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1

Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state. PMID:11174243

Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

2001-02-01

2

Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004.  

PubMed

Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods--especially eggs and meat products--were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

3

A new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central area of Paraná State, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We report a new endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the central area of the State of Paraná (Municipality of Prudentópolis), in southern Brazil. This region was not previously considered endemic for CL, and this work constitutes the first report of CL endemicity there. Leishmaniasis was confirmed by smear, culture, and ELISA. Parasites were isolated and identified by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD). Phylogeographical analysis, based on two different criteria, was able to distinguish between RAPD profiles from different geographical regions. In total, 100 patients were diagnosed with leishmaniasis by culture and serology methods. The reported incidence rate was 4.32%. Of the 100 patients, 92% of the patients had single lesions, and 79.98% of these lesions were located on their limbs. The fact that 61% of patients were male rural workers points to an extradomiciliar type of transmission. In houses where human leishmaniasis was diagnosed, 29% of the dogs presented anti-Leishmania antibodies. A total of 1663 phlebotomines, representing 5 species, were captured in the studied area with CDC-like light minitraps. Lutzomyia intermedia s.l. was the most prevalent species (94.40%). The isolated parasites were grouped with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The epidemiological implications are discussed in the present article. PMID:19482000

Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Schnell e Schühli, Guilherme; de Carvalho, Yanê; Marques, Ellen; Pereira, Elisângela de Fátima; Alcantara, Fernanda de Souza; Machado, Angela Maria; Kowalthuk, Wolodymir; Membrive, Norberto; Luz, Ennio

2009-09-01

4

BIRD COMMUNITIES IN FOREST REMNANTS IN THE CITY OF MARINGÁ, PARANÁ STATE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird communities were studied in five forest remnants in the city of Maringá, Paraná state, south- ern Brazil. The sampled remnants, namely Parque dos Pioneiros (59 ha), Parque do Ingá (47.3 ha), Horto Florestal Dr. Luiz Teixeira Mendes (37.2 ha), Parque das Perobas (26.3 ha) and Parque Recanto Borba Gato (7.6 ha), are remnants of seasonal semideciduous forest at different

Marilise Mendonça Krügel

2000-01-01

5

Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep flocks of Paraná State, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sheep constitute an important source of zoonotic pathogens as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, the prevalence, serotypes and virulence profiles of STEC were investigated among 130 healthy sheep from small and medium farms in southern Brazil. STEC was isolated from 65 (50%) of the tested animals and detected in all flocks. A total of 70 STEC isolates were characterized, and belonged to 23 different O:H serotypes, many of which associated with human disease, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Among the serotypes identified, O76:H19 and O65:H- were the most common, and O75:H14 and O169:H7 have not been previously reported in STEC strains. Most of the STEC isolates harbored only stx1, whereas the Stx2b subtype was the most common among those carrying stx2. Enterohemolysin (ehxA) and intimin (eae) genes were detected in 61 (87.1%) and four (5.7%) isolates, respectively. Genes encoding putative adhesins (saa, iha, lpfO113) and toxins (subAB and cdtV) were also observed. The majority of the isolates displayed virulence features related to pathogenesis of STEC, such as adherence to epithelial cells, high cytotoxicity and enterohemolytic activity. Ovine STEC isolates belonged mostly to phylogenetic group B1. PFGE revealed particular clones distributed in some farms, as well as variations in the degree of genetic similarity within serotypes examined. In conclusion, STEC are widely distributed in southern Brazilian sheep, and belonged mainly to serotypes that are not commonly reported in other regions, such as O76:H19 and O65:H-. A geographical variation in the distribution of STEC serotypes seems to occur in sheep. PMID:25465174

Martins, Fernando Henrique; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Piazza, Roxane Maria; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Ludovico, Agostinho; Ludovico, Marilúcia Santos; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

2015-01-30

6

Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

2011-08-01

7

[Species of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) from Southern Bahia State, Brazil, with description of a new species of Paracloeodes day].  

PubMed

Based on collections in five municipalities from southern Bahia, a new species, Paracloeodes quadridentatus sp. n., is described from Brazil. It can be distinguished, among other characteristics, by the presence of three, often four, well developed denticles on the tarsal claws, a characteristic that has never been found in other species of the genus. Besides the description of the new species, the following 14 taxa of Baetidae are recorded for the first time from the State of Bahia: Americabaetis alphus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Americabaetis labiosus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Aturbina georgei Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Baetodes sp., Callibaetis sp., Camelobaetidius francischettii Salles Andrade & Da-Silva, Camelobaetidius lassance Salles & Serrão, Camelobaetidius sp. 1, Camelobaetidius sp. 2, Cloeodes cf. opacus Nieto & Richard, Cryptonympha dasilvai Salles & Francischetti, Spiritiops silvudus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Waltzoyphius fasciatus McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz e Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. As this is the first survey of Baetidae from Bahia, and it was restricted to the southern part of the state, sampling efforts in other areas are extremely required and should increase considerably the number of species, or even genera, reported from the state. PMID:21120380

Lima, Lucas R C; Salles, Frederico F; Pinheiro, Ulisses S; Quinto, Edilane

2010-01-01

8

Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

2010-12-01

9

Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

1982-01-01

10

Landscape genetics of mountain lions ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that mountain lions have suffered a bottleneck and lost their genetic diversity in an area in southern Brazil. In this study, we correlated landscape connectivity and patterns of gene flow to identify landscape permeability and possible sources of migrants for the population of mountain lions in southern Brazil, using circuit theory. Population structure was analyzed with Bayesian

Camila Schlieper Castilho; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Thales O. Freitas

2011-01-01

11

Horses naturally infected by Trypanosoma vivax in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we reported the first outbreak of the infection by Trypanosoma vivax in horses in southern Brazil, a non-endemic region where bovines have only recently been found infected by this trypanosome\\u000a species. We evaluated 12 horses from a farm in southern Brazil, where four horses displayed pale mucous membranes, fever,\\u000a weight loss, and swelling of abdomen, prepuce, or

Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Herakles A. Garcia Perez; Márcio M. Costa; Raqueli T. França; Diego De Gasperi; Régis A. Zanette; João A. Amado; Sonia T. A. Lopes; Marta M. G. Teixeira; Silvia G. Monteiro

2011-01-01

12

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

13

THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BISCUTATE SWIFT (STREPTOPROCNE BISCUTATA) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata) was studied in a cave located in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Besides monitoring of the nests, eggs, and nestlings every 2 days, the field works involved banding of adult birds with metallic bands and phosphorescent markers. Nest building begins in October; the nest material is collected with the bill. Nest

Mauro Pichorim

14

Socioeconomic Status of Farmers and Economic Development in Two Communities of Southern Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…

Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario

15

Potassium-argon ages of alkaline rocks from southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present potassium-argon ages for 66 samples (micas, feldspars, fine-grained whole rocks and amphiboles in descending frequency) from 21 alkaline rock localities in southern Brazil. A general geological description is given for each locality. Analytical precision is about one per cent for potassium and two per cent or better for radiogenic argon determinations. It is possible to classify many samples

G. Amaral; J. Bushee; U. G. Cordani; K. Kawashita; J. H. Reynolds

1967-01-01

16

Molecular epidemiology of adrenocortical tumors in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The high frequency of TP53 R337H carriers in southern Brazil is responsible for the highest known incidence of childhood adrenocortical tumor (ACT). Our aims were to examine other contributing mutations, age-related risk factors, epidemiological differences in ACT and to shed light on a method for increasing the survival rate of children. The fetal zone of the adrenal cortex is believed to be one of the tissues most susceptible to adenoma or carcinoma formation due to loss of p53 function. The founder germline R337H mutation is found in 95% of ACTs of young children, a much greater proportion than in adults. Despite intense educational campaigns about the high incidence of ACT in Paraná State, advanced cases remain common. Four advanced ACT cases (4/5) were admitted to a single institution in the first 6months of 2011 in Paraná State, none of the families knew about ACT, and 2 reported no familial cancer syndrome. Curative resection is possible when a small ACT is detected early. PMID:22056871

Custódio, Gislaine; Komechen, Heloisa; Figueiredo, Francisco R O; Fachin, Natasha D; Pianovski, Mara A D; Figueiredo, Bonald C

2012-03-31

17

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

2013-01-01

18

Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

2014-10-01

19

Serum antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348

Silva, Éverton F; Seyffert, Núbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.

2009-01-01

20

[Culicidae of Itaipu lake, in the Paraná river, southern Brazil].  

PubMed

Mosquito catches were made in Guaíra county, Paraná State, southern Brazil, in the vicinity of Itaipu dam, from January to December 1991. The catches were made with a Shannon light trap and human bait. The Shannon light trap was installed beside the highway that used, formerly, to lead to the Sete Quedas cataracts and the human bait was used in the urban area. Data about the Culicidae fauna were obtained as to predominant species, seasonal variation, time of highest density and affinity with human host. Forty-one species were identified as belonging to the Anopheles, Aedes, Aedomyia, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora and Uranotaenia genera. With the Shannon light trap 21,280 mosquitoes were caught and with human bait 1,010. In the catches made with the Shannon light trap, Coquillettidia shannoni, Mansonia humeralis, Anopheles trianulatus, Aedes scapularis and Anopheles albitarsis accounted for 82.78% of all mosquitoes taken. In the catches made on human bait the highest densities of these mosquitoes occurred between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. Aedes scapularis, Mansonia humeralis and Anopheles albitarsis represented 91.21% of all mosquitoes caught with human bait. The highest densities of Aedes scapularis, on human bait, were found between 8 p.m. and 9 p.m. and those of Mansonia humeralis and Anopheles albitarsis between 6 p.m. and 7 p.m. Among the genera caught with the Shannon light trap Coquillettidia shannoni, Mansonia humeralis and Anopheles albitarsis were most frequent in April, Anopheles triannulatus in January and Aedes scapularis in February. PMID:8525315

Teodoro, U; Guilherme, A L; Lozovei, A L; La Salvia Filho, V; Fukushigue, Y; Spinosa, R P; Ferreira, M E; Barbosa, O C; de Lima, E M

1995-02-01

21

Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately after the landslide event. Numerical simulations with the SHALSTAB model were carried out in the basin and the results compared to the original location of the scars in the field. The results suggest that the combination of field mapping with the numerical simulation scenarios may contribute to the definition of better land management practices in such environment. Besides this, the replacement of the natural rain forest by huge banana plantations in this environment may have played a major role in defining the spatial distribution of landslides scars and the magnitude of the landslides generated.

Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

2013-04-01

22

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

23

High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

2014-01-01

24

Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Used in the Prevention and Control of Bovine Mastitis in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Based on informal interview, ethnoveterinary information about plants used in the preven- tion and control of bovine mastitis in Southern Brazil were obtained. Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Ktze. (\\

César AVANCINI; José M. WIEST; Rodrigo DALL' AGNOL

25

Boise State University College of Southern Idaho  

E-print Network

· Boise State University · College of Southern Idaho · College of Western Idaho IDAHO DUAL CREDIT PROGRAM PARTICIPATING IDAHO COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES · Northwest Nazarene University · University of Idaho · Idaho State University · Lewis-Clark State College · North Idaho College COLLEGE CREDIT FOR HIGH

Barrash, Warren

26

North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical  

E-print Network

North Brazil Current rings and transport of southern waters in a high resolution numerical of the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflection and North Brazil Current rings. The model mean and seasonal circulation feature near the western boundary is the North Brazil Current (NBC), which has sources

27

Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) poisoning of cattle in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Two outbreaks of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) poisoning occurring in cattle in southern Brazil in late summer and early autumn are described. In both instances too many cattle were held in small paddocks heavily invaded by A retroflexus in its seeding stage. In 1 herd 8/28 heifers and in the other 15/45 adult cows died. Clinical courses ranged from 3 to 7 d. Clinical signs included depression, loss of weight, mild serous nasal discharge, foul smelling liquid feces tinged with blood, subcutaneous dependent edema, and laborious and incoordinated walking. Main necropsy findings were subcutaneous, cavitary and perirenal edemas, renal subcapsular hematomas, and ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract. The kidneys were swollen and pale. Histopathological findings were in the kidneys and consisted of tubular degeneration, necrosis and regeneration with interstitial fibrosis and tubular proteinosis. PMID:9080636

Torres, M B; Kommers, G D; Dantas, A F; de Barros, C L

1997-04-01

28

Precipitation Anomalies in Southern Brazil Associated with El Niño and La Niña Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Nino and La Nina events (warm and cold phases of the Southern Oscillation) on rainfall over southern Brazil is investigated through the use of a large dataset of monthly precipitation from 250 stations. This region is partly dominated by rough orography and presents different climatic regimes of rainfall. As previous global studies on Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships

Alice M. Grimm; Simone E. T. Ferraz; Júlio Gomes

1998-01-01

29

STANDARDIZED CPUE OF ATLANTIC SAILFISH (ISTIOPHORUS PLATYPTERUS) CAUGHT BY THE RECREATIONAL FISHERY IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1996-2007)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the present study, a generalized linear model (GLM), assuming a Poisson error distribution and log as link function, was used to generate a standardized CPUE series for the sailfish caught by recreational fishing boats based in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, off southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2007. The response variable was the CPUE defined as

Bruno L. Mourato; Alberto F. Amorim; A. Arfelli; Humberto G. Hazin; Fábio H. V. Hazin; Catarina Wor

30

UPb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the neoproterozoic granitic-gneissic Dom Feliciano belt, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Brasiliano Cycle in southern Brazil and Uruguay is represented by three major NE-SW trending geotectonic units: the Vila Nova belt, Tijucas belt and Dom Feliciano belt. The Vila Nova belt is located in western part of Rio Grande do Sul State; its evolution took place between 900 and 700 Ma and it corresponds to one of the few areas

Marly Babinski; Farid Chemale; W. R. Van Schmus; Leo Afrâneo Hartmann; Luiz Carlos Da Silva

1997-01-01

31

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil  

E-print Network

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil Cla´udio M. R. Melo �.V. 2009 Abstract We report on the invasion of Brazil by the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and discuss was found amongst the native species in oyster banks up to 100 km south of oyster farms in South Brazil

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

32

Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

2012-11-01

33

Genotoxic Potential and Physicochemical Parameters of Sinos River, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring. PMID:24285934

Scalon, Madalena C. S.; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L.; Rodrigues, Manoela T.; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S.

2013-01-01

34

Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

2014-08-01

35

Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

2014-01-01

36

Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

1957-01-01

37

Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

2014-11-01

38

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

39

Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Submarine groundwater discharge of nutrients to the ocean along a coastal lagoon barrier, Southern the southern coast of Brazil is linked to the coastal ocean by a narrow mouth and by groundwater transport through a Holocene barrier. Although other groundwater systems are apparently active in this region

Jahnke, Richard A.

40

Characteristics of whistles from resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Characteristics of whistles from resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in southern by bottlenose dolphins in the South Atlantic Ocean. A total of 788 whistles were recorded from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. The mean number of whistles emitted per minute

41

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA  

E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge

42

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study  

E-print Network

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern California Attrition Study Fall 2005 through Fall 2009 Full-Time First-Time Freshmen A C A D E M I C P L A N · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table

43

Evaluation of the impact of ENSO on precipitation extremes in southern Brazil considering the ODP phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important modes of interannual variability from ocean-atmosphere system is the El Niño/Southern Oscillation - ENSO. The Brazil southern region belongs to the Southeast of South America, where there is a strong signal of ENSO, especially over the precipitation. This phenomenon can be modulated by low frequency climate patterns, especially the dominant pattern of North Pacific, called Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Attempting to better understand these interactions, the objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal impact of ENSO events over the Southern Brazil precipitation, taking into account the PDO phases. The dataset used in this study, consist of monthly precipitation records of six well distributed stations from southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul state). From these series it was calculated a unique index, which was categorized in three classes, in order to obtain the extremes: very below normal precipitation (below the percentile 10), normal precipitation (between percentile 10 and 90) and very above normal precipitation (above the percentile 90). To characterize the ENSO events, it was applied the Trenberth (1997) criteria in the index proposed by Bunge and Clarke (2009), which corrects the inconsistencies between the conventional SST index for Niño 3.4 region and the Southern Oscillation Index before 1950, going beyond the incoherence for decadal scale. For PDO, it was used the index proposed by Mantua et al. (1997). Contingency tables were constructed to analyze the seasonal, simultaneous, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months lagged relationships between ENSO events (El Niño, neutral, La Niña), and extreme precipitation anomalies (categories), also considering the PDO phases during the 1913-1999 period. Moreover, a wavelet analysis was used to check the coherency and phase among these 3 times series during the 1913-2006 period. The Contingency Tables analysis showed that, generally, there were more positive (negative) precipitation extreme events in El Niño (La Niña) conditions. The impact of El Niño in the increase of rainfall quantities is higher than the impact of La Niña in its reduction. Furthermore, the El Niño impacts are more persistent. For La Niña analyses, the period of DJF (summer austral) showed bigger lag on this impact; for El Niño the impact starts simultaneously in all seasons and lasted more in JJA. Considering PDO phases, in warm (cold) phase there were more El Niño (La Niña) events. When PDO is positive, the impact of El Niño is stronger over the precipitation increase than in negative phase. The same occurs with La Niña, and the decrease of precipitation in the negative phase of PDO, but only for the DJF period. The Cross-Wavelets showed that PDO and ENSO interacts in both time scales, with ENSO leading PDO in the scale of 4-7 years, and PDO leading ENSO in 16-28 years. Both PDO and ENSO are coherent with the precipitation index in the scale of 2-7 years, but this coherence only appears in the periods of positive phase of PDO. Thus, only ENOS do not explain the climate variability in this region, and it is important to consider the PDO phases in studies of impacts of ENSO in the precipitation extremes in Southern Brazil.

Firpo, M. A.; Sansigolo, C. A.

2011-12-01

44

Comparative pathogenicity in Swiss mice of Trypanosoma cruzi IV from northern Brazil and Trypanosoma cruzi II from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The geographical heterogeneity of Chagas disease (ChD) is mainly caused by genetic variability of the etiological agent Trypanosoma cruzi. Our hypothesis was that the pathogenicity for mice may vary with the genetic lineage (or Discrete Typing Unit - DTU) of the parasite. To test this hypothesis, parasitological and histopathological evaluations were performed in mice inoculated with strains belonging to the DTU T.?cruzi IV (TcIV) from the State of Amazonas (northern Brazil), or the DTU T.?cruzi II (TcII) from the State of Paraná (southern Brazil). Groups of 10 Swiss mice were inoculated with eight strains of TcIV obtained from acute cases (7) from two outbreaks of orally acquired ChD, and from the triatomine Rhodnius robustus (1) from Amazonas; and three strains of TcII obtained from chronic patients in Paraná. We evaluated the pre-patent period, patent period, maximum peak of parasitemia, day of maximum peak of parasitemia, area under the parasitemia curve, inflammatory process, and tissue parasitism in the acute phase. TcIV was less virulent than TcII, and showed significantly (p < 0.005) lower parasitemia levels. Although the levels of tissue parasitism did not differ statistically, mice infected with TcIV displayed significantly (p < 0.001) fewer inflammatory processes than mice infected with TcII. This supported the working hypothesis, since TcIV from Amazonas was less pathogenic than TcII from Paraná; and agreed with the lower severity of human cases of ChD in the Amazon region. PMID:25296157

Meza, Sheila Karina Lüders; Kaneshima, Edilson Nobuyoshi; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira; Gabriel, Maristela; de Araújo, Silvana Marques; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas

2014-11-01

45

Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

46

Geochemical and palynological evidence for the age determination of Permian coals, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between palynostratigraphic data and an absolute age determination of Permian of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil are established for the first time, mainly through the study of coal-bearing strata of the Candiota Coalfield. Prior palynofloristic studies about these Permian coals and associated rocks assigned the microfloras identified in the coals to the Caheniasaccites ovatus subzone (Artinskian\\/Kungurian). The

M. Cazzulo-Klepzig; M. Guerra-Sommer; N. L. Formoso; L. M. Calarge

2002-01-01

47

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

2009-01-01

48

Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

49

Hydrologic evaluation for a small watershed in southern Brazil with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Southern Brazil, native forests have been replaced by tobacco crops. These changes are negatively impacting the region’s water balance and resource quality. Understanding hydrologic processes is essential to accurately depicting water and contaminant transport dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessm...

50

Polymorphism of Leukocyte and Erythrocyte Antigens in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

We investigated the polymorphism of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and Duffy erythrocyte antigens in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in southern Brazil. One hundred and eighty-three CKD patients, over 18 years old, on hemodialysis, were included. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 typing was performed using the LABType®SSO (One Lambda, Inc.). Duffy phenotypes were determined by gel column agglutination using anti-Fya and anti-Fyb monoclonal anti-sera. The patients' predominant ages ranged between 51 and 70 years (43%) and the predominant gender, ethnic group and dialysis period were, respectively, male (62%), white (62%) and 1–3 years (40%). The highest and lowest frequencies of Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) and Fy(a?b?), respectively. Nineteen HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 allele groups were identified. The most frequent HLA allele groups were HLA-A*01, -A*02, -A*03, -A*11, -A*24; HLA-B*07, -B*15, -B*35, -B*44, -B*51; HLA-DRB1*03, -DRB1*04, -DRB1*07, -DRB1*11 and -DRB1*13. Statistically significant differences were observed in the Duffy and HLA polymorphisms compared between CKD patients and healthy subjects. The Fy(a+b?) phenotype (p<0.0001, OR?=?2.56, 95% CI?=?1.60–4.07) was the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the Fy(a+b+) phenotype (p?=?0.0039, OR?=?1.71, 95% CI?=?1.18–2.51) was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Paraná state (p<0.05). Regarding HLA, the HLA-B*42, -B*45, -B*51 and -DRB1*03 allele groups were the most frequent in the patients (p<0.05), and the HLA-B*44 allele group was the most frequent in the healthy subjects in the same region of Brazil (p<0.05). The polymorphism of these two markers among CKD patients in southern Brazil and healthy subjects of other studies, suggests that these markers might be involved with CKD development. Further studies should be undertaken to analyze the markers' influence on CKD and the long-term results from kidney transplantation. PMID:24409300

Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Saito, Patricia Keiko; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

2014-01-01

51

Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

de Mello, Flávia Cristina

52

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

53

English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

54

The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

Simpson, Brent

2006-01-01

55

Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate  

E-print Network

A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...

Mazloff, Matthew R

2006-01-01

56

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

57

Age distribution of Serra Geral (Parana??) flood basalts, southern Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Parana??) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ???130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35?? and 19??S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140-160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques. ?? 1989.

Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

1989-01-01

58

Phaeohyphomycoses in a free-ranging loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This report describes the occurrence of mycotic infection in a loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, found on Mostardas beach in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. The specimen was observed alive, emaciated, and died the following day. A necropsy was performed soon after death and tissue samples routinely processed for histopathological and molecular evaluation. Significant pathological alterations included multifocal to coalescing, 0.5-4 cm in diameter nodules were observed throughout the peritoneum and kidneys that revealed caseous, grayish content when sectioned; histopathological evaluation revealed severe peritonitis and nephritis associated with intralesional fungi. Fungal PCR that targeted the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi revealed three different species of fungi: Cladosporium cladosporioides and Alternata arborescens within the kidneys while Ampelomyces sp. was identified within peritoneal granulomas. C. cladosporioides and A. arborescens are melanized fungi that produce phaeohyphomycosis in a wide range of species. However, the importance of the identification of the mycoparasite Ampelomyces sp. DNA within the peritoneal granulomas remains unclear. PMID:24947171

Domiciano, Isabela Guarnier; Domit, Camila; Trigo, Cariane Campos; de Alcântara, Brígida K; Headley, Selwyn A; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

2014-08-01

59

Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

2014-11-01

60

Hyperthermic syndrome in dairy cattle associated with consumption of ergots of Claviceps purpurea in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A hyperthermic syndrome (HS) associated with consumption of ration contaminated with Claviceps purpurea is described in 4 dairy cattle herds from different counties in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Outbreaks of this mycotoxicosis occurred during the summer of 1999-2000 and autumn of 2002 when 25% to 70% of cattle from those herds were affected. The disease occurred after the introduction of a new batch of feed contaminated with sclerotia of C. purpurea. First clinical signs were observed up to 3 mo after the ration was introduced and consisted of pyrexia, intense salivation and drooling, open-mouth, difficult breathing, in some cases with the tongue protruded, decrease in milk yield, decrease in food intake and weight loss. Affected cattle compulsively sought shade or water ponds. Signs were more pronounced during daytime. The severity of the clinical picture varied according to changes in environmental temperature during the day. There was complete recovery approximately 60 d after feeding with the contaminated ration was discontinued. Abortions occurred during the outbreak and soon after the remission of the clinical signs associated with HS. In one of the herds, reproductive performance and fertility were seriously impaired even after clinical signs of HS completely disappeared. Diagnosis was based on epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the occurrence of HS are briefly discussed. PMID:12776790

Ilha, Marcia R S; Loretti, Alexandre P; Barros, Claudio S L

2003-06-01

61

Factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with low levels of lumbar strength in adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study involving 601 adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, enrolled in public schools in the western region of Santa Catarina State - Southern Brazil. Lumbar strength was analyzed by the lumbar extension test developed by the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology, which proposes different cutoffs for boys and girls. Independent variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and aerobic fitness. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of lumbar strength was 27.3%. The population subgroups most likely to present low levels of lumbar strength were females (OR: 1.54, 95% CI : 1.06 to 2.23), adolescents with low levels of aerobic fitness (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.41 to 3.11) and the overweight (OR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35 to 3.81). CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of the studied students have low levels of lumbar strength. Interventions in the school population should be taken with special attention to female adolescents, those with low levels of aerobic fitness, and those with overweight, as these population subgroups were most likely to demostrate low levels of lumbar strength. PMID:25511000

Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Grigollo, Leoberto Ricardo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

2014-01-01

62

Nesting biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) in trap-nests in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in the municipality of Guarapuava, state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Three hundred and sixty five nests of T. lactitarse were obtained using trap-nests of 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 cm in diameter. All of them had similar architecture, regardless of the diameter of the trap-nest. Completed nests consisted of a linear series of brood cells whose average number per nest was of 3.3, 4.0 and 3.6 for the nests with 0.7 cm, 1.0 cm and 1.3 cm in diameter, respectively. They were constructed more often during the summer. T. lactitarse had two types of life cycles: direct development (without diapause), and delayed development (with diapause during winter). Natural enemies included Chrysididae, Sarcophagidae, Dolichopodidae and Ichneumonidae. Out of 1,353 identified spider prey, 1,313 belonged to the Araneidae family. PMID:17119840

Buschini, M L T; Niesing, F; Wolff, L L

2006-08-01

63

Burden of isolation for multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary public hospital in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We aimed to describe the use of isolation beds between September 2011 and August 2013 at a tertiary hospital located in Southern Brazil. The main cause for isolation was gram-negative carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Huge costs were associated with isolation practices. Considering the high burden on the isolation ward, practice of surveillance cultures and contact isolation should be balanced with other infection control practices. PMID:25481437

Pereira, Patrícia R; Isaakidis, Petros; Hinderaker, Sven G; Ali, Engy; van den Boogaard, Wilma; Viana, Karen S; Cassol, Renato; Falci, Diego Rodrigues

2014-12-01

64

Schefflera aurata, a new species of Araliaceae from southern Bahia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schefflera aurata, a new species of Araliaceae endemic to the restinga forests of southern Bahia, Brazil, is described and illustrated. It\\u000a is probably related toS. morototoni, but can be distinguished by leaflets with strongly coriaceous blades, cuspidate apices, goldensericeous indument of the\\u000a abaxial surfaces, partial inflorescences with 8–12 subsessile flowers, elongated ovaries, and distinctly larger fruits.

Pedro Fiaschi

2004-01-01

65

On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

1993-01-01

66

Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge “valley,” located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between

Hermann Behling; Raquel R. B. Negrelle

2001-01-01

67

A bycatch assessment of the gillnet monkfish Lophius gastrophysus fishery off southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bycatch production in the recently developed monkfish ( Lophius gastrophysus) fishery off southern Brazil was assessed from 14 observer trips conducted by a chartered gillnet fleet during 2001. Catch composition and discard ratios were estimated in 523 selected sets conducted between latitudes 22?44? S and 34?21? S and longitudes 33?37? W and 52?23? W and between the 132 and 607

Angel Alvarez Perez; Roberto Wahrlich

68

Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil\\/Malvinas Confluence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil–Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2–3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12

Claudio Campagna; Alberto R. Piola; Maria Rosa Marin; Mirtha Lewis; Teresita Fernández

2006-01-01

69

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK  

E-print Network

153 Filed 08/31/11 Page 1 of 86 #12;United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act accepted that racial profiling is wrong and prohibited by the United States Constitution, how to endUNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

Rosen, Jay

70

United States Attorney Donald R. Burkhalter Southern District of Mississippi  

E-print Network

United States Attorney Donald R. Burkhalter Southern District of Mississippi FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE INVOLVING $600,000.00 NASA CONTRACT WITH MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY Gulfport, Miss - A former high funds from a $600,000 sole-source contract from John C. Stennis Space Center to Mississippi State

Christian, Eric

71

Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre. PMID:24142166

Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; González, Félix Hilario Diaz

2013-01-01

72

Digenea and acanthocephala of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

New records for helminth species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established. Digenean and acanthocephalan parasites of elasmobranch fishes are reported from the southern coast of Brazil: Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837) Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Azygiidae) in the stomach and spiral valve of Dipturus trachydermus and in the spiral valve of Squatina sp. Cystacanths and juveniles of the acanthocephalans Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937 and Corynosoma sp., in the spiral valve of Squatina sp., Galeorhinus galeus and Hexanchus griseus and in the stomach of Squalus megalops; a juvenile of Gorgorhynchus sp., in the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena. Dipturus trachydermus and Squatina sp. are new host records for O. veliporum. Digeneans and acanthocephalans are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranch fishes in Brazil. PMID:11784929

Knoff, M; de São Clemente, S C; Pinto, R M; Gomes, D C

2001-11-01

73

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

Not Available

1990-06-01

74

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

75

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

Not Available

1989-02-01

76

Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2014-07-01

77

Distribution and Status of the Guiana Dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae) Population in Babitonga Bay, Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

in Babitonga Bay, Southern Brazil Marta J. Cremer1,2, *, Fernando A.S. Hardt1 , Antonio J. Tonello Jr1 Região de Joinville, Caixa Postal 110, Cep 89240-000, São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina, Brazil 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas ­ Zoologia, Univ. Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil 3

Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

78

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and involved 182 farms located in 26 countries. In addition to the three major broad-spectrum anthelmintic groups (viz. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin) the combination benzimidazole and leyamisole and the H. contortus specific anthelmintic, closantel, were tested by the faecal egg count reduction method for the prevalence

F. Echevarria; M. F. S. Borba; A. C. Pinheiro; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

79

Microhabitat use by three species of egret (Pelecaniformes, Ardeidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: Cocoi heron (Ardea cocoi), Great egret (Ardea alba), and Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), in wetlands of southern Brazil. Ardea alba and A. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level). Conversely, B. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. Relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correlated with the occurrence of these species and supported the plasticity of B. ibis and its predominance in drier habitats. PMID:24789395

Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Bergmann, F B; Tozetti, A M

2013-11-01

80

GPR and inductive electromagnetic surveys applied in three coastal sambaqui (shell mounds) archaeological sites in Santa Catarina state, South Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, GPR – Ground Penetrating Radar and inductive electromagnetic (EM38 equipment) results are presented for three archaeological sites of shell mounds located between Laguna and Jaguaruna cities, mid-southern coast of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The Jabuticabeira II, Santa Marta IV, and Encantada III sites were studied. These sites consist of carbonate shell mounds built by societies that inhabited

Selma I. Rodrigues; Jorge L. Porsani; Vinicius R. N. Santos; Paulo A. D. DeBlasis; Paulo C. F. Giannini

2009-01-01

81

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012  

E-print Network

College of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 College of Southern Idaho Transfer Worksheet College-level transferable academic courses taken at College of Southern Idaho (CSI of Southern Idaho Portland State University Updated 10/5/2012 2. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS The majority of majors

Caughman, John

82

Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

Stebbins, Chad

2011-01-01

83

Equine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in horses in Uruguay and southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A disease named locally as churrío or churrido equino (i.e., equine scours) has occurred for at least 100 years in Uruguay and southern Brazil in farms along both shores of the Merín lake. This report describes cases of churrido equino and provides serologic, pathologic, and DNA-based evidence indicating that the disease is in fact equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Results of an epidemiological investigation conducted on an endemic farm are also presented. Clinical signs in 12 horses were fever, depression, diarrhea, dehydration, and sometimes colic and distal hind limb edema. Postmortem findings of 3 horses were of acute enterocolitis. Inclusion bodies containing ehrlichial organisms were found in the cytoplasm of macrophages of the large colon of 1 horse. Eleven of the 12 horses were serologically positive to Ehrlichia risticii (indirect fluorescent antibody assay) and, of 3 paired samples, 2 showed seroconversion. Ehrlichia risticii DNA was identified by a nested polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood of an affected horse. A healthy horse inoculated with peripheral blood from an affected horse developed the disease and antibodies to E. risticii. The disease had a peak incidence in March (summer) and was statistically associated with a marshy ecosystem near the Merín lake, where large numbers of Pomacea spp. (Ampullariidae) snails were found. Incidence density was almost 8 times higher in nonnative horses than in native horses. It was concluded that the previous diarrheic disease of horses known in Uruguay and southern Brazil as churrido equino is equine monocytic ehrlichiosis. PMID:11580069

Dutra, F; Schuch, L F; Delucchi, E; Curcio, B R; Coimbra, H; Raffi, M B; Dellagostin, O; Riet-Correa, F

2001-09-01

84

Estimating the Soil Thermal Conductivity in a Agricultural Crop Site in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal conductivity is higher when the heat storage is higher and the soil surface temperature is lower. The soil thermal conductivity is also dependant on the soil texture, porosity and moisture. Therefore, it varies from soil to soil and in the same soil, depending on its soil moisture. In the present work, it is shown soil thermal conductivity estimates in a agricultural crop located at the Cruz Alta city in southern Brazil. Also the dynamic of soil heat flux (G) is analyzed and the soil thermal conductivity (Ks) is estimated using experimental data form soil heat flux and soil temperature in a agricultural crop farm in a subtropical location in Southern Brazil. In this specific site, there is a crop rotation scheme along the year. The soil type is Rhodic Hapludox (FAO) or Typic Haplorthox (US Soil Taxonomy), characterized as a deep, clay soil. The experimental soil heat flux was compared with estimated soil heat flux by two forms: (1) using a known Ks from literature for this type of soil; (2) using Ks estimated using the inversion of the equation Qg=-ks* ((T2-T1)/ (Z2-Z1)), where T1 and T2 are the temperature in different layers above the soil and Z2-Z1 is the difference between the positions in temperature measurement. The general results agree with the literature for the specific agricultural crop for Ks values in the current study for the measurement period.

Zimmer, Tamíres; Roberti, Debora; Moreira, Virnei; Silveira, Marcos

85

Fruits and vegetables intake and characteristics associated among adolescents from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Increased body weight has been associated with an unhealthy diet, low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our objective was to investigate whether adolescents had low intake of fruits and vegetables, and whether gender, age and education could affect the feeding patterns. Methods A population-based sample of adolescents, aged 12–19 years, were randomly selected in southern Brazil and included in this cross-sectional study. The total daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans were investigated in standardized household interviews, using a food frequency questionnaire and questions, being categorized as five or more servings per day as the five-a-day diet. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and modified Poisson regression were used in the analysis. Results Adolescents (n?=?568) were included, 49.5% boys, 14.3% had overweight and 8.8% obesity. Approximately 23% of participants consumed five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. It was observed that 36.7% of boys and 31.0% of girls consumed less than one serving of fruit per day, and 58.4% and 44.6%, respectively, consumed less than one serving of vegetables. The consumption of vegetables, fruits, and rice and beans were not independently associated with gender. Overweight was associated with higher intake of five-a-day, independently of confounding factors. Conclusions Adolescents from southern Brazil have lower frequency of consumption of five servings a day of fruits and vegetables combined. PMID:23158078

2012-01-01

86

Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

2009-06-01

87

Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

Ruhoff, Anderson

2014-05-01

88

PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CHICKENS FROM A HIGHLY ENDEMIC AREA TO HUMANS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was examined to evaluate environmental contamination by oocysts. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) in sera of chickens. Antibodies a...

89

The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. PMID:22341882

Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

2012-04-01

90

Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase. PMID:22852747

Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

2013-01-01

91

Notes on the biology of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) opacum Brèthes (Hymenoptera; Crabronidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the abundance, seasonality and various life-history traits of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) opacum. Using trap-nests, 320 nests of T. opacum were collected in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in Southern Brazil (25 degrees 23' 36" S and 51 degrees 27' 19" W) over a 3 year period. Nesting was more frequent during the warm season. Nests consisted of a linear series of 1 to 8 brood cells separated by mud partitions, usually followed by an empty vestibular cell and final-closure mud plug. Brood cells were most commonly provisioned with spiders of the family Araneidae. Sex-ratio was strongly female biased, 3.4:1 females:males. Natural enemies attacking nests T. opacum included chrysidids, ichneumonids, sarcophagids, bombyliids and ants. PMID:17119839

Buschini, M L T; Wolff, L L

2006-08-01

92

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

Not Available

1989-07-01

93

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

94

Geochemical and palynological evidence for the age determination of Permian coals, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A correlation between palynostratigraphic data and an absolute age determination of Permian of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil are established for the first time, mainly through the study of coal-bearing strata of the Candiota Coalfield. Prior palynofloristic studies about these Permian coals and associated rocks assigned the microfloras identified in the coals to the Caheniasaccites ovatus subzone (Artinskian/Kungurian). The absolute age determination made on tonstein interbedded in the Candiota Upper Coal Seam, using U/Pb, indicates an age of 267.1±3.4 Ma. Palynological analyses performed on samples of this tonstein show the presence of a microfloristic association that can be included in the same biostratigraphic zone as the coals. Integration of the data obtained by these different methods and the available data on stratigraphy sequence studies of the southern portion of Paraná Basin show that the C. ovatus subzone related to coal-bearing strata must be restricted to the Kungurian until the base of the Roadian.

Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Guerra-Sommer, M.; Formoso, N. L.; Calarge, L. M.

2002-07-01

95

Physiological age and longevity of Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar & Knab (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We analyzed the reproductive status, ovarian development, daily survival rate, and length of the gonotrophic cycle in females of Anopheles ( Kerteszia ) cruzii Dyar & Knab, to determine how these factors influence the risk of malaria transmission in the coastal region of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. In the Palmito State Forest, Paranaguá, females were captured at dawn and dusk by aspiration, bimonthly from December 2006 through March 2007. A total of 2,268 females were captured, of which 454 were dissected. Of these, 48% were parous, 50% not reproductive, 73% in Christopher and Mer stages I and II, 23% in stages III to V, 55% nulliparous, 14% uniparous, and 11% had blood in their midgut. Daily survival was 0.24 +/- 0.03 overall, 0.51 +/- 0.04 for females captured at dusk, and 0.25 +/- 0.03 for those captured at dawn. The Davidson equation for calculation of the gonotrophic cycle was inadequate for An. cruzii populations. Females captured at dusk had a higher survival rate than those from dawn, which means that more females of the dusk population enter the parasite extrinsic cycle. The continuous activity and abundance of A. cruzii in the Palmito State Forest suggests that the conditions are very favorable for its development, with a potential for participation in the protozoan's transmission cycle. PMID:20498968

Dalla Bona, Ana C; Navarro-Silva, Mário A

2010-01-01

96

Effects of disturbance on population biology of the rosette species Eryngium horridum Malme in grasslands in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Grassland biome in Brazil has long been neglected by the government and by the scientific community as well. Lack of studies about the effects of disturbance (mostly fire and grazing) on plant community and populations are the main hindrances for the future management plans, which complicates the conservation of this rich and unique biome. In this study, the

Alessandra Fidelis; Gerhard Overbeck; Valerio DePatta; Pillar Æ; Jorg Pfadenhauer

2007-01-01

97

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

2008-01-01

98

STANDARDIZED CPUE OF BLUE SHARK CAUGHT BY SÃO PAULO TUNA LONGLINERS OPERATING OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1998-2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a GLM approach, assuming a quasi-Poisson error distribution and log as link function, was used with a view to generate a standardized CPUE series for the blue shark caught by the tuna longliners based in Santos, São Paulo, off southern Brazil, from 1998 to 2006. The response variable was the CPUE defined as number of fish

Bruno L. Mourato; Humberto G. Hazin; Alberto F. Amorim; Carlos A. Arfelli; Fábio H. V. Hazin

99

Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

100

Land use change effects on runoff and erosion from plot to catchment scale on the basaltic plateau of Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the region of the basaltic plateau in Southern Brazil, problems of runoff and erosion on the deep ferrallitic soils are becoming increasingly recognized. Land use change from conventional tillage using disk plough to no-tillage on residues without terracing occurred at the beginning of the 1990s and it spread very quickly. Measurements of runoff and sediment concentrations on 1 m2

Nilza Maria Dos Reis Castro; Anne-Véronique Auzet; Pierre Chevallier; Jean-Claude Leprun

1999-01-01

101

Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies  

SciTech Connect

This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

Not Available

1988-11-01

102

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil Clóvis Angeli Sansigolo CPTEC, INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil This study investigates the AOI-ENSO seasonal relationships and their combined impacts on rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature over Southern Brazil. Monthly 3x3 contingency tables, evaluated by ROC scores, were used to assess the significant, simultaneous and 1 to 6 months lagged relationships between their lower and upper terciles. Significant simultaneous relationships between the negative (positive) AOI phases and El Niño (La Niña) events were obtained during the austral fall months (ROC= 0.61 and 0.63) and spring months (ROC=0.52 and 0.44). Furthermore, significant 1, 3, and 6 months Niño/La Niña lagged relationships were respectively found in fall and spring, in summer, fall, and winter, and in fall and winter. Three months AOI lagged relationships were significant in summer, fall, and spring, and 6 months lagged in fall. Related to the AO and ENSO impacts on the surface regional climate, we observed that El Niño (La Niña) events were respectively, simultaneously and 1 month lagged, associated with above (below) normal rainfall in Spring (ROC=0.65, 0.74, 0.46 and 0.35), and with lags of 2 and 3 months in winter (ROC=0.68, 0.54, 0.69, and 0.60). The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with below normal rainfall in the austral summer (ROC=0.35), winter (0.38) and spring months (0.30) and the AOI negative phases with above normal rainfall in summer (ROC=0.34). Both AOI phases were inversely related to 1 and 3 months lagged rainfall anomalies in winter. El Niño (La Niña) events were significantly associated with above (below) normal minimum temperature (Tmin) anomalies in the spring months (ROC=0.31, and 0.34).With 1 month lag, only El Niño events were related to above normal Tmin in summer and winter, with 2 months lag the significant relations were between La Niña and below normal Tmin in fall, and with 3 months lag, both ENSO events were directly associated with Tmin anomalies. The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with above normal Tmin in fall (ROC=0.54), and in spring (ROC=0.32), and their negative phases, with below normal anomalies in spring (ROC=0.38). With 1 and 2 months lag, the significant relations were between -AOI and above normal Tmin in summer and winter, and +AOI and below normal Tmin in summer. El Niño (La Niña) events were also associated with above (below) normal maximum temperature (Tmax) anomalies in fall (ROC=0.45 and 0.37), and inversely related in spring (ROC=0.33 and 0.36). With 1 month lag, significant direct relationships were observed in fall and inverse ones in spring. With 2 months lag, the significant relationships were in fall, winter and spring. The lagged and simultaneous relationships between AO, ENSO and the surface climate over southern Brazil provide a useful tool for monitoring and prediction of rainfall, Tmin and Tmax in the region.

sansigolo, clovis

2013-04-01

103

Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

Gallas, Moisés; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

2012-01-01

104

Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

2014-01-01

105

[Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population. PMID:25272107

Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

2014-10-01

106

76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-03-07

107

78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2013-05-29

108

Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

2014-09-01

109

No evidence of HPV DNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a population of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in southern Brazil. METHODS: We studied 189 esophageal samples from 125 patients from three different groups: (1) 102 biopsies from 51 patients with ESCC, with one sample from the tumor and another from normal esophageal mucosa distant from the tumor; (2) 50 esophageal biopsies from 37 patients with a previous diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); and (3) 37 biopsies from esophageal mucosa with normal appearance from 37 dyspeptic patients, not exposed to smoking or alcohol consumption. Nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the MY09/11 and GP5/6 L1 primers was used to detect HPV L1 in samples fixed in formalin and stored in paraffin blocks. All PCR reactions were performed with a positive control (cervicovaginal samples), with a negative control (Human Genomic DNA) and with a blank reaction containing all reagents except DNA. We took extreme care to prevent DNA contamination in sample collection, processing, and testing. RESULTS: The histological biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ESCC in 52 samples (51 from ESCC group and 1 from the HNSCC group) and classified as well differentiated (12/52, 23.1%), moderately differentiated (27/52, 51.9%) or poorly differentiated (7/52, 13.5%). One hundred twenty-eight esophageal biopsies were considered normal (51 from the ESCC group, 42 from the HNSCC group and 35 from dyspeptic patients). Nine had esophagitis (7 from the HNSCC and 2 from dyspeptic patients). Of a total of 189 samples, only 6 samples had insufficient material for PCR analysis: 1 from mucosa distant from the tumor in a patient with ESCC, 3 from patients with HNSCC and 2 from patients without cancer. In 183 samples (96.8%) GAPDH, G3PDH and/or ?-globin were amplified, thus indicating the adequacy of the DNA in those samples. HPV DNA was negative in all the 183 samples tested: 52 with ESCC, 9 with esophagitis and 122 with normal esophageal mucosa. CONCLUSION: There was no evidence of HPV infection in different ESCC from southern Brazil. PMID:24151387

Antunes, Luís Carlos Moreira; Prolla, João Carlos; de Barros Lopes, Antonio; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Fagundes, Renato Borges

2013-01-01

110

Rural-urban focus of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans. PMID:25023635

Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J

2014-09-15

111

Risk factors for lead exposure in adult population in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil there is no systematic evaluation to access blood lead levels (BLL) in the general population and few studies with adults have been published. The aim of this study was to examine the socioeconomic, environmental, and lifestyle determinants of BLL in the adult Brazilian population. In total, 959 adults, aged 40 years or more, were randomly selected in a city in southern Brazil. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle, and occupational background was obtained by interviews. A spatial analysis was conducted to discern whether there were any identifiable sources of exposure. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. There was an adjustment for gender, age, race, education, income class, smoking status, alcohol consumption, occupation, and red meat or cow milk consumption (Model 1), and for occupation and gender (Model 2). The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 ?g/dl (95% CI: 1.9-2.04 ?g/dl). In Model 1, BLL were positively associated with male gender, older age, and drinking and smoking habits, and less frequently with milk consumption. In Model 2, data showed higher BLL in non-white than white participants, in former smokers and individuals with current or former employment in lead (Pb) industries. The participants living in the area with more Pb industries had higher BLL (3.3 ?g/dl) compared with those residing in other areas with no or fewer Pb industries (1.95 ?g/dl). Despite the low BLL found in adults living in an urban area, Pb industries need to be monitored and regulatory laws implemented to prevent metal contamination in urban settings. PMID:25424618

de Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima H; Buzzo, Marcia Liane; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

2015-01-01

112

Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.  

PubMed

Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

2014-01-01

113

The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest) in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed ?13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas. PMID:23828336

Scheer, Maurício B; Curcio, Gustavo R; Roderjan, Carlos V

2013-01-01

114

Acanthamoeba t4, t5 and t11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. PMID:25119309

Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

2015-01-01

115

High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains. PMID:25109547

Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W

2014-10-13

116

Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Fallén, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves. PMID:17420862

Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

2007-01-01

117

Mycoflora and deoxynivalenol in whole wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)). PMID:25029408

Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Tibola, Casiane S; Scussel, Vildes M

2014-01-01

118

Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

2012-01-01

119

Seasonal allergic dermatitis in sheep in southern Brazil caused by Culicoides insignis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).  

PubMed

The incidence of seasonal dermatitis was studied in a Hampshire Down flock on a farm in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data, clinical signs and macroscopic pathology were obtained by visiting the farm. Histological lesions were studied in skin biopsies of affected sheep. Biting insects were collected from January to April 2005 in an attempt to identify the etiological agent of the disease. Disease prevalence was 40%; the age of the affected animals was variable. Disease occurred from December to March, some animals had lesions for the entire year. Clinical signs include pruritus on the ears, around the eyes and ventral abdomen. Initially erythema and small red papules were seen, followed by alopecia and crust formation. Histologically the lesions were characterized by perivascular eosinophilic dermatitis. Hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were observed in the chronic lesions. Both Anopheles albitarsis and Culicoides insignis were captured during the study. C. insignis bites caused pruritus in sheep. Both types of insects were caught when they approached the sheep baits approximately 30min after sunset. Results suggested that the disease occurred as a result of an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to C. insignis. PMID:17127007

Corrêa, T G; Ferreira, J M; Riet-Correa, G; Ruas, J L; Schild, A L; Riet-Correa, F; Guimarães, A; Felippe-Bauer, M L

2007-04-10

120

Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

2015-01-01

121

Feeding habits of coypu in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops. PMID:21562696

Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P

2010-09-01

122

Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

2015-01-01

123

Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2-3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12 satellite-tracked juveniles remained at the edge of young warm-core eddies and near the outer core of cold-core eddies, coinciding with the most productive areas of these temperature fronts. Seal trajectories along high-temperature gradients were always consistent with the speed and direction of surface currents inferred from the temperature distribution and confirmed by surface drifters. Movements of foraging seals were compared with those of surface drifters, coinciding in time and space and yielding independent and consistent data on regional water circulation parameters. The diving pattern recorded for one focal seal yielded shallower dives and a loose diel pattern in the eddy, and a marked diurnal cycle compatible with foraging on vertically migrating prey in the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Pre-reproductive females that use the mesoscale fronts of the Argentine Basin as an alternative foraging area would benefit from lower competition with more experienced seals and with other top predators that reproduce along the coast of Patagonia.

Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Rosa Marin, Maria; Lewis, Mirtha; Fernández, Teresita

2006-12-01

124

Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa  

E-print Network

Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa John cratons in southern Africa; consequently, the mantle transition zone is 20 km thicker than beneath post: lithosphere; upper mantle; transition zone; cratoni convection; Southern Africa 1. Introduction The upper

Shen, Yang

125

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, José D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natália S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

126

A new species of Paracaprella Mayer, 1890 (Amphipoda: Caprellida: Caprellidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Paracaprella is described based on the specimens associated with the algae Sargassum cymosum and Laurencia obtusa that were collected from infralittoral depths (0.5 to 3.0 m) at Sepultura Beach, Bombinhas and Paciência Beach, Penha, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This new species differs from the others of the genus by the unique morphology of the males' gnathopod 2: its propodus has a grasping margin provided with a deep groove. An identification key for Paracaprella species is also presented. PMID:25543748

Lacerda, Mariana B; Masunari, Setuko

2014-01-01

127

Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid  

SciTech Connect

After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

NONE

1995-08-07

128

Effects of disturbance on population biology of the rosette species Eryngium horridum Malme in grasslands in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Grassland biome in Brazil has long been neglected by the government and by the scientific community as well.\\u000a Lack of studies about the effects of disturbance (mostly fire and grazing) on plant community and populations are the main\\u000a hindrances for the future management plans, which complicates the conservation of this rich and unique biome. In this study,\\u000a the

Alessandra Fidelis; Gerhard Overbeck; Valério DePatta Pillar; Jörg Pfadenhauer

2008-01-01

129

Pre and Post-Columbian Gene and Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Gaucho from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of the Gaucho, a distinct population of southern Brazil, relating it to their culture, to assess possible parallel continuity. Methods: Six binary polymorphisms, an Alu insertion polymorphism (YAP) and 12 short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome, as well as the sequence of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I)

Andrea Rita Marrero; Claudio Bravi; Steven Stuart; Jeffrey C. Long; Fábio Pereira das Neves Leite; Trícia Kommers; Claudia M. B. Carvalho; Sergio Danilo Junho Pena; Andres Ruiz-Linares; Francisco Mauro Salzano; Maria Cátira Bortolini

2007-01-01

130

Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.  

PubMed

The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region. PMID:22458224

Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

2012-03-01

131

An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate  

E-print Network

An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

Mazloff, Matthew R.

132

Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

2010-08-27

133

Patterns of prey selection of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias, in the municipality of Guarapuava, southern Brazil. A total of 449 T. lactitarse nests were collected using trap-nests of different diameters. Fifty three species of spiders belonging to 7 families were captured by T. lactitarse. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis's coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders species can be divided into 3 groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida sp1 and Araneus corporosus), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Wagneriana iguape, Araneus omnicolor, Eustala sp4, Alpaida grayi, Eustala sp3, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1 and Wagneriana iguape), and the third and largest group includes the least abundant species (Aysha gr. brevimana 1, Eustala sp5, Wagneriana eupalaestra, Alpaida scriba, Alpaida veniliae, Araneus aff. omnicolor, Araneus sicki, Eustala sp8, Mangora sp2, Mangora sp3, Wagneriana juquia, Alpaida sp2, Araneus blumenau, Eustala sp6, Eustala sp7 and Ocrepeira galianoae). Of 2,029 identified spiders, 1,171 were captured in the Araucaria forest, 612 in grassland areas and 246 in the swamp. Grassland and swamp areas evidenced greater similarity between them than to the Araucaria Forest, regarding presence-absence of spider species in T. lactitarse's diet, as well as regarding species abundance in these habitats. The juvenile number (56%) was significantly higher than the female (38%) and male (6%) percentages. PMID:18833472

Buschini, M L T; Borba, N A; Brescovit, A D

2008-08-01

134

Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 clade C- versus B-infected individuals in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C-infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in Southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS)), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B- and C-infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J

2013-12-01

135

Group 1 Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Outbreak in Maranhão State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In Brazil, several exanthematic autochthone Vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreaks affecting dairy cattle and rural workers have been reported since 1999. Although outbreaks had been first described in the Brazilian Southeast, VACV outbreaks were notified in all Brazilian regions in < 10 years. However, in this context, VACV outbreaks had not been described in some Brazilian States, likely because of a lack of notification, or yet unknown epidemiological reasons. Here, we describe the first VACV outbreak in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The virus isolated from this outbreak showed several biological and molecular features that resemble other Group 1 Brazilian VACV, including a deletion signature in the A56R gene. This study raises new questions about diversity and epidemiology of Brazilian VACV. PMID:24166043

Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Assis, Felipe Lopes; Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

2013-01-01

136

Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. PMID:24566128

Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

2014-05-28

137

Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

Freitas-Júnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

138

[Mosquitos of peri and extradomiciliary environments in the southern region of Brazil].  

PubMed

Mosquitoes were collected on Sonho Real farm, Querência do Norte county, Paraná State, Brazil, using human bait and Falcão traps between June 1989 and May 1990. The fauna composition, monthly density, hours of major density, human attraction and presence of mosquitoes in domestic animal shelters were investigated. 5,923 mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Aedomyia, Anopheles, Coquillettidea, Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora, Sabethes and Uranotaenia were collected. 33 species of mosquitoes were identified and among them Aedes scapularis, Anopheles albitarsis, Aedomyia squamipennis, Coquillettidea lynchi, Mansonia titillans e Coquillettidea venezuelensis were predominant. All these species were captured mainly on human bait, except Aedomyia squamipennis that was captured in domestic animal shelters. With regard to all the mosquitoes captured (5,923), their major period of activity was between 18 and 19 hours and April was the month of greatest density. PMID:7824842

Teodoro, U; Guilherme, A L; Lozovei, A L; La Salvia Filho, V; Sampaio, A A; Spinosa, R P; Ferreira, M E; Barbosa, O C; de Lima, E M

1994-04-01

139

Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States  

E-print Network

Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States Peter B and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern in carbon stocks in trees on all forestland. Thus land use change effects and forest carbon cycling during

140

Anthropometric indices among schoolchildren from a municipality in Southern Brazil: a descriptive analysis using the LMS method?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997

Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner

2014-01-01

141

Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used. PMID:24838545

Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

2014-05-14

142

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

143

Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

2012-05-01

144

Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems. PMID:25271457

Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da

2014-01-01

145

United States and Brazil : Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely compelling website, dedicated to examining the interactions between Brazil and the United States from the 18th century to the present, grew out of discussions between Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress, and the former President of Brazil, Fernando Hernrique Cardoso. Developed under the auspices of the Global Gateway program at the Library of Congress, the site contains an impressive amount of primary source materials, including maps, rare books, prints, photographs, and manuscripts. When completed, the project will contain materials organized around four primary themes, but currently only the theme of Historical Foundations is complete. As might be expected, the site is presented in both Portuguese and English, and a powerful multifaceted search engine will help guide users to particular documents of interest. Browsing through the Historical Foundations section of the site, visitors will find a timeline (complete with accompanying visual materials), and five separate sections dedicated to exploration, the colonial period, and so on.

Billington, James H.; Cardoso, Fernando H.

146

76 FR 75601 - Lake State Railway Company-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Saginaw Bay Southern Railway...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lake State Railway Company--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption...Bay Southern Railway Company Lake State Railway...Bay Southern Railway Company (SBS), both Class...an intra- corporate family transaction....

2011-12-02

147

Population-Based HIV Prevalence and Associated Factors in Male-to-Female Transsexuals from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

2014-09-23

148

[Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by teenage students in a city in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study analyzes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by seventh-graders in municipal schools in the city of Gravataí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and associated factors. A cross-sectional school survey was conducted in a representative random sample of 1,170 seventh-graders from municipal schools. The bivariate Cox regression model, modified for cross-sectional studies, was used to evaluate associations between specific factors and outcomes. Prevalence rates for lifetime consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs were 60.7%, 16.9%, and 2.4%, respectively. Consumption rates in the previous 30 days were: alcohol, 33%; tobacco, 4.4%; and other drugs, 0.6%. The study showed an association with substance use by family and friends. Prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use during the previous 30 days was associated with feelings of sadness, loneliness, insomnia, and suicidal ideation. Use of other drugs was associated with loneliness and suicidal ideation. PMID:19009129

Vieira, Patrícia Conzatti; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Freddo, Sílvia Letícia; Bittencourt, Alex; Monteiro, Lisiane

2008-11-01

149

Analysis of the marine shrimp culture production chain in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was elaborated to identify and describe the main links of the sea shrimp productive chain in the municipal district of Laguna, historically known as the main sea shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) production area in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study, held from April to July 2005, previously identified the local productive process through observation, interviews and bibliographical research. Afterwards, specific questionnaires were elaborated for each of the several segments connected to the local activity. A total of 90 interviews were conducted, intending to map out the procedures and functionality of the productive chain, from the necessary inputs for production to the moment of shrimp acquisition by final consumers. Results indicated that the entire productive chain requires actions that range from improvement of sanitary and genetic conditions of larvae to product commercialization. Reduction of bureaucracy in public organs, better investment credit conditions, improvement in productive practices, training of technical and productive labor, and reduction of production costs will not occur until industrialization politics and commercialization of local production are standardized. PMID:19488633

Freitas, Rodrigo R; Vinatea, Luis; A Netto, Sérgio

2009-06-01

150

SRDC Plan of Work - Southern States' Title V Programs. SRDC Series Publication No. 22, June 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Development Center's 1977 plan focuses on ways to move rural development program and research information to the users. One of four regional centers set by the 1972 Rural Development Act, the southern center works with research and extension staffs in 27 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico. Its publication…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

151

SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

152

Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary. PMID:24031864

Henzel, Andréia; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Lautert, Cláudia; Martins, Mathias; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha; Weiblen, Rudi

2012-01-01

153

Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.  

PubMed

Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

2011-08-01

154

The southern ocean meridional overturning circulation as diagnosed from an eddy permitting state estimate  

E-print Network

A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence to the state estimate solution is carried out ...

Mazloff, Matthew R

2008-01-01

155

Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

156

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the inten- sive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35)

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2009-01-01

157

Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern Brazil  

E-print Network

Mecardonia tenella (Plantaginaceae) Attracts Oil-, Perfume-, and Pollen-Gathering Bees in Southern are the `perfume flower' and the `oil flower' pollination syndromes (Dodson 1975, Simpson & Neff 1981, Vogel 1988, Eltz et al. 1999). The perfume flower pollination syndrome is characterized by production of eth

Mathis, Wayne N.

158

Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6  

E-print Network

. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of28 drying out, driven by two main surface temperature gradient. Secondly, evaporation demand will increase due to the35 general warming reduction in soil moisture, and the decrease in dry season precipitation, which is when41 fire danger

Zeng, Ning

159

Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

160

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to

Paula S. Tourinho; Juliana A. Ivar do Sul; Gilberto Fillmann

2010-01-01

161

Gendering Representation: Parties, Institutions, and the Under-Representation Of Women In Brazil's State Legislatures  

E-print Network

This dissertation provides insights on what influences women's descriptive representation in state legislatures in Brazil. The study of female representation in Brazil provides for a good case study as the country uses a gender quota system...

dos Santos, Pedro G.

2012-12-31

162

A comparative study of the geology, petrology and palynology of Permian coals in Tanzania and southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary results are presented on a comparative study of two Permian coal-bearing successions in the Paraná Basin of Brazil and in the Rukwa Basin of Tanzania. The sedimentary fill of the intra-cratonic Paraná Basin of Brazil was controlled by eustatic-tectonic events, which are reflected in the coal-bearing Early Permian succession by four third-order depositional sequences. In Tanzania, coal-bearing strata formed in small disconnected graben structures associated with the East African Rift System. Comparison of the stratigraphy of the two basins suggests that Early Permian tectonic activity was Gondwana-wide, as evidenced by a major unconformity at the top of the Idusi and Itararé formations. Palynomorph assemblages in the two basins are similar and suggest that the Scheuringipollenites and Scheuringipollenites/Protohaploxypinus assemblages (K2 interval) from Tanzania are correlative with the Caheniasaccites ovatus Sub-zone of Brazil. The age for the coal-bearing strata is Artinskian to Kungarian(?). Many coal seams in the two basins have common compositional features, such as high inertinite and mineral matter contents. Based on facies critical macerals and derived ratios (Tissue Preservation Index, Gelification Index) a lower delta plain/back barrier depositional setting is suggested for the Paraná Basin coals in the southern area, whereas compositional data for the coals in the Rukwa Basin of Tanzania suggest coal formation in an upper delta plain depositional setting.

Kalkreuth, Wolfgang; Holz, Michael; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Marques-Toigo, Marleni; Utting, John; Semkiwa, Pascal

1999-07-01

163

76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-10-24

164

April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

165

Comparing phosphorus indices from twelve southern U.S. states against monitored phosphorus loads from six prior southern studies.  

PubMed

Forty-eight states in the United States use phosphorus (P) indices to meet the requirements of their Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Code 590 Standard, which provides national guidance for nutrient management of agricultural lands. The majority of states developed these indices without consultation or coordination with neighboring states to meet specific local conditions and policy needs. Using water quality and land treatment data from six previously published articles, we compared P loads with P-Index values and ratings using the 12 southern P indices. When total measured P loads were regressed with P-Index rating values, moderate to very strong relationships (0.50 to 0.97) existed for five indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) and all but one index was directionally correct. Regressions with dissolved P were also moderate to very strong ( of 0.55 to 0.95) for the same five state P indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina); directionality of the Alabama Index was negative. When total measured P loads were transformed to current NRCS 590 Standard ratings (Low [<2.2 kg P ha], Moderate, [2.2-5.5 kg P ha], and High [>5.5 kg P ha]) and these ratings were then compared to the southern-Index ratings, many of the P indices correctly identified Low losses (77%), but most did not correctly identify Moderate or High loss situations (14 and 31%, respectively). This study demonstrates that while many of the P indices were directionally correct relative to the measured water quality data, there is a large variability among southern P indices that may result in different P management strategies being employed under similar conditions. PMID:23128731

Osmond, D; Sharpley, A; Bolster, C; Cabrera, M; Feagley, S; Lee, B; Mitchell, C; Mylavarapu, R; Oldham, L; Walker, F; Zhang, H

2012-01-01

166

Description of Epistylis riograndensis n.sp. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) found in an artificial lake in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Epistylis riograndensis n. sp., a freshwater peritrich hosting symbiotic algae in its cytoplasm, was collected from an artificial lake, in a Botanical garden in Southern Brazil. Its detailed morphology was investigated using live and silver-stained specimens. The colonial sessile E. riograndensis has elongate zooids measuring, on average, 162 ?m in length and 45 ?m in width. A single contractile vacuole located near the infundibulum and a C-shaped macronucleus located transversely in the adoral half of the cell were also observed. The oral infraciliature revealed in silver-stained specimens was typical of peritrich ciliates. Three infundibular polykineties consisting of 3 rows of kinetosomes were observed. Molecular analyses of 18s rDNA placed E. riograndensis among other Epistylis species in the Order Vorticellida. PMID:25283938

Utz, Laura R P; Farias, Ana Carolina Silva Rodrigues; Freitas, Eduarda Correa; Araújo, Gabriella Oliveira De

2014-01-01

167

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SIG-DATABASE DESIGN: AN APPLICATION TO THE ARARICÁ COUNTY MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

E-print Network

The design of a multipurpose database, mainly as supporting tool for decision makers and public administrators, needs to consider social, economics and environmental factors, which relationships can be better understood when distributed and analyzed along the geographical space. Heading the purpose of identifying land use conflicts and to build up sustainability indicators, spatial and nonspatial data were stored in a WEB-database by using the SPRING system, a GIS/RS software created by the Brazilian National Institute for Aerospace Research- INPE. An expert system, named ZEEBRA, which consider several criteria concerning the natural carrying capacity and human pressure over the environment, was used to analyze the stored information, as well as producing thematic status indexes and to point out the efficiency or lack of public administration actions. This article describes the conceptualization, design and implementation of a regional GIS database, presenting its application to the Araricá County in southern Brazil 1.

M. A. F. Hansen A; M. Tsao B; O. G. Wöhl Coelho C

168

Prevalence of Peyronie's disease in men over 50-y-old from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of Peyronie's disease still remains an enigma and few epidemiological studies are available. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Peyronie's disease in males older than 50 y. From 26 to 30 July 1998, 1071 men attended the ‘Prostate Cancer Awareness Week of Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil’. In the prostate exam they

EL Rhoden; C Teloken; HY Ting; ML Lucas; C Teodósio da Ros; C Ary Vargas Souto

2001-01-01

169

Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

2013-06-01

170

Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter.

Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

2014-01-01

171

Effect of land-cover change on terrestrial carbon dynamics in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Land-cover change has significant influence on carbon storage and fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. The southern United States is thought to be the largest carbon sink across the conterminous United States. However, the spatial and temporary variability of carbon storage and fluxes due to land-cover change in the southern United States remains unclear. In this study, we first reconstructed the annual data set of land-cover of the southern United States from 1860 to 2003 with a spatial resolution of 8 km. Then we used a spatially explicit process-based biogeochemical model (Terrestrial Ecosystem Model [TEM] 4.3) to simulate the effects of cropland expansion and forest regrowth on the carbon dynamics in this region. The pattern of land-cover change in the southern United States was primarily driven by the change of cropland, including cropland expansion and forest regrowth on abandoned cropland. The TEM simulation estimated that total carbon storage in the southern United States in 1860 was 36.8 Pg C, which likely was overestimated, including 10.8 Pg C in the southeast and 26 Pg C in the south-central. During 1860-2003, a total of 9.4 Pg C, including 6.5 Pg C of vegetation and 2.9 Pg C of soil C pool, was released to the atmosphere in the southern United States. The net carbon flux due to cropland expansion and forest regrowth on abandoned cropland was approximately zero in the entire southern region between 1980 and 2003. The temporal and spatial variability of regional net carbon exchange was influenced by land-cover pattern, especially the distribution of cropland. The land-use analysis in this study is incomplete and preliminary. Finally, the limitations, improvements, and future research needs of this study were discussed. PMID:16825474

Chen, Hua; Tian, Hanqin; Liu, Mingliang; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Zhang, Chi

2006-01-01

172

Poverty, bridging between injecting drug users and the general population, and “interiorization” may explain the spread of HIV in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to study how structural determinants and the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) as a bridging population to the general population affected the AIDS subepidemic in southern Brazil during 1986–2000. Data from 288 southernmost Brazilian municipalities were analyzed. Using hierarchical modeling and inputs from a Geographic Information System, a multilevel model was constructed. The

Mariana A. Hacker; Iuri Leite; Samuel R. Friedman; Renata Gracie Carrijo; Francisco I. Bastos

2009-01-01

173

Influence of extrinsic variables on activity and habitat selection of lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris) in the coastal sand plain shrub, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this research were to: 1. evaluate the circadian activity patterns of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) throughout the seasons and 2. study the influence of moonlight, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns and habitat selection of this species, in the coastal sand shrub in southern Brazil. From June 2005 to June 2006, eight tapirs were monitored in

Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Luiz Carlos P. Machado-Filho; Marcos Adriano Tortato; Luisa Brusius

2010-01-01

174

Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Pará state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajás, Belém, Goianésia do Pará, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairão, all in the Pará state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amapá. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goianésia do Pará), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goianésia do Pará where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belém) to 0.018 (Goianésia do Pará). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ?29 years ago in Anajás, Goianésia do Pará, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairão. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major species of malaria parasite. PMID:25419900

Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, João F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

2014-01-01

175

Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini?Tefé; Manacapuru?Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo?São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos?Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. PMID:25528017

da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

2015-03-01

176

[Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists. PMID:18670694

Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2008-07-01

177

Identification, occurrence and clinical findings of canine hemoplasmas in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemoplasmas are ubiquitous pleomorphic and epicellular bacteria detected in erythrocytes in several species. In Brazil, studies on hemoplasmas have not included information on occurrence, clinical signs, and risk factors in dogs. This paper investigates the occurrence of hemoplasmas in dogs, focusing on risk factors and clinical status. Conventional PCR for the four types of canine hemoplasmas was performed in 331 blood samples collected from dogs clinically treated at a teaching veterinary hospital. Of all samples, 17/331 (5.1%) were positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis and 6/331 (1.8%) were positive for a 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-like' organism. Risk factors included the presence of vectors, old age, dog bite wounds, and neoplastic diseases. In the multivariate analysis, a 4.40 odds ratio in dogs with vector-borne diseases indicated risk for hemoplasmosis. There was correlation between hemoplasma infection and neoplastic disease, suggesting that neoplastic conditions are a risk factor for hemoplasma infection in dogs. PMID:25159996

Valle, Stella de Faria; Messick, Joanne B; Dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Duda, Naila Cristina Blatt; Machado, Gustavo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; González, Felix Hilario Diaz

2014-09-01

178

Silurian-age fossils from the Paleozoic Paraná Basin, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the first example of how Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian land plant microfossils, commonly present in otherwise unfossiliferous or poorly fossiliferous, nonmarine, or nearshore facies, may be used for biostratigraphic purposes. This new information permits the recognition of a broad regional unconformity extending from the Paraná Basin to Arabia. Conclusive evidence for the presence of Silurian rocks in the Paraná Basin of southeastern Brazil is developed. The age is based on organic microfossils, including tetrahedral tetrads of land-plant spores and phytoplankton (“acritarchs” and prasinophytes) that were recovered from body- and trace-fossil-bearing rocks of the northeastern Paraná Basin. Both the plant spores and phytoplankton indicate an Early Silurian (early Llandoverian) age, and support the previous permissive Silurian age assignment based on the trace fossil Arthrophycus and invertebrate body fossils.

Gray, Jane; Colbath, G. K.; de Faria, Álvaro; Boucot, A. J.; Rohr, D. M.

1985-07-01

179

Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship with the conservation unit. Landscape units resulting from this relationship may be identified. The species E.edulis is found within these landscape units and is integrated into the livelihood of the community. PMID:23826807

2013-01-01

180

Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The ?13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

2014-12-01

181

Pedogeochemistry and micromorphology of oxisols - A basis for understanding etchplanation in the Araucárias Plateau (Southern Brazil) in the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately five years ago, the Working Group on Ancient Surfaces and Long-Term Landscape Evolution was created to raise planed surfaces in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay with the aim of establishing regional correlations of planed surfaces after the formation of the Gondwanan rocks in South America. In Brazil, planed surfaces were recognized and classified between 1940 and 1960 and were given various designations and different age estimates based on regional morphostratigraphic correlation attempts. In the last twenty years, the assumptions of those attempts began to be questioned on a large scale by studies in which empirical observations, mediated by the use of new methodologies, did not indicate such a direct relationship between the paleosurfaces and their long-term erosive origin. We identified eight staggered surfaces in the Araucárias Plateau, Southern Brazil, between the Iguazu and Uruguay Rivers. Initially, we attempted to understand the planed surfaces as classic pediplains, but we found weathering profiles of different thicknesses with oxisols downstream of the knickpoints, instead of correlative deposits. We understand these surfaces as planed surfaces or paleosurfaces without erosive interrelation between them, resulting from the action of etchplanation processes. This idea contradicts the classical perspective of Brazilian geomorphology that attributes the cyclical alternation of Quaternary paleoclimates to the evolution of the model of the subtropical landscapes. The hypothesis begins from the assumption that the model evolved from the binomial morphogenesis/pedogenesis in phase with the glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the climactic controls on morphogenesis/pedogenesis are mediated by the responses of the weathered mantle on the scale of its chemical and microstructural organization, which does not always validate previous theoretical assumptions. In this article, we use the chemical composition, weathering indices, iron, mineralogy of the clays and micromorphology of the oxisols of surface 6 to propose a first approximation of the evolution of the planed surfaces regarding etchplanation in southern Brazil. The surfaces' pedogeochemical and micromorphological properties reveal the following: a) hydrolysis is the main process of geochemical loss of geomorphic surfaces; b) geochemical erosion is more intense in the glacial periods, when the decreased temperature favors slower weathering in a more continuous manner; c) the pedobioclimatic imbalance generated by the input in interglacial periods favors mechanical erosion of the ground surface due to the substitution of the structure in blocks by microaggregates, which reduces the cohesiveness of the mantles of alteration; d) morphogenesis is most important in interglacial periods, promoting the truncation of oxisols; e) the oxisols from the remnants of the planed surfaces are actually renewed profiles younger than 500 Ky BP; f) models of long-term chemical denudation must take into consideration short-duration changes (?25 Ky) in the pedogeochemical and structural processes of the solum.

Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; de Barros Corrêa, Antônio Carlos; Rech Rodrigues, Rafaela Ana

2013-12-01

182

A prospective study of Toxoplasma-positive pregnant women in southern Brazil: a health alert.  

PubMed

We evaluated anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM-reactive pregnant women seen at a high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic. From March 2005 to January 2008 in Paraná, Brazil, pregnant women seen by the Brazilian Public Health System, in any gestational period, who were anti-T. gondii IgM-positive, were followed. Clinical symptoms were noted, and tests performed including IgA, IgG avidity, ultrasonogram, and amniocentesis (PCR/inoculation in mice). Of 75 patients, 8 showed low, 3 intermediate and 31 high IgG avidity. Of those who underwent the avidity test, 31 (70.5%) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. Thirty-two (42.7%) pregnant women received specific treatment. Six received triple combination treatment; in three, tachyzoites were isolated, although only one was PCR-positive, showing changes in the cerebral sonogram, borderline IgA, and the Sabin tetrad. One fetus died, and one non-reactive IgM pregnant woman showed ocular recurrence. The municipality of residence, contact with cats during adulthood, and ingestion of unpasteurized milk were shown to be important risk factors. Congenital toxoplasmosis was observed in a pregnancy referred late for treatment. Follow-up of children born to mothers with diagnosed or suspected acute toxoplasmosis is crucial in the management of the changes that toxoplasmosis may cause. PMID:20138322

Higa, Lourenço T; Araújo, Silvana M; Tsuneto, Luiza; Castilho-Pelloso, Marcela; Garcia, João L; Santana, Rosangela G; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

2010-06-01

183

Serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pregnant women from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During 15 months (01 April 2003-31 July 2004), 20,389 women showing positive pregnancy tests were included in a serological evaluation of toxoplasmosis prevalence using automated immunoenzymatic assays. The women's serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG and/or IgM antibodies. Overall, 53.03% of the women were positive for IgG and 3.26% were positive for IgM; the analysis used a chi-square adherence test and a significance level of 0.05 (chi(2)=14,720.35; p=0.00). To discriminate between recent and past infection, IgG avidity tests (n=166) were carried out, of which 28.3% (n=47) presented low avidity. The seroconversion index observed in this study was 0.44%. The seroprevalence results obtained were similar to other serology data found in other regions of Brazil. These data demonstrate the importance of continuous regional and national seroepidemiological inquiries to define public health strategies that can revert and reduce serological prevalence, as described in other countries where toxoplasmosis monitoring is mandatory. PMID:20084396

Vaz, Rogerio S; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Sumikawa, Elaine; Guimarães, Ana Teresa B

2010-02-01

184

Dispersal and memory of sand flies in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The dispersal of and the existence of memory in sand flies were measured in a transmission area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil. Sand flies were caught in a rural area, with Shannon trap installed in the forest and three Falcão traps installed in a human-inhabited environment (HIE) and three others in an impacted environment presently uninhabited by humans (EUH), from 1800 to 0600 hours. The captured sand flies were marked with yellow, blue, or red fluorescent powder, according to the environments where they were captured. All marked sand flies were released at 0700 hours at a point between the three environments. The recaptures were made with 28 Falcão traps, distributed in the environments from for 10 consecutive days. The sand flies recaptured were examined under a stereomicroscope and later identified. It was concluded that sand flies are able to disperse over an average distance of 73 m, reaching 130 m in 24 h, showing that: 1) the sand flies were attracted with different intensities to each environment, and the ability to move among different environments allows the existence of enzootic cycle of Leishmania; 2) the sand flies possess a spatial memory, olfactory memory, or both, that enable them to return to the environment where they were captured initially, although the distances were different. PMID:24180102

Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; De Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Massafera, Rubens; Rossi, Robson Marcelo; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-09-01

185

Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

2014-05-01

186

Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

2015-03-01

187

Antimicrobial resistance and subtyping of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis isolated from human outbreaks and poultry in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

To investigate antimicrobial resistance, 96 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis strains isolated from salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry-related products obtained in southern Brazil were analyzed. Macrorestriction patterns, obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage types, were assessed. Although 43.75% of samples were sensitive to all drugs tested, resistance to sulfonamide (34.37%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (25.00%), nalidixic acid (14.58%), streptomycin (2.08%), gentamicin, and tetracycline (1.04%) was identified. Furthermore, 89.60% of strains belonged to phage type 4, and a predominant pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotype represented by 82.29% of the strains was identified, suggesting that a clonal group was distributed in poultry, food, and human isolates. Although it was not possible to associate strains from different sources, the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis strains supports the need to establish monitoring programs to identify the emergence of potential resistance patterns and to direct policies for use of these drugs in food-producing animals. PMID:20548083

Vaz, C S L; Streck, A F; Michael, G B; Marks, F S; Rodrigues, D P; Dos Reis, E M F; Cardoso, M R I; Canal, C W

2010-07-01

188

Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

2012-09-01

189

Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids. PMID:24031300

da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2008-01-01

190

Evidence of HLA-DQB1 Contribution to Susceptibility of Dengue Serotype 3 in Dengue Patients in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Dengue infection (DI) transmitted by arthropod vectors is the viral disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, an estimated 300 million cases per year. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may also influence the manifestation of the disease; as even in endemic areas, only a small proportion of people develop the most serious form. Immune-response gene polymorphisms may be associated with the development of cases of DI. The aim of this study was to determine allele frequencies in the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci in a Southern Brazil population with dengue virus serotype 3, confirmed by the ELISA serological method, and a control group. The identification of the HLA alleles was carried out using the SSO genotyping PCR program (One Lambda), based on Luminex technology. In conclusion, this study suggests that DQB1?06:11 allele could act as susceptible factors to dengue virus serotype 3, while HLA-DRB1?11 and DQA1?05:01 could act as resistance factors. PMID:24817893

Cardozo, Daniela Maria; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Sell, Ana Maria; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia Soares; Beltrame, Leticia Maria; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Reis, Pamela Guimarães; Alves, Hugo Vicentin; Mazini, Priscila Saamara; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2014-01-01

191

Studies on entomological monitoring: mosquito species frequency in riverine habitats of the Igarapava Dam, Southern Region, Brazil.  

PubMed

Diversity of mosquito species was evaluated in different habitats before and after the Igarapava reservoir flooding in the Grande River, Southern Cerrado of Brazil. We aimed at verifying changes in these mosquito populations in consequence of the lake formation. Four habitats were selected as sampling stations: peridomiciliary habitat, pasture, "veredas" and gallery forest patch. Bimonthly collections were made with the Shannon trap and human bait, including diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal period of mosquito activity. The Shannon Index results from the potential vectors were compared using Student t-test. Aedes scapularis, Anopheles darlingi and An. albitarsis senso latu seasonal abundance were described with moving average and compared using chi2 test. There were changes in the mosquito frequency in the habitats, except for the "veredas" that was 13 km away from the catchment area. The altering in mosquito species seasonal abundance suggests breeding places expansion. Diversity indexes can be used to monitor changes in mosquito vector population in environments where abrupt disturbance can alter disease transmission cycles. PMID:15361975

Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi de; Cardoso, Rubens Pinto; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino

2004-01-01

192

Fatal Occupational Injury Rates in Southern and Non-Southern States, by Race and Hispanic Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated fatal occupational injury rates in the United States by race and Hispanic ethnicity during the period 1990–1996. Methods. Fatalities were identified by means of the national traumatic occupational fatalities surveillance system. Fatal occupational injury rates were calculated by race/ethnicity and region using US-census–based workforce estimates. Results. Non-Hispanic Black men in the South had the highest fatal occupational injury rate (8.5 per 100000 worker-years), followed by Hispanic men in the South (7.9 per 100000 worker-years). Fatal injury rates for Hispanic men increased over the study period, exceeding rates for non-Hispanic Black men in the latter years of observation. Conclusions. These data suggest a change in the demographics of fatal occupational injuries in the United States. Hispanic men in the South appear to be emerging as the group with the nation’s highest unintentional fatal occupational injury rate. PMID:15451746

Richardson, David B.; Loomis, Dana; Bena, James; Bailer, A. John

2004-01-01

193

Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

2011-12-01

194

Bed-Sharing at 3 Months and Breast-Feeding at 1 Year in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between bedsharing at age 3 months and breastfeeding (BF) at age 12 months. Study design Almost all children born in Pelotas, Brazil in 2004 (99.2%) were enrolled in a cohort study. At birth, age 3 months, and age 12 months, mothers were interviewed to gather information on sociodemographic, reproductive, BF, and bedsharing characteristics. Bedsharing was defined as habitual sharing of a bed between mother and child for the entire night or part of the night. The analysis was limited to children from single births who were breastfed at 3 months. Multivariate analyses were carried out using Poisson regression. Results Of 4231 live births, 2889 were breastfed at age 3 months. The prevalence of BF at age 12 months was 59.2% in the children who bedshared at 3 months and 44% in those who did not (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] for weaning= 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69-0.81; P < .001). Among children who were exclusively breastfed at 3 months, 75.1% of those who also bedshared were still breastfed at age 12 months, versus 52.3% of those who did not bedshare (adjusted PR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.53- 0.75; P < .001). The adjusted PR was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60-0.90; P = .003) in children who were predominantly breastfed and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.76-0.90; P < .001) in those who were partially breastfed. Conclusions Bedsharing at 3 months protected against weaning up to age 12 months. PMID:19595369

Santos, Iná S.; Mota, Denise M.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J.D.; Barros, Fernando C.F.

2009-01-01

195

Diet Quality of Multiethnic Mothers with Limited Incomes in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared nutrient intakes of a multiethnic sample of mothers with children in Head Start in 2 southern states in the U.S.: 24% white (W), 43% African American (AA) and 33% Hispanic (HSP). Interviewers elicited 3 nonconsecutive days of dietary recalls. Diet quality was evaluated using th...

196

Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population 8 Southern States and Maine Cornelis F. de Hoop  

E-print Network

10.0 Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population ­ 8 Southern States and Maine by Cornelis F. de 31, 2002 #12;10.1 SURVEYS OF THE LOGGING CONTRACTOR POPULATION Once the Logging Capacity Study a reliable source of documented knowledge about the population as a whole. One way to do this is to survey

Wu, Qinglin

197

SRDC Plan of Work: Southern States' Title V Programs, 1978. SRDC Series Publication No. 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moving rural development program and research information to users summarizes the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) Plan of Work for 1978. One of 4 regional centers set up by the 1972 Rural Development Act, SRDC coordinates cooperation between research and extension at 28 land-grant institutions in 13 states and Puerto Rico which have rural…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

198

Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to…

Owens, Dena Ann

2010-01-01

199

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

200

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY PETITION FOR GEORGIA NATIONAL GUARD MEMBERS OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER  

E-print Network

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY PETITION FOR GEORGIA NATIONAL GUARD MEMBERS OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER National Guard (GNG), students who are stationed or assigned to Georgia by the National Guard, or students of your or your spouse's/parent's/guardian's Georgia National Guard military orders with unit

Hutcheon, James M.

201

EFFECTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE ON DURATION OF SEDATION IN SOUTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred eighty-one female and thirteen postweanling pup southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were sedated using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazmne hydrochloride. Physiological state had a profound effect on response of the animals to sedation. Physiologically stressed postlactation and postpartum cows had significantly longer periods of sedations than pre-molting females or recently weaned pups. Induction time was not

Rupe Woods; Mark Hindell; David J. Slip

202

Additions to the knowledge of lignocellulolytic basidiomycetes in forests from Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An updated checklist of the lignocellulolytic basidiomycetes in Santa Catarina State with 110 species distributed in 19 families and six orders (Agaricales, Hymenochaetales, Polyporales, Russulales, Auriculariales, Tremellales) is presented. The complete checklist is available on http:\\/\\/www.mycotaxon.com\\/resources\\/weblists.html and as Electronic Guide BASC (Basidiomycetes of Santa Catarina) as well on http:\\/\\/www.cienciasbiologicas.ufsc.br\\/bot\\/micologia\\/index.htm.

ELISANDRO RICARDO DRECHSLER-SANTOS; CLAUDIA GROPOSO; CLARICE LOGUERCIO-LEITE

2008-01-01

203

Characterization of a mud deposit offshore of the Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid deposition of mud on the beach along the shoreface of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil dramatically influences the normal operations in the littoral zone. In the surf zone, fluid and suspended mud opposes water-wave movement and dissipates water-wave energy; on the beach, mud limits trafficability. As part of a multinational, multidisciplinary program to evaluate the influence of mud strength, density and viscosity on water-wave attenuation, sediments were evaluated in situ or collected for evaluation from an area offshore of Cassino Beach, slightly south of the Patos Lagoon mouth. Shear strength of deposited sediments ranged from 0.6 kPa at the seafloor to 3.4 kPa at ˜1 m below the seafloor. Mud sediments were also collected to simulate the in situ response of fluid mud to shear stresses. For this determination, rheological evaluations were made using a strain-controlled Couette viscometer on numerous remixed samples that ranged in density from 1.05 to 1.30 g/cm 3. It was determined that this mud is a non-ideal Bingham material in that it has a true initial yield stress as well as a upper Bingham yield stress. Initial yield stress ranged from 0.59 to 2.62 Pa, upper Bingham yield stress ranged from 1.05 to 7.6 Pa. Apparent viscosity ranged from 0.02 to 4.7 Pa s with the highest viscosities occurring between the two yield stresses. Sediment strength in the remixed samples is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than the horizontal shear strength of the sediment bed as determined by shear vane or predicted from penetrometer measurements. This difference is partially due to the fact that rheological evaluations are made on fully remixed sediments, whereas horizontal shear strength is determined within relatively undisturbed sediments. Similar values of viscosity and shear strength are comparable to those determined for mud in other coastal areas where fluid mud deposits occur.

Reed, Allen H.; Faas, Richard W.; Allison, Mead A.; Calliari, Lauro J.; Holland, K. T.; O'Reilly, S. E.; Vaughan, W. C.; Alves, A.

2009-03-01

204

Genetic diversity, genetic drift and mixed mating system in small subpopulations of Dyckia ibiramensis , a rare endemic bromeliad from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyckia ibiramensis is a naturally rare, endemic and threatened bromeliad which occurs naturally on 4 km of rocky river outcroppings in Southern\\u000a Brazil. For this study, subpopulations of the species were characterized based on size and genetics, to compile information\\u000a for in situ and ex situ conservation strategies. A census of the rosettes was undertaken for each subpopulation and seven allozyme

Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski; Ademir Reis; Tiago Montagna; Maurício Sedrez dos Reis

2011-01-01

205

Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18° 05' 43.6? S, 43° 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in São João da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mössbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

2014-04-01

206

Distance Education in Brazil and in the United States: A Comparative View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of distance education in Brazil and compares it with that in the United States. It presents a brief historical perspective of private and public initiatives in Brazil and concentrates on present governmental projects and educational policies guiding distance education, with emphasis on higher education. Deficits…

Reifschneider, Marina Becker

2006-01-01

207

Effects of physiological state on duration of sedation in southern elephant seals.  

PubMed

One hundred eighty-one female and thirteen postweanling pup southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) were sedated using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride. Physiological state had a profound effect on response of the animals to sedation. Physiologically stressed postlactation and postpartum cows had significantly longer periods of sedation than pre-molting females or recently weaned pups. Induction time was not affected by physiological status. Dose rates are recommended for elephant seals in various physiological states. PMID:2810559

Woods, R; Hindell, M; Slip, D J

1989-10-01

208

Does inadequate diet during childhood explain the higher high fracture rates in the Southern United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Southern states have the highest age-adjusted hip fracture rates among older adults in the United States. Regional hip fracture\\u000a rates in the United States in 1986–1993 correlate with death rates from rickets in the 1940s. Historical patterns of bone\\u000a nutrition early in life might explain contemporary geographic patterns in bone fragility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  State of residence early in life is a better

L. J. Paulozzi

2010-01-01

209

Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-05-01

210

Lithofacies analysis of basic lava flows of the Paraná igneous province in the south hinge of Torres Syncline, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paraná igneous province records the volcanism of the earlier Cretaceous that preceded the fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Historically, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic pile as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. This work provides a detailed analysis of the emplacement conditions of these basic volcanic rocks, applying the facies analysis method integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. The Torres Syncline is a NW-SE tectonic structure, located in southern Brazil, where a thick sequence of the Paraná-Etendeka volcanic rocks is well preserved. This study was performed in the south hinge of the syncline, where the basaltic lava flows are divided into three lithofacies associations: early compound pahoehoe, early simple pahoehoe and late simple rubbly. The first lavas that erupted were more primitive compound pahoehoe flow fields composed of olivine basalts with higher MgO contents and covered the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flow fields is possibly related to intermittent low effusion rates, whereas the emplacement of simple pahoehoe is related to sustained low effusion rates with continuous supply. The thick simple rubbly lavas are associated with high effusion rates and were formed during the main phase of volcanism in the area. The absence of paleosoils between the lavas and lithofacies associations suggests that the successive emplacement of the lava flows occurred in a relatively short time gap. Geochemically, the lithofacies associations are low-TiO2 and belong to Gramado magma type. The lavas of the south hinge of the Torres Syncline have a similar evolution when compared to other Continental Basaltic Provinces with earlier compound flows at the base and thicker simple flows in the upper portions.

Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; de Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Scherer, Claiton Marlon; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May

2014-09-01

211

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

212

Abundance and frugivory of the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's southern Pantanal.  

PubMed

Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco)--the largest Ramphastidae--usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil), in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource) and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity) on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year. PMID:16680316

Ragusa-Netto, J

2006-02-01

213

Coccidioidomycosis in armadillo hunters from the state of Ceará, Brazil.  

PubMed

Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis with a variable clinical presentation. Misdiagnosis of coccidioidomycosis as bacterial pneumopathy leads to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics and delayed diagnosis. This report describes an outbreak among armadillo hunters in northeastern Brazil in which an initial diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia was later confirmed as coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides posadasii. Thus, this mycosis should be considered as an alternative diagnosis in patients reporting symptoms of pneumonia, even if these symptoms are only presented for a short period, who are from areas considered endemic for this disease. PMID:22990973

Brillhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moreira Filho, Renato Evando; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Picanço, Yuri Vieira Cunha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Queiroz, José Ajax Nogueira; Araujo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra de; Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima de; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

2012-09-01

214

Drought and regional hydrologic variation in the United States: Associations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 years of monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data for 344 climate divisions, this study investigates the hydroclimatic response in the United States to the extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (El Niño and La Niña). Several regions of coherent response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified. The strongest relationship between El Niño and extreme drought years

Thomas C. Piechota; John A. Dracup

1996-01-01

215

Drought and Regional Hydrologic Variation in the United States: Associations with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 94 years of monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data for 344 climate divisions, this study investigates the hydroclimatic response in the United States to the extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (El Niño and La Nina). Several regions of coherent response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified. The strongest relationship between El Niño and extreme drought years

Thomas C. Piechota; John A. Dracup

1996-01-01

216

Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

2014-04-01

217

Sulfate adsorption and its relationships with properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil  

E-print Network

State, Brazil M.E. Alves, A. Lavorenti* Departamento de Cie^ncias Exatas, Escola Superior de Agricultura ``Luiz de Queiroz''--ESALQ/USP, Caixa Postal 09, 13418-900, Piracicaba (SP), Brazil Received 27 August, electrochemical and mineralogical properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil, were

Sparks, Donald L.

218

The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9?years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate in organized physical activity and who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for simultaneous BRFCH. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of BRFCH among adolescents, both isolated and simultaneously. The correlates of the presence of BRFCH can contribute to healthy policies among Brazilian adolescents, mainly focusing on high-risk subgroups for a health risk behavior. PMID:22920845

2012-01-01

219

75 FR 30459 - Assistance to the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States Leadership against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, as...Southern Sudan under malaria and HIV/AIDS grants, thus triggering...other incurred expenses under HIV/AIDS and malaria grants. Under...

2010-06-01

220

Use and fate of pesticides in the Amazon State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 30 years, the increase of the human population in the Amazon introduced the need for additional food production\\u000a and caused the state government to implement programs to increase and improve agricultural production. The production of nontraditional\\u000a crops introduced several problems unknown to traditional farmers, since they are not well adapted to tropical conditions.\\u000a Their susceptibility to insects,

Andrea Viviana Waichman; Jörg Römbke; Maria Olívia A. Ribeiro; Nailson C. S. Nina

2002-01-01

221

Risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in populations of children from nine cities in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the epidemiological factors that contribute to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. in children from Paraná state, Brazil. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to T. gondii were detected using indirect immunofluorescence, and IgG antibodies to Toxocara were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each individual, a questionnaire was completed that contained epidemiological and clinical data. The data analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Of the 544 children investigated, 3.2% presented co-infection with T. gondii and Toxocara spp. Of this total, 7.4% were positive for antibodies to T. gondii, and 25% were positive for antibodies to Toxocara spp. The presence of antibodies to Toxocara spp. increased the risk of T. gondii infection (P= 0.029). Children who were 1-8 years of age were less infected by T. gondii than those who were 9-12 years of age. The variables that influenced positivity for anti-Toxocara spp. were the origin of the children and contact with sand. Children with positive serology for Toxocara spp. presented more eosinophilia compared with those with non-reactive serology. Infection with both parasites reveals the need for preventive measures, such as guidance about modes of infection, parasite control and monitoring recreational areas. PMID:24725417

Marchioro, A A; Colli, C M; Ferreira, E C; Viol, B M; Araújo, S M; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L

2014-04-11

222

Feeding ecology of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879 (Sciaenidae: Perciformes) in the Ibicuí River, Southern Brazil: ontogenetic, seasonal and spatial variations.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the feeding ecology of fish is essential for understanding the functioning of freshwater communities. Here we report on an analysis of the diet of Pachyurus bonariensis Steindachner, 1879, a freshwater sciaenid. Fish were collected bimonthly from December 1999 to January 2002 at three locations along the Ibicuí River in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. At each location, the specimens were collected in both lentic and lotic environments. The stomachs of 324 fish were analysed for contents and fullness. The main items were Ephemeroptera, Diptera (larvae), Trichoptera and Odonata. Annelida, plant matter, Decapoda, Diptera (pupae), Coleoptera and Mollusca were present in small amounts. The fish consumed smaller amounts of food in winter than in other seasons. The most important source of dietary variation for P. bonariensis was the ontogenetic, related to intrinsic biological characters. However, spatial variation was also found, suggesting that this species can adapt its diet to environmental changes. Although P. bonariensis showed ontogenetic and spatial variations in the main items consumed, the main items were always insects, characterising P. bonariensis as a fish with an insectivorous feeding habit in the Ibicuí River. PMID:20730336

Lima, D O; Behr, E R

2010-08-01

223

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant-growth-promoting bacilli isolated from wheat fields in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, a total of 311 putative nitrogen-fixing bacilli were isolated from seven distinct wheat production zones of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Strains belonging to several species were grouped into 40 different nifH-RFLP-PCR profiles. The genus Paenibacillus was the most prominent group in both the rhizosphere (77.8%) and soil (79%). Paenibacillus borealis was the most frequently identified species, followed by Paenibacillus graminis. The remainder of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. Indolic compound production (indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indolepyruvic acid (IPyA) and indoleacetamide (IAM)) was detected in 33.6% and 26% of the isolates from the rhizosphere and soil, respectively. Among the 311 isolates, nine were able to solubilize phosphate and 48 were able to produce siderophores. The isolates SBR5, CSR16 and EsR7, identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequence as strains of Paenibacillus sp., were chosen for in vivo experiments in a greenhouse and proved to be very efficient in promoting a significant increase in the shoot and dry matter of wheat plants. Those strains could be useful in formulation of new inoculants, improving the cropping systems into which they can be most profitably applied. PMID:18490146

Beneduzi, Anelise; Peres, Daiane; da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Bodanese Zanettini, Maria Helena; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira

2008-05-01

224

Effect of climatic conditions on natural mycoflora and fumonisins in freshly harvested corn of the State of Paraná, Brazil.  

PubMed

Natural mycoflora associated with fumonisins were analyzed in 150 samples of freshly harvested corn from Central-Southern, Central-Western and Northern regions of the State of Paraná, Brazil and correlated to climatic conditions. The corn samples were frequently contaminated with Fusarium sp. (98.7 to 100%) and Penicillium sp. (93 to 100%), when compared to Aspergillus sp. (not detected to 27.7%). The highest contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi occurred in corn harvested in the Central-Western region, where total mould and yeast counts ranged from 5.5 x 10(3) to 5.2 x 10(6) CFU/g, with 98.7% contaminated by Fusarium sp. and 93% by Penicillium sp. In this region F. moniliforme (F. verticillioides) was the predominant Fusarium sp., and was isolated in 85.9% of the samples. Aspergillus sp. was isolated from 27.7% samples. FB1 was detected in 100% of the samples (mean of 2.39 micrograms/g) and FB2 in 97.7% (mean of 1.09 micrograms/g). Fumonisins were also detected in all samples from Northern region, with mean of 4.56 micrograms/g (FB1) and 2.20 micrograms/g (FB2). Considering 1.0 microgram/g as the threshold, 72% of the corn samples from the Central-West and 92% from the North were contaminated with concentrations above this value, in contrast to a 18.5% contamination rate from Central-Southern samples. Between corn planting to harvesting season, the average maximum temperature and relative humidity were 26 degrees C and 77.1% (Central-Southern), 27 degrees C and 69% (Northern) and 29.9 degrees C and 89.1% (Central-Western). Therefore, the higher fumonisins contamination of corn from Northern region when compared to the Central-South were due to the differences in rainfall levels (92.8 mm in Central-Southern, 202 mm in Northern) during the month preceding harvest. PMID:11040864

Ono, E Y; Sugiura, Y; Homechin, M; Kamogae, M; Vizzoni, E; Ueno, Y; Hirooka, E Y

1999-01-01

225

Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

2014-05-01

226

Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus co-infection in Southern Brazil: clinical and epidemiological evaluation.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients. PMID:25019374

Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia

2014-01-01

227

Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (? 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil. PMID:25602808

Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

2014-05-01

228

UV degradation of hdpe and pvc geomembranes in laboratory exposure So Paulo State University (UNESP) -Ilha Solteira (Brazil)  

E-print Network

University (UNESP) - Ilha Solteira (Brazil) Bueno, B.S. University of State of São Paulo (USP) at São Carlos (Brazil) Zornberg, J.G. University of Texas (UT) at Austin (USA) Keywords: UV degradation, weathering International Conference on Geosynthetics, Brazil, 2010 821 3 #12;were used like a guide: ASTM D638 (Standard

Zornberg, Jorge G.

229

Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.  

PubMed

Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

2006-06-01

230

City of children: Boys, girls, family and state in imperial Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of children in the promotion of social order within a community that was experiencing rapid urbanization, intensive state formation, and the transition from a slave to a wage labor economy. The establishment of Rio as the capital of the Portuguese Empire in 1808 and of an independent Brazil in 1822, instigated unprecedented forced and free

Erica Melissa Windler

2003-01-01

231

Higher Education for Mid-level Technology: A Comparative Analysis of Brazil and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares education of lower-middle and working classes in Brazil and the United States to examine effects of the educational system in supporting the changing technological infrastructure. Concludes that both countries need to improve access and minimize stratification to make their systems of education for mid-level technology more equitable.…

Kempner, Ken; Castro, Claudio de Moura

1988-01-01

232

Highly Endemic, Waterborne Toxoplasmosis in North Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84%

Lílian Maria Garcia Bahia-Oliveira; Jeffrey L. Jones; Juliana Azevedo-Silva; Cristiane C. F. Alves; Fernando Oréfice; David G. Addiss

2003-01-01

233

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

234

Beyond Racism: Embracing an Interdependent Future. Brazil, South Africa, the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of four publications examines contemporary power relations between persons of European and African descent in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Using a comparative and multidisciplinary approach, these publications focus on three democracies with large multiracial and multiethnic populations. "Overview Report," which details…

Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

235

First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).  

PubMed

This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed. PMID:19197480

Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

2008-11-01

236

Fungal flora of normal eyes of healthy horses from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjunctival fungal flora of 32 adult horses with normal eyes ( n = 64) from the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil was identified in the fall of 2000 using horses of different breeds, both genders and aged 5-19 years old. The culture samples were taken from the conjunctival sac of both eyes with a sterile cotton swab

Maurílio Rosa; Liane Maria Cardozo; Jorge da Silva Pereira; Dennis E. Brooks; Ana Lucia B. Martins; Penha Sueli Silva Florido; Jussara Schwind Pedroso Stussi

2003-01-01

237

A new Tatia (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Tatia is described from the lower rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The new species is distinguishable from congeners by having large, irregular pale blotches over dark brown base coloration, absent longitudinal stripe, caudal fin with round to striate dark brown spots over light base in adults or entirely dark in juveniles, and by having a

Carla Simone Pavanelli; Alessandro Gasparetto Bifi

2009-01-01

238

Zines in three contemporary grassroots' movements in Brazil and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the background of three movements in Brazil and the United States; contemporary animal rights, environmental and gender justice grassroots' groups and their use of self-published pamphlets, newsletters and booklets called \\

Teresa Joyce Nunes

2006-01-01

239

Conserving the Grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International's Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing exist- ing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories should provide input to urgent regional conservation

Adrián S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

240

A NEW RECORD OF THE ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI (FRESENIUS) BATKO SPECIES COMPLEX ON ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE IN SOUTHERN BAHIA, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An entomophthoralean fungus (Zygomycotina; Zygomycetes) from the ENTOMOPHAGA GRYLLI species complex has been found and described from Brazil, on populations of RHAMMATOCERUS BRASILIENSIS Bruner, 1904, RHAMMATOCERUS BRUNNERI Giglio Tos, 1895, ABRACRIS DILECTA Walker, 1870, ABRACRIS FLAVOLINEATA De G...

241

Genetic Services and Research in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minas Gerais in Brazil has a surface of 586,528 km2, and 18 million inhabitants. Infant mortality rate is 20\\/1,000, and congenital anomalies are its second cause. There are 11 medical schools where basic genetics, but not clinical genetics, is taught. Genetic services in the state include: newborn screening for hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis;

Marcos José Burle Aguiar

2004-01-01

242

The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton Growing.  

E-print Network

.............. -Dealing with cotton growing in Brazil 9 ................................... , 1 Seconcl Mission 9 ...................... The English Cotton Industry Act 9 ................... Brazilian interest in cotton growing 10...- where; it may be clone l)p the Brazilians; or it may be clone by enter- prise from the Unitecl States of North America. It appears well worth while, therefore, for the cotton growers of the United States of North America to give careful consideration...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

1926-01-01

243

A comparative study of the geology, petrology and palynology of Permian coals in Tanzania and southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are presented on a comparative study of two Permian coal-bearing successions in the Paraná Basin of Brazil and in the Rukwa Basin of Tanzania. The sedimentary fill of the intra-cratonic Paraná Basin of Brazil was controlled by eustatic-tectonic events, which are reflected in the coal-bearing Early Permian succession by four third-order depositional sequences. In Tanzania, coal-bearing strata formed

Wolfgang Kalkreuth; Michael Holz; Miriam Cazzulo-Klepzig; Marleni Marques-Toigo; John Utting; Pascal Semkiwa

1999-01-01

244

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 ?W/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 ?W/cm(2). PMID:21741680

Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

2011-09-01

245

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).  

PubMed

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-06-01

246

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)  

PubMed Central

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-01-01

247

Measles outbreak in the metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Brazil has not had endemic circulation of the measles virus since 2000. Between May and June 2011, the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, State of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, reported three cases of measles. This report presents a descriptive study of the cases, control measures, and the search for a possible source and secondary cases. The genotypic characterization of the virus identified genotype D4, circulating in Europe. Secondary cases or index case were not found. The control measures and adequate vaccination coverage in Metropolitan Region of Campinas contributed to the interruption of disease transmission. PMID:24626560

Fernandes, Eder Gatti; de Oliveira, Maria Emília Braite; Fred, João; Carelli, Luzia Auxiliadora; Lima, Gisele Dias de Freitas; Sato, Helena Keico; Yu, Ana Lucia Frugis

2013-01-01

248

Sexual Knowledge of College Students in a Southern State: Related Factors and Impact of Previous Sex Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed college students in one southern state to determine their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A group of 915 students (602 female and 313 male) attending 4 state universities completed the Sexual Knowledge instrument during class. The instrument contained 27 sex knowledge items, 5 demographic questions, 3 items to…

Synovitz, Linda; Hebert, Eddie; Kelley, R. Mark; Carlson, Gerald

249

Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

2010-01-01

250

Simulating Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Amazonia: Impacts in Brazil's Roraima State from Reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).  

PubMed

Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19 % (CONSERV) and 42 % (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios. PMID:25472831

Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

2015-02-01

251

[Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health. PMID:25272114

Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; de Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

2014-10-01

252

Convective activity in Mato Grosso state (Brazil) from microwave satellite observations: Comparisons between AMSU and TRMM data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a characterization of convective activity at sub-regional scale from two sets of satellite-based microwave observations: the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the combined Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager and precipitation radar data, for the period 2001 to 2011. We focus on the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, located at the southern edge of the so-called "Legal Amazon" which has undergone intense land cover transformation in the last 4 decades. The annual cycle of mean convective activity described by AMSU and TRMM are in good agreement, with a correlation close to 0.80. The mean amplitude of convective activity is maximal early in the rainy season, except for AMSU deep convective area, which presents a maximum in January. The diurnal cycle of convection was examined for the period 2003 to 2007, and it was found that convection is maximal near 1500 local time (LT) and minimal around 0700 LT. Unlike the amplitude, the phase shows little intraseasonal and interannual variability. A slight decrease in convective activity in the studied period was found, possibly indicating an extension of the dry season. Comparisons of convective activity between deforested and forested areas showed no significant differences in the phase of the diurnal cycle, but our analysis shows a tendency for increase (decrease) in convection in deforested (forested) areas for the period considered. A longer time series is however necessary in order to strengthen the robustness of our results.

Funatsu, Beatriz M.; Dubreuil, Vincent; Claud, Chantal; Arvor, Damien; Gan, Manoel A.

2012-08-01

253

Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area between São Paulo and Porto Alegre in southeastern Brazil plays a key area to understand and quantify the evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in Brazil. In this contribution, we present new thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 525.1(2.4) Ma, whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.5) and 93.0 (2.5) Ma. The spatial distribution of these ages shows three distinct blocks with a different evolution cut by old fracture zones. While the central block exhibits an old stable block, the Northern and especially the Southern block underwent complex post-rift exhumation. The sample of the Northern block shows two distinct cooling phases in the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleogene to Neogene. After sedimentation of the Permian sandstones the samples of the Central block were never heated up over 100 °C with a following moderate to fast cooling phase in Cretaceous to Eocene time and a fast cooling between Oligocene to Miocene. The five thermal models obtained in the Southern block indicate a complex evolution with three cooling phases. The exhumation events of the three blocks correspond with the Paraná-Etendekka event, the alkaline intrusions due to the Trinidad hotspot, and the evolution of the continental rift basins in SE Brazil and are, therefore, most likely to be the major force for the post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in SE Brazil, which therefore corresponds to the three main phases of the Andean orogeny.

Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Kollenz, Sebastian; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

2013-09-01

254

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fat samples from White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) off southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been gaining much visibility in environmental chemical studies due to their similarity to PCBs and growing reports of harmful effects. The fact that these contaminants have not yet undergone bans or restrictions on the global level underscores the need for data on their occurrence. In the present study, fat samples from 26 White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and 3 Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) collected dead ashore or as bycatch of longline fisheries in southern Brazil were analyzed to determine concentrations of seven congeners (IUPAC #28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183). Concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detectable to 72.70 ng g(-1) (wet weight), comparatively lower than concentrations reported for seabird samples in northern hemisphere. The most detected congeners were 153, 154 and 183. This pattern is close to that previously reported for birds of the same group, but not those from the same region. PMID:24143957

Cipro, Caio V Z; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

2013-12-15

255

Decadal variability in an OGCM Southern Ocean: Intrinsic modes, forced modes and metastable states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to identify a Southern Ocean southeast Pacific intrinsic mode of low frequency variability. Using CORE data a comprehensive suite of experiments were carried out to elucidate excitation and amplification responses of this intrinsic mode to low frequency forcing (ENSO, SAM) and stochastic forcing due to high frequency winds. Subsurface anomalies were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) thermocline. The Pacific region of the ACC is characterised by intrinsic baroclinic disturbances that respond to both SAM and ENSO, while the Atlantic sector of the ACC is sensitive to higher frequency winds that act to amplify thermocline anomalies propagating downstream from the Pacific. Non-stationary cluster analysis was used to identify the system's dynamical regimes and characterise meta-stability, persistence and transitions between the respective states. This analysis reveals significant trends, indicating fundamental changes to the meta-stability of the ocean dynamics in response to changes in atmospheric forcing. Intrinsic variability in sea-ice concentration was found to be coupled to thermocline processes. Sea-ice variability localised in the Atlantic was most closely associated with high frequency weather forcing. The SAM was associated with a circumpolar sea-ice response whereas ENSO was found to be a major driver of sea-ice variability only in the Pacific. This simulation study identifies plausible mechanisms that determine the predictability of the Southern Ocean climate on multi-decadal timescales.

O'Kane, Terence J.; Matear, Richard J.; Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Risbey, James S.; Sloyan, Bernadette M.; Horenko, Illia

2013-09-01

256

Decadal Variability in an OGCM Southern Ocean: intrinsic modes, forced modes and metastable states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is used to identify a Southern Ocean southeast Pacific intrinsic mode of low frequency variability. Using CORE data a comprehensive suite of experiments were carried out to elucidate excitation and amplification responses of this intrinsic mode to low frequency forcing (ENSO, SAM) and stochastic forcing due to high frequency winds. Subsurface anomalies were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) thermocline. The Pacific region of the ACC is characterised by intrinsic baroclinic disturbances that respond to both SAM and ENSO, while the Atlantic sector of the ACC is sensitive to higher frequency winds that act to amplify thermocline anomalies propagating downstream from the Pacific. Non-stationary cluster analysis was used to identify the system's dynamical regimes and characterise meta-stability, persistence and transitions between the respective states. This analysis reveals significant trends, indicating fundamental changes to the meta-stability of the ocean dynamics in response to changes in atmospheric forcing. Intrinsic variability in sea-ice concentration was found to be coupled to thermocline processes. Sea-ice variability localised in the Atlantic was most closely associated with high frequency weather forcing. The SAM was associated with a circumpolar sea-ice response whereas ENSO was found to be a major driver of sea-ice variability only in the Pacific. This simulation study identifies plausible mechanisms that determine the predictability of the Southern Ocean climate on multi-decadal timescales.

O'Kane, Terence; Matear, Richard; Chamberlain, Matthew; Risbey, James; Horenko, Illia; Sloyan, Bernadette

2014-05-01

257

NCPMA`s efforts to establish new Oilpak{trademark} in the southern United States  

SciTech Connect

For the last twenty years fuel oil marketers in the North Carolina Petroleum Marketers Association (NCPMA) have tried to convince fuel oil equipment manufacturers to develop and market a packaged outdoor oil furnace with electric air conditioning for southern homes and businesses. In order to accomplish this, NCPMA had to identify if indeed there was a market for this type of product, and if so, the size of the market. Market identification was a simple process after NCPMA staff received numerous inquiries each winter about the need for such equipment from fuel oil marketers and HVAC contractors and even homeowners. Marketers share for fuel oil heated homes began to suffer partly because new building codes prevented the replacement of existing oil furnaces without much difficulty and expense. Furthermore, the limited number of basements in the southern US contributed to the problem of the replacement market. Market size was determined by a NCPMA survey to fuel oil marketers, HVAC contractors, other state petroleum associations and other forces in the industry.

Fuquay, J. [Berico Fuels, Inc., Greensboro, NC (United States); Laughlin, T. [North Carolina Petroleum Marketers Association, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-09-01

258

Blood alcohol levels in suicide by hanging cases in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Suicide is one of the main causes of violent death worldwide, and has become a public health issue. Since alcohol consumption is associated with the increase in the number of suicides and hanging is one of the main methods used worldwide, the present study consists of an epidemiological analysis of BACs in victims of suicide by hanging autopsied in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present work was to establish an epidemiological profile and evaluate blood alcohol concentrations in victims of suicide by hanging in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2007. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted by collection of secondary data from autopsy reports of victims of hanging. According to the present study, positive results for alcohol were higher in male victims, but the mean BAC was higher in women. PMID:22687772

Zerbini, Talita; Ponce, Julio de Carvalho; Mayumi Sinagawa, Daniele; Barbosa Cintra, Raquel; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

2012-07-01

259

Overview of the Late Cretaceous Biota of the western São Paulo State, Brazil, Bauru Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turonian-Maastrichtian beds of the Bauru Group, western São Paulo State (Brazil), have yielded a diverse biota. The nine species of mesoecrocodilians are all mesosuchians. There is a single frog, a Neubatrachia. The vertebrates include, four types of fishes, a neobatrachian frog, an anilioid snake, two lizard, six species of podocnemid turtles, nine species of mesosuchian mesoecrocodilians three theropods, two birds, five titanosaurid sauropods, and one mammalian. The invertebrates include one cyclo, one cyclophoroid and eight pulmonates. Plants are represented by only two carophyte species. The biota from western São Paulo State is one the most diverse of the Late Cretaceous in Brazil. The biota from this area confirms that Bauru Group was connected to Patagonia and other Gondwanan areas during the Late Cretaceous.

Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Rich, Thomas

2010-03-01

260

HPLC determination of isoflavone levels in osage orange from the Midwest and southern United States.  

PubMed

The fruit of the Maclura pomifera tree is a sustainable source for the pharmacologically interesting isoflavones, osajin and pomiferin. A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed to identify osage orange samples with high isoflavone content and to determine the optimum conditions for sample preparation. Analytical run time was 8 min at a flow rate of 1 mL/min using a gradient of acetonitrile in H2O (0.1% formic acid) and UV peak detection at 274 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection and quantitation (LOD/LOQ). The method was applied to determine the levels of osajin and pomiferin in extracts prepared from different samples of osage orange growing in the Midwest and southern United States. Results demonstrated the effect of different variables, such as sample preparation, geographical location, and growth stage, on the levels of osajin and pomiferin in analyzed samples. PMID:23772950

Darji, Ketur; Miglis, Cristina; Wardlow, Ashley; Abourashed, Ehab A

2013-07-17

261

Carnivore mammals in a fragmented landscape in northeast of São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

São Paulo is the most developed state in Brazil and little of its native vegetation remains. In Luiz Antonio and Santa Rita\\u000a do Passa Quatro municipalities, only small fragments of cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies (cerradão, cerrado\\u000a sensu stricto) and of semideciduous forest have been left, surrounded by eucalyptus silviculture and sugar-cane agriculture. However, that\\u000a vegetation mosaic still shelters large mammals,

Maria Carolina Lyra-Jorge; Giordano Ciocheti; Vânia Regina Pivello

2008-01-01

262

The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

2005-01-01

263

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk

Ajacio BM Brandão; Sandra Costa Fuchs

2002-01-01

264

A Biochemical Upper Ocean State Estimate in the Southern Ocean GasEX Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processes controlling colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the upper ocean are uncertain, specifically, the importance of advection, photodegradation, thermocline entrainment and in-situ biological sources. This issue is addressed using a biochemical/physical state estimate in the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx) region. A high-resolution ocean general circulation model with realistic physics simulates the SO GasEx cruise near South Georgia in March 2008. The state estimate uses in-situ CDOM, temperature, salinity, and deliberately-released sulfur hexafluoride measurements, and remote-sensed CDOM, sea level anomaly, and sea surface temperature measurements. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to find the initial conditions that generate the time-evolving biochemical and physical fields that fit the observations best. Photo-degradation of CDOM is included explicitly, but biological sources of CDOM are not. The state estimate accurately fits the data, implying that the biological CDOM sources and sinks are indistinguishable from zero. Lateral advection is very important for the mixed-layer CDOM, however. Both photo-degradation and thermocline entrainment are moderately important and decrease mixed-layer CDOM with timescales of 2-4 weeks, averaged over the region.

Dwivedi, S.; Haine, T. W. N.; Del Castillo, C. E.

2012-04-01

265

Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)  

DOE Data Explorer

Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

Blackwell, D.D. and others

266

Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources  

SciTech Connect

The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.

Thomson, Allison M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Robert A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rosenberg, Norman J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Legler, David (Florida State University); Srinivasan, Ragahvan (TEXAS EXPERIMENT STAT.)

2003-02-01

267

Dietary pattern and state of nutrition among children in drought-prone areas of southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

To assess dietary habits and nutritional state in drought-prone areas of southern Ethiopia, we studied 334 households in a pastoral and 282 in an agricultural community. Milk and cereals were the main sources of food among children of the pastoral Boran in Dubluk, while cereals with limited supplements of animal products or legumes formed the main sources of food among children of the agricultural population of Elka in the Rift valley. Of the children in Elka, 54.9% were stunted, as compared with 19.5% among children in Dubluk. Also, stunting occurred at an earlier age among the Elka children. Prevalences of wasting were less than 5% in both communities. Improvement in the state of nutrition of the pastoral children followed soon after the main rains, but occurred later and after the main harvest among the agricultural children. In contrast to arm circumference, the weight-for-height measure showed marked seasonal variation. Socio-economic factors, such as family wealth and crowding, significantly influenced the state of nutrition among the children. Nutritional recovery following the prolonged drought among the agricultural children was slow and associated with families acquiring more wealth. PMID:7681641

Lindtjørn, B; Alemu, T; Bjorvatn, B

1993-01-01

268

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

269

Role of intraocular Leptospira infections in the pathogenesis of Equine Recurrent Uveitis in the Southern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To investigate the role of intraocular leptospiral infections in horses with Equine Recurrent Uveitis (ERU) in the southern United States, blood and ocular fluid samples were collected from horses with a history and ocular findings consistent with ERU. Samples were also obtained from control horses ...

270

Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States.  

PubMed

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L; White, William H; Nuessly, Gregg S; Solis, M Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Medina, Raul F

2014-01-01

271

Shortleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration: Impacts on Soils and Woody Debris in the Ouachita Mountains of the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of organizations and government agencies have been involved with restoration of overstocked shortleaf pine-hardwood stands to shortleaf pine- bluestem ecosystems in the Ouachita Mountains of the southern United States. These restoration efforts entail the reduction of stand density by harvesting and midstory competition control as well as the reintroduction of repeated fires. Application of these restoration practices has

Hal O. Liechty; Kenneth R. Luckow; Jessica Seifert; Daniel A. Marion; Martin Spetich; James M. Guldin

272

Natural Gas Regulation in Brazil: a framework to Stimulate Competition in the State of São Paulo from 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of the natural gas industry is recent in Brazil. The agencies regulating this industry, both in Federal and state levels, were set up only in the late 90's. Figure 1 shows the current natural gas industry organization in Brazil. This paper proposes a new regulatory framework to pave the way to competition in retail trade of natural gas in

Paulo Henrique de Mello; Sant Ana; Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi; Sergio Valdir Bajay

273

RESISTANCE OF AEDES AEGYPTI TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN SEVERAL MUNICIPALITIES IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO AND ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical insecticides have been widely used in Brazil for several years. This exposes mosquito populations to an intense selection pressure for resistance to insecticides. In 1999, the Brazilian National Health Foundation started the first program designed to monitor the resistance of Aedes aegypti to insecticides. We analyzed populations from 10 municipalities (from 84 selected in Brazil) in the states of

JOSÉ BENTO PEREIRA LIMA; MARCELLA PEREIRA DA-CUNHA; RONALDO CARNEIRO DA SILVA JÚNIOR; ALLAN KARDEC; RIBEIRO GALARDO; SILVA SOARES; IMA APARECIDA BRAGA; RICARDO PIMENTEL RAMOS; DENISE VALLE

2003-01-01

274

Short communication: intermediate prevalence of HIV type 1 primary antiretroviral resistance in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil is a large developing country where almost all FDA-licensed antiretrovirals are made available to more than 200,000 individuals under antiretroviral treatment. General primary HIV-1 resistance in Brazil is assumed to be low, but data are scarce, especially in the Northeast region. To evaluate the prevalence of primary HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance in the state of Ceará, Brazil, a cross-sectional prospective study of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected individuals was performed between May 2008 and May 2009. Genomic sequences of reverse transcriptase and protease regions of the pol gene of HIV-1 using PCR products were obtained. Mutations related to resistance to NRTI, NNRTI, and PI were evaluated according to the WHO mutation list for primary resistance surveillance, which excludes common polymorphisms. Seventy-four individuals were evaluated (50% male) with a median age 30 years; 55.4% were men who have sex with men. Median CD4(+) T lymphocyte counts were 418 and 960 cells/mm(3) and the median viral loads were 4.41 and 4.46 log(10) RNA copies/ml for individuals older and younger that 18 years, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of patients were symptomatic. Five patients (6.8%) were recently infected, as detected by the BED test. The mutations 41L, 67N, 215D, 219Q, 101E, and 103N in the RT and 32I, 46I, 54V, 82T, and 90M, in the PR were identified in 9.5% of samples, more frequently in HIV subtype B (85.1%). A significant level of primary HIV resistance was detected in urban Northeast Brazil, a region geographically distant from the more highly populated and wealthier areas of Southeast Brazil, and this emphasizes the need for monitoring resistance in the studied area. PMID:20929346

Arruda, Erico; Simões, Leda; Sucupira, Cecília; Medeiros, Melissa; Arruda, Eurico; Diaz, Ricardo S; Lima, Aldo

2011-02-01

275

Causes of death and associated risk factors among climacteric women from Southern Brazil: a population based-study  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and menopause are particular cardiovascular risk factors for women, due to estrogen deprivation at the time of menopause. Studies show that diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main cause of female mortality in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality rate, causes of death and associated risk factors in a cohort of women from Brazil. Methods A longitudinal population-based study of menopausal status is currently underway in a city in South Brazil. In 2010, a third follow-up of this population was performed to assess cardiovascular risk and mortality rate between 1995 and 2011. For this analysis, 358 participants were studied. At baseline, participants had completed a standardized questionnaire including demographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive characteristics. In addition to the contacts with relatives, mortality data were obtained through review of medical records in all city hospitals and the Center for Health Information (NIS/RS-SES). Multivariate-adjusted hazard risk (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. Results There were 17 (4.7%) deaths from all causes during the study period. Seven (41.2%) deaths were caused by CVD, including four cases of stroke and three cases of myocardial infarction. Six (35.3%) deaths were due to cancer, and four (23.5%) were due to other reasons. In the age and smoking-adjusted multivariate models, diabetes (HR 6.645, 95% CI: 1.938–22.79, p = 0.003), alcohol intake (HR 1.228, 95% CI: 1.014-1.487, p = 0.035) and postmenopausal status (HR = 6.216, 95% CI: 0.963–40.143, p = 0.055) were associated with all-cause mortality. A significant association was found between abdominal obesity (WHR ? 0.85) and mortality even after the adjustment for BMI (HR = 9.229, 95% IC: 2.083–41.504, p = 0.003). Conclusion CVD was an important cause of mortality in this cohort and DM and/or central adiposity were associated with all-cause mortality. Lifestyle and dietary factors seem to be related to risk of mortality in middle-aged women. PMID:24559309

2014-01-01

276

Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species.  

PubMed

Miroculis (Miroculis) eldorado sp. nov. and Ulmeritoides passorum sp. nov. are described based on material from Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil. Additional records of Leptophlebiidae genera and species are made. Askola Peters, 1969, Farrodes Peters, 1971, Microphlebia Savage & Peters, 1983, Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez, 1992, Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth, 1943 and Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947) are recorded for the first time in Roraima State. Simothraulopsis janae Mariano, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Northern Brazil. PMID:25543739

Neto, Jaime De Liege Gama; Hamada, Neusa

2014-01-01

277

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

278

Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

2015-01-01

279

Two new species of Haliclona Grant, 1836 (Haplosclerida: Chalinidae) from Sergipe State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Haliclona is one of the most species-rich genera among Demospongiae, but with only 11 species recorded for the Brazilian coast. Here we describe two new species of Haliclona collected by trawling at Sergipe State (Northeastern Brazil). Haliclona (Halichoclona) dura sp. nov. is distinguished by the combination of confused choanosome with dense reticulation, oxeas with stepped and mucronate points, color dark brown externally and light beige internally, consistency firm and incompressible. Haliclona (Soestella) brassica sp. nov. is set apart by the combination of a choanosomal skeleton with rounded meshes, strongyles, raphides, color beige and consistency soft. PMID:24870167

Sandes, Joana; Bispo, André; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

280

The Late Cretaceous fauna and flora of the Uberaba area (Minas Gerais State, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uberaba area, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, yields a rich continental fauna and flora from the Late Cretaceous Uberaba and Marília formations. This paper reviews the diversity of the biota recorded from these formations. The most significant taxa from Peirópolis are the frog Baurubatrachus pricei, the turtle Cambaremys langertoni, the lizard Pristiguana brasiliensis, the crocodyliforms Itasuchus jesuinoi, Peirosaurus tormini and Uberabasuchus terrificus, the titanosaurian Baurutitan britoi, Trigonosaurus pricei, Aeolosaurus sp., indeterminate titanosaurians, and abelisaurid, carcharodontosaurid and maniraptoran theropods. Together with faunas of a similar age in Argentina and Madagascar, the assemblages contribute to a better understanding of Late Cretaceous Gondwanan faunas as a whole.

Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Santos, Adriano R.; Bergqvist, Lílian P.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos B.; Apesteguía, Sebastián

2008-03-01

281

Serological survey of Ehrlichia species in dogs, horses and humans: zoonotic scenery in a rural settlement from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ? one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species. PMID:24037288

Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

2013-01-01

282

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

2012-05-01

283

Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

2013-09-01

284

Occurrence and abundance of a mariner-like element in freshwater and terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) from southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are DNA sequences present in all the large phylogenetic groups, both capable of changing position within the genome and constituting a significant part of eukaryotic genomes. The mariner family of transposons is one of the few which occurs in a wide variety of taxonomic groups, including freshwater planarians. Nevertheless, so far only five planarian species have been reported to carry mariner-like elements (MLEs), although several different species have been investigated. Regarding the number of copies of MLEs, Girardia tigrina is the only planarian species in which this has been evaluated, with an estimation of 8,000 copies of the element per haploid genome. Preliminary results obtained in our laboratory demonstrated that MLE is found in a large number of different species of planarians, including terrestrial. With this in mind, the aim was to evaluate the occurrence and estimate the number of MLE copies in different planarian species collected in south Brazil. Twenty-eight individuals from 15 planarian species were analyzed. By using PCR and the hybridization of nucleic acids, it was found that MLE was present in all the analyzed species, the number of copies being high, probably over 103 per haploid genome. PMID:21637447

2009-01-01

285

Single- and Dual-Aperture Interferometry at Southern Connecticut State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instruments for astronomical interferometry built at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) are discussed. The first is the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI), which is a speckle camera built in 2008 and currently in operation at the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope at Kitt Peak. It is a two-channel speckle imaging system that utilizes electron-multiplying CCD cameras to capture speckle images in two colors simultaneously. The simultaneous information in two colors gives leverage on residual atmospheric dispersion that may be present in an observation. This allows reliable differential astrometry of binaries to be obtained on systems with separations smaller than one-quarter of the diffraction limit of the telescope, or under 10 mas at WIYN. A summary of the current observational projects being pursued with this system is given, including a survey of spectroscopic binaries from the Geneva-Copenhagen Catalogue. The second instrument, still being assembled and tested in the laboratory at SCSU, is a new two-station intensity interferometer that utilizes a Picoquant Picoharp timing module for real-time correlation of the photon signals received. The instrument and plans for observing with it are described.

Horch, E. P.

2014-09-01

286

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

287

Relating TRMM precipitation radar land surface backscatter response to soil moisture in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySoil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in agronomy, meteorology, and hydrology. It regulates the exchange of water and heat between land surface and atmosphere and thus plays an important role in the development of weather patterns. It is difficult to obtain a comprehensive spatio-temporal map of soil moisture because of expensive installation of soil moisture measuring instruments. In this paper, a model to estimate soil moisture ( m s) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR) backscatter ( ?°) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is developed for the Southern United States. Soil moisture data from Soil and Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations is used to calibrate and validate the model. The estimated values of m s compare well with the ground measurements of soil moisture. The model works well for various landcovers but works best for low density vegetated areas (closed shrubland). All the soil moisture estimates in this landcover have an absolute error of less than 8%. The model performance deteriorates with increase in vegetation density (crops and forest). Overall, the model performance is satisfactory for all landcover types with RMSE less than 6.3% and absolute error of 10% or less for 90% of the estimates. Estimation of soil moisture over a large area with low error provides another use of TRMMPR data.

Puri, Sumit; Stephen, Haroon; Ahmad, Sajjad

2011-05-01

288

Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer. PMID:25187024

Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

2014-12-01

289

A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.

2013-01-01

290

New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications.  

PubMed

The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence). The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia. PMID:21437390

Soares, Marina B; Schultz, Cesar L; Horn, Bruno L D

2011-03-01

291

A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) endemic to Araucaria angustifolia forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys from the Meridional Plateau of Southern Brazil is described. Morphological, molecular, and karyological analysis support the recognition of the new species, distinct from S. aquaticus and S. tumidus. Scapteromys sp. nov. is significantly smaller than the congeneric taxa considering most of the external and craniometric measurements and the pelage is conspicuously grayer and darker. It can be distinguished from S. tumidus by the laterally extended thenar pad of the manus and the parallel edges of the hamular process of the pterygoid, and from S. aquaticus by a grayer and darker pelage and smaller values of most external and craniometric measurements. Karyological analysis indicated a difference in chromosome numbers across the distributional range: 2n=34 and 2n=36. A total of 11 haplotypes were found along the range of the new species within the biogeographic province of Araucaria angustifolia Forest. Strongly supported substructure was found within the new taxon, resulting in two reciprocally monophyletic clades. PMID:24943159

Quintela, Fernando Marques; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; Althoff, Sérgio Luiz; Sbalqueiro, Ives Jose; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa; De Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

2014-01-01

292

Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in 105 patients with hemorrhagic syndrome caused by accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillar in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Haemostatic disorders caused by Lonomia obliqua caterpillars has reached epidemic proportions in southern Brazil. Here we evaluated coagulation and fibrinolysis in 105 patients after accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. Global coagulation tests were prolonged in most cases and patients were divided into 3 groups according to fibrinogen (Fg) level: 1.5 g/l (group C). There was a significant reduction of factors V, XIII, VIII and prekallikrein in group A, with no change in factors X, II and von Willebrand factor. Thrombin-antithrombin and prothrombin F1+2 were elevated in most patients. Antithrombin and protein S were not changed whereas protein C levels were reduced in group A. Plasminogen and alfa2-antiplasmin levels were significantly reduced in group A and D-Dimer levels were extremely high in all groups, showing that fibrinolysis had been activated, possibly secondary to fibrin production. Levels of t-PA were normal and PAI-1 was mildly elevated in group A. The platelet count remained above 150 x 109 platelets/ml in 97% of cases. In summary, our results suggest that Lonomia obliqua envenoming is characterized by a consumption coagulopathy and secondary fibrinolysis. PMID:12574817

Zannin, Marlene; Lourenço, Dayse M; Motta, Guacyara; Dalla Costa, Luis R; Grando, Margaret; Gamborgi, Geni P; Noguti, Maria A; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M

2003-02-01

293

Detailed haplotype analysis at the TP53 locus in p.R337H mutation carriers in the population of Southern Brazil: evidence for a founder effect.  

PubMed

Due to patterns of migration, selection, and population expansion, founder effects are common among humans. In Southern Brazil, a recurrent TP53 mutation, p.R337H, is detected in families with cancer predisposition. We have used whole locus resequencing and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to refine TP53 locus haplotype definitions. Haplotyping of 12 unrelated p.R337H carriers using a set of 29 tag SNPs, revealed that all subjects carried the same haplotype, and presence of the mutation on this haplotype was confirmed by allele-specific PCR. The probability that this haplotype occurs independently in all index cases was of 3.1x10(-9), demonstrating a founder effect. Analysis of the patterns of 103 tumors diagnosed in 12 families showed that the presence of p.R337H is associated with multiple cancers of the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) spectrum, with relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 but a lifetime risk comparable to classical LFS. The p.R337H families are mostly distributed along a road axis historically known as the main route used by merchants of Portuguese origin in the XVIII and XIX century. This historical circumstance and the relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 may have contributed to the maintenance of this pathogenic mutation in a large, open population. PMID:19877175

Garritano, Sonia; Gemignani, Federica; Palmero, Edenir Inez; Olivier, Magali; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Brugiéres, Laurence; Vargas, Fernando Regla; Brentani, Ricardo Renzo; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Landi, Stefano; Tavtigian, Sean V; Hainaut, Pierre; Achatz, Maria Isabel W

2010-02-01

294

The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

1994-01-01

295

The Southern Chilean Subduction Zone: Local Earthquake Tomography and State of Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the northern and central part of the South American Subduction zone has been intensively studied the southern part has attracted less attention, which might be caused by its difficult accessibility and lower seismic activity. However, the southern part exhibits strong seismic and tsunamogenic potential with the prominent example of the Mw=9.5~May~22, 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here we present data from an amphibious seismic array (Project TIPTEQ) located between 41.5--43.5°S reaching from the trench to the active magmatic arc incorporating the Island of Chiloé and the magmatic arc with the N-S trending Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone~(LOFZ). 364 local events were observed in a 11-month period from November 2004 until October 2005 with magnitudes between 0.5 to 5.1~Ml. The observed seismicity allows us to constrain the current state of stress of the subducting plate and magmatic arc as well as the local seismic velocity structure. The downgoing Wadati-Benioff zone is readily identifiable as an eastward dipping plane with an inclination of about 29-33°. Besides events in in the Benioff Zone, 75~shallow crustal events with depths shallower than 25~km were observed mainly occurring in different clusters along the magmatic arc. These crustal clusters of seismicity are related to the LOFZ, to the volcanoes Chaitén, Michinmahuida and Corcovado, and to active faulting on secondary faults. Further activity along the LOFZ is indicated by individual events located in direct vicinity of the LOFZ. Focal mechanisms were calculated using moment tensor inversion of amplitude spectra for body waves which mostly yield strike slip mechanisms with SE-NW oriented direction of~?1~for the LOFZ at this latitude. In contrast to the strike-slip mechanism of the events along the LOFZ, the focal mechanisms of the stronger events in the Benioff Zone yield mainly thrust mechanism down to 55~km depth. Focal Mechanism Stress Inversion (FMSI) was carried out for the crustal events and the events in the Benioff zone indicating a strike slip regime along the arc and thrust regime in the Benioff zone, respectively. We suggest that the observed deformation along the LOFZ combined with teleseismic observations is a confirmation for the proposed northward movement of the forearc sliver acting as a detached continental micro-plate as outlined by Forsythe~& Nelson (1985) and Beck et al.~(1993). A high quality subset of events was inverted for a 2-D velocity model using the SIMULPS inversion code. First results suggest a 10~km high mantle bulge (vp>7.8~km/s) below the longitudinal valley and low velocity structure below the coastal cordillera.

Lange, D.; Cembrano, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Haberland, C.; Dahm, T.; Bataille, K.

2007-12-01

296

A Survey of Management Practices That Influence Performance and Welfare of Dairy Calves Reared in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

Hötzel, Maria J.; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F.; Cardoso, Clarissa S.; Costa, João H. C.

2014-01-01

297

A survey of management practices that influence performance and welfare of dairy calves reared in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Here we report dairy calf management practices used by 242 smallholder family farmers in the South of Brazil. Data were collected via a semi-structured questionnaire with farmers, inspection of the production environment and an in-depth interview with a sample of 26 farmers. Herds had an average of 22.3 lactating cows and an average milk production of 12.7 L/cow/day. Calves were dehorned in 98% of the farms, with a hot iron in 95%. Male calves were castrated in 71% of the farms; methods were surgery (68%), emasculator (29%), or rubber rings (3%). No pain control was used for these interventions. In 51% of the farms all newborn male calves were reared, sold or donated to others; in 35% all newborn males were killed on the farm. Calves were separated from the dam up to 12 h after birth in 78% of the farms, and left to nurse colostrum from the dam without intervention in 55% of the farms. The typical amount of milk fed to calves was 4 L/day until a median age of 75 days. In 40% of the farms milk was provided in a bucket, in 49% with bottles, and in 11% calves suckled from a cow. Solid feeding in the milk-feeding period started at a median age of 10 days. Calves were housed individually in 70% of the farms; in 81% of the farms calves were housed in indoor pens, in 6% in outdoor hutches and in 13% they were kept on pasture. Diarrhoea was reported as the main cause of calf mortality in 71% of the farms. Farmers kept no records of calf disease, mortality, or use of medicines. Changing the scenario identified in this survey is essential to support the sustainable development of dairy production, an activity of great economic and social relevance for the region. PMID:25506692

Hötzel, Maria J; Longo, Cibele; Balcão, Lucas F; Cardoso, Clarissa S; Costa, João H C

2014-01-01

298

Analysis of Maternal and Child Health Indicators in an Area at Paraná State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyze maternal and child health indicators and infant mortality rate (IMR) at the cities located at the 18th Health Division (HD) in Parana State, Brazil. In this ecological study we analyzed all live births and infant deaths which occurred from 2000 to 2009 at the 18th HD, collecting data from the Mortality Information Database and the Live Births Information Database. The variables assessed were grouped into maternal, pregnancy and delivery, and neonatal variables. The analysis was conducted using the mean percentage of each variable and the IMR calculated for both periods: from 2000 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2009. The IMR was reduced considerably, following Brazil's and Paraná State's trend. Maternal indicators went down regarding the mean percentage of teenage mothers and low education, whereas they went up regarding mother with 35?years old or older and mothers without a partner. Pregnancy indicators showed increased prematurity and cesarean birth. Neonatal indicators raised in black/brown skin color and low birth weights percentages. This study provides a better understanding of maternal and child health in the cities located at the 18th HD, supplying grounds to plan actions regarding the real needs of each specific city. PMID:24490065

Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Ribeiro, Ana Beatriz Guedes; de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Zurita, Robsmeire Calvo Melo; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

2013-01-01

299

[Distribution of species from genus Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae) in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].  

PubMed

We studied the distribution and diversity of Anopheles species in 123 counties (municipalities) in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. The basic method consisted of capturing female specimens inside and around human dwellings between 6 PM and 6 AM from January 1992 to December 2001. A total of 84,467 specimens belonging to 24 species were captured, with a predominance of A. triannulatus sensu lato (20,788), A. darlingi (19,083), A. nuneztovari (16,884), A. albitarsis s.l. (14,352), A. aquasalis (8.202), and A. evansae (2,885). The other 18 species together accounted for only 2.7% of the total. The species found in the most counties were A. albitarsis s.l. (109 counties), A. triannulatus s.l. (106), A. nuneztovari (93), A. darlingi (87), and A. evansae (64). The richness and wide distribution of anopheline species in Maranhão agree with the State's geographic position among Brazil's macro-regions, resulting in a mixed fauna with representative elements from these regions. PMID:18157338

Rebêlo, José M Macário; Moraes, Jorge L P; Alves, Gildário A; Leonardo, Francisco S; Rocha, Roseno V da; Mendes, Walter Araújo; Costa, Elizaldo; Câmara, Lucy E M B; Silva, Márcio J A; Pereira, Yrla N O; Mendonça, José A C

2007-12-01

300

Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

2013-04-01

301

Major Depression, Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Do Not Appear to Account for the Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV Epidemics in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV infection are occurring at epidemic rates in the southern region of the United States. Depression and substance use disorders are associated with sexual risk behavior, so we investigated whether regionwide societal rates of major depression or substance use disorders could explain the higher southern rates. Methods: Data came from two surveys, the National

Sherry D. Broadwell; Peikang Yao; Deborah Hasin

2006-01-01

302

Cumulatic Diorites Related to Post-Collisional, Brasiliano\\/Pan-African Mafic Magmatism in the Vila Nova Belt, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Capivaras Diorite, in the Vila Nova region, NW of the Sul-rio-grandense Shield, is composed of six NE- to NNE-oriented rock bodies of late-tectonic emplacement relative to the D3 deformation phase which forms subvertical high-strain zones in basement gneiss sequences. Within these intrusive bodies, a shape foliation is present, generally parallel to contacts and displaying a local solid-state deformational component.

Luciane Garavaglia; Maria de Fátima Bitencourt; Lauro Valentim Stoll Nardi

2002-01-01

303

Regulating Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Americas: A Comparison of the Top Down and Bottom Up Approaches in Brazil and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a comparative analysis of the legal approaches to regulate Second Hand Smoke (SHS) in Brazil and the United States. Part II reviews the FCTC, its objective to achieve smoke-free public places, and the legal framework supporting freedom from SHS as a human right. Parts III and IV examine Brazil’s top down and the United States’ bottom up

Leigh Warren

2010-01-01

304

First new species of the Phytoseius horridus group (Acari: Phytoseiidae) described from Brazil, with a key to the Brazilian species of Phytoseius.  

PubMed

Phytoseius litoralis n. sp., a member of the horridus species group, is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, based on specimens collected on Psidium guajava, Solanum concinnum and Cecropia pachystachya. This is the first species of the horridus group described from Brazil. A key to species of Phytoseius reported from Brazil is provided. PMID:25232632

Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Rocha, Matheus dos Santos; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

2013-01-01

305

77 FR 58470 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2009-0100] RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern...2012, we amended the phytosanitary treatment regulations to, among other things, allow for irradiation treatment of mangoes from India upon...

2012-09-21

306

Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in the state of Maranhão, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. There is a public health policy defining measures for state hematology and hemotherapy centers in Brazil, in order to avoid virus transmission through blood donors. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HTLV -1/2 in blood donors in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, during routine blood unit screening. Methods Screening tests of blood donors using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect seropositivity for HTLV-1/2 performed at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the State of Maranhão (HEMOMAR) between July of 2003 and December of 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Results Of the 365,564 blood donors, 561 (0.15%) were HTLV-1/2-positive, of whom 72 (12.8%) performed the confirmatory test (Western blot). In donors who had a confirmatory test, 53 (73.6%) were positive. The ages of the infected individuals ranged from 18 to 65 years; 305 (54%) were aged over 40 years. Among the infected individuals, 309 (55%) were male, 399 (71%) were mixed-race, and 259 (46%) were single. Co-infections were frequently found, especially with hepatitis B (in 68.6% of the cases). Conclusion The results obtained will contribute to the planning and implementation of control measures by the epidemiological surveillance agency of Maranhão, and will also contribute to reducing morbidity. The high seropositivity in a small sample in donors who had confirmatory tests indicates the need for confirmatory tests for all donors who initially test as seropositive. PMID:24624036

Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Artur Souza; dos Santos, Alessandro Carvalho; Galvão, Carolina de Souza; da Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto

2014-01-01

307

Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and ?C-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime was sufficiently humid to develop hydromorphic horizons in the valley bottoms of the entire drainage network to the valley heads; d) regional change toward a drier hydric regime occurred in MIS 2, when erosion of the paleosols predominated; and e) in MIS 1 (current Holocene interglacial), burial of the paleosols and relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

2014-10-01

308

Spatial modeling of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil using spatial regression.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas. PMID:24521991

Fonseca, F; Freitas, C; Dutra, L; Guimarães, R; Carvalho, O

2014-05-01

309

[Faunistic analysis of leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) species in vineyards of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

In some American countries, grapevines are affected by Pierce's disease (PD), which is caused by a particular strain of Xylella fastidiosa not yet reported in Brazil. In order to investigate the potential for PD spread in Brazil in case of pathogen introduction, we conducted a faunistic analysis of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated to vineyards in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with emphasis in the subfamily Cicadellinae (sharpshooters), which includes the main potential vectors of X. fastidiosa. Leafhopper samplings were carried out fortnightly during two years (9/2004-9/2006) in four Vitis vinifera vineyards in the municipalities of Bento Gonçalves and Farroupilha (RS). Thirtyfour leafhopper and six spittlebug species were collected, but most (98.4%) of the 3,893 specimens trapped were leafhoppers, distributed in the subfamilies Cicadellinae (60.2%), Gyponinae (34.1%), Deltocephalinae (3.8%) and Coelidinae (0.3%). The sharpshooter specimens were divided in the tribes Cicadellini (68.5%; 12 species) and Proconiini (31.5%; 11 species). Based on the faunistic indices, five species of Cicadellini, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg), Dilobopterus dispar (Germar), Macugonalia cavifrons Stal, Sibovia sagata (Signoret) and Spinagonalia rubrovittata Cavichioli, and three of Proconiini, Molomea consolida (Schöder), Oncometopia facialis (Signoret) and Oncometopia fusca Melichar were prevalent in the vineyards. The high diversity of native sharpshooters in Rio Grande do Sul indicates the existence of a high risk of PD spread if the pathogen is introduced in grapevines. PMID:20498954

Ringenberg, Rudiney; Lopes, João R S; Botton, Marcos; Azevedo-Filho, Wilson S De; Cavichioli, Rodney R

2010-01-01

310

A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata) is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet.) and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.). In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group) located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids). This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record. PMID:21437386

Nava, William R; Martinelli, Agustín G

2011-03-01

311

Prospección de hongos Entomophthorales para el control natural de insectos en Bahía, Brasil [Prospecting Entomophthoralean fungi for the natural control of insects in Bahia, Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on Entomophthorales fungi in southern Bahia State, Brazil, included enzootic and epizootic studies on the dynamics of entomophthoromycosis and their interrelations with insect populations of various insect orders, geographical distributions and incidence on crops, natural grasses and other ...

312

Metal distribution in sediment cores from São Paulo State Coast, Brazil.  

PubMed

Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of São Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments. PMID:21440269

Silva, Paulo S C; Damatto, Sandra R; Maldonado, Caio; Fávaro, Deboráh I T; Mazzilli, Barbara P

2011-05-01

313

[Spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Among all bites and stings by venomous animals, scorpion stings have increased significantly in urban areas all over Brazil. Considering that Ponta Grossa is the city in Paraná State with the highest incidence of reported scorpion stings, the current study aimed to assess trends in scorpion stings based on notification records and complaints from January 2008 to December 2010. The geographic coordinates of addresses with reported scorpion stings were collected, digitized, and spatialized, resulting in a cartogram of the georeferenced scorpion stings in the city. The incidence coefficients for this period showed that Ponta Grossa had 113.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and that Colônia Dona Luiza, Neves, and Chapada were the neighborhoods with the highest rates. Investigation of determinants of scorpion stings used visual and statistical analysis, indicating wooded or green areas, water mains, and the sewer system as the main correlated variables. PMID:24068229

Kotviski, Bianca Mayara; Barbola, Ivana de Freitas

2013-09-01

314

[Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40 kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82) and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%), decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%), increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies that favor lifestyle changes and healthy eating habits. PMID:22218583

Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

2011-12-01

315

Mercury exposure in Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, State of Pará, Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate mercury exposure and health status among Munduruku Indians from the community of Sai Cinza, State of Pará, Brazil. The population studied included 330 indians, who submitted to a questionnaire, clinical exams, and collection of hair, blood, urine, and feces. Mercury was measured in hair and fish. Although no person was found to have overt mercury intoxication, the mean levels of mercury in hair were elevated (14.45 micrograms/g for children from 7 to 12 years old, 15.70 micrograms/g for women between 14 and 44 years old, and 14.1 micrograms/g for the remaining population). Mercury levels in fish were below levels recommended by the World Health Organization, but rates of fish consumption were high. These results place this indigenous populations as a group under risk of mercury toxicity from the gold production. PMID:12483799

Santos, Elisabeth C de Oliveira; de Jesus, Iracina Maura; Câmara, Volney de M; Brabo, Edilson; Loureiro, Edvaldo C Brito; Mascarenhas, Artur; Weirich, Judith; Luiz, Ronir Ragio; Cleary, David

2002-10-01

316

Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-grade metasedimentary rocks can preserve geochemical signatures of their sedimentary protolith if significant melt extraction did not occur. Retrograde reaction textures provide the main evidence for trapped melt in the rock fabrics. Carvalhos Klippe rocks in Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil, present a typical high-pressure granulite assemblage with evidence of mica breakdown partial melting (Ky + Grt + Kfs ± Bt ± Rt). The metamorphic peak temperatures obtained by Zr-in-Rt and ternary feldspar geothermometers are between 850 °C and 900 °C. The GASP baric peak pressure obtained using grossular rich garnet core is 16 kbar. Retrograde reaction textures in which the garnet crystals are partially to totally replaced by Bt + Qtz ± Fsp intergrowths are very common in the Carvalhos Klippe rocks. These reactions are interpreted as a result of interactions between residual phases and trapped melt during the retrograde path. In the present study the geochemical signatures of three groups of Carvalhos Klippe metasedimentary rocks are analysed. Despite the high metamorphic grade these three groups show well-defined geochemical features and their REE patterns are similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC). The high-pressure granulite facies Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses with immature arenite (wacke, arkose or lithic-arenite) geochemical signatures present in the Carvalhos Klippe are compared to similar rocks in amphibolite facies from the same tectonic framework (Andrelândia Nappe System). The similar geochemical signatures between Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses metamorphosed in high-pressure granulite facies and Grt-Bt-Pl-Qtz schists from the Andrelândia and Liberdade Nappes, with minimal to absent melting conditions, are suggestive of low rates of melt extraction in these high-grade rocks. The rocks with pelitic compositions most likely had higher melt extraction and even under such circumstances nevertheless tend to show REE patterns similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC).

Cioffi, Caue Rodrigues; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; da Rocha, Brenda Chung; Moraes, Renato; Henrique-Pinto, Renato

2012-12-01

317

New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

2014-10-01

318

Bioclimatic distribution and prevalence maps for Fasciola hepatica in Espírito Santo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciolosis affects different ruminant species and leads to great economic losses for cattle farmers worldwide. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate bovine fasciolosis prevalence in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, using slaughter maps provided by slaughterhouses and verifying the origin of cattle. Methods A map was created based on analysis of epidemiological data. The ArcGIS/ArcINFO 10.1 software was employed in order to elaborate updated bioclimatic maps that displayed the fasciolosis prevalence within the state – per city– between 2009 and 2011. Results According to the bioclimatic map it was clear that 52.24% of the state’s total area comprise regions considered favorable for the development and survival of Fasciola hepatica. According to the data provided by slaughterhouses, the parasite was more frequent in the cities of Atílio Vivácqua, Itapemirim and Anchieta with respective prevalence of 28.41, 25.50 and 24.95%. Although the northern portion of the state is also favorable for the disease maintenance (reaching rates above 90%), several cities presented prevalence of only 0.99 and 1.94% respectively. These findings indicate that climatic and environmental factors only cannot be considered preponderant to fasciolosis occurrence. Regarding the slaughterhouse located in Anchieta city, the higher prevalence was registered in the cities of Jerônimo Monteiro, Alegre and Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, with mean prevalence of 1.21, 1.07 and 2.09% respectively. Conclusion Although the present findings suggest a pattern for the prevalence of fasciolosis, records of the cities for the occurrence of the disease usually do not reflect the true origin of animals. PMID:25101121

2014-01-01

319

Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

Du, Yangbo

2007-01-01

320

A materialist analysis of slavery and sharecropping in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical nature of Southern slavery and of the social relations established after its abolition have for a long time been a source of heated debate among American historians. During the last decades, historians have tended to divide into two camps: neoclassical economic historians, who identify slavery and sharecropping with capitalism, and social historians, more or less influenced by Marxism,

Daniel Gaido

2000-01-01

321

AN UNDOCUMENTED ECONOMY OF CONTROL1 Workers, smugglers and State authorities in southern Israel/Palestine  

E-print Network

Lang. This chapter focuses on informal crossings of undocumented Palestinian workers from the southern of Palestinian mobility. While Palestinian employment in Israel has been extensively documented, little attention, research has mostly focused on the changing role of the Palestinian population within the Israeli economy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

New species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae) from southern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species ofRuellia,R. epallocaulos from northeastern Argentina, southern Brazil, and eastern Paraguay, andR. kleinii from southern Brazil, are described, illustrated and compared to related species.

Cecilia Ezcurra; Dieter C. Wasshausen

1992-01-01

323

[Factors associated with pulmonary TB treatment dropout in Maranhão State, Brazil, from 2001 to 2010].  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze the treatment dropout rate for pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors in Maranhão State, Brazil, from 2001 to 2010. A cross-sectional study used data from the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), including 2,850 new smear test-positive cases that were closed due to either medical discharge following cure or treatment dropout. The study variables were age, gender, skin color, years of schooling, HIV status, alcoholism, diabetes, mental illness, and other diseases. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with treatment dropout, which included age 20-39 years (OR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.15-1.97; p=0.002), schooling 1-8 years (OR=2.05; 95%CI: 1.43-2.95; p<0.001), illiteracy (OR=1.64; 95%CI: 1.02-2.65; p=0.041), alcoholism (OR=2.53; 95%CI: 1.75-3.67; p<0.001), and mental illness. The treatment dropout rate in the State was high (9.1%), and the main contributing factors were low schooling, alcoholism, and mental illness. PMID:25210913

da Fonseca Silva, Pollyanna; Moura, Germano Silva; de Jesus Mendes Caldas, Arlene

2014-08-01

324

A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).  

PubMed

We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

2014-01-01

325

Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

2012-11-01

326

An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil: the importance of landscape in malaria biology.  

PubMed

Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I), submontane (II), plateau (III), lowland (IV), and alluvial (V). Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima), savannah (VII, cerrado), and wetland (VIII, campinarana). Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns. PMID:17568941

Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Tsouris, Pantelis; Peterson, A Townsend; Honório, Nildimar Alves; de Barros, Fábio Saito Monteiro; de Aguiar, Ducinéia Barros; Gurgel, Helen da Costa; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Vasconcelos, Simão Dias; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco

2007-06-01

327

Spatial study of homicide rates in the state of Bahia, Brazil, 1996-2010  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of homicide mortality in the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS Ecological study of the 15 to 39-year old male population in the state of Bahia in the period 1996-2010. Data from the Mortality Information System, relating to homicide (X85-Y09) and population estimates from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. The existence of spatial correlation, the presence of clusters and critical areas of the event studied were analyzed using Moran’s I Global and Local indices. RESULTS A non-random spatial pattern was observed in the distribution of rates, as was the presence of three clusters, the first in the north health district, the second in the eastern region, and the third cluster included townships in the south and the far south of Bahia. CONCLUSIONS The homicide mortality in the three different critical areas requires further studies that consider the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental characteristics in order to guide specific preventive and interventionist practices. PMID:25119942

de Souza, Tiago Oliveira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

2014-01-01

328

[Hospitalization and mortality from mansoni schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1992/2000].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the historical trends, epidemiological profile, and spatial distribution of hospital admissions and deaths from schistosomiasis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, an analysis was conducted of data from the Hospital Information System and Mortality Information System from 1992 to 2000. The results showed a reduction in hospital admissions and mortality, while identifying more admissions and deaths among males. There was a lower percentage of deaths and admissions from schistosomiasis in individuals under 30 years of age. However, schistosomiasis is still of relevant magnitude, as evidenced by the number of deaths from this cause and the number of patients admitted to the hospital system in Pernambuco. A spatial analysis of the endemic's distribution in the State showed that although from 1995 to 1999 there was a greater spread of admissions due to schistosomiasis in the municipalities (counties) of the Sertão (backlands) and São Francisco river valley, the number of municipalities with hospitalizations due to schistosomiasis decreased from 1995 to 1998, followed by an increase in 1999 and 2000. PMID:16158144

Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barbosa, Constança Simões

2005-01-01

329

American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376), being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death. PMID:23024661

Madalosso, Geraldine; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Cruz, Lisete Lage; Nogueira, Péricles Alves; Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta

2012-01-01

330

Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses and HBGA from Infected Quilombola Children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher’s exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se40, 171,216,357,428,739,960 were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le59, 202, 314 for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L.; Ferreira, Mônica S. R.; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

2013-01-01

331

Molecular characterization of noroviruses and HBGA from infected Quilombola children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se (40), (171,216,357,428,739,960) were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le (59, 202, 314) for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L; Ferreira, Mônica S R; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

2013-01-01

332

Patients' Perceptions on the Performance of a Local Health System to Eliminate Leprosy, Paraná State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, leprosy has been listed among the health priorities since 2006, in a plan known as the “Pact for life” (Pacto pela Vida). It is the sole country on the American continent that has not reached the global goal of disease elimination. Local health systems face many challenges to achieve this global goal. The study aimed to investigate how patients perceive the local health system's performance to eliminate leprosy and whether these perceptions differ in terms of the patients' income. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Interviews were performed with the leprosy patients. The local health system was assessed through a structured and adapted tool, considering the domains judged as good quality of health care. The authors used univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and nineteen patients were recruited for the study, 50.4% (60) of them were male, 54.0% (64) were between 42 and 65 years old and 66.3% (79) had finished elementary school. The results showed that patients used the Primary Health Care service near their place of residence but did not receive the leprosy diagnosis there. Important advances of this health system were verified for the elimination of leprosy, verifying protocols for good care delivery to the leprosy patients, but these services did not develop collective health actions and did not engage the patients' family members and community. Conclusions/Significance The patients' difficulty was observed to have access to the diagnosis and treatment at health services near their homes. Leprosy care is provided at the specialized level, where the patients strongly bond with the teams. The care process is individual, with limited perspectives of integration among the health services for the purpose of case management and social mobilization of the community to the leprosy problem. PMID:25412349

Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Yamamura, Mellina; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Neto, Marcelino Santos; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

2014-01-01

333

Occurrence and distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on the north coast of the State of Bahia Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abrolhos Bank off Brazil is considered the main breeding ground for the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae )i n the Southwest Atlantic. However, owing to an increase in the occurrence of the species along the north coast of the State of Bahia, it has been suggested that the species is reoccupying that region, which was probably utilized by the whales

Marcos R. Rossi-Santos; Elitieri S. Neto; Clare ncio G. Baracho; Se rgio R. Cipolotti; Enrico Marcovaldi; Marcia H. Engel

334

In situ and genetic characterization of Gossypium barbadense populations from the states of Pará and Amapá, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to characterize the populations of Gossypium barbadense in the states of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. In situ characterization was conducted through interviews with the owners of the plants and environmental observations. Leaf or petal tissue as well as seed samples were collected for genetic characterization by single sequence repeats markers and for storage in

Vanessa Cavalcante de Almeida; Lúcia Vieira Hoffmann; Joaquim Nunes da Costa; Marc Giband; Paulo Augusto Vianna Barroso

2009-01-01

335

DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT SITUATION OF ECOLOGICALLY-BASED AGRICULTURE IN BRAZIL AND IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of this scientific study is to present the current situation of the development of ecologically-based production in Brazil and in the state of São Paulo. In this way, the history of the emergence and expansion of ecologically-based agriculture was recovered. Production and market diversity, the motivating elements of this expansion, and obstacles were identified, taking the current

Lucimar Santiago de Abreu; Paul Kledal; Kleber Pettan; Fernando Rabello; Sérgio C. Mendes

336

The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

2010-01-01

337

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 ?m (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 ?m (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ?1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 ?m (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 ?m (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 ?m (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

2015-01-01

338

Attenuation in the upper mantle beneath Southern California: Physical state of the lithosphere and asthenosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We invert phase and amplitude data of Rayleigh waves for attenuation (Q?1) and shear wave velocities beneath southern California using teleseismic sources recorded by the TriNet\\/USArray network. Fundamental mode surface wave studies from 25 to 143 s period allow us to constrain the vertical variation of shear quality factor Q? in the upper mantle. We use 2-D sensitivity kernels for

Yingjie Yang; Donald W. Forsyth

2008-01-01

339

Meliponiculture in Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Background The Quilombola communities of Ipiranga and Gurugi, located in Atlantic Rainforest in Southern of Paraíba state, have stories that are interwoven throughout time. The practice of meliponicultura has been carried out for generations in these social groups and provides an elaborate ecological knowledge based on native stingless bees, the melliferous flora and the management techniques used. The traditional knowledge that Quilombola have of stingless bees is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. Methods To deepen study concerning the ecological knowledge of the beekeepers, the method of participant observation together with structured and semi-structured interviews was used, as well as the collection of entomological and botanical categories of bees and plants mentioned. With the aim of recording the knowledge related to meliponiculture previously exercised by the residents, the method of the oral story was employed. Results and discussion Results show that the informants sampled possess knowledge of twelve categories of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini), classified according to morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics. Their management techniques are represented by the making of traditional cortiço and the melliferous flora is composed of many species predominant in the Atlantic Rainforest. From recording the memories and recollections of the individuals, it was observed that an intricate system of beliefs has permeated the keeping of uruçu bees (Melipona scutellaris) for generations. Conclusion According to management techniques used by beekeepers, the keeping of stingless bees in the communities is considered a traditional activity that is embedded within a network of ecological knowledge and beliefs accumulated by generations over time, and is undergoing a process of transformation that provides new meanings to such knowledge, as can be observed in the practices of young people. PMID:24410767

2014-01-01

340

[Epidemiological study of Brazilian purpuric fever. Epidemic in a locality of São Paulo state (Brazil), 1986].  

PubMed

A case control model was used in the study of an outbreak of Brazilian purpuric fever BPF which occurred in Serrana, S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1986. Three hypotheses were raised: 1--purulent conjunctivitis is associated with BPF; 2--a cluster effect occurs in BPF; 3--respiratory symptoms may be a variation of the clinical picture of the disease. Numerical values were attributed to different findings, as follows: fever = 5; diarrhea and/or vomiting = 1; haemorrhagic findings = 3; thrombocytopenia and/or leukopenia = 3; Haemophilus aegyptius positive hemoculture and/or Haemophilus aegyptius positive cerebrospinal fluid culture and/or H. a. oropharynx culture = 7; Waterhouse Friedrichsen syndrome = 7. Those cases for which the sum total of points reached or exceeded 13 were considered as confirmed and those obtaining between 8 and 12 were considered as suspect. Children with a score below 5 were taken as control cases. Cases and controls were matched according to sex, age and socioeconomic level. The total groups studied included 14 confirmed cases, 38 suspect cases and 78 controls. It was concluded that purpuric fever is strongly associated with previous and/or present purulent conjunctivities; a cluster effect seems to occur; respiratory symptoms such as coughing and/or coryza were not associated with BPF. PMID:1820627

Kerr-Pontes, L R; Ruffino-Netto, A

1991-10-01

341

Life cycle environmental impacts of a prospective palm-based biorefinery in Pará State-Brazil.  

PubMed

The availability of about 18 million hectares of grassland in Pará State, Brazil, and the possibility of increasing the livestock density display a good perspective for the oil palm expansion in pasture land. A life cycle assessment is performed for a prospective palm-based biorefinery to view two regional and one global environmental impact and the consequences of the land-use change in terms of GHG emissions. Oil palm cultivation in an area of ?110,000 hectares of land can annually produce ?39,000 tons of bioethanol, ?340,000 tons of biodiesel, ?268 GW h net electricity and other co-products. The life cycle GHG emissions reduction for biodiesel and bioethanol as compared to fossil diesel and gasoline would be 76.9-79.3% and 83.7-88.6%. The advantage of grassland rehabilitation by oil palm plantation is the removal of ?188 t CO2/ha from the atmosphere during the plant lifetime. The entire inflows and outflows for the conversion processes are schemed. PMID:23958338

Delivand, Mitra Kami; Gnansounou, Edgard

2013-12-01

342

Organization of cervical cancer screening in Campinas and surrounding region, São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer screening remains a challenge in developing countries due to a complex array of problems. This paper aimed to describe the experience with organization of cervical cancer screening in three districts of Campinas and the surrounding region in São Paulo State, Brazil, and to report the resulting data. The program was organized in a pyramid format, and the health care hierarchy was defined according to the complexity and total number of medical procedures. Screening has been extended currently to 88 municipalities, of which 51 are equipped with colposcopy and eight have facilities for treating advanced cervical cancer. The standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer in Campinas was 14.2/100,000 women per year in 1993-1995, and the standardized mortality rate per district ranged from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000 women in 1997-1998. This project has clearly shown that hierarchical and decentralized organization of health procedures is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of an effective cervical cancer screening program. PMID:16917588

Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Pinotti, José A; Jorge, Jessé P Neves; Westin, Maria Cristina A; Tambascia, Julia K; Montemor, Eliana B L

2006-09-01

343

Land use intensification effects in soil arthropod community of an entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

Siqueira, G M; Silva, E F F; Paz-Ferreiro, J

2014-01-01

344

Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Avian are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 202 wild birds of 37 species captured in seven small areas of the Atlantic Forest, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and provided information on possible associated risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT) and found in 73 (36.1%) of 202 birds with titers of 1:5 in 16 samples, 1:10 in 26 samples, 1:20 in 17 samples, 1:40 in 10 samples, 1:80 in three samples, and 1:160 in one sample. No association was observed between T. gondii seropositivity and the local where the birds were collected. Seropositivity was higher in birds that lived on the forest floor (p<0.001; U=1230.0), and in omnivorous birds (p=0.007; U=3939.0). T. gondii antibodies were reported for the first time in 23 species of birds enlarging the host range of this parasite. Notably, T. gondii antibodies were found in 83.3% (15/18) of the Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris). PMID:24332961

Gennari, S M; Ogrzewalska, M; Soares, H S; Saraiva, D G; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B; Dubey, J P

2014-02-24

345

Gastrointestinal parasitic worms in equines in the Paraíba Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Over a period of 12 years, from 1988 to 2000, a total of 20 individual equines (16 horses and 4 mules) were selected at random, from 10 municipalities in the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and then subjected to necropsy for collection of gastrointestinal worms. Individual samples of 10% of the intestinal contents were also taken for counting and identifying the species present, and to establish the prevalence of worms in equine species in the Paraíba Valley. In the sample considered, the presence of parasites ranged from 155 to 1249 worms. Tapeworms (Cestoidea) were present in about 85% of the animals studied, and roundworms (Nematoda) in 100% of the individuals. All the tapeworms collected were of one single species, Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the case of the roundworms, the prevalence of individual species was: 100% for Cyathostomineae, 90% for Oxyuris equi, 70% for Strongylus vulgaris, 45% for S. edentatus, 15% for Strongylus equinus, 60% for Triodontophorus sp., 50% for Gyalocephalus capitatus, 15% for Oesophagodontus robustus and Craterostomum acuticaudatum, and 5% each for Parascaris equorum, Probstimayria vivipara, Habronema muscae, and Trichostrongylus axei. No specimens of flukes (Trematoda) were found in any of the animals studied. PMID:16687215

Pereira, J R; Vianna, S S S

2006-09-10

346

Vulnerability and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV patients, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe vulnerability profiles and to verify their association with non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among 295 HIV-patients receiving their first prescription in two public-referral centers in Minas Gerais States, Brazil. The cumulative incidence of non-adherence was 36.9%. Three pure vulnerability profiles (lower, medium and higher) were identified based on the Grade of Membership method (GoM). Pure type patients of the "higher vulnerability" profile had, when compared to the overall sample, an increased probability of being younger, not understanding the need of ART, having a personal reason to be HIV-tested, not disclosing their HIV status, having more than one (non-regular) sexual partner, reporting use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs, and having sex among men. Non-adherence to ART was statistically associated (p < 0.001) with this profile. Also, the heterogeneity of the sample was found to be high, since over 40% were mixed type. The implications are that health staff should be trained to develop strategies for incorporating risk-reduction interventions, bearing in mind the three dimensions of vulnerability and the diversity of those patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. PMID:19009140

Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; Machado, Carla Jorge; César, Cibele Comini; Ceccato, Maria das Graças Braga; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland

2008-11-01

347

Macrofauna associated to Mycale microsigmatosa (Porifera, Demospongiae) in Rio de Janeiro State, SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The macrofauna (endo- and epi-biotic) associated to the sponge Mycale ( Carmia) microsigmatosa Arndt, 1927 was studied at three sites in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Arraial do Cabo, Niterói, and Rio de Janeiro). A total of 2235 individuals (over 1 mm long) of 75 invertebrate species were found associated to 19 specimens of the sponge. The most abundant and diverse taxa were the crustaceans (83%, 31 spp.), polychetes (10%, 18 spp.), and molluscs (3.7%, 15 spp.). Cnidarians, platyhelminthes, ascidians, echinoderms, pycnogonids, bryozoans, and sponges were also represented. Amphipod crustaceans were the dominant group, comprising 61% of all individuals collected. Species richness and abundance of associated fauna were highly correlated with sponge volume, but diversity and evenness were not. The site of collection influenced the species composition of the fauna associated to M. microsigmatosa but did not change significantly its diversity, abundance, richness, and dominance patterns of higher taxa. Pregnant females and juvenile stages of 29% of the species associated, including crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and pycnogonids were frequently found inside M. microsigmatosa. Although many of these organisms do occur and reproduce in other habitats outside the sponge as well, M. microsigmatosa is also important for their reproduction and survivorship, thus contributing for the maintenance of biodiversity in Southwestern Atlantic sublittoral rocky shores.

Ribeiro, Suzi M.; Omena, Elianne P.; Muricy, Guilherme

2003-08-01

348

[General awareness and use of generic medication among citizens of Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil].  

PubMed

Although generic medication has been introduced in the country to offer an accessible alternative to brand-name medication, it represents only 14% of sales in number of units within the pharmaceutical market. The aim of this work was to research the level of awareness and the use of generic products among residents of the municipality of Tubarão, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A transversal study was carried out with a sample of 234 interviewees, distributed among municipal areas. With regard to use, the majority of those interviewed had used generic medication, and half of them had at least one such product in their home. To verify awareness of different types of medication, pictures with the generic, brand name and similar packaging for paracetamol and atenolol were shown and 91% were able to identify all products correctly. To be of higher economic standing, already having used generic products, believing that the generic medication has the same effect as the brand name medication, finding generic products in drugstores easily and being accustomed to buy generic products, were factors that were positively associated with the correct identification. PMID:22218542

Blatt, Carine Raquel; Trauthman, Silvana Cristina; Schmidt, Edegar Henrique; Marchesan, Samuel; da Silva, Luana May; Martins, João Luiz

2012-01-01

349

Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological studies in experimental and representative basins are of fundamental importance for water resources management. This paper presents some activities of hydrological research in experimental and representative basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The study areas are located at Tapacurá and Mundaú representative basins and at the Gameleira experimental basin, and in experimental plots in Pajeú basin. In the Tapacurá basin, three studies were performed: (1) different monthly coefficients "k" of the Thornthwaite method were tested to calculate the effective temperature and, consequently, the reference evapotranspiration, giving rise to the method identified as Modified Thornthwaite; (2) the spatial variability of the retention curve and hydraulic conductivity parameters were analysed using the Beerkan method; (3) changes in vegetation cover were evaluated through the NDVI and NDWI indexes using TM-Landsat 5 images. In the Mundaú representative basin, the performance of different evapotranspiration methods was evaluated and compared to the FAO standard method, Penman-Monteith. In the Pajeú basin, the experimental plot is covered by pasture and sensors were installed to monitor the following variables: rainfall, air temperature, the energy balance components (net radiation, latent and sensible heat, and soil heat flux), wind velocity and CO2 flux into atmosphere, soil moisture and runoff.

Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; da Silva, B. B.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Lima, J. R. S.; de Souza, E. S.; de Oliveira, L. M. M.; de Moura, A. E. S. S.; Souza, R. M. S.

2014-09-01

350

Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

2014-01-01

351

Malaria vectors in the municipality of Serra do Navio, State of Amapá, Amazon Region, Brazil.  

PubMed

We conducted a survey to determine the vectors of malaria in six localities of Serra do Navio municipality, State of Amapá, from 1990 to 1991. Malaria infection rates of 29.3%, 6.2% and 20.4% were detected by human blood smears in Colônia Agua Branca, Porto Terezinha and Arrependido, respectively. There was no malaria infection detected in Serra do Navio. Fifteen species were identified among 3,053 anopheline mosquitoes collected by human bait and 64.4% were identified as Anopheles albitarsis s.l., 16.7% An. braziliensis, 9.5% An. nuneztovari and 5.8% An. triannulatus. An. darlingi, the main vector of malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil, was scare. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total positive rate of 0.8% (23/2876) was found for six species: fifteen An. albitarsis s.l., four An. nuneztovari, and one of each: An. braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. oswaldoi and An. rangeli. Nine of 23 positive mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium malariae, eight with P. vivax VK210, three with P. vivax VK247 and three with P. falciparum. Since An. albitarsis s.l. was collected feeding on humans, was present in the highest density and was positive by ELISA for malaria sporozoites, it probably plays an important role in malaria transmission in this area. PMID:11285494

Póvoa, M; Wirtz, R; Lacerda, R; Miles, M; Warhurst, D

2001-02-01

352

Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

2014-01-01

353

[Respiratory symptomatics among patients at primary health clinics in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of positive respiratory symptomatics among patients seeking treatment at primary health clinics in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 603 individuals that answered a questionnaire with socio-demographic data and a question on cough in the previous three weeks. The prevalence ratio was calculated with 5% significance. The proportion of patients with positive respiratory symptoms in the municipality was 4%, varying from 1.6 to 11.7% between regions. The majority (71%) did not report cough as the reason for coming to the health clinic. Variables significantly associated with respiratory symptoms were: shortness of breath (PR = 6.29; 95%CI: 2.22-21.81) and lack of appetite (PR = 2.75; 95%CI: 1.08-6.82). Among patients with respiratory symptoms, cough was the principal reason for seeking treatment. This condition was only associated with two variables, thus demonstrating the need to adopt different strategies to identify these individuals among the daily patient flow in primary health clinics. PMID:21229220

Moreira, Claudia Maria Marques; Zandonade, Eliana; Lacerda, Thamy; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

2010-08-01

354

Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female) in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001), young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001) and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001), individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006), bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001) and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling. PMID:24627015

Kienteka, Marilson; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo

2014-01-01

355

An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; dos Reis, Neilane Bertoni; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

2014-04-01

356

Helminth parasites of Hypsiboas prasinus (Anura: Hylidae) from two Atlantic forest fragments, São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Seventy-seven males of Hypsiboas prasinus from 2 Atlantic forest fragments in the municipalities of Botucatu and Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, were examined for endoparasites. The frogs were captured in summer (January until March) and winter (July/August) of 2008 and 2009. Thirty-three males (75%) from Botucatu were infected with Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , cosmocerciid nematodes, and Cylindrotaenia americana . Twenty-five tree frogs (78.5%) from Jundiaí were infected by Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , Physaloptera sp., and cosmocerciid nematodes. Only cosmocerciid nematodes presented a statistically significance difference in prevalence (z ?=? 4.345; P < 0.001) and mean abundance (t ?=? 562.0; P < 0.001) between Botucatu and Jundiaí during the winter. Also, the cosmocerciids exhibited higher mean abundance (t ?=? 196.0; P ?=? 0.034) in winter when compared with summer at the Jundiaí site. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of C. americana in the Brazilian Hylidae. This study presents 4 new records of nematodes in H. prasinus . PMID:22746390

Madelaire, Carla Bonetti; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; da Silva, Reinaldo José

2012-06-01

357

Mercury contamination of fish and exposures of an indigenous community in Pará state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Fish consumption is an important source of protein among indigenous communities in Amazonian Brazil. Exposures to mercury via fish were studied in an indigenous community of the Munduruku reserve, located in the Tapajós River basin in the state of Pará, one of the oldest and most productive gold mining areas in the Amazon region. This study summarizes the results of mercury (Hg) analyses of fish consumed by inhabitants of the Munduruku settlement of Sai Cinza. The most frequently consumed fish, reported by 330 persons interviewed for this study, were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. The mean mercury concentration in carnivorous fish was 0.297 microg.g(-1) while in noncarnivorous fish mean mercury concentration was 0.095 microg.g(-1). Only in caratinga was there a significant relationship between fish size, weight, and mercury levels. Levels of methylmercury in the tucunaré averaged 0.170 microg.g(-1), while in traíra the mean level of methylmercury was 0.212 microg.g(-1). Although the levels of Hg in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza community are below the Brazilian limit value for consumption, the high rates and amounts of fish consumed by this population are relevant to evaluating risks of mercury contamination for communities with limited food resources. PMID:11097792

da Silva Brabo, E; de Oliveira Santos, E; de Jesus, I M; Mascarenhas, A F; de Freitas Faial, K

2000-11-01

358

Fire history, related to climate and land use in three southern Appalachian landscapes in the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Fire-maintained ecosystems and associated species are becoming increasingly rare in the southern Appalachian Mountains because of fire suppression policies implemented in the early 20th century. Restoration of these communities through prescribed fire has been hindered by a lack of information on historical fire regimes. To characterize past fire regimes, we collected and absolutely dated the tree rings on cross sections from 242 fire-scarred trees at three different sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the historical frequency of fire in southern Appalachian mixed pine-oak forests, (2) assess the impact of interannual climatic variability on the historical occurrence of fire, and (3) determine whether changes in human culture and land use altered the frequency of fire. Results demonstrate that fires burned frequently at all three sites for at least two centuries prior to the implementation of fire suppression and prevention in the early to mid 20th century. Composite mean fire return intervals were 2-4 yr, and point mean fire return intervals were 9-13 yr. Area-wide fires that burned across multiple stands occurred at 6-13-yr intervals. The majority of fires were recorded during the dormant season. Fire occurrence exhibited little relationship with reconstructed annual drought conditions. Also, fire activity did not change markedly during the transition from Native American to Euro-American settlement or during the period of industrial logging at the start of the 20th century. Fire activity declined significantly, however, during the fire suppression period, with a nearly complete absence of fire during recent decades. The characterization of past fire regimes should provide managers with specific targets for restoration of fire-associated communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The fire chronologies reported here are among the longest tree-ring reconstructions of fire history compiled for the eastern United States and support the hypothesis that frequent burning has played a long and important role in the development of forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. PMID:24147399

Flatley, William T; Lafon, Charles W; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; LaForest, Lisa B

2013-09-01

359

Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

2007-05-01

360

Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

2013-12-01

361

Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is increasing (reducing) with significance in almost all regions. "Região dos Lagos" has the most significant trends of increasing in temperature, thereby influencing the local production of salt and alkaline minerals in medium and long term. The goal of this research is, through the analysis of results, support studies of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change scenarios in Rio de Janeiro State.

Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

2013-05-01

362

FIRST ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM FINISHING PIGS FROM SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans in Brazil. Among the food animals, pigs are considered the most important meat source of T. gondii for infection in humans. In the present paper, we report the first isolation of viable T. gondii from finishing pigs in Brazil. Antibodies to ...

363

Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:24402151

de Almeida, Paulo Silva; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

364

The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25493694

Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

2014-12-01

365

The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

2014-12-01

366

The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east. PMID:16936942

Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

2006-09-01

367

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 53. Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. and redescription of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx (Gyrodactylidea: Gyrodactylidae), parasites of Corydoras spp. (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Morphometric analyses are used to evaluate the taxonomic status of two sympatric variants of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx Popazoglo et Boeger, 2000 (forma "large-pharynx" and forma "small-pharynx"). The parasites were collected from the Piraquara River and the Miringuava River, State of Paraná, Brazil, between February 2005 and May 2006. A total of 132 parasites were measured from two hosts, Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner and Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns). Eleven morphological features of the haptoral sclerites and pharynx were measured and analysed by discriminant analysis and principal components analysis. The results indicate that the observed morphological variation cannot be associated to intraspecific variation or phenotypic plasticity (P < 0.0001). Consequently, the two variants previously allocated in G. anisopharynx represent two independent species. Since the holotype was defined as the variant "large-pharynx", Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. is proposed to accommodate specimens previously reported as "small-pharynx" variant of G. anisopharynx. Morphometric analyses showed that the hook, the anchor, and the pharyngeal bulb are significantly distinct (P < 0.0001) between G. corydori sp. n. and G. anisopharynx (s.s.). The new species is characterized by having hooks with point moderately curved, robust convex heel, convex shelf, toe concave moderately pointed with depression; deep bar with two submedial, posterior projections; anchors with robust superficial root; superficial bar with two small anterolateral projections; and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets. PMID:19402241

Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

2009-03-01

368

The Fazenda Largo off-craton kimberlites of Piauí State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1990s, the Fazenda Largo kimberlite cluster was discovered in the Piauí State of Brazil. As with earlier known kimberlites in this area - Redondão, Santa Filomena-Bom Jesus (Gilbues) and Picos - this cluster is located within the Palaeozoic Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin that separates the São Francisco and the Amazonian Precambrian cratons. Locations of kimberlites are controlled by the 'Transbrasiliano Lineament'. The Fazenda Largo kimberlites are intensely weathered, almost completely altered rocks with a fine-grained clastic structure, and contain variable amounts of terrigene admixture (quartz sand). These rocks represent near-surface volcano-sedimentary deposits of the crater parts of kimberlite pipes. By petrographic, mineralogical and chemical features, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites are similar to average kimberlite. The composition of the deep-seated material in the Fazenda Largo kimberlites is quite diverse: among mantle microxenoliths are amphibolitised pyrope peridotites, garnetised spinel peridotites, ilmenite peridotites, chromian spinel + chromian diopside + pyrope intergrowths, and large xenoliths of pyrope dunite. High-pressure minerals are predominantly of the ultramafic suite, Cr-association minerals (purplish-red and violet pyrope, chromian spinel, chromian diopside, Cr-pargasite and orthopyroxene). The Ti-association minerals of the ultramafic suite (picroilmenite and orange pyrope), as well as rare grains of orange pyrope-almandine of the eclogite association, are subordinate. Kimberlites from all four pipes contain rare grains of G10 pyrope of the diamond association, but chromian spinel of the diamond association was not encountered. By their tectonic position, by geochemical characteristics, and by the composition of kimberlite indicator minerals, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites, like the others of such type, are unlikely to be economic.

Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Sablukova, Ludmila I.; Zakharchenko, Olga D.

2009-10-01

369

Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

2014-01-01

370

Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil.  

PubMed

This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6%) became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March). We found evidence of human interactions (injuries) in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes. PMID:25166312

Poli, C; Lopez, L C S; Mesquita, D O; Saska, C; Mascarenhas, R

2014-05-01

371

Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n?=?191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2)?=?0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types. PMID:24135921

de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

2014-03-01

372

Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews were performed with fishermen with more than 20 years of fishery experience. The interviews were about fisheries (collecting spots, artefacts, etc.) and fish use. The fishes cited by the fishermen were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. Results Considered masters of fishery, they cited 162 vernacular names of fishes, which corresponded to 290 different species, also including other animals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales and manatees. The criteria for the classification of the fishes were well known and utilised by the fishermen, and they were based on morphology, behaviour, habitat and the importance of commercial and fishing activities. Four hierarchical categories were identified in their classification system: kingdom, life-form, generic and specific. The fish nomenclature created by the fishermen was mostly composed of generic and monotypic names. The main uses of fish were for food and commercial purposes. Conclusions The results stress the richness and complexity of the knowledge of the artisanal fishermen of Redonda Beach, and they provide support for the possibility of future studies and for the development of management plans and the management of wildlife resources. PMID:23497491

2013-01-01

373

Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations in Sudan. Methods We conducted a school-based survey to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in 36 villages in Southern Kordofan (SK) State. A total of 2,302 primary school students were recruited. Each student completed a questionnaire and submitted one urine and one stool sample. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis haematobium was 23.7%, while schistosomiasis mansoni was not detected among the study participants. S. haematobium infection was identified in all areas, with the highest prevalence in the western locality of SK State. The infection was associated with the distance between home/school and open water sources. In addition, S. haematobium infection was associated with the existence of and distance to open water sources, higher frequency of contact with open water, absence of a health advocacy group in the school and history of schistosomiasis treatment. Conclusions This study highlights schistosomiasis as a public health problem in SK State. The findings will guide the schistosomiasis Control Program of the State Ministry of Health in developing and applying treatment plans for schistosomiasis in SK State. PMID:23845226

2013-01-01

374

SURVIVAL, INDUCTION AND RESUSCITATION OF Vibrio cholerae FROM THE VIABLE BUT NON-CULTURABLE STATE IN THE SOUTHERN CARIBBEAN SEA  

PubMed Central

The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in response to unfavorable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ survival of V. cholerae in an aquatic environment of the Southern Caribbean Sea, and its induction and resuscitation from the VBNC state. V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was inoculated into diffusion chambers placed at the Cuare Wildlife Refuge, Venezuela, and monitored for plate, total and viable cells counts. At 119 days of exposure to the environment, the colony count was < 10 CFU/mL and a portion of the bacterial population entered the VBNC state. Additionally, the viability decreased two orders of magnitude and morphological changes occurred from rod to coccoid cells. Among the aquatic environmental variables, the salinity had negative correlation with the colony counts in the dry season. Resuscitation studies showed significant recovery of cell cultivability with spent media addition (p < 0.05). These results suggest that V. cholerae can persist in the VBNC state in this Caribbean environment and revert to a cultivable form under favorable conditions. The VBNC state might represent a critical step in cholera transmission in susceptible areas. PMID:25651322

Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Contreras, Monica; Incani, Renzo Nino; Chirinos, Humberto; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula

2015-01-01

375

SURVIVAL, INDUCTION AND RESUSCITATION OF Vibrio cholerae FROM THE VIABLE BUT NON-CULTURABLE STATE IN THE SOUTHERN CARIBBEAN SEA.  

PubMed

The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in response to unfavorable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ survival of V. cholerae in an aquatic environment of the Southern Caribbean Sea, and its induction and resuscitation from the VBNC state. V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was inoculated into diffusion chambers placed at the Cuare Wildlife Refuge, Venezuela, and monitored for plate, total and viable cells counts. At 119 days of exposure to the environment, the colony count was < 10 CFU/mL and a portion of the bacterial population entered the VBNC state. Additionally, the viability decreased two orders of magnitude and morphological changes occurred from rod to coccoid cells. Among the aquatic environmental variables, the salinity had negative correlation with the colony counts in the dry season. Resuscitation studies showed significant recovery of cell cultivability with spent media addition (p < 0.05). These results suggest that V. cholerae can persist in the VBNC state in this Caribbean environment and revert to a cultivable form under favorable conditions. The VBNC state might represent a critical step in cholera transmission in susceptible areas. PMID:25651322

Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Contreras, Monica; Incani, Renzo Nino; Chirinos, Humberto; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula

2015-02-01

376

Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50.11{+-}0.82 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10{+-}12.17 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 43.69{+-}0.30 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 465.82{+-}3.99 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). The concentrations were intermediate for the rhythmite samples (average values and respective deviations were 50.69{+-}1.09 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 7.63{+-}0.21 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 85.96{+-}2.47 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K). As the analyzed rocks are raw materials for the ceramic, cement and soil correction compound industries, the results of this work furnish data to estimate the contribution of these products to the general public's radiation exposure.

Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada-Departamento de Fisica-CCE Universidade Estadual de Londrina-Campus Universitario Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001 86051-990 Londrina (Puerto Rico)

2008-08-07

377

Mapping of Rock-Fabric Inhomogeneity (Map-Counting) and Mapping of Rock-Fabric Anisotropy (MORFA) - the Piquiri Syenite Massif, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, studies on magmatic fabrics on different scale have been made for analyzing kinematics of melt emplacement and deformation as well as cooling histories of magmatic bodies and their host rocks (Brown 2001). The problem arises for comparing data from structural analysis in thin-sections and fabrics in outcrop scale. Magmatic fabrics in the outcrop scale are often very diffusely developed or show very complex mineral distribution patterns which are mostly not quantifiable with classical field methods. On the other hand the fabrics are too large for thin section investigation. Therefore, methods have to be developed for analyzing microscale rock fabrics like crystal shape preferred orientations on larger image templates, like from outcrop photographs. For analyzing such complex fabrics on different scale, methods of fractal geometry are powerful (Mandelbrot, 1982). Especially methods like map-counting (Kruhl et al., 2004), based on the classical box-counting method, or the modified Cantor-dust method (Volland & Kruhl, 2004) may be used for analyzing meter sized magmatic mineral distribution patterns in granitic rocks and the anisotropic behavior of micro- to macro scale fracture patterns in breccias. Nevertheless, these methods are performed manually and, therefore, not applicable to larger datasets. This study shows the next step towards automated recognition and subsequent quantification of magmatic patterns from micro- to macro-scale. Microstructure shape- and crystallographic preferred orientation measurements on K-feldspar crystals from the Piquiri Syenite Body, Southern Brazil are done manually based on thin-section series parallel to the syenite magmatic foliation. In addition U-stage measurements of K-feldspar indicatrix axis and (010) have been done. Additionally, a slightly changed modified Cantor-dust method was applied on centimeter- to several meter-sized K-feldspar phase distribution patterns, gained by automated image processing of samples and field photographs of the same syenite. The results show that all three methods result in the same shape- and/or crystallographic preferred orientations for K-feldspar, indicating a magmatic lineation, which is not determinable by field observation or in the thin- sections. In addition, the modified and automated Cantor-dust method applied on K-feldspar phase images of a syenite proves the advantage of such type of modified fractal-geometry methods for quantification of magmatic fabrics on various scales. Such automated quantification is fast and precise, and it is suitable for accurate analysis of magmatic fabrics on different scales and for large datasets. References: Kruhl,J.H., Andries,F., Peternell,M. & Volland,S. (2004): Fractal geometry analyses of rock fabric anisotropies and inhomogeneities. In: D.Kolymbas (ed.), Fractals in Geotechnical Engineering. Advances in Geotechnical Engineering and Tunnelling 9. Logos, Berlin, 115-135. Mandelbrot, B.B., (1982): The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San Francisco. Volland, S. & Kruhl, J.H. (2004): Anisotropy quantification: the application of fractal geometry methods on tectonic fracture patterns of a Hercynian fault zone in NW-Sardinia.- J. Struct. Geol. 26, 1489-1500. Brown,M. (2001): Crustal melting and granite magmatism; key issues.- Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Part A: Solid Earth and Geodesy 26/4-5, 201-212.

Peternell, M.; Bitencourt, M.; Kruhl, J. H.

2007-12-01

378

Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion  

SciTech Connect

A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

Not Available

1980-10-01

379

EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

380

High occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in healthy cattle in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, 197 fecal samples of healthy cattle from 10 dairy farms, four beef farms and one slaughterhouse at Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were examined for Shiga toxin (Stx) gene sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For presumptive isolation of O157:H7 E. coli, the Cefixime-potassium tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey Agar

Aloysio M. F. Cerqueira; Beatriz E. C. Guth; Rogério M. Joaquim; João R. C. Andrade

1999-01-01

381

North Atlantic Deep Water collapse triggered by a Southern Ocean meltwater pulse in a glacial climate state  

E-print Network

North Atlantic Deep Water collapse triggered by a Southern Ocean meltwater pulse in a glacial anomalies in the Southern Ocean drive increases in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation via a bipolar the Southern Ocean. Citation: Trevena, J., W. P. Sijp, and M. H. England (2008), North Atlantic Deep Water

Sijp, Willem

382

Barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States.  

PubMed

This study explored barriers to depression treatment in low-income, unmarried, adolescent mothers in a southern, urban area of the United States. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach and focus group methodology. Participants (n = 9) were enrolled in a teen parent program, an option of the public school system. The metaphor of a merry-go-round emerged from the data and represented the ups and downs that the adolescent mothers experience as they struggle to adjust to the role of mother. Their knowledge of postpartum depression and depression treatment occurred in the context of their demographics and their desire to create a family for their baby, their fears, and surprise at the reality of mothering. Childbirth education for adolescent mothers should include information on depression and the process of depression treatment. PMID:19544129

Logsdon, M Cynthia; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Rakestraw, Vivian

2009-07-01

383

Sequential opening and filling of cavities forming vesicles, amygdales and giant amethyst geodes in lavas from the southern Paraná volcanic province, Brazil and Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening and filling of cavities in rocks are the major processes related to the generation and sealing of porosity in ore deposits. This study documents three stages of opening and filling of vesicles and geodes in the basalts and rhyodacites of the southern Paraná volcanic province. Each step detailed here is actually part of a sequence of minor hydrothermal

Léo Afraneo Hartmann; Lauren da Cunha Duarte; Hans-Joachim Massonne; Cassiana Michelin; Leonardo Manara Rosenstengel; Magda Bergmann; Thomas Theye; Juliana Pertille; Karine Rosa Arena; Sandro Kucera Duarte; Viter Magalhães Pinto; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Maria Luiza C. C. Rosa; Wilson Wildner

2012-01-01

384

Sequential opening and filling of cavities forming vesicles, amygdales and giant amethyst geodes in lavas from the southern Paraná volcanic province, Brazil and Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opening and filling of cavities in rocks are the major processes related to the generation and sealing of porosity in ore deposits. This study documents three stages of opening and filling of vesicles and geodes in the basalts and rhyodacites of the southern Paraná volcanic province. Each step detailed here is actually part of a sequence of minor hydrothermal

Léo Afraneo Hartmann; Lauren da Cunha Duarte; Hans-Joachim Massonne; Cassiana Michelin; Leonardo Manara Rosenstengel; Magda Bergmann; Thomas Theye; Juliana Pertille; Karine Rosa Arena; Sandro Kucera Duarte; Viter Magalhães Pinto; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Maria Luiza C. C. Rosa; Wilson Wildner

2010-01-01

385

The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from various animals constituted the most frequently cited resource used for its medicinal-veterinary properties. Conclusion The examination of folk knowledge and health practices allows a better understanding of human interactions with their local environment, and aids in the formulation of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation. PMID:17825094

Barboza, Raynner RD; de MS Souto, Wedson; da S Mourão, José

2007-01-01

386

Racial Disparities in Preschool Special Education Eligibility for Five Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 67,000 preschoolers with disabilities across five states were examined for disproportionate special education eligibilities using risk ratios (RRs). Results indicated children classified as American Indian (RR = 2.25) and Black (RR = 1.64) were disproportionate in one state, whereas children classified as Asian, Hispanic, and White…

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

2012-01-01

387

Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

1996-01-01

388

Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Quaternary (2-0 Ma) extrusion rates change significantly along the Cascade Range volcanic arc. The extrusion rate north of Mount Rainier is about 0.21 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}; the rate in southern Washington and northern Oregon south to Mount Hood is about 1.6 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}; in central Oregon the rate is 3-6 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1}; and in northern California, the rate is 3.2 km{sup 3} km{sup {minus}1} m.y.{sup {minus}1}. Eruption style also changes along the arc but at latitudes different from rate changes. At the ends of the arc, volcanism is focused at isolated intermediate to silicic composite volcanoes. The composite volcanoes represent {approximately}30% of the total volume of the arc. Mafic volcanic fields partly ring some composite volcanoes, especially in the south. In contrast, volcanism is diffused in the middle of the arc, where numerous overlapping mafic shields and a few composite volcanoes have built a broad ridge. Contrasting eruption style may signify diffuse versus focused heat sources or may reflect changes in permeability to ascending magma along the arc.

Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, J.G. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-10

389

On the scent of standing variation for speciation: behavioral evidence for native sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly's sympatric shift in the northeastern United States from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles generate prezygotic isolation. Apples emit volatiles that appear to be missing from gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection profiles for flies infesting downy hawthorns, raising the question of how R. pomonella evolved a preference for apple. In the southern United States, R. pomonella attacks several native hawthorns. Behaviorally active volatile blends for R. pomonella infesting southern hawthorns contain the missing apple volatiles, potentially explaining why downy hawthorn flies could have evolved to be sensitive to a blend of apple volatiles. Flight tunnel assays imply that southern hawthorn populations were not the antecedent of a preassembled apple race, as southern flies were not attracted to the apple volatile blend. Instead, behavioral evidence was found for southern host races on native hawthorns, complementing the story of the historical sympatric shift to introduced apple in the North and illustrating how R. pomonella may evolve novel combinations of agonist and antagonist responses to volatiles to use new fruit resources. PMID:22946800

Powell, Thomas H Q; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

2012-09-01

390

[Disaggregation of differences in life expectancy between the States of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, Brazil].  

PubMed

Comparisons between States of Brazil are still rare in public health. The States of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro have adequate mortality registry coverage and are geographically similar, thus making comparison appropriate for identifying possible interventions in public health. Meanwhile, the three States show important socioeconomic differences, consistently worse for Minas Gerais. The study analyzed the disaggregation of differences in life expectancy in Minas Gerais as compared to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro for 1996, 2000, and 2010, using the Arriaga methodology. Minas Gerais had a higher life expectancy than the two other States for the entire period, in both men and women. Advanced age and chronic illness, especially cancer and ischemic heart disease, were the most important factors in this difference. Differences in lifestyle and physical exercise (better for Minas Gerais than for São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) could help explain the apparent inconsistency between socioeconomic indicators and life expectancy. PMID:23778545

Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias Porto; Laurenti, Ruy

2013-06-01

391

[Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil].  

PubMed

This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus. PMID:19265585

Castro, Letícia S de; Albuquerque, George R

2008-01-01

392

URINARY BIOMARKERS IN CHARCOAL WORKERS EXPOSED TO WOOD SMOKE IN BAHIA STATE, BRAZIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Charcoal is an important source of energy for domestic and industrial use in many countries. In Brazil, the largest producer of charcoal in the world, approximately 350,000 workers are linked to the production and transportation of charcoal. In order to evaluate the occupationa...

393

Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness comparison of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in Brazil and the USA were determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine i...

394

An evaluation of direct seeding for reforestation of degraded lands in central São Paulo state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study evaluating several silvicultural techniques for restoring tropical moist forests on abandoned agricultural lands in southeastern Brazil, direct seeding with five early-successional Atlantic forest species was tested at three degraded sites, characterized by different soil types and land-use histories, within the Environmental Protection Area at Botucatu, SP. The species used in this study were Chorisia

Vera Lex Engel; John A Parrotta

2001-01-01

395

Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

2014-01-01

396

Tectonic plate coupling and elastic thickness derived from the inversion of a steady state viscoelastic model using geodetic data: Application to southern North Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state viscoelastic model of deformation at an oblique convergence zone is used to analyze crustal velocities deduced from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations in southern North Island, New Zealand. The model is physically more reasonable than elastic dislocation theory because the tectonic plates have finite elastic thicknesses. In an inversion that makes use of Green's functions derived from

Steven C. Cohen; Desmond J. Darby

2003-01-01

397

State of Play of the Bologna Process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009/2010). A Tempus Study. Issue 03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study is to describe and map the current state of play of the Bologna Process in the nine countries of the Southern Mediterranean participating in the Tempus programme. For the last twenty years, the Tempus programme has supported the modernisation of higher education systems in countries neighbouring the EU by financing…

Ruffio, Philippe; Heinamaki, Piia; Tchoukaline, Claire Chastang

2010-01-01

398

The importance of Anopheles albitarsis E and An. darlingi in human malaria transmission in Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil.  

PubMed

In several districts of Boa Vista, state of Roraima, Brazil we found Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis E to be the primary vector of human malaria parasites, and during 2001-2002 it was significantly more abundant than An. darlingi (p < 0.001). Other species sampled were An. (Nys.) braziliensis, An. (Ano.) peryassui, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, An. (Nys.) oswaldoi s.l., and An. (Nys.) triannulatus. As determined by the ELISA technique An. darlingi had a higher overall infection rate (2.1%) compared with An. albitarsis E (1.2%). However a marginally higher proportion of An. albitarsis E was infected with Plasmodium vivax compared with An. darlingi, and the An. albitarsis E biting index was also much higher These results suggest the importance of An. albitarsis E in malaria transmission in a savannah ecoregion of northern Amazonian Brazil, and reconfirm the importance of An. darlingi even if at lower abundance. PMID:16830709

Póvoa, Marinete Marins; de Souza, Raimundo Tadeu Lessa; Lacerda, Raimundo Nonato da Luz; Rosa, Edvaldo Santa; Galiza, Deocleciano; de Souza, James Rodrigues; Wirtz, Robert A; Schlichting, Carl D; Conn, Jan E

2006-03-01

399

Isolation of leptospira Serovars Canicola and Copenhageni from cattle urine in the state of ParanÁ, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2001, 698 urine samples were randomly collected from cattle at a slaughterhouse in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Direct examination using dark field microscopy was carried out immediately after collection. Five putative positive samples were cultured in modified EMJH medium, yielding two positive cultures (LO-14 and LO-10). Typing with monoclonal antibodies revealed that the two isolates were similar to Canicola (LO-14) and Copenhageni (LO-10). Microscopic agglutination test results show that Hardjo is the most common serovar in cattle in Brazil. Rats and dogs are the common maintenance hosts of serovars Copenhageni and Canicola. The excretion of highly pathogenic serovars such as Copenhageni and Canicola by cattle can represent an increasing risk for severe leptospirosis is large populations, mainly living in rural areas. PMID:24031301

Zacarias, Francielle Gibson da Silva; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Anzai, Eleine Kuroki; Giraldi, Nilson; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Hartskeerl, Rudy

2008-01-01

400

BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES  

E-print Network

BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES Michigan State University (MSU) identifies Brazil as a global priority and challenges become increasingly part of the U.S.-Brazil agenda, MSU desires partnerships aimed at producing in the U.S. and one in Brazil, to share research strategies and explore joint projects in several research

Liu, Taosheng

401

Timing and duration of the Last Glacial Maximum and Termination in the western United States and Southern Alps, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the asymmetric 80-120 kyr glacial cycles of the Late Quaternary Period remains an unsolved mystery of climate dynamics. Each glaciation begins with a long, slow cooling leg that ushers the world into ice-age conditions, and ends with sudden warming that propels Earth into an interglaciation. The abrupt warming spells that end the ~100-kyr glacial cycles have been termed glacial ‘terminations;’ understanding these conspicuous climate changes lies at the heart of deciphering the causes of ice ages. A way to understand what caused the events that constitute a termination is to document the worldwide timing of mountain glacier recession. Using geomorphic mapping of mountain glacier landforms and 10Be surface-exposure dating, we compare the timing, duration, and termination of the last glacial maximum (LGM) recorded by glacier landforms in the western cordillera of the United States, and the Southern Alps, New Zealand. 10Be data indicate that mountain glaciers in the American west achieved their maxima coevally with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whereas New Zealand mountain glaciers reached their maximum positions several millennia earlier. New Zealand glaciers sustained their maxima for at least 12 kyrs, overlapping with the LGM in North America. At the onset of the termination, also called the ‘Mystery Interval’ (MI; ~17.5 to 14.5 kyrs ago), glaciers in the Southern Alps underwent rapid retreat for over two millennia, while glaciers in the western US retreated only slightly from the LGM positions. About halfway through the MI, North American glaciers and ice sheets suddenly receded, whereas the retreat of New Zealand glaciers slowed. We hypothesize that the antiphased behavior of glacier retreat during the MI may be, at least in part, a response to latitudinal wind shifts linked to changes in sea-ice cover over the North Atlantic during the Heinrich-I iceberg armada.

Putnam, A. E.; Denton, G.; Schaefer, J. M.; Putnam, D. E.; Birkel, S. D.; Quesada, P.; Kaplan, M. R.; Schwartz, R.; Finkel, R. C.; Evenson, E. B.; Andersen, B.; Barrell, D.; Doughty, A.; Broecker, W. S.

2009-12-01

402

'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

403

Under-Tapped?: An Analysis of Craft Brewing in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last thirty years, the United States has experienced rapid growth in the number of operational breweries. The huge increase has been primarily in the form of craft breweries. We argue that craft brewery expansion fits well within resource partitioning theory in which firms that serve small niche markets challenge the monopolistic competition of the multinationals that dominate the

James Baginski; Thomas L. Bell

2011-01-01

404

Under-Tapped?: An Analysis of Craft Brewing in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Over the last thirty years, the United States has experienced rapid growth in the number of operational breweries. The huge increase has been primarily in the form of craft breweries. We argue that craft brewery expansion fits well within resource partitioning theory in which firms that serve small niche markets challenge the monopolistic competition of the multinationals that dominate the

James Baginski; Thomas L. Bell

2011-01-01

405

Screening Practices of Family Physicians and Pediatricians in 2 Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2000, there has been an increasing emphasis on screening for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during well-child visits (P. A. Filipek et al., 2000; C. P. Johnson & S. M. Myers, 2007). Pediatricians surveyed in 2 mid-Atlantic states reported extremely low rates of screening for ASD (8% of participants) in comparison with higher rates of…

Gillis, Jennifer M.

2009-01-01

406

The flora and biogeochemistry of the ultramafic soils of Goiás state, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major collections of the ultramafic flora of Gois, central Brazil, were made by Brooks and co-workers in 1988 and 1990. At\\u000a the time of reports on this material in 1990–1992 much of it had been identified only tentatively and incompletely, but the\\u000a area was clearly interesting for taxonomic and biogeochemical reasons. Further progress has been made but still only two-thirds

R. D. Reeves; A. J. M. Baker; T. Becquer; G. Echevarria; Z. J. G. Miranda

2007-01-01

407

[Lonomia erucism in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: report of a probable case and review].  

PubMed

This is a case report of a 44-year-old male living in Teresópolis, RJ, Brazil, probably poisoned by contact with a Lonomia caterpillar, who presented hemolytic anemia, decreased platelet count and acute renal insufficiency. Lonomia erucism diagnosis was established by anamnesis and clinical and laboratory manifestations. Therapeutic measures consisting of hemotransfusion and hemodialysis were successful. Physiopathologic and clinical features of erucism by Lonomia are discussed. PMID:15361962

Corrêa, Maria Sueli; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Franco-Barbosa, Adbell; Verzola, Ana Candida Arruda; Oliveira, Fabiana Ribeiro Queiroz de; Squeff, Fabiano Alves; Motta-Leal-Filho, Joaquim Maurício da; Tavares, Renato Henriques; Amorim, Daniela Silva de; De-Maria-Moreira, Nelson Luís; Santos, Sávio Silva

2004-01-01

408

Diet of Alouatta belzebul discolor in an Amazonian Rain Forest of Northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior field studies of Alouatta showed the highest frugivory in A. belzebul. During 10 mo between October 1999 and October 2000, we studied the feeding ecology of a group of 7–9 red-handed howlers (Alouatta belzebul discolor) in a primary forest on the banks of a tributary of the Teles Pires River, near Paranaíta, MT, Brazil (9°34'S; 56°19'W). The howlers used

Líliam P. Pinto; Eleonore Z. F. Setz

2004-01-01

409

Rotifers from a humic coastal lagoon of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-year study of species composition of the zooplankton community was conducted at Lagoa Comprida, a Brazilian coastal lagoon. Forty-two species of rotifers were recorded and illustrated. All rotifer species, except Lecane boettgeri Koste, 1986 and Macrochaetus kostei, José de Paggi, Branco & Kozlowsky-Suzuki, 2000, have already been found in other areas of Brazil. Some factors, which probably favored the

Christina W. C. Branco; Betina Kozlowsky-Suzuki; Susana José De Paggi

2005-01-01

410

The Open University System of Brazil: A Study of Learner Support Facilities in the Northern, North-Eastern and Southern Regions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since June 2011, research on the Open University System of Brazil's (UAB's) official evaluation processes relating to learner support facilities has been carried out by the Teachers' Training, New Information, Communication and Technologies research group, which is linked to the Laboratory of New Technologies for Teaching at…

Da Cruz Duran, Maria Renata; Da Costa, Celso José; Amiel, Tel

2014-01-01

411

Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea) larvae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Identification key, new records and distribution  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Elmidae Curtis, 1830 has cosmopolitan distribution and most species inhabit riffles on streams and rivers, hence the name “riffle beetle”. In recent years, this family has been featured in papers addressing the assessment and environmental monitoring of water quality. In Brazil, studies on the family remain scarce and the present investigation is a pioneering study in the state of São Paulo. This study aims to propose a taxonomic key for the identification of larvae of Elmidae genera known to occur in the State, as well as to report new records and the distribution of these genera. The material analyzed was collected from various locations in each of 15 drainage basins from 2005 to 2010. The identification key includes 12 genera (Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1929, Heterelmis Sharp, 1882, Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940, Hexanchorus Sharp, 1882, Huleechius Brown, 1981, Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859, Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935, Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935, Phanocerus Sharp, 1882, Potamophilops Grouvelle, 1896, Stegoelmis Hinton, 1939 and Xenelmis Hinton, 1936) known in Brazil as well as three morphotypes designated herein as Genus A, Genus M and Genus X. The genus Hexanchorus is recorded for the first time in the state of São Paulo. PMID:22368452

Segura, Melissa Ottoboni; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaíde Aparecida

2011-01-01

412

Elmidae (Coleoptera, Byrrhoidea) larvae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil: Identification key, new records and distribution.  

PubMed

The family Elmidae Curtis, 1830 has cosmopolitan distribution and most species inhabit riffles on streams and rivers, hence the name "riffle beetle". In recent years, this family has been featured in papers addressing the assessment and environmental monitoring of water quality. In Brazil, studies on the family remain scarce and the present investigation is a pioneering study in the state of São Paulo. This study aims to propose a taxonomic key for the identification of larvae of Elmidae genera known to occur in the State, as well as to report new records and the distribution of these genera. The material analyzed was collected from various locations in each of 15 drainage basins from 2005 to 2010. The identification key includes 12 genera (Austrolimnius Carter & Zeck, 1929, Heterelmis Sharp, 1882, Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940, Hexanchorus Sharp, 1882, Huleechius Brown, 1981, Macrelmis Motschulsky, 1859, Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935, Neoelmis Musgrave, 1935, Phanocerus Sharp, 1882, Potamophilops Grouvelle, 1896, Stegoelmis Hinton, 1939 and Xenelmis Hinton, 1936) known in Brazil as well as three morphotypes designated herein as Genus A, Genus M and Genus X. The genus Hexanchorus is recorded for the first time in the state of São Paulo. PMID:22368452

Segura, Melissa Ottoboni; Valente-Neto, Francisco; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaíde Aparecida

2011-01-01

413

Genetic diversity and statistical parameters of 15 autosomal STR loci in the Pomeranian Subpopulation of Espirito Santo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelic frequencies and other population data analysis are reported for the 15 autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (STR) loci included\\u000a in the PowerPlex®16 kit (CSF1PO, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TPOX, TH01 and\\u000a vWA) in Pomeranian’s descendants from the Espirito Santo State (ES), Brazil, third largest population of Pomeranian’s descendants\\u000a in the world.

Beatriz Candida Silva; Eldamária de Vargas Wolfgramm; Vitor Resende da Costa Aguiar; Frederico Scott Varela Malta; Amanda Mafia de Castro; Alessandro Clayton de Souza Ferreira; Flavia de Paula; Iúri Drumond Louro

2011-01-01

414

AN OVERVIEW OF CURRENT BLACKBIRD RESEARCH IN THE SOUTHERN RICE GROWING REGION OF THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause extensive damage to newly planted and ripening rice. The blackbird-rice problem has generated considerable public pressure in states such as Louisiana, Texas, California, Arkansas and Missouri, to find more effective methods of reducing damage caused by blackbirds. USDA\\/APHIS\\/WS National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) works closely with

JOHN L. CUMMINGS; MICHAEL L. AVERY

415

A genetic survey of Salvinia minima in the southern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The genetic relationships among 68 samples of Salvinia minima (Salviniaceae) were investigated using RAPD analysis. Neighbor joining, principle components, and AMOVA analyses were used to detect differences among geographically referenced samples within and outside of Florida. Genetic distances (Nei and Li) range up to 0.48, although most are under 0.30, still relatively high levels for an introduced, clonally reproducing plant. Despite the diversity AMOVA analysis yielded no indication that the Florida plants, as a group, were significantly different from the plants sampled elsewhere in its adventive, North American range. A single, genetically dissimilar population probably exists in the recent (1998) horticultural introduction to Mississippi. When the samples were grouped into 10 regional (but artificial) units and analyzed using AMOVA the between region variance was only 7.7%. Genetic similarity among these regions may indicate introduction and dispersal from common sources. The reduced aggressiveness of Florida populations (compared to other states) may be due to herbivory. The weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae, a selective feeder, is found in Florida but not other states. The genetic similarity also suggests that there are no obvious genetic obstacles to the establishment or efficacy of C. salviniae as a biological control agent on S. minima outside of Florida.

Madeira, P.T.; Jacono, C.C.; Tipping, P.; Van, T.K.; Center, T.D.

2003-01-01

416

Impact of land-cover change in the Southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale.\\u000a In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut\\u000a since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend\\u000a in the

Vincent Dubreuil; Nathan Debortoli; Beatriz Funatsu; Vincent Nédélec; Laurent Durieux

417

Molecular epidemiology and virulence markers of Salmonella Infantis isolated over 25 years in São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Infection of humans and animals caused by Salmonella is a major public health problem worldwide. Among the more than 2500 serovars, S. Infantis has been one of the 15 most isolated serovars in the world. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the molecular characteristics of S. Infantis strains from Brazil. The aims of this study were to type S. Infantis isolates of this country and to assess their pathogenic potential. The molecular epidemiology of 35 S. Infantis strains, isolated from human sources (25) and food items (10) between 1984 and 2009 in São Paulo State, Brazil, were investigated using ERIC-PCR, PFGE and MLST. Furthermore, the presence of some virulence markers from Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) SPI-1 and SPI-2 and from the virulence plasmid was assessed by PCR. Using ERIC-PCR, 34 S. Infantis strains exhibited a high genetic similarity (? 93.7%) and using PFGE, 32 strains exhibited a similarity ? 80.6%. Additionally, MLST showed a high clonal similarity among strains that all presented the same ST32. Thirty-two isolates under investigation contained the virulence markers invA, sopB, sopD, sipA, sipD, ssaR, sifA, flgK, fljB and flgL. In conclusion, the S. Infantis strains studied were genetically similar, suggesting that a prevalent subtype has been causing disease and food contamination during a 25year period in São Paulo State, an important metropolitan region in Brazil. Furthermore, the contamination between strains from food items and sick humans indicates that better control measures for S. Infantis may be needed in this country. PMID:23860124

Almeida, Fernanda; Pitondo-Silva, André; Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Falcão, Juliana Pfrimer

2013-10-01

418

Locating spatial variation in the association between wildland fire risk and social vulnerability across six Southern states.  

PubMed

Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account for 93% of all wildfires fires in the South. Coexisting with newly arrived, affluent WUI populations are working class, poor or otherwise socially vulnerable populations. The latter groups typically experience greater losses from environmental disasters such as wildfire because lower income residents are less likely to have established mitigation programs in place to help absorb loss. We use geographically weighted regression to examine spatial variation in the association between social vulnerability (SOVUL) and wildfire risk. In doing so, we identify "hot spots" or geographical clusters where SOVUL varies positively with wildfire risk across six Southern states--Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. These clusters may or may not be located in the WUI. These hot spots are most prevalent in South Carolina and Florida. Identification of these population clusters can aid wildfire managers in deciding which communities to prioritize for mitigation programming. PMID:22218459

Poudyal, Neelam C; Johnson-Gaither, Cassandra; Goodrick, Scott; Bowker, J M; Gan, Jianbang

2012-03-01

419

Locating Spatial Variation in the Association Between Wildland Fire Risk and Social Vulnerability Across Six Southern States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account for 93% of all wildfires fires in the South. Coexisting with newly arrived, affluent WUI populations are working class, poor or otherwise socially vulnerable populations. The latter groups typically experience greater losses from environmental disasters such as wildfire because lower income residents are less likely to have established mitigation programs in place to help absorb loss. We use geographically weighted regression to examine spatial variation in the association between social vulnerability (SOVUL) and wildfire risk. In doing so, we identify "hot spots" or geographical clusters where SOVUL varies positively with wildfire risk across six Southern states—Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. These clusters may or may not be located in the WUI. These hot spots are most prevalent in South Carolina and Florida. Identification of these population clusters can aid wildfire managers in deciding which communities to prioritize for mitigation programming.

Poudyal, Neelam C.; Johnson-Gaither, Cassandra; Goodrick, Scott; Bowker, J. M.; Gan, Jianbang

2012-03-01

420

Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatan, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States.  

PubMed

We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

Manson, Steven M; Evans, Tom

2007-12-26

421

Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatán, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States  

PubMed Central

We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

Manson, Steven M.; Evans, Tom

2007-01-01

422

Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota. PMID:20567812

Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

2011-04-01

423

Low occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes on bovine hides and carcasses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes occurrence was assessed in three slaughterhouses located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by analysis of 209 bovine carcasses. Four sponge samples were obtained from each carcass in different steps (A, from hide, before bleeding; B, after hide removal; C, after evisceration; and D, after end washing), resulting in a total of 836 samples. The samples were tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes according to the International Organization for Standardization 11290-1, and positive results were recorded in steps A (1 of 209) and D (1 of 209) from slaughterhouse 03. L. monocytogenes isolates (n = 5) were identified by multiplex PCR as belonging to serogroup IIc (representing serotypes 1/2c or 3c) and presented identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles; in addition, the isolates harbored the virulence genes inlA, inlB, inlC, inlJ, plcA, hlyA, actA, and iap and were sensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, tetracycline, rifampin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole. The obtained data indicated a low occurrence of L. monocytogenes on bovine hides and carcasses from slaughterhouses located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and the presence of distinct virulence makers and susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobials by the obtained isolates. PMID:24988021

Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lafisca, Andrea; Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgio; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-07-01

424

Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual se