in atmospheric chemistry that OH largely controls the oxidation efficiency of the atmosphere. However, evidence is growing that for unpolluted low-NOx (NO + NO2) conditions the atmospheric oxidant budget is poorly understood. Nevertheless, for the very cleanest conditions, typical for the remote marine boundary layer, good model agreement with measured OH and HO2 radicals has been interpreted as accurate understanding of baseline photochemistry. Here we show that such agreement can be deceptive and that a yet unidentified oxidant is needed to explain the photochemical conditions observed at 40°-60° S over the Atlantic Ocean.

Hosaynali Beygi, Z.; Fischer, H.; Harder, H. D.; Martinez, M.; Sander, R.; Williams, J.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Lelieveld, J.

2011-08-01

396

Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

2012-01-13

397

Development of Resistance by Anticarsia gemmatalisfrom Brazil and the United States to a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus under Laboratory Selection Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonies of velvetbean caterpillar,Anticarsia gemmatalis,collected in Brazil (Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul; and Sertanopolis, State of Paraná) and in the United States (Louisiana) were established in the laboratory, in each respective country, with the objective of evaluating the potential of this insect for developing resistance to theA. gemmatalisnuclear polyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV). Larvae of the three colonies were exposed

A. R. Abot; F. Moscardi; J. R. Fuxa; D. R. Sosa-Gómez; A. R. Richter

1996-01-01

398

Use of traps to capture black and gold howlers (Alouatta caraya) on the Islands of the upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Howlers (genus Alouatta) are widely captured with the use of anesthetic projectiles; however, no capture protocol involving the use of traps has been described to date. In the present study we describe the first efficient capture program for black and gold howlers (Alouatta caraya) using traps, which was implemented on the islands of the upper Paraná River in southern Brazil. We constructed two trap models with either manual or automatic activation (trap A with two entrances and guillotine-type doors; trap B with one entrance and a guillotine-type door). The traps were suspended in the canopy by means of vertical climbing techniques, and were baited regularly and abundantly with bananas and mangoes. We captured 70 howlers (86% using manual activation and 14% using automatic activation) on four different islands. We restrained 41 of these animals and measured their body mass, which averaged 5.30 kg+/-1.79. Given our results, we suggest that the system described in the present study represents an alternative capture program for howlers in areas that have low food diversity and no other mammal species that will compete for the bait, as has been observed in riparian environments, islands, and forest fragments. PMID:17177316

Aguiar, Lucas M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Teixeira, Gustavo M; Hilst, Carmen L S; Shiozawa, Marcos M; Malanski, Luciano S; Mello, Angel M; Navarro, Italmar T; Passos, Fernando C

2007-02-01

399

The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran. PMID:23903564

Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

2013-07-30

400

Inter-species hybridization among Neotropical cats of the genus Leopardus, and evidence for an introgressive hybrid zone between L. geoffroyi and L. tigrinus in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Natural hybrid zones between distinct species have been reported for many taxa, but so far, few examples involve carnivores or Neotropical mammals in general. In this study, we employed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and nine microsatellite loci to identify and characterize a hybrid zone between two Neotropical felids, Leopardus geoffroyi and L. tigrinus, both of which are well-established species having diverged from each other c. 1 million years ago. These two felids are mostly allopatric throughout their ranges in South America, with a narrow contact zone that includes southern Brazil. We present strong evidence for the occurrence of hybridization between these species and identify at least 14 individuals (most of them originating from the geographical contact zone) exhibiting signs of interspecific genomic introgression. The genetic structure of Brazilian L. tigrinus populations seems to be affected by this introgression process, showing a gradient of differentiation from L. geoffroyi correlated with distance from the contact zone. We also corroborate and extend previous findings of hybridization between L. tigrinus and a third related felid, L. colocolo, leading to an unusual situation for a mammal, in which the former species contains introgressed mtDNA lineages from two distinct taxa in addition to its own. PMID:18785898

Trigo, T C; Freitas, T R O; Kunzler, G; Cardoso, L; Silva, J C R; Johnson, W E; O'Brien, S J; Bonatto, S L; Eizirik, E

2008-10-01

401

New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications.  

PubMed

The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence). The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia. PMID:21437390

Soares, Marina B; Schultz, Cesar L; Horn, Bruno L D

2011-03-01

402

Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

2011-07-01

403

Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis in ovine aborted fetuses and stillborns in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the contribution of Toxoplasma gondii to reproductive failure using nested PCR and histopathological examination of fetuses, stillborns and placentas. We examined 245 organs of fetuses and 28 placentas from 35 abortions and stillborns from naturally occurring miscarriages in sheep in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. At necropsy, fragments of brain, cerebellum, medulla, lung, heart, spleen, liver and placenta were taken for nested PCR and histopathological tests. Pathological examination revealed macroscopic lesions, suggesting T. gondii infection in 5/35 (14.3%) of the placentas. The histopathological examination revealed no lesions characteristic of toxoplasmosis in the organs investigated. In the five placentas, lesions consistent with toxoplasmosis were observed as an inflammatory non-suppurative infiltrate, along with multiple necrosis and mineralization. Nested PCR showed three aborted fetuses and two stillborns (14.3%) to test positive for T. gondii, with DNA amplification in all organs and the placenta, especially the heart and the placenta, which are the tissues of choice. This study substantiates the theory that T. gondii is involved in miscarriages and stillbirths and in the placentas of naturally infected sheep in Brazil. Such findings have not previously been described in the national literature. PMID:21802211

de Moraes, Erica Paes Barreto Xavier; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; da Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2011-06-30

404

[Fertility of indigenous women in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an analysis using the 2000 census].  

PubMed

Indigenous populations living in villages in Brazil have presented high total fertility rates (TFR) that have increased over time in some cases. Meanwhile, data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) or National Census Bureau show a decline in the TFR for the total self-declared indigenous population (combining urban, rural, and specific rural residence). The current study uses data from the 2000 Population Census to describe and compare the structure and level of period fertility for the cohort of self-declared indigenous women living in the State of Minas Gerais. We calculated age-specific fertility rates (ASFR), the period TFR for 2000, and the cohort TFR for women 50 years and older. According to the findings, self-declared indigenous women living in Minas Gerais experienced high fertility in the past, regardless of their place of residence. In conclusion, the 2000 Population Census is an important data source for studies on indigenous populations in Brazil, based on the high coverage and wealth of information. PMID:19009128

Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago; Verona, Ana Paula de Andrade; Pena, João Luiz; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins

2008-11-01

405

[Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines. PMID:20498954

Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

406

[Demographic profile of Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].  

PubMed

This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garças, Meruri, and Morada dos Boróro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Boróro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations. PMID:19219240

Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

2009-02-01

407

Hepatozoon canis infection associated with dog ticks of rural areas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne protozoan that infects dogs and has been reported throughout the world. Manifestation of H. canis infection varies from being sub-clinical in apparently healthy dogs to severe illness. The main vector of the infection is the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus although other species may also transmit this agent. H. canis has been reported previously in Brazil, but mostly as an occasional finding during laboratory exams and always associated with other diseases. The prevalence of H. canis in dogs of rural areas of Brazil has been little studied. For this study, 250 dogs from seven counties of Rio de Janeiro state were examined. All the dogs were from rural areas, near forest. Of the dogs examined, 26 dogs were from Seropédica, 82 from Itaguaí, 41 from Paracambi, 26 from Mangaratiba, 32 from Barra do Piraí, 32 from Piraí and 11 from Miguel Pereira. Blood smears from the peripheral blood of the ear were taken and ticks found on the dogs were collected for identification in the laboratory. Using blood smear evaluation, H. canis was identified in 39.2% of the animals examined. Other hemoparasites identified were Babesia canis (5.2%) and Ehrlichia canis (4.8%). Four tick species were found parasitizing the dogs: Amblyomma cajennense (23.6%), R. sanguineus (12.4%), Amblyomma aureolatum (2.8%) and Amblyomma ovale (2.0%). There was a positive correlation between the presence of A. cajennense and H. canis infection. PMID:11113545

O'Dwyer, L H; Massard, C L; Pereira de Souza, J C

2001-01-01

408

Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism in the population of Alagoas state, north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sequences of the two hypervariable (HV) segments of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined in 167 randomly selected, unrelated individuals living in the state of Alagoas, north-eastern Brazil. One hundred and forty-five different haplotypes, associated with 139 variable positions, were determined. More than 95% of the mtDNA sequences could be allocated to specific mtDNA haplogroups according to the mutational motifs. Length heteroplasmy in the C-stretch HV1 and HV2 regions was observed in 22 and 11%, respectively, of the population sample. The genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.9975 and the probability of two random individuals presenting identical mtDNA haplotypes was 0.0084. The most frequent haplotype was shared by six individuals. All sequences showed high-quality values and phantom mutations were not detected. The diversity revealed in the mitochondrial control region indicates the importance of this locus for forensic casework and population studies within Alagoas, Brazil. PMID:18279250

Barbosa, Adriana B G; da Silva, Luiz Antonio F; Azevedo, Dalmo A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Mauricio-da-Silva, Luiz

2008-01-01

409

Composition and structure of reef fish communities in Paraíba State, north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The composition and trophic structure of reef fish communities in two natural and two artificial reefs along the coast of Paraíba State in north-eastern Brazil were investigated. A total of 114 species of fish belonging to 47 families were recorded during 120 stationary visual surveys, slightly less than half (46·55%) of which were recorded at all four surveyed localities. Most species are widely distributed on the western Atlantic coast, but several are endemic to Brazil. The greatest diversity and equitability indexes were recorded at the reefs of Sapatas and Cabeço dos Cangulos, whereas the greatest richness and abundance were found at the Queimado shipwreck. The Alvarenga shipwreck reef had the least richness, diversity and equitability. The four localities studied had very similar ichthyofaunas, especially in relation to species composition. The reefs along the Paraíba coast are considered priority conservation areas by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, and the information generated by this study will be useful for comparison with other reefs in the region and can be directly applied to programmes seeking to protect and manage these environments. PMID:20840619

Honório, P P F; Ramos, R T C; Feitoza, B M

2010-09-01

410

[Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (> 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

2013-09-01

411

[Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

2008-04-01

412

Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi natural clones from the state of Paraíba, Brazil.  

PubMed

Eighteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks from the state of Paraíba, Brazil, isolated from man, wild mammals, and triatomine bugs were studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random primed amplified polymorphic DNA. Despite the low number of stocks, a notable genetic, genotypic, and phylogenetic diversity was recorded. The presence of the two main phylogenetic subdivisions, T. cruzi I and II, was recorded. The strong linkage disequilibrium observed in the population under survey suggests that T. cruzi undergoes predominant clonal evolution in this area too, although this result should be confirmed by a broader sample. The pattern of clonal variation does not suggests a recent origin by founder effect with a limited number of different genotypes. PMID:16113867

Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, M; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola

2005-08-15

413

[Spatial evolution of cardiovascular mortality in Paraná State, Brazil: 1989-1991 and 2006-2008].  

PubMed

This ecological study aimed to describe the spatial distribution of cardiovascular mortality in Paraná State, Brazil (1989-1991 and 2006-2008) and its correlation with socioeconomic variables, using mortality data from the DATASUS database and population data from IBGE. Mortality rates were adjusted by the local empirical Bayesian method. Correlation analysis used the Moran I index and Spearman coefficient. There were no significant correlations or spatial dependence between mortality and socioeconomic variables. Mortality was higher in males in both periods. Cardiovascular mortality declined from 1989-1991 to 2006-2008 and was higher in females. Construction of thematic maps allowed visualization of the regions with highest cardiovascular risk. The decrease in mortality can be partially explained by expanded access to health services and improved living conditions and income. PMID:22666811

Muller, Erildo Vicente; Aranha, Selma Regina Ribeiro; Roza, Willian Samuel Santana da; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho

2012-06-01

414

Yellow fever in Par? State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes.

Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

2001-01-01

415

The prehomosexual male child in three societies: the United States, Guatemala, Brazil.  

PubMed

The question raised by this article is: do the several behavioral indicators of male homosexuality, which emerge in childhood, appear cross-culturally, or are they limited to American society? These indicators are interest in toys of the opposite sex, cross-dressing, preference for girls' games and activities, preference for the company of women, being regarded as a sissy, and preference for boys in childhood sex play. Data on indicators were obtained from male homosexuals in three societies--the United States, Guatemala, and Brazil--and compared with responses of heterosexuals. It is concluded that the behavioral indicators do occur in these three societies and occur at about the same rate. PMID:7396690

Whitam, F L

1980-04-01

416

Elimination of bancroftian filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

During the 1950s, three foci of Wuchereria bancrofti transmission were identified in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In Florianópolis, São José da Ponta Grossa and Barra da Laguna community treatment of bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was performed using two distinct approaches, without vector control or improvements in sanitation. In two of the three communities only microfilaraemic individuals were treated, while in Barra da Laguna the entire population received DEC treatment regardless of their infection status. In both cases, transmission of the parasite was blocked and no new cases were detected in all localities for up to 10 years. Recently, a new survey in São José da Ponta Grossa and Barra communities revealed no microfilaria-positive individuals, including residents that were positive in the 1950s. These data confirm that transmission of W. bancrofti was interrupted in Santa Catarina, and mass treatment appears to be more effective than treatment of microfilaraemic individuals only. PMID:11169273

Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M; Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Bernardini, O J; de Castilho, C V; Rosa, G; Kilian, S; Guarneri, A A; Rocha, A; Medeiros, Z; Ferreira Neto, J A

2000-12-01

417

[Epidemiologic aspects of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of the state of Paraná, Brazil  

PubMed

An epidemiological investigation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was performed in 1992 and 1993 in an endemic area of Jussara and Terra Boa counties, in the Northern Paraná State. The study covered 684 individuals from a population of approximately 1,400 from six agricultural areas (Fazenda Palmital, Cerâmica Andirá, Fazenda Jussara, Fazenda Lagoa, Destilaria Melhoramentos, and Fazenda Mururê) in Northern Paraná, Brazil. The mean frequency of CL history was 19.9%. The highest frequency was at Fazenda Jussara (40.5%). Based on the indirect immunofluorescence test, 58 (8.5%) presented significant titers of anti-Leishmania antibody, 17 (29.3%) of whom had no history of CL. The Montenegro skin test was applied to 97 individuals with a history of CL and was positive in 80 (82.5%). During the survey, seven individuals presented lesions, four of which were positive for Leishmania sp. The strain isolated was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PMID:10904316

Silveira; Teodoro; Lonardoni; Guilherme; Toledo; Ramos; Arraes; Bertolini; Spinoza; Barbosa

1996-04-01

418

[Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

2011-09-01

419

Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission.

Guimaraes, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibirica, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

2012-01-01

420

[Musculoskeletal disorders among healthcare workers in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and associated factors in a sample of 1,808 workers (from a total of 13,602) in the municipal health system in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence was calculated according to self-reported pain in the upper or lower limbs and/or back, and size of associations was estimated by univariate (p ? 0.20) and multivariate Poisson regression (p ? 0.05). Musculoskeletal disorders showed a prevalence of 49.9% and were statistically associated with female gender, living with a partner, physical activity less than twice a week, self-reported common mental disorder, certain job positions (dentists, dental technicians, and community health workers), high physical demand, and inadequate working conditions. The results confirm the complexity of musculoskeletal disorders and suggest areas for development of health promotion programs in health services. PMID:22892976

Barbosa, Rose Elizabeth Cabral; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Araújo, Tânia Maria de

2012-08-01

421

Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil.  

PubMed

We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7), Callinectes exasperatus (0.73) and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46). The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation. PMID:22990603

Rocha, Michelle S P; Santiago, Idalina M F L; Cortez, Creuza S; Trindade, Priscila M; Mourão, José S

2012-09-18

422

Why States Change the Governance of Education: An Historical Comparison of Brazil and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the histories of Brazilian and U.S. federal government policies toward educational governance. Argues that current policies that apparently support decentralization and privatization actually ensure the continued hegemony of the state while relieving it of financial and social responsibilities related to efficiency and equity. Contains 47…

McGinn, Noel; Pereira, Luzete

1992-01-01

423

U.S. Exports to Brazil: A State-by-State Overview, 1987-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is currently pursuing a range of initiatives toward Latin America and the Caribbean to promote free and fair hemispheric trade and encourage private-sector-led economic development throughout the region. A keystone of U.S. efforts is the...

A. Shaikh G. Mehl W. Kolarik S. Ellsworth

1993-01-01

424

Citrus huanglongbing in Sao Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the 'Candidatus' Liberibacter species associated with the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus

Jean Luc Danet; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Joseph Marie Bove; Adhemar Pereira de Barros

425

Citrus huanglongbing in São Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the ‘ Candidatus’ Liberibacter species associated with the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of São Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus

Diva do Carmo Teixeira; Jean Luc Danet; Sandrine Eveillard; Elaine Cristina Martins; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior; Pedro Takao Yamamoto; Silvio Aparecido Lopes; Renato Beozzo Bassanezi; Antonio Juliano Ayres; Colette Saillard; Joseph Marie Bové