Sample records for state southern brazil

  1. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ross D. Tannebaum; Jeffrey L. Arnold; Armando De Negri Filho; Viviane S. Spadoni

    2001-01-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical

  2. Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in sheep flocks of Paraná State, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando Henrique; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Piazza, Roxane Maria; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Ludovico, Agostinho; Ludovico, Marilúcia Santos; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

    2015-01-30

    Sheep constitute an important source of zoonotic pathogens as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In this study, the prevalence, serotypes and virulence profiles of STEC were investigated among 130 healthy sheep from small and medium farms in southern Brazil. STEC was isolated from 65 (50%) of the tested animals and detected in all flocks. A total of 70 STEC isolates were characterized, and belonged to 23 different O:H serotypes, many of which associated with human disease, including hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Among the serotypes identified, O76:H19 and O65:H- were the most common, and O75:H14 and O169:H7 have not been previously reported in STEC strains. Most of the STEC isolates harbored only stx1, whereas the Stx2b subtype was the most common among those carrying stx2. Enterohemolysin (ehxA) and intimin (eae) genes were detected in 61 (87.1%) and four (5.7%) isolates, respectively. Genes encoding putative adhesins (saa, iha, lpfO113) and toxins (subAB and cdtV) were also observed. The majority of the isolates displayed virulence features related to pathogenesis of STEC, such as adherence to epithelial cells, high cytotoxicity and enterohemolytic activity. Ovine STEC isolates belonged mostly to phylogenetic group B1. PFGE revealed particular clones distributed in some farms, as well as variations in the degree of genetic similarity within serotypes examined. In conclusion, STEC are widely distributed in southern Brazilian sheep, and belonged mainly to serotypes that are not commonly reported in other regions, such as O76:H19 and O65:H-. A geographical variation in the distribution of STEC serotypes seems to occur in sheep. PMID:25465174

  3. [Species of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) from Southern Bahia State, Brazil, with description of a new species of Paracloeodes day].

    PubMed

    Lima, Lucas R C; Salles, Frederico F; Pinheiro, Ulisses S; Quinto, Edilane

    2010-01-01

    Based on collections in five municipalities from southern Bahia, a new species, Paracloeodes quadridentatus sp. n., is described from Brazil. It can be distinguished, among other characteristics, by the presence of three, often four, well developed denticles on the tarsal claws, a characteristic that has never been found in other species of the genus. Besides the description of the new species, the following 14 taxa of Baetidae are recorded for the first time from the State of Bahia: Americabaetis alphus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Americabaetis labiosus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Aturbina georgei Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Baetodes sp., Callibaetis sp., Camelobaetidius francischettii Salles Andrade & Da-Silva, Camelobaetidius lassance Salles & Serrão, Camelobaetidius sp. 1, Camelobaetidius sp. 2, Cloeodes cf. opacus Nieto & Richard, Cryptonympha dasilvai Salles & Francischetti, Spiritiops silvudus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, Waltzoyphius fasciatus McCafferty & Lugo-Ortiz e Zelusia principalis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. As this is the first survey of Baetidae from Bahia, and it was restricted to the southern part of the state, sampling efforts in other areas are extremely required and should increase considerably the number of species, or even genera, reported from the state. PMID:21120380

  4. Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

    2011-08-01

    Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

  5. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification [1]. The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning

  6. Mercury, copper and zinc contamination in soils and fluvial sediments from an abandoned gold mining area in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Cesar; Silvia Egler; Helena Polivanov; Zuleica Castilhos; Ana Paula Rodrigues

    Mercury, zinc and copper contamination was evaluated in soils and fluvial sediments from an abandoned gold mining site at\\u000a Descoberto Municipality (southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Metals bioavailability and potential mobility were studied\\u000a through physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization, geoaccumulation indexes calculations, mercury speciation and\\u000a determination of potentially bioavailable contents of zinc and copper. Values of pH were in the

  7. Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

    2012-01-01

    The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

  8. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

  9. Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters. PMID:24871179

  10. Correlation between Environmental Factors and Prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Oysters Harvested in the Southern Coastal Area of Sao Paulo State, Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = ?0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076

  11. Biologic and genetic comparison of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from the northern Pará state and the southern state Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil revealed highly diverse and distinct parasite populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Dubey; N. Sundar; S. M. Gennari; A. H. H. Minervino; N. A. da R. Farias; J. L. Ruas; T. R. B. dos Santos; G. T. Cavalcante; O. C. H. Kwok; C. Su

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in 84 free-range chickens (34 from the northern Pará state, and 50 from Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state) from Brazil, South America was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), and found in 39 (46.4%) of 84 chickens with titers of 1:10 in one, 1:20 in two,

  12. [Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors. PMID:16751957

  13. Drosophilid assemblages at different urbanization levels in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C F; Hochmüller, C J C; Valente, V L S; Schmitz, H J

    2012-02-01

    The present study analyzed the drosophilid assemblages in different levels of urbanization in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Collections were carried out in 2008 in three different environments: a highly urbanized area-"Jardim Botânico," a forested area with intermediary urbanization-"Parque Gabriel Knijnik," and in a relatively well-preserved forested area, although threatened by the urban growth-"Morro Santana." In Jardim Botânico, 36 species belonging to four genera were found, with high abundance of exotic species as Drosophila simulans Sturtevant and Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). In Parque Gabriel Knijnik, 33 species that belonged to four genera were found, with higher abundances of native species belonging to the Drosophila tripunctata species group and Drosophila willistoni species subgroup, and lower abundance of exotic species. As for Morro Santana, 32 species and three genera were found, with higher abundances of native groups, low representativeness of exotic species, and absence of Zaprionus indianus. The analysis of the Jaccard index showed higher similarity in the species composition between samples collected in summer and autumn, and between samples collected in winter and spring. On the other hand, the Morisita index differentiated Jardim Botânico from the other two studied sites. Our results show that Morro Santana is an important area of native biodiversity, reinforcing, therefore, the inclusion of this area in the project for the creation of an ecological corridor as proposed by the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil. PMID:23950007

  14. Dental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Simões-Lopes, Paulo César

    Keywords: Dental crown Marine mammals Occlusion Ontogeny Wear intensity Teeth a b s t r a c t (1) DentalDental wear in dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinidae) from southern Brazil Carolina Loch *, Paulo C. Simo Catarina, 88040-970, Floriano´polis, Santa Catarina, Brazil 1. Introduction Dental wear is consequence

  15. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

  16. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

  17. Inspection of Wooden Poles in Electrical Power Distribution Networks in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FlÁvio L. R. Vidor; MarÇal Pires; Berenice A. Dedavid; Pedro D. B. Montani; Adriano Gabiatti

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to test an inspection method for wooden utility poles based on a classification system according to qualitative (visual and sounding) and quantitative parameters (excavation and drilling) to assess internal\\/external wood decay. Ten thousand poles were inspected, distributed over 23 cities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil). The results indicated a significant quantity of

  18. THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BISCUTATE SWIFT (STREPTOPROCNE BISCUTATA) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Pichorim

    The breeding biology of the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata) was studied in a cave located in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Besides monitoring of the nests, eggs, and nestlings every 2 days, the field works involved banding of adult birds with metallic bands and phosphorescent markers. Nest building begins in October; the nest material is collected with the bill. Nest

  19. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  20. Ultraviolet Index measurements in Southern Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6

  1. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  2. Synopsis of Dorstenia (Moraceae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Boeni, Bruna De Oliveira; Singer, Rodrigo Bustos

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis of Dorstenia (Moraceae) in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, is presented. Three species were recorded: D. brasiliensis, D. carautae, a new record for the state of RS, and D. tenuis. All species are described and illustrated through detailed photos of living specimens. A taxonomic key to separate the species, as well as details on distribution, overall phenology, habitat, conservation status and ecology are presented. PMID:26131638

  3. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Used in the Prevention and Control of Bovine Mastitis in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    César AVANCINI; José M. WIEST; Rodrigo DALL' AGNOL

    SUMMARY. Based on informal interview, ethnoveterinary information about plants used in the preven- tion and control of bovine mastitis in Southern Brazil were obtained. Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Ktze. (\\

  5. UPb and Sm-Nd geochronology of the neoproterozoic granitic-gneissic Dom Feliciano belt, Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marly Babinski; Farid Chemale; W. R. Van Schmus; Leo Afrâneo Hartmann; Luiz Carlos Da Silva

    1997-01-01

    The Brasiliano Cycle in southern Brazil and Uruguay is represented by three major NE-SW trending geotectonic units: the Vila Nova belt, Tijucas belt and Dom Feliciano belt. The Vila Nova belt is located in western part of Rio Grande do Sul State; its evolution took place between 900 and 700 Ma and it corresponds to one of the few areas

  6. Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

    2012-11-01

    Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

  7. An early freeze in southern Brazil in April 1999 and its NWP guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyamurty, Prakki; Ferreira Bustamante Fonseca, Josiane; Bottino, Marcus Jorge; Seluchi, Marcelo E.; Maciel Lourenço, Maria Crstina; Gonçalves de Gonçalves, Luis Gustavo

    2002-03-01

    A cold air outbreak occurred in the third week of April 1999 in southern Brazil. A synoptic study of this rare event is undertaken. A surface high pressure cell in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile slowly built up and moved eastward on 14 April. It started crossing the Andes, acquiring the characteristic shape of a bean on 15th, and separated into two cells later in the day. The cell on the lee side of the mountains moved gradually northwards over central South America affecting northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil. The temperature fell 15°C in the state of Mato Grosso (about 15°S). In southern Brazil temperatures below freezing were registered in some places on the 17th and 18th and frost occurred in many states. There was snowfall in the uplands of Santa Catarina on the 17th, and such an early snow had not been recorded for 30 years. Baroclinic synoptic wave intensification followed by surface low development in association with a cut-off low formation in the middle and upper troposphere were responsible for strong surface southerlies over Argentina on the 16th and 17th. Cold air advection by the southerlies in the eastern sector of the high-pressure centre was responsible for the northward projection of the high pressure cell east of the Andes. The whole event was well predicted by the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (CPTEC/INPE) operational global and regional models with lead times of 120 and 60 hours respectively

  8. Vanguard University of Southern California Portland State University Transfer Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Caughman, John

    Vanguard University of Southern California Portland State University Transfer Worksheet College-level transferable academic courses taken at Vanguard University of Southern California (VUSC), will transfer Education Requirements 2. Degree Requirements (BA, BS) #12;Vanguard University of Southern California

  9. Traditional Knowledge and Management of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana) in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karine Louise dos Santos; Nivaldo Peroni; Raymond Paul Guries; Rubens Onofre Nodari

    2009-01-01

    Traditional Knowledge and Management of \\u000a Feijoa (Acca sellowiana)\\u000a in Southern Brazil. This paper investigates traditional knowledge of the use and management of Acca sellowiana in southern Brazil. Fifty-six informants from three rural communities were assigned to one of four subgroups (“maintainers,”\\u000a “managers,” “cultivators,” or “users”) based on their responses regarding management and use of A. sellowiana. Traditional knowledge related to

  10. Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    1 1 2 3 4 Future drying of the southern Amazon5 and central Brazil6 7 8 Brian Cook1 , Ning Zeng1 processes. Firstly, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the29 southern Amazon's dry season reduces soil, further reducing soil moisture. The drying corresponds to a lengthening36 of the dry season by 11 days

  11. Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Cutaneous Melanoma in a Region of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania. PMID:22548178

  12. Southern Colorado State College Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Antonio A.

    Occurring in six elementary schools in Pueblo, the Teacher Corps Program at Southern Colorado State College features the following components: a) a cross-cultural component for all participants; b) a community-based component designed to assist the community to participate in educational decision making; c) a 2-year undergraduate, field- and…

  13. Genotoxic Potential and Physicochemical Parameters of Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Scalon, Madalena C. S.; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L.; Rodrigues, Manoela T.; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring. PMID:24285934

  14. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

  15. SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study

    E-print Network

    SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 1 October 2012 SF State Southern California Attrition Study Fall 2005 through Fall 2009 Full-Time First-Time Freshmen A C A D E M I C P L A N · a i r . s f s u . e d u #12;SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Page 2 Table

  16. Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

  17. On the fossil remains of Panochthus Burmeister, 1866 (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Glyptodontidae) from the Pleistocene of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus. PMID:25806977

  18. Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region. PMID:23457521

  19. Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.; Kaltchuk dos Santos, Eliane; Eggers, Lilian; Flores, Alice Mainieri; Alves, Eudes M. Stiehl; Fachinetto, Juliana; Lustosa, Juliana; Corrêa, Lauís Brisolara; Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Piccoli, Paula; Miz, Rogéria Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed. PMID:23412701

  20. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  1. Assessment of DNA damage in floriculturists in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Camila Mörschbächer; Calsing, Adriani Kunz; da Silva, Luciano Basso

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess possible genotoxic effects on floriculturists in a region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil, using the micronucleus test (MN) and comet assay. Thirty-seven floriculturists and 37 individuals not exposed to pesticides participated in the study. The micronucleus test was performed with epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. In the microscopic analysis, 2000 cells were evaluated per subject, verifying the frequency of MN and the frequency of other nuclear abnormalities (nuclear buds, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis). For the comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 100 cells were classified in five classes, according to the migration of DNA fragments, thereby generating the frequency of damaged cells and the damage index. There was no difference between the exposed and control groups in the frequencies of MN and other nuclear abnormalities in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. However, the comet assay showed that both the frequency of DNA damaged cells and the damage index were significantly greater in the exposed group. The results therefore indicate that floriculturists are exposed to mixtures of pesticides with genotoxic potential. PMID:25516252

  2. Occupation and urbanization of Roraima State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, A

    1997-01-01

    The author examines settlement patterns and urbanization of the remote area of Roraima State, Brazil. "A survey conducted in the capital city, Boa Vista, provides information on migration histories and migrants' characteristics.... Current views of urbanization of the Amazon [region] are focused on the displacement factor that development and state geopolitics have upon rural settlements...." The author also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to the characteristics of migrants in the urban areas. (EXCERPT) PMID:12294841

  3. Runoff estimation in southern Brazil based on Smith's modified model and the Curve Number method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Carlesso; R. B. Spohr; F. L. F. Eltz; C. H. Flores

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to measure and model the runoff for different soils classes at different rainfall intensities (30, 60 and 120mmh?1) in Southern Brazil. A portable rainfall simulator with multiple nozzles was used to simulate these rainfall intensities. For each soil, the initial time and runoff rate, rainfall characteristics (total, duration and intensities), surface slope, crop residue

  4. Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Somaio Neves; Rosana Moreira Rocha; Fabio Bettini Pitombo; James J. Roper

    2007-01-01

    Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 × 20 cm) were

  5. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...

  6. Assessment of MODIS LAI retrievals over soybean crop in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper examines the magnitude of the Collection 4 MODIS leaf area index (LAI) product for the soybean crop for two crop seasons, 2001/2002 to 2004/2005, in Southern Brazil. The data indicated that there were a large proportion of digical counts were at a maximum level suggesting that the LAI was...

  7. Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (principal investigators)

    1982-01-01

    A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp isolated from food in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330

  9. Leishmania ( Viannia) braziliensis: Epidemiology of canine cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Paraná (Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edilene A. Castro; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Christopher Augur; Ennio Luz

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the role that dogs play in the maintenance of the Leishmania cycle in the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Dogs were examined in three regions where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic or epidemic (R1—Vale da Ribeira; R2—Central region of Paraná State and R3—Northern region). To determine serum prevalence rates ELISA was used. In regions endemic for Trypanosoma

  10. Testing the Subsistence Model for the Adoption of Ceramic Technology Among Coastal Sambaqui Foragers of Southern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Crouch, Maria Shannon Parks

    2013-12-10

    This research tests the subsistence model for the adoption of ceramic technology among coastal fisher-hunter-gatherers of the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil (5000 to 600 BP). The subsistence model correlates the appearance of ceramic vessels...

  11. Mercury in sediments from gold and copper exploitation areas in the Camaquã River Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, M. H. D.; Lechler, P.; Formoso, M. L. L.; Miller, J.

    2000-11-01

    Mercury concentrations were determined in stream sediments from the Camaquã River Basin, located in the shield region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The resulting geochemical data show that overbank floodplain deposits exhibit higher concentrations than sediments collected from the active channel bed. In addition, higher Hg concentrations were measured in the fine(<63 ?m) sediment fraction of the samples. Total Hg concentrations in the fine fraction of active stream sediments from Lavras do Sul County, which have been influenced by past gold mining activities, have decreased during the last five years to values ?142 ng g -1. However, in a settling pond containing abandoned mine wastes, the Hg concentration of a bulk sample remained exceptionally high (5220 ng g -1). Preliminary speciation results show that Hg 0 is the predominant species in most of the samples. This was the form of Hg released by the gold amalgamation activities in the area, and appears to be relatively stable under the existing Eh and pH conditions.

  12. The Triassic taphoflora of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil: a biostratigraphical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Sommer, M.; Cazzulo-Klepzig, M.; Iannuzzi, R.

    1999-07-01

    A Triassic taphoflora identified in the Central Region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, represents an important biostratigraphical stage in the palæofloristic succession of the Paraná Basin. A megafloristic association composed of compressed leaves, fronds and seeds of a ' Dicroidium Flora' shows a predominance of the Dicroidium genus, with several species and other important taxa like Neocalamites sp., Cladophlebis sp., Tetraptilon aff. heteromerum, Ginkgoites antarctica, Sphenobaiera sp., Podozamites sp., Nilssonia sp., Pteruchus sp. and Carpolithus sp. Taking into account the stratigraphical distribution of different species of the Dicroidium genus, a biostratigraphical framework was established. Considering that the recognition of this ' Dicroidium Flora' was based on limited outcrops belonging to one lithostratiphical level (Santa Maria Formation — Passo das Tropas Facies), it was impossible to established a formal biostratigraphical zonation. Instead, at the present time, an informal floristic interval, named the ' Dicroidium odontopteroides Flora', is proposed (Late Anisian to Late Ladinian, Middle Triassic). An ' Araucarioxylon Flora' composed of secondary woods of the Araucarioxylon type and stems of Rhexoxylon brasiliensis was also identified several km apart. The compressed fossils of the ' Dicroidium Flora' and the petrified stems of the ' Araucarioxylon Flora' could represent different but contemporaneous communities corresponding to fluvial-lacustrine environments.

  13. Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

  14. On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

    1993-01-01

    Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

  15. Hydrogeotechnical control system on a hydro-electric power plant with a basaltic foundation (Southern Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Guidicini; P. T. da Cruz; R. M. de Andrade

    1979-01-01

    Summary  The hydroelectrical power plant of Itaúba, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, due to a favourable topographic situation,\\u000a takes advantage of a large curve of the river, in a steep valley. The concrete structures are located on a topographic narrow\\u000a ridge on the right side of the valley.\\u000a \\u000a The rock foundation is formed by a sequence of basalt flows,

  16. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R. B. Negrelle

    2001-01-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge “valley,” located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between

  17. Environmental assessment of water from a uranium mine (Caldas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil) in a decommissioning operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Burato Campos; Heliana de Azevedo; Marcos Roberto Lopes Nascimento; Cláudio Vítor Roque; Suzelei Rodgher

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out in a uranium ore mining area located in Caldas, in the southern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ecologies of populations of the bioleaching microorganisms (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxi- dans and A. thiooxidans) in effluents from mining com- panies containing sulfides and associated radionuclides, and to

  18. Use of a saponin based molluscicide to control Pomacea canaliculata snails in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    San Martíns, R; Gelmi, Claudio; de Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Galo, José Luis; Pranto, Honorio

    2009-10-01

    Pomacea canaliculata snails pose a severe problem to direct seeded rice cultivated in Southern Brazil. Control of this snail is nowadays performed with toxic chemicals such as copper sulfate and fungicides such as fentin. A novel natural molluscicide based on alkali modified quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) saponins was tested under laboratory conditions. Snails were collected in rice fields close to Porto Alegre (State of Rio Grande do Sul) and in Brusque (State of Santa Catarina, 400 km north of Porto Alegre). In Santa Catarina the product was very effective, while in Porto Alegre it had no effect. This unexpected behavior was probably due to the respiratory habits of the snails under different contents of dissolved oxygen in the water. Near Porto Alegre the water used in rice fields is heavily polluted, with dissolved oxygen levels of 1-2 ppm, and the snails rely primarily on their siphon and lungs to breathe. Since saponin control is probably due to an interaction between saponins with the sterols present in the cell walls in the gills, no control was observed. By contrast, in Santa Catarina the dissolved oxygen level of the water is 5-6 ppm, and the snails remain mostly underwater, breathing with their gills. In this case the snails died within 24 h at a dose of 20 and 30 ppm of product. To test this observation, snails grown in polluted waters were forced to remain underwater in saponin solutions and water (control) preventing the use of their siphon to breathe. The snails exposed to saponin solutions died, while the control snails survived, indicating that they were still able to use their gills to breathe. These results indicate that the use of the saponin product is limited to rice fields not irrigated with heavily polluted waters. PMID:19911565

  19. Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate

    E-print Network

    Mazloff, Matthew R

    2006-01-01

    A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...

  20. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Disner, Geonildo Rodrigo; Boff, Everton; Machado, Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues; Padua, Michelly de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Miranda, Gustavo Borba de

    2012-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity), with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina. PMID:22850989

  1. Evaluation of two recommended disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm2. All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm2. Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm2 were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services. PMID:24516443

  2. Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services. PMID:23634830

  3. Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) poisoning in cattle in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gava, Aldo; da Silva Neves, Dalmo; Gava, Daniele; de Moura, Saliba Thiago; Schild, Ana Lucia; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2002-12-01

    Epidemiological data on Pteridium aquilinum intoxication in cattle the state of Santa Catarina were obtained by review of diagnostic records from 1987 to 2001. Of 3,407 necropsied cattle, 244 (7.16%) were diagnosed as intoxicated by Paquilinum; 122 of those were of the hemorrhagic form, 103 had tumors in the upper digestive tract, 19 were cases of chronic hematuria. Annual losses due to this intoxication in this State are estimated at 10,657 cattle. The highest incidence of the hemorrhagic form occurs in 1-3-y-old cattle between March and July, and most cases of tumors of the upper digestive tract affect cattle older than Sy. The highest incidence of digestive tract tumors is at the base of the tongue and pharynx, and the lowest frequency is in the rumen and esophagus. The large economic losses caused PaQuilinum in Santa Catarina call for improved control measures for the disease. PMID:12458643

  4. Alkaloids of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) species from Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Angelo S. Zuanazzi; Valéria Tremea; Renata P. Limberger; Marcos Sobral; Amélia T. Henriques

    2001-01-01

    A new alkaloid identified as 3?,6?-ditigloyloxynortropane as 3?,7?-ditigloyloxynortropane, 4-hydroxyhygrinic acid, methylecgonidine and tropacocaine have been isolated from the leaves of Erythroxylum argentinum. The new structure was established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Four other species E. deciduum, E. microphyllum, E. pelleterianum and E. cuneifolium collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were screened for methylecgonidine and tropacocaine by

  5. Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2014-07-01

    Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

  6. Alkaloids of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) species from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuanazzi, J A.S.; Tremea, V; Limberger, R P.; Sobral, M; Henriques, A T.

    2001-08-01

    A new alkaloid identified as 3beta,6beta-ditigloyloxynortropane as 3beta,7beta-ditigloyloxynortropane, 4-hydroxyhygrinic acid, methylecgonidine and tropacocaine have been isolated from the leaves of Erythroxylum argentinum. The new structure was established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Four other species E. deciduum, E. microphyllum, E. pelleterianum and E. cuneifolium collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were screened for methylecgonidine and tropacocaine by CG/MS. Two of these plants contain tropacocaine and two contain methylecgonidine. GC/MS analysis of all 5 species for cocaine proved fruitless. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results is discussed. PMID:11412954

  7. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  8. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  9. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest. PMID:25826062

  10. A new prozostrodontian cynodont (Therapsida) from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (Santa Maria Supersequence) of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marina B; Martinelli, Agustín G; De Oliveira, Téo V

    2014-12-01

    We report here on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence), collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T) which includes the left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a more derived taxon than tritylodontids, being the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium plus Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, closely related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse. PMID:25590707

  11. SHARK DATA FROM SANTOS LONGLINERS FISHERY OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1971-2000)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bacilieri

    The historical series from 1971 to 2000 of Chondrichthye s caught by longliners based in Santos City, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, have been reviewed and the fishery biology of some of the species has been studied. The Brazilian Santos fleet started in 1965\\/66 with two boats, increasing gradually until a maximum of 20 boats, in 1998 and 19 in 1999.

  12. Wind Power Energy in Southern Brazil: evaluation using a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a associated variation of wind intensity. The monthly average indicate several small regions with a higher value of energy. Average production higher than 1.5 MW, for the area inland, was of 72.9% for a turbine at 150 m height but only 13.1% for one at 50 m height. This initial study indicates the variability of the region in terms of wind power availability. It can be extended to the study of extreme situations, as the case of very strong winds that knocked down 8 wind turbines in this region on the 20 of December of 2014. Simulations with high degree of spacial details will be the next step in this investigation.

  13. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  14. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Health-Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Deaf and Hearing Adolescents in Southern Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…

  15. Prevalence of seizures and associated factors in children under five living in a deprived municipality of southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheple Roberto Abib; Raúl A. Mendoza-Sassi; Jaime Bech-Nappi; Airton Tetelbom Stein

    2007-01-01

    Objective: to determine the frequency and distribution of seizure in children under five, liv - ing in a deprived community. Method: this was a cross-sectional study, conducted in a probabilistic sam - ple of 487 children aged 5 or less, resident in the rural and urban areas of são José do Norte, a poor mu - nicipality in southern brazil,

  16. A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Malta; F. I. Bastos; E. M. Pereira-Koller; M. D. Cunha; C. Marques; S. A. Strathdee

    2006-01-01

    Itajai is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and\\/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability

  17. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Leila; Gigante, Luciana P; Fuchs, Sandra C; Busnello, Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants) using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison), with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7). After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income populations, women should be routinely evaluated for postnatal depression, and those with no partner or spouse are likely to require further care from health services and should be given the benefit of mental health prevention programs. PMID:18173833

  18. Evaluation of tropical water sources and mollusks in southern Brazil using microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques; Ramos, Ana Paula Dores; Nunes, Fabrício Flores; Moresco, Vanessa; Taniguchi, Satie; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela; Durigan, Maurício; Teixeira, Adriano Luiz; Pilotto, Mariana Rangel; Delfino, Nicésio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Melo, Cláudio Manoel Rodrigues de; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte

    2012-02-01

    Florianópolis, a city located in the Santa Catarina State in southern Brazil, is the national leading producer of bivalve mollusks. The quality of bivalve mollusks is closely related to the sanitary conditions of surrounding waters where they are cultivated. Presently, cultivation areas receive large amounts of effluents derived mainly from treated and non-treated domestic, rural, and urban sewage. This contributes to the contamination of mollusks with trace metals, pesticides, other organic compounds, and human pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoan. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough diagnosis of the shellfish growing areas in Florianópolis, on the coast of Santa Catarina. The contamination levels of seawater, sediments, and oysters were evaluated for their microbiological, biochemical, and chemical parameters at five sea sites in Florianópolis, namely three regular oyster cultivation areas (Sites 1, 2, and oyster supplier), a polluted site (Site 3), and a heavily polluted site (Site 4). Samples were evaluated at day zero and after 14 days. Seawater and sediment samples were collected just once, at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant defenses, which may occur in contaminated environments in response to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by organisms, were analyzed in oysters, as well as organic compounds (in oysters and sediment samples) and microbiological contamination (in oysters and seawater samples). The results showed the presence of the following contaminants: fecal coliforms in seawater samples (four sites), human adenovirus (all sites), human noroviruses GI and GII (two sites), Hepatitis A viruses (one site), JC Polyomavirus in an oyster sample from the oyster supplier, Giardia duodenalis cysts, and Cryptosporidium sp oocysts (one site). Among organochlorine pesticides, only DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were detected in some sediment and oysters samples in very low levels; site 4 had the highest concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) found either in oysters or in sediment samples. The major concentration of fecal sterol coprostanol was found at site 4, followed by site 3. After 14 days of allocation in the four selected sites, there was a significant difference in the enzymes analyzed at the monitored spots. The detection of different contaminants in oysters, seawater, and sediment samples in the present study shows the impact untreated or inadequately treated effluents have on coastal areas. These results highlight the need for public investment in adequate wastewater treatment and adequate treatment of oysters, ensuring safe areas for shellfish production as well as healthier bivalve mollusks for consumption. PMID:22036209

  19. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient content and, consequently, producing heavier calves at weaning under extensive grazing in southern Brazil and other similar subtropical climate regions. PMID:24753378

  20. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

  1. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, João Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km² ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paraná Basin, South of São Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km²), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km²) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the peridotitic unit; b) the intrusion and probable differentiation of the clinopyroxenites and ijolitic rocks; c) intrusions of several lithotypes forming the heterogeneous zone; d) intrusion of lamprophyric dykes into the syenites; e) the carbonatite intrusion. The precise geochronological sequence is still unknown, since only the syenites (134.9 ± 0.65 Ma this study), the carbonatite (131 Ma) and the clinopyroxenite (131 Ma) were dated at present. Our goal is now to investigate the origin and evolution of the magmas which formed the Jacupiranga Complex using geochronology with Ar/Ar, U-Pb and U-Th/He dating, as well as elemental and isotopic geochemistry. Considering that the Jacupiranga Complex is one of the most differentiated alkaline complexes around the world, this contribution will be important not only for the understanding of the unit itself but also for the general comprehension of the forming process, the evolution of the alkaline and carbonatitic magmas and the concentration of apatite in carbonatites, still controversial subjects among the scientific community.

  2. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission track thermochronology obtained in the adjacent basement units. The main denudation events are 140 ± 20 Ma (rifting), 75 ± 15 Ma, and 30 ± 10 Ma (estimated age of the Cone do Rio Grande structure formation). We conclude that the subsidence, uplift and denudation events that affected the eastern margin of Brazil and Uruguay and western margin of Africa segmented most of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas, difficulting the paleogeographic reconstruction and plate kinematic of the Brasiliano/Pan-African belts.

  3. Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

  4. REGIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT PLANNING IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation models have been employed to examine the effects of global climate change on forest systems in the southern United States. redictions for this region suggest a warmer climate in the next century. hifts in forest species distribution and composition are projected in res...

  5. State of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Andrew Mayewski; M. P. Meredith; C. P. Summerhayes; J. Turner; A. Worby; P. J. Barrett; G. Casassa; Nancy A. N. Bertler; T. Bracegirdle; A. C. Naveira Garabato; D. Bromwich; H. Campbell; Gordon S. Hamilton; W. B. Lyons; Kirk A. Maasch; S. Aoki; C. Xiao; Tas van Ommen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in our understanding of the state of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate and its relation to the global climate system over the last few millennia. Climate over this and earlier periods has not been stable, as evidenced by the occurrence of abrupt changes in atmospheric circulation and temperature recorded in Antarctic ice core proxies for

  6. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, Fh; Petsch, Dk; Ragonha, Fh; Batista, Vg; Takeda, Am; Takemoto, Rm

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  7. Self-rated health conditions of the adult population, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Traebert, Jefferson; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate how the adult population (20 to 59 years) of Joaçaba, Southern Brazil, rates its health status. A cross-sectional study involving a representative sample (n=707) was carried out in 2006. The questionnaire surveyed sociodemographic conditions, restriction on daily activities, medical consultation, hospitalization and self-rated health. A hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. It was verified that 74.7% of the individuals perceived their health as good and 3.9% perceived it as poor/very poor. Being unemployed at the moment of the interview and ceasing to perform daily activities due to health problems significantly increased the chance of poor /very poor self-rated health. PMID:21670865

  8. Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

  9. Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Juliana G; Seidinger, Ana Luíza; Mastellaro, Maria José; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P; Ganti, Ramapriya; Srivastava, Kumar; Shurtleff, Sheila; Pei, Deqing; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dufloth, Rozany M; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Yunes, José Andres

    2008-01-01

    Background The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context. Methods We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H. Results The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442). Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16) and MDM2 (SNP309) genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility. PMID:19046423

  10. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

  11. Assessment and sources of nonaromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of three harbors in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiane Rossi de Oliveira; Luiz Augusto dos Santos Madureira

    2011-01-01

    Nonaromatic hydrocarbons and geochemical parameters from 17 sediment–water interface samples were used to assess sources of\\u000a organic matter in three harbors, located in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The evaluation was based on the molar C\\/N\\/P\\u000a ratios, abundance of resolved nonaromatic hydrocarbons (3.0–25.9 ?g g???1), unresolved complex mixture, and two indexes: the carbon preference index (CPI) and the low molecular weight to

  12. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2012-09-01

    The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains ?-amyrin (90.6 ?g g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of ?-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, ?-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of ? and ?-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ?-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region. PMID:22782538

  13. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  15. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping technique can be applied on flood zonation to avoid urbanization without planning.

  16. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  17. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  18. DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Dias, Alessandra de Cassia; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

    2014-01-01

    Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility. PMID:25229218

  19. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  20. Santa Bárbara Formation (Early Paleozoic, Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): Petrographic and Sm–Nd isotopic provenance parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Weissheimer de Borba; Ana Maria Pimentel Mizusaki; Anderson José Maraschin; Diogo Rodrigues Andrade da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Integrated petrographic and Sm–Nd isotopic data were applied in order to constrain the provenance of the Early Paleozoic Santa Bárbara Formation, Sul-rio-grandense Shield, southern Brazil. This unit comprises continental sandstones, conglomerates and siltstones deposited under semi-arid climate in a rift or pull-apart basin. Samples were collected within a stratigraphic framework composed of three sequences, in which the two basal ones

  1. Spread F occurrence over a southern anomaly crest location in Brazil during June solstice of solar minimum activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. N. Candido; I. S. Batista; F. Becker-Guedes; M. A. Abdu; J. H. A. Sobral; H. Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of Spread F occurrence over a location under the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (Cachoeira Paulista 22.7°S, 45.0°W, mag. Lat.: 16°S, dip angle: -32.3°, Brazil) during the last solar cycle, which presented an extended solar minimum activity. After analyzing hundreds of ionograms obtained with a digital ionosonde DGS 256, between 2001 and 2010, we

  2. HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pulerwitz; A. P. Michaelis; S. A. Lippman; M. Chinaglia; J. Díaz

    2008-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such

  3. Pre and Post-Columbian Gene and Cultural Continuity: The Case of the Gaucho from Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Rita Marrero; Claudio Bravi; Steven Stuart; Jeffrey C. Long; Fábio Pereira das Neves Leite; Trícia Kommers; Claudia M. B. Carvalho; Sergio Danilo Junho Pena; Andres Ruiz-Linares; Francisco Mauro Salzano; Maria Cátira Bortolini

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of the Gaucho, a distinct population of southern Brazil, relating it to their culture, to assess possible parallel continuity. Methods: Six binary polymorphisms, an Alu insertion polymorphism (YAP) and 12 short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome, as well as the sequence of the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I)

  4. Investigation of rainwater contamination sources in the southern part of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids. PMID:24645469

  5. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  6. Demographic and genetic structures of two partially isolated communities of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ilíada Rainha; Muniz, Yara C N; de M Saldanha, Gabriela; Alves Junior, Leonardo; da Rosa, Fabiana C; Maegawa, Felipe A B; Susin, Michele F; de S Lipinski, Melissa; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure and genetic variability of two communities, Costa da Lagoa (CLG) and São João do Rio Vermelho (SJRV), located on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil. The two populations descend from Azores Archipelago immigrants (Portuguese), with a minor contribution of sub-Saharan Africans and Amerindians. To estimate the relative contribution of the different ethnic groups to the current gene pool of the two communities, values of admixture were obtained using the weighted least-squares method based on allelic frequencies of the loci ABO, RHD-RHCE, GPA-GPB (MNSs), HBB, HP, TF, CP, AK, and ACP1. The origins of the studied populations can be quantified as follows: for CLG, sub-Saharan Africans (A) = 17.3%, Iberian Europeans (P) = 75.0%, and Southern Amerindians (I) = 7.7%; for SJRV, A = 48.8%, P = 44.5%, and I = 6.7%. Because haplotype frequencies of the GPA-GPB loci in SJRV were unusual, possibly as a consequence of random genetic drift, the values of admixture were recalculated after exclusion of GPA-GPB, as follows: A = 28.0%; P = 53.3%, and I = 18.7%. The total diversity (HT) was estimated as 42.29%, of which 99.6% can be attributed to the intrapopulational variability (HS). The interpopulational genetic variation (or standard distance, DST) corresponds to 0.19%, while the gene differentiation coefficient is 0.28%, indicative of low genetic difference. These results led to the conclusion that random genetic drift may have had an important effect on the Costa da Lagoa community, while presently gene flow might be the predominant evolutionary factor potentially capable of changing allele frequencies in SJRV. PMID:12943161

  7. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality. PMID:25179529

  8. U–Pb ages of plutonic and metaplutonic rocks in southern Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Timing of Brasiliano deformation and magmatism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sérgio P. Neves; Olivier Bruguier; Delphine Bosch; José Maurício Rangel da Silva; Gorki Mariano

    2008-01-01

    The Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil is divided into three main domains: northern, central, and southern. Several U–Pb zircon ages of plutons and orthogneisses became available in the recent years in the central and northern domains, but similar results are scarce in the southern domain. This study reports U–Pb dates for single zircon grains from one orthogneiss (Jupi orthogneiss) and

  9. Diet composition and feeding strategy of the southern pipefish Syngnathus folletti in a Widgeon grass bed of the Patos Lagoon Estuary, RS, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre M. Garcia; Ricardo M. Geraldi; João P. Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Pipefish species are poorly known representatives of the family Syngnathidae, which have been increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities. We describe the diet composition and feeding strategy of southern pipefish Syngnathus folletti inhabiting a Widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima L.) bed in the estuarine zone of Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil. We also investigated whether mouth gape affected the size of prey items

  10. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  11. Relationships between heat stress and metabolic and milk parameters in dairy cows in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alejandra Barrera; Angeli, Natalia; Machado, Letícia; de Cardoso, Felipe Cardoso; Gonzalez, Félix

    2015-06-01

    This study approached the relationships between heat stress and metabolic and milk parameters in a commercial herd of Holstein cows located in southern Brazil. A total of 50 multiparous cows at different lactations and lactation stages were selected in order to obtain 450 samples during two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The animals were fed a partial mixed ration along with ryegrass pasture in a semi-confinement system. Blood, milk, and urine samples were taken during the summer and winter for a total of eight samples. Three intervals of temperature-humidity index (THI) were established during the summer months (January and February) as follows: low group (LOW), THI between 75 and 81 (N?=?100); moderate group (MOD), THI between 81 and 82 (N?=?150); and severe group (SEV), THI between 83 and 90 (N?=?150). The group of cows sampled during winter (July) constituted the control group (CON; THI?=?59, N?=?50). Increased total protein, albumin, glucose, and cholesterol occurred in heat-stressed cows. Increased AST activity was also observed in heat-stressed cows, but triglycerides and beta-OH-butyrate did not show any difference among groups. Lower lactate and higher pO2 were seen in cows with heat stress than CON. Cows in SEV had a 21 % milk yield decrease, while lactose and protein decreased with fat not being affected. Heat stress had strong effects on metabolic, clinical, and performance parameters in Holstein cows. PMID:25851928

  12. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

  13. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. PMID:23571856

  14. Risk communication concerning welding fumes for the primary preventive care of welding apprentices in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  15. Feeding habits of coypu in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops. PMID:21562696

  16. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  18. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  19. [Mental disorders in a sample of pregnant women receiving primary health care in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Michele Scortegagna de; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Camey, Suzi; Pinheiro, Andrea Poyastro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of probable psychiatric disorders diagnosed during pregnancy and related sociodemographic causative factors among 712 women between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy receiving prenatal care in 18 basic health units in Porto Alegre and Bento Gonçalves in southern Brazil. PRIME-MD was used to assess mental disorders. The prevalence of probable mental disorder occurred in 41.7% of the women. The most prevalent diagnosis was major depressive disorder (21.6%), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (19.8%). A multivariate analysis showed that the factors most significantly associated with a probable psychiatric disorder were: the fact that the pregnant woman did not work or study: PR = 1.25 (95%CI: 1.04-1.51);the fact that the pregnant woman did not live with her spouse: PR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52);the fact that the pregnant woman had two or more children: PR = 1.21 (95%CI: 1.01-1.46). A high prevalence of probable mental disorder was observed. The increased search for health care by pregnant women provides an opportunity for screening, diagnosing and treating these disorders under the primary health care system. PMID:22331164

  20. High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W

    2014-10-13

    Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains. PMID:25109547

  1. Influence of habitat structure on fish assemblage of an artificial reef in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Félix-Hackradt, Fabiana Cézar; García-Charton, José Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Habitat complexity strongly influences reef fish community composition. An understanding of the underlying reasons for this relationship is important for evaluating the suitability of artificial reef (AR) habitats as a marine resource management tool. We studied the influence of AR habitat structure on fish assemblage composition off the southern coast of Brazil. We found that reef blocks with greater area and number of holes possessed the greatest fish species richness and abundance. Reef blocks with greater complexity had higher abundance of almost 30% of fish species present. Natural reef (NR) and AR were different in their fish species composition, trophic structure and categories of water column occupancy by fish (spatial categories). Although NR was more diverse and harboured more trophic levels, AR presented the higher abundances and the presence of distinct fish species that underlined their importance at a regional scale. The greater availability of sheltering habitat where hard substrate is scarce, together with their frequent use by economically important species, make AR a useful tool for coastal management when certain ecological conditions are met. PMID:22014376

  2. Retention in medical care and antiretroviral treatment according to skin color in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos; Michelim, Lessandra; Foresti, Katia; Medeiros, Gregory; May, William; Madi, José Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the retention in medical care and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment of individuals living with HIV and AIDS to antiretroviral therapy in southern Brazil according to their "race" or skin color. This study is part of a 225-day prospective trial, comprising 7 interviews, in which an intervention designed to improve adherence to treatment was tested. A convenience sample of 73 individuals living with HIV and/or AIDS enrolled in this follow-up procedure. The mean length of continuance in treatment was 161.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 125-198) and 138.4 (SD = 14.1; 95% C.I. = 111-166) days in the "nonwhite" and "white" categories, respectively. There was no significant difference between the 2 categories, ?(2)(1, n = 72) = 0.76, P = .38, which include similar levels of retention in medical care and treatment with ARV medications between groups of individuals categorized as white and nonwhite in this sample. PMID:23697777

  3. Risk Communication Concerning Welding Fumes for the Primary Preventive Care of Welding Apprentices in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana

    2015-01-01

    This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ? 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606

  4. Fire - Southern Oscillation relations in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swetnam, T.W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fire scar and tree growth chronologies (1700 to 1905) and fire statistics (since 1905) from Arizona and New Mexico show that small areas burn after wet springs associated with the low phase of the Southern Oscillation (SO), whereas large areas burn after dry springs associated with the high phase of the SO. Through its synergistic influence on spring weather and fuel conditions, climatic variability in the tropical Pacific significantly influences vegetation dynamics in the southwestern United States. Synchrony of fire-free and severe fire years across diverse southwestern forests implies that climate forces fire regimes on a subcontinental scale; it also underscores the importance of exogenous factors in ecosystem dynamics.

  5. Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa

    E-print Network

    Shen, Yang

    Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa John cratons in southern Africa; consequently, the mantle transition zone is 20 km thicker than beneath post: lithosphere; upper mantle; transition zone; cratoni convection; Southern Africa 1. Introduction The upper

  6. Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

    2013-12-01

    Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults, and fractures and folds of events 3 and 4 are consistent with regional extensional tectonics associated with earthquakes that triggered sediment deformation. The 200 km that separate the occurrences of cap carbonates suggest that important seismic events took place during the early Ediacaran in the southern Amazon Craton.

  7. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. PMID:24566128

  8. Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Júnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

    2013-01-01

    Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

  9. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  10. Group 1 Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Outbreak in Maranhão State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Assis, Felipe Lopes; Ferreira, Paulo Cesar Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, several exanthematic autochthone Vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreaks affecting dairy cattle and rural workers have been reported since 1999. Although outbreaks had been first described in the Brazilian Southeast, VACV outbreaks were notified in all Brazilian regions in < 10 years. However, in this context, VACV outbreaks had not been described in some Brazilian States, likely because of a lack of notification, or yet unknown epidemiological reasons. Here, we describe the first VACV outbreak in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. The virus isolated from this outbreak showed several biological and molecular features that resemble other Group 1 Brazilian VACV, including a deletion signature in the A56R gene. This study raises new questions about diversity and epidemiology of Brazilian VACV. PMID:24166043

  11. Evolution of a rift basin dominated by subaerial deposits: The Guaritas Rift, Early Cambrian, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Renato P.; Janikian, Liliane; Fragoso-Cesar, Antonio Romalino S.; Marconato, André

    2009-05-01

    Most existing models for the evolution of rift basins predict the development of deep-water depositional systems during the stage of greatest tectonic subsidence, when accommodation generation potentially outpaces sedimentation. Despite this, some rift basins do not present deep-water systems, instead being dominated by subaerial deposits. This paper focuses on one of these particular rift basins, the Cambrian Guaritas Rift, Southern Brazil, characterized by more than 1500 m of alluvial and aeolian strata deposited in a 50-km-wide basin. The deposits of the Guaritas Rift can be ascribed to four depositional systems: basin-border alluvial fans, bed-load-dominated ephemeral rivers, mixed-load ephemeral rivers and aeolian dune fields. These four systems are in part coeval and in part succeed each other, forming three stages of basin evolution: (i) Rift Initiation to Early Rift Climax stage, (ii) Mid to Late Rift Climax stage, and (iii) Early Post-Rift stage. The first stage comprises most of the Guaritas Group and is characterized by homogeneous bed-load-dominated river deposits, which do not clearly record the evolution of subsidence rates. The onset of sedimentation of finer-grained deposits occurred as a consequence of a reactivation event that changed the outline of the basin and the distribution of the nearby highlands. This strongly suggests that the capture of the main river system to another depression decreased the sediment supply to the basin. The study of the Guaritas Rift indicates that rift basins in which the sediment supply exceeds the accommodation generation occur as a consequence of moderate subsidence combined with the capture of a major river system to the basin during the initial stages of basin evolution. In these basins, changes in the average discharge of the river system or tectonic modification of the drainage network may be the major control on the stratigraphic architecture.

  12. Ecological traits of two sympatric species of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Buckup, Georgina Bond

    2008-01-01

    This work was performed with the aim to test theoretical predictions regarding that the sympatric species Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi might show distinct population biology to facilitate its coexistence. The specimens were collected monthly with nets from August 2003 through July 2004 in two trout ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. In the laboratory, the specimens were measured as cephalothorax length (mm), being the sex and ovigerous conditions checked. The species H. pleoacuta was 2.94 times more frequent than H. castroi. Males were significantly greater in size than females ( H. pleoacuta—males: 0.74 ± 0.002 mm and females: 0.66 ± 0.001 mm; H. castroi—males: 0.84 ± 0.00 mm and females: 0.72 ± 0.003 mm). Males and females of H. castroi showed a greater mean body size than H. pleoacuta. Sexual maturity was attained at 0.53 mm in males and 0.48 mm in females of H. pleoacuta, and 0.72 mm in males and 0.67 mm in females of H. castroi. The frequency distribution in size classes was usually bimodal in H. pleoacuta and polymodal in H. castroi throughout the year. Sex ratio was female-biased in either species of Hyalella. Ovigerous females (carrying eggs or juveniles in the marsupium) were collected throughout the year in both Hyalella species, but H. pleoacuta and H. castroi were found with more frequency during the winter and fall, respectively. Recruitment occurred in all months of sampling, the juvenile frequency being more than 50% of the amphipods collected in almost all months in both species. The biological differences (especially body size, size at sexual maturity, number of specimens collected and reproductive peak) and microhabitat specialization can be facilitating factors in the coexistence of H. pleoacuta and H. castroi in artificial ponds raising trout.

  13. THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES

    E-print Network

    THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNIT,ED STATES FISHERY LEAFLET No. 472 UNITED, D. C. #12;THE SHRIMP AND THE SHRIMP INDUSTRY OF THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES by William W. Anderson Fishery Research Biologist The shrimp fishery of the United States is centered primarily in the eight

  14. Paracoccidioidomycosis in wild monkeys from Paraná State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreia C. Corte; Walfrido K. Svoboda; Italmar T. Navarro; Roberta L. Freire; Luciano S. Malanski; M. M. Shiozawa; Gabriela Ludwig; Lucas M. Aguiar; Fernando C. Passos; Angela Maron; Zoilo P. Camargo; Eiko N. Itano; Mario Augusto Ono

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paran? River basin, Paran? State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion\\u000a using P. brasiliensis gp43 and

  15. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  16. Genetic variability in five populations of Partamona helleri (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Partamona is a Neotropical genus of stingless bees that comprises 33 species distributed from Mexico to southern Brazil. These bees are well-adapted to anthropic environments and build their nests in several substrates. In this study, 66 colonies of Partamona helleri from five localities in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (São Miguel do Anta, Teixeiras, Porto Firme, Viçosa and Rio Vermelho) were analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in order to assess their genetic variability. Low levels of observed (Ho = 0.099-0.137) and expected (H e = 0.128-0.145) heterozygosity were encountered and revealed discrete genetic differentiation among the populations (F ST = 0.025). AMOVA further showed that most of the total genetic variation (94.24%) in P. helleri was explained by the variability within local populations. PMID:21637591

  17. HIV Diagnoses, Prevalence and Outcomes in Nine Southern States.

    PubMed

    Reif, Susan; Pence, Brian Wells; Hall, Irene; Hu, Xiaohong; Whetten, Kathryn; Wilson, Elena

    2015-08-01

    A group of nine states in the Southern United States, hereafter referred to as the targeted states, has experienced particularly high HIV diagnosis and case fatality rates. To provide additional information about the HIV burden in this region, we used CDC HIV surveillance data to examine characteristics of individuals diagnosed with HIV in the targeted states (2011), 5-year HIV and AIDS survival, and deaths among persons living with HIV (2010). We used multivariable analyses to explore the influence of residing in the targeted states at diagnosis on deaths among persons living with HIV after adjustment for demographics and transmission risk. In 2011, the targeted states had a higher HIV diagnosis rate (24.5/100,000 population) than the US overall (18.0/100,000) and higher proportions than other regions of individuals diagnosed with HIV who were black, female, younger, and living in suburban and rural areas. Furthermore, the targeted states had lower HIV and AIDS survival proportions (0.85, 0.73, respectively) than the US overall (0.86, 0.77, respectively) and the highest death rate among persons living with HIV of any US region. Regional differences in demographics and transmission risk did not explain the higher death rate among persons living with HIV in the targeted states indicating that other factors contribute to this disparity. Differences in characteristics and outcomes of individuals with HIV in the targeted states are critical to consider when creating strategies to address HIV in the region, as are other factors identified in previous research to be prominent in the region including poverty and stigma. PMID:25524210

  18. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  19. First report of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally infected dogs from southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2013-01-01

    In order to verify the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic domiciled dogs in a rural endemic area from the south region of the State of Bahia, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were performed using S35 and S36 primers in 272 dogs living in the district of Vila Operaria, in the municipality of Buerarema. All animals were clinically evaluated; 2.5 mL of blood were collected through venipuncture for the performance of molecular tests. None of these animals showed clinical signs of the illness and only two were identified with the DNA parasite. This result is the first report of natural infection by T. cruzi in domestic dogs in southern Bahia. PMID:23459848

  20. Long-term trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leonel, Juliana; Sericano, Jose L; Fillmann, Gilberto; Secchi, Eduardo; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2010-03-01

    Selected POPs were analyzed in blubber samples of Pontoporia blainvillei from Southern Brazil to appraise temporal trend over a 10 year period (1994-2004). Overall, levels of POPs were relatively low, especially when compared to Northern Hemisphere concentrations. Apart from Mirex and PCBs, which showed stable concentrations, DDTs, HCB, CHLs, Dieldrin levels presented a slight decrease over the studied period. In addition, the increase in the PCBs/DDTs ratio supports the idea that inputs of DDTs are decaying faster than PCBs. PMID:19931871

  1. An Eddy-Permitting Southern Ocean State Estimate

    E-print Network

    Mazloff, Matthew R.

    An eddy-permitting general circulation model of the Southern Ocean is fit by constrained least squares to a large observational dataset during 2005–06. Data used include Argo float profiles, CTD synoptic sections, Southern ...

  2. Parasites of Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential. PMID:23856738

  3. Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population 8 Southern States and Maine Cornelis F. de Hoop

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    10.0 Surveys of the Logging Contractor Population ­ 8 Southern States and Maine by Cornelis F. de. Egan Associate Professor Department of Forest Management University of Maine Orono, ME 04469-5755 W. Thus, surveys of loggers in Maine and in eight southern states were conducted to gain additional

  4. THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH.

    E-print Network

    THE SOUTHERN SPRING MACKEREL FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES. By HUGH M. SMITH. The southern spring mackerel fishery of the United States if'! important from aev- eral standpoints, and of late has been than the regular fishery for mackerel carried on during the summer and fall months, it- has

  5. Wavelet analysis of a centennial (1895–1994) southern Brazil rainfall series (Pelotas, 31°46?19?S 52°20? 33?W)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Souza Echer; E. Echer; D. J. Nordemann; N. R. Rigozo; A. Prestes

    2008-01-01

    In this work we apply the wavelet transform to the Pelotas (southern Brazil) total annual rainfall series (1894–1995). Classical,\\u000a wavelet and cross-wavelet analyses were performed in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO),\\u000a sunspot number (Rz) and Pelotas rainfall time series. Classical spectral analysis for Pelotas has shown a large number of\\u000a short periods – between 2.2–5.6 years (yr)

  6. Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

    2012-05-01

    This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

  7. Dietary patterns and hypertension: a population-based study with women from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bianca Del Ponte da; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Camey, Suzi; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between dietary pattern and hypertension using the rank reduced regression (RRR). It was a cross-sectional population-based study with a representative sample of 1,026 women living in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In order to identify dietary patterns, dietary variables from a dietary frequency questionnaire were used as predictors and sodium, potassium and saturated fat consumption were selected as response variables. The RRR identified three dietary patterns: Factor 1, Factor 2 and Factor 3. The association between hypertension and factors 1, 2 and 3, after adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral and obesity variables, was not significant. After stratification by age, the association between hypertension and factor 2 was present in 40-60 year-old women (tertile 2 compared to 3 RP = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.43-0.91; p = 0,05). The new statistical method (RRR), proved to be a useful tool for identifying dietary patterns. In this study, healthier dietary pattern was directly associated with hypertension in women between 40 and 60 years of age. PMID:24936813

  8. Socioeconomic, demographic and nutritional factors associated with maternal weight gain in general practices in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drehmer, Michele; Camey, Suzi; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Giacomello, Andressa; Buss, Caroline; Melere, Cristiane; Hoffmann, Juliana; Manzolli, Patricia; Soares, Rafael Marques; Ozcariz, Silvia; Nunes, Maria Angélica Antunes

    2010-05-01

    In order to describe adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy and its association with pre-pregnancy nutritional status and other factors, a cohort study of pregnant women enrolled at 16-36 weeks of gestation and followed up until delivery was carried out in prenatal care in primary care services in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Maternal weight was recorded at each prenatal care visit. Weight gain was classified as "adequate," "insufficient" or "excessive" (Institute of Medicine). Poisson regression was used to measure the associations. The sample was comprised of 667 women, and insufficient and excessive weight gain incidences were 25.8% and 44.8%, respectively. Overweight and obese before pregnancy had a significant increased risk of excessive weight gain in pregnancy (RR: 1.75; 95%CI: 1.48-2.07, RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.23-1.96, respectively). Women with fewer than six prenatal visits had a 52% increased risk for weight gain below recommended values. Although insufficient weight gain may still be a public health problem, excessive gain is becoming a concern that needs immediate attention in prenatal care. PMID:20563402

  9. [Adolescent homicide victims in Southern Brazil: situations of vulnerability as reported by families].

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Ana; Aerts, Denise; Lopes, Marta Júlia

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on homicide deaths of adolescents (ages 10 to 19 years) in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 1997. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM) of the Municipal Health Department. Families were visited at the addresses found on death certificates and were interviewed by two researchers. Of the 68 cases selected, 57 families were visited; eight families refused to be interviewed, and three addresses were not found. Most of the adolescents were socially vulnerable, as indicated by low per capita income and parental educational level; 78.9% had dropped out of school. Males were the predominant victims of adolescent homicide deaths (91.2%). Behavioral vulnerability was demonstrated as follows: 40.4% of the adolescents consumed alcoholic beverages and 45.6% illicit drugs, and 58.6% had criminal records or a history of custody at FEBEM (the State Juvenile Custody Facilities) or police arrests. The study highlights the importance of coordinating actions among different sectors to reach adolescents both at home and in the schools and communities. PMID:15692645

  10. Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro F. Diaz; Caarem D. Studzinski; Carlos R. Mechoso

    1998-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between,its anomalies,and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and

  11. Nutrition scenario in Karnataka, a state in southern India.

    PubMed

    Sheela, K

    1999-06-01

    India is an agricultural country and the majority of India's population live in rural areas. This is so in Karnataka, a state in southern India. The present report consists of a detailed nutrition situation analysis. Karnataka has a population of 45 million, which is approximately 3-5% of India's population. One in every two women are agricultural labourers, reflecting women's predominance in the field of agriculture. The state has a literacy rate of 56%. The food consumption patterns reveal that cereals and millets are the main food items. However, protective foods (i.e. foods that are rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals) are consumed in lesser amounts. When compared with the average Indian recommended dietary intake (RDI), the intake of energy in adults was found to be higher, as was protein. The average intake of vitamins, however, was 50% less than the RDI. Unlike adults, energy deficiency is a problem in the diets of preschool children. Growth retardation has been observed in a vast majority of children in Karnataka. An improvement in the nutritional status of rural adults has been observed in recent years. Protein energy malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency and B-complex deficiencies are the major nutritional deficiencies among preschool children, while anaemia remains a major health problem in women. Improvement in the healthcare system has brought a decline in the infant mortality rate in Karnataka and the state attained universal immunization coverage in 1990. The National Nutrition Programme - Integrated Child Development Scheme provides an integrated package of services to residents of Karnataka. PMID:24393803

  12. Influence of extrinsic variables on activity and habitat selection of lowland tapirs ( Tapirus terrestris) in the coastal sand plain shrub, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Gustavo R. Oliveira-Santos; Luiz Carlos P. Machado-Filho; Marcos Adriano Tortato; Luisa Brusius

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1. evaluate the circadian activity patterns of lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) throughout the seasons and 2. study the influence of moonlight, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns and habitat selection of this species, in the coastal sand shrub in southern Brazil. From June 2005 to June 2006, eight tapirs were monitored in

  13. An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Coelho De Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

    2006-01-01

    The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

  14. An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Coelho de Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

    The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

  15. Allanite and chevkinite in A-type granites and syenites of the Graciosa Province, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlach, Silvio R. F.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.

    2007-08-01

    Allanite and chevkinite-perrierite are important accessory phases in the granitic and syenitic A-type rocks of the Graciosa Province, southern Brazil. Allanite-(Ce) is the main REE phase in the granites of the aluminous association - which includes metaluminous to weakly peraluminous granites - while chevkinite-(Ce) is the typical REE phase in the metaluminous syenites and alkali-feldspar syenites, and the peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites of the alkaline association. Allanite shows complex zoning patterns but is always rich in the ferriallanite molecule and in TiO 2, a compositional trait that distinguishes allanite in A-type aluminous associations from allanite in calcic-, alkali-calcic, and calc-alkaline granitoids. Normalized REE patterns show strong fractionation of heavy over light REE, with La N/Nd N ratios between 3 and 5, and La N/Y N ratios between 200 and 400. Primary allanite is variably affected by post-magmatic transformations due to the interaction with a fluid-phase and metamictization caused by radioactive decay. Chevkinite-(Ce) is always primary and is only present in the alkaline association. The early crystallization of chevkinite indicates that the parental magmas were probably close to REE-saturation. The REE + Y abundance in chevkinite (43-49 wt.%) is almost twice that observed in primary allanite; yet, the normalized patterns are similar in terms of fractionation between light and heavy REE, as indicated by similar La N/Nd N ratios in chevkinite and allanite. La N/Y N ratios are on average lower in chevkinite (90-300). Chevkinite compositions were altered by interaction with post-magmatic fluids, which led to marked increase in TiO 2, and a reduction in REE and Fe T. Post-magmatic allanite is present in both the alkaline and aluminous associations, and corresponds to ferriallanite-(Ce) in the alkaline association, and allanite-(Y) in the aluminous association. Compared to primary allanite, post-magmatic allanite-(Ce) shows smaller REE fractionation (2 < La N/Nd N < 3), while allanite-(Y) shows relative enrichment in the middle REE, with Sm values close to 10 5 times chondrite. The mineralogy of the rocks indicates crystallization conditions close to the titanite-magnetite-quartz-amphibole-ilmenite (TMQAI) buffer for the aluminous association, and close to the fayalite-quartz-magnetite (FQM) buffer for the alkaline association, and temperatures between 800 and 900 °C (liquidus) and ca. 750 °C (solidus). The experimentally determined stability fields for chevkinite and allanite are in agreement with the textural evidence for early chevkinite crystallization and late allanite crystallization, even though allanite and chevkinite only rarely coexist in the alkaline association. Wherever allanite and chevkinite coexist, they reveal reaction textures, such that it is possible that only allanite or chevkinite is stable at any given condition. The distribution of allanite and chevkinite in the alkaline association suggests that the composition of the magmas is an important control on the stability fields of these minerals, a fact that is supported by the presence of primary allanite in rocks formed by processes of mixing and mingling of magmas. In this sense, the importance of composition on the stability of allanite and chevkinite may be larger than previously suggested.

  16. SPECIES PROFILE: SOUTHERN HOGNOSE SNAKE (HETERODON SIMUS) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The southern hognose snake (Heterodon simus) is the smallest of the hognose snakes, occurring in the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to South & Central Florida and west to Southern Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. The species is a former candid...

  17. Assessment of Yield with Altered Soybean Traits Under Climate Change in Southern Brazil: Performance of the Crop Model and Genotype Trait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battisti, R.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Boote, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water deficit is the main factor responsible for soybean yield gap in Southern Brazil and tends to increase under climate change scenarios. Alternatives need be identified in order to create options to reduce the yield gap. One alternative is the selection of soybean cultivars with traits associated to drought tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study, via use of crop models, is to evaluate genetic traits that can help to improve soybean yield under climate change scenarios in Southern Brazil by improving the crop tolerance to water deficit. For this, the CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean model was used to simulate soybean yield in Southern Brazil and evaluate yield with altered genetic traits. The first step was to calibrate the model for a Brazilian soybean cultivar, using results from irrigated and rainfed experiments conducted in different sowing dates and locations in Southern Brazil. The CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean estimated a mean yield of 3551 (SD = 1439) kg ha-1, while the mean observed yield was 3313 (SD = 1105) kg ha-1. The mean error was 238 kg ha-1 (7.2%), mean error absolute was 765 kg ha-1 (23%) and modeling efficiency was 0.27, with a good relationship between observed and simulated yield (Figure 1). The model was able to estimate soybean yield for different levels of soil water available during the crop season. The next steps of the project are to manipulate the coefficients related with rooting depth extension, early stomata closure at high soil water contents, transpiration limited to a maximum rate, and N2 fixation drought tolerance in the model in order to identify their impact on yield under current and future climate scenarios in all soybean production regions in Southern Brazil. The soybean yield from different changed traits will be evaluated in order to define guidelines for breeding programs, allowing the saving of resources and time in the new cultivars development process, focused on adaptation to climate change.

  18. Misoprostol use in obstetrics and gynecology in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Clark; J. Blum; K. Blanchard; L. Galvão; H. Fletcher; B. Winikoff

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate current clinical use of misoprostol for the treatment of a range of reproductive health indications by providers in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States. Methods: Using a ‘snowball’ sampling technique, we surveyed 228 gynecologists and obstetricians in Brazil (n=123), Jamaica (n=52), and the United States (n=53). Results: Providers use misoprostol for labor induction (46%), postpartum hemorrhage (8%),

  19. Accumulation patterns of organochlorines in juveniles of Arctocephalus australis found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fillmann, Gilberto; Hermanns, Luciano; Fileman, Tim W; Readman, James W

    2007-03-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the specific distributions of organochlorine (OC) compounds in various tissues and organs of juveniles of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) found stranded on beaches in southern Brazil. The OC residue concentrations occurred in the following order: PCBs>DDTs>CHLs>HCHs>HCB. OC concentrations in blubber were higher than other tissues (e.g. PCBs, 2480 ng g(-1) wet weight; DDTs, 660 ng g(-1) wet weight) indicating a positive association with lipid content (except for HCB). However, the poor nutritional status of these animals, possibly following a starvation period, is likely to have allowed the remobilization of organochlorines stored in lipids to other tissues throughout the body, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects and possibly affecting their survival capability. PMID:17029680

  20. HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Letícia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osório, Marta R.; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

    2013-01-01

    People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

  1. Brazil, the United States, and the missile technology control regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Tollefson

    1990-01-01

    This technical report analyzes Brazil's development of ballistic missiles in light of U.S. pressures to stifle that development. The first section describes and critiques the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR); the second analyzes the U.S. application of MTCR guidelines toward Brazil; the third assesses Brazil's ballistic missile capabilities; and the fourth considers Brazil's response. The report concludes that the U.S.

  2. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH < 10cm) is registered in 100m2 in each sample unit. Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status. PMID:22017139

  3. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    E-print Network

    Giles, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Busch, Joseph D.; Olafson, Pia U.; Scoles, Glen A.; Davey, Ronald B.; Pound, J. Mathews; Kammlah, Diane M.; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H.; Wagner, David M.

    2014-04-17

    Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which...

  4. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  5. Surveillance for Yellow Fever Virus in Non-Human Primates in Southern Brazil, 2001–2011: A Tool for Prioritizing Human Populations for Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681

  6. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  7. Life support limitation at three pediatric intensive care units in southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia M. Lago; Jefferson P. Piva; Délio J. Kipper; Pedro Celiny Ramos Garcia; Cristiane Pretto; Mateus Giongo; Ricardo Garcia Branco; Fernanda Bueno; Cristiane Traiber; Taisa Araújo; Daniela Wortmann; Graziele Librelato; Deise Soardi

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To describe causes of death and factors involved in the decision-making process related to life support limitation at three university-affiliated pediatric intensive care units in the south of Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, based on a review of the medical records of all deaths occurring during 2002 at three pediatric intensive care units in Porto Alegre. Three

  8. A new xenacanthid shark (Chondrichthyes) from the Teresina Formation, Permian of the Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Richter

    2005-01-01

    The Kazanian\\/Tartarian Teresina Formation of the Paraná Basin is so far the most productive stratigraphic unit in Brazil as far as Palaeozoic sharks are concern, although no articulate materials have yet been found. Teeth, fin spines and dermal scales are locally abundant, especially in hummocky deposits (tempestites). Biogeochemical evidence points to the fresh water origin of this fauna. New chondrichthyan

  9. Batkoa apiculata (Thaxter) Humber affecting Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in the municipality of Una, Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...

  10. Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…

  11. Twelve years of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil: epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha; Silviane Praciano Bandeira; Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra Fechine; Zoilo Pires de Camargo; José Júlio Costa Sidrim

    2010-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection in the Americas caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Although the disease occurs in Brazil in sporadic form, little information about these cases is available. In this study, we summarize the most important clinical, epidemiologic, and diagnostic features of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State (Northeast Brazil) during the past 12 years. In

  12. Seasonal variability of hydro-physical conditions in Faxinal system subtropical climate in southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João

    2015-04-01

    The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland, and 46.1 cm / h in Native Forest. The infiltration in the secondary forest in January was of 32.3 cm / h (29.9% higher than in August). The pasture indicated infiltration of 12.8 cm / h (32.9% lower) and 49.2 cm / h native forest (6.3% higher). Soil compaction in August was of 2.9 kgf / cm2 in the secondary forest, 3.7 kgf / cm2 in the pasture, and 1.4 kgf / cm2 in the Native Forest. In January, compression was of 2.1 in Secondary Forest (27.6% less than in August), 4.0 kgf / cm2 in the pasture (7.5% higher) and 1.3 kgf / cm2 in the native Forest (7.1% lower). These variations may be associated to the climatic conditions which cause some frost in winter promoting greater mobilization of animals looking for food in secondary forest areas due to reduced pasture. The springs from the pasture in summer enhances the time animals stay in the pasture areas. The influence of animals on hydrogeomorphic conditions in faxinal areas was evident, especially when comparing the data from the two areas with the ones indicated by the Native Forest.

  13. Diet of brown-nosed coatis and crab-eating raccoons from a mosaic landscape with exotic plantations in southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucas M. Aguiar; Rodrigo F. Moro-Rios; Thiago Silvestre; José E. Silva-Pereira; Diego R. Bilski; Fernando C. Passos; Margareth L. Sekiama; Vlamir J. Rocha

    2011-01-01

    We described the diets of two procyonids, the brown-nosed coati Nasua nasua and the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus, through analysis of stomach contents of road-killed specimens in southern Brazil. We compared them with previously published dietary information for another syntopic mesopredator, the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous. The landscape of the study area includes native grasslands, forests, exotic tree plantations, and

  14. Grain size and heavy minerals of the Late Quaternary eolian sediments from the Imbituba–Jaguaruna coast, Southern Brazil: Depositional controls linked to relative sea-level changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Sawakuchi; P. C. F. Giannini; C. T. Martinho; A. P. B. Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    The stratigraphic subdivision and correlation of dune deposits is difficult, especially when age datings are not available. A better understanding of the controls on texture and composition of eolian sands is necessary to interpret ancient eolian sediments. The Imbituba–Jaguaruna coastal zone (Southern Brazil, 28°–29° S) stands out due to its four well-preserved Late Pleistocene (eolian generation 1) to Holocene eolian

  15. Pedogeochemistry and micromorphology of oxisols - A basis for understanding etchplanation in the Araucárias Plateau (Southern Brazil) in the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; de Barros Corrêa, Antônio Carlos; Rech Rodrigues, Rafaela Ana

    2013-12-01

    Approximately five years ago, the Working Group on Ancient Surfaces and Long-Term Landscape Evolution was created to raise planed surfaces in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay with the aim of establishing regional correlations of planed surfaces after the formation of the Gondwanan rocks in South America. In Brazil, planed surfaces were recognized and classified between 1940 and 1960 and were given various designations and different age estimates based on regional morphostratigraphic correlation attempts. In the last twenty years, the assumptions of those attempts began to be questioned on a large scale by studies in which empirical observations, mediated by the use of new methodologies, did not indicate such a direct relationship between the paleosurfaces and their long-term erosive origin. We identified eight staggered surfaces in the Araucárias Plateau, Southern Brazil, between the Iguazu and Uruguay Rivers. Initially, we attempted to understand the planed surfaces as classic pediplains, but we found weathering profiles of different thicknesses with oxisols downstream of the knickpoints, instead of correlative deposits. We understand these surfaces as planed surfaces or paleosurfaces without erosive interrelation between them, resulting from the action of etchplanation processes. This idea contradicts the classical perspective of Brazilian geomorphology that attributes the cyclical alternation of Quaternary paleoclimates to the evolution of the model of the subtropical landscapes. The hypothesis begins from the assumption that the model evolved from the binomial morphogenesis/pedogenesis in phase with the glacial/interglacial cycles. In this study, we attempt to demonstrate that the climactic controls on morphogenesis/pedogenesis are mediated by the responses of the weathered mantle on the scale of its chemical and microstructural organization, which does not always validate previous theoretical assumptions. In this article, we use the chemical composition, weathering indices, iron, mineralogy of the clays and micromorphology of the oxisols of surface 6 to propose a first approximation of the evolution of the planed surfaces regarding etchplanation in southern Brazil. The surfaces' pedogeochemical and micromorphological properties reveal the following: a) hydrolysis is the main process of geochemical loss of geomorphic surfaces; b) geochemical erosion is more intense in the glacial periods, when the decreased temperature favors slower weathering in a more continuous manner; c) the pedobioclimatic imbalance generated by the input in interglacial periods favors mechanical erosion of the ground surface due to the substitution of the structure in blocks by microaggregates, which reduces the cohesiveness of the mantles of alteration; d) morphogenesis is most important in interglacial periods, promoting the truncation of oxisols; e) the oxisols from the remnants of the planed surfaces are actually renewed profiles younger than 500 Ky BP; f) models of long-term chemical denudation must take into consideration short-duration changes (?25 Ky) in the pedogeochemical and structural processes of the solum.

  16. The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa Keith Priestley a,, Dan McKenzie a

    E-print Network

    The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa Keith Priestley a,, Dan McKenzie a , Eric model for southern Africa based on the fitting of a large (3622 waveforms) multi-mode surface wave data models. The seismic lithosphere beneath the cratonic region of southern Africa in this model is about 175

  17. A Manual for Dialect Research in the Southern States. Second edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Lee, Ed.; And Others

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (LAGS) Project is a survey of regional and social dialects in eight southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. This manual has been prepared both for those who will conduct the research and for those who are interested in the aims and methods of the…

  18. AN OVERVIEW OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Neary; H. Riekerk

    This paper examines nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) in the thirteen states of the Southern Region. The definitions, sources, types, and trends of NPSP are discussed. NPSP is of particular concern to wetlands because it is difficult to manage and most states have little knowledge of the effects on wetlands. Information is very limited on the cumulative effects of different NPSP

  19. UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States

    E-print Network

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Breeding and Development of Zoysiagrasses for the Southern United States that are superior to the parental checks. Program Benefits · The Center's turfgrass breeding and genetics program grown in 24 states and several countries where adapted. · Breeding efforts continue with the objective

  20. Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States

    E-print Network

    : (1) share cutting edge research and extension information on water quality, conservation, law (Oklahoma State University), · Diane Boellstorff (Texas A&M University) · Conservation attitudes1 Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States October 13

  1. Displacement of Black Teachers in the Eleven Southern States. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Robert W.

    In order to collect information on teacher displacement, the Race Relations Information Center surveyed white and black teachers and principals, teacher association executives, attorneys, civil rights and community leaders, state and federal officials, and journalists in 11 Southern states; the survey was conducted largely by phone. Several…

  2. Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Monte, C M; Ashworth, A; Sá, M L; Diniz, R L

    1998-12-01

    Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992-1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation--8.7 months--was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators. PMID:9924513

  3. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini?Tefé; Manacapuru?Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo?São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos?Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. PMID:25528017

  4. DNA barcodes identify marine fishes of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Amanda de Oliveira; Caires, Rodrigo Antunes; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Pereira, Luiz Henrique Garcia; Hanner, Robert; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-11-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are an increasing threat to the diversity of fishes, especially in areas around large urban centres, and many effective conservation actions depend on accurate species identification. Considering the utility of DNA barcoding as a global system for species identification and discovery, this study aims to assemble a DNA barcode reference sequence library for marine fishes from the coastal region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The standard 652 bp 'barcode' fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was PCR amplified and bidirectionally sequenced from 678 individuals belonging to 135 species. A neighbour-joining analysis revealed that this approach can unambiguously discriminate 97% of the species surveyed. Most species exhibited low intraspecific genetic distances (0.31%), about 43-fold less than the distance among species within a genus. Four species showed higher intraspecific divergences ranging from 2.2% to 7.6%, suggesting overlooked diversity. Notably, just one species-pair exhibited barcode divergences of <1%. This library is a first step to better know the molecular diversity of marine fish species from São Paulo, providing a basis for further studies of this fauna - extending the ability to identify these species from all life stages and even fragmentary remains, setting the stage for a better understanding of interactions among species, calibrating the estimations about species composition and richness in an ecosystem, and providing tools for authenticating bioproducts and monitoring illegal species exploitation. PMID:22958713

  5. Santa Bárbara Formation (Early Paleozoic, Caçapava do Sul, southern Brazil): Petrographic and Sm-Nd isotopic provenance parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Borba, André Weissheimer; Mizusaki, Ana Maria Pimentel; Maraschin, Anderson José; da Silva, Diogo Rodrigues Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Integrated petrographic and Sm-Nd isotopic data were applied in order to constrain the provenance of the Early Paleozoic Santa Bárbara Formation, Sul-rio-grandense Shield, southern Brazil. This unit comprises continental sandstones, conglomerates and siltstones deposited under semi-arid climate in a rift or pull-apart basin. Samples were collected within a stratigraphic framework composed of three sequences, in which the two basal ones present northeastwards paleoflow, and the third one marks the inversion of basin filling. Samples from sequence I show, in the south, a strong influence of intermediate volcanic (Hilário Formation) sources, and a significant increase in quartz and metamorphic fragments upsection. In the northern deposits, there is a possible influence of juvenile units (Cambaí/Vacacaí), and a more significant input of Paleoproterozoic-sourced sedimentary rocks (e.g. Maricá Formation) upsection. Samples collected from the topmost deposits of sequence II present a clear increase in the amount of volcanic fragments (mostly acidic), reflecting denudation of the "Caçapava high". Data obtained in sequence III (Pedra do Segredo) show a progressive decrease in quartz content and a significant increase in feldspathic, plutonic fragments. A more evolved phase of denudation of the "Caçapava high", exposing leucogranitoids of the Caçapava do Sul complex, is proposed for this interval.

  6. Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari

    2007-06-01

    Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate fertilizer factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l(-1) and 5 mg l(-1), respectively, and were dependent on pH. The fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial horizon of soil in quantities comparable to those in the manufactured end-products--up to 23,000 mg kg(-1). Fluoride distribution in the environment is controlled by physical-chemical parameters of emission, rain intensity and soil properties. The highest fluoride concentrations were registered at a close distance of up to 2 km from the factory. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater resembled the same distribution in rainwater due to the high permeability of the local soils. Fluoride penetration to the groundwater also depended on the type of vegetation cover. The groundwater in woodland areas was less affected by contamination of fluoride than in the grassland areas, most probably because of the influence of eucalyptus throughfall, which increases the pH of wet precipitates. PMID:17288010

  7. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids. PMID:24031300

  8. Leachability of major and minor elements from soils and sediments of an abandoned coal mining area in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-03-01

    Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area. PMID:25655127

  9. Vitamin D Status and VDR Genotype in NF1 Patients: A Case-Control Study from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza Mario Bueno, Larissa; Rosset, Clévia; Aguiar, Ernestina; Pereira, Fernando de Souza; Izetti Ribeiro, Patrícia; Scalco, Rosana; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Gischkow Rucatti, Guilherme; Chies, José Artur; Camey, Suzi Alves; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency when compared to the general population. This study aimed to determine the levels of 25-OH-vitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with NF1 and disease-unaffected controls and analyze FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms in a case and in a control group. Vitamin D levels were compared between a group of 45 NF1 patients from Southern Brazil and 45 healthy controls matched by sex, skin type, and age. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of VDR gene polymorphisms were obtained from the same NF1 patients and 150 healthy controls. 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency was not more frequent in NF1 patients than in controls (p = 0.074). We also did not observe an association between FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms and vitamin D levels in NF1 patients, suggesting that their deficient or insufficient biochemical phenotypes are not associated with these genetic variants. The differences between the groups in genotypic and allelic frequencies for FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms were small and did not reach statistical significance. These polymorphisms are in partial linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype frequencies also did not differ in a significant way between the two groups (p = 0.613).

  10. Surface water quality in the Sinos River basin, in Southern Brazil: tracking microbiological contamination and correlation with physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Dalla Vecchia, Andréia; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-07-01

    Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500 ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples. PMID:25649392

  11. Identification of and handling of critical irradiance forecast uncertainties using a Random Forest scheme - a case study for southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Hans Georg; Preed Revheim, Pal; Kratenber, Manfred Georg; Zuern, Hans Helmut

    2015-04-01

    For the secure operation of the utility grid, especially in grid with a high penetration of volatile wind or solar generation forecasts of the respective power flows are essential. Full profit of the forecasts can, however not been taken without the knowledge of their uncertainties. Based on irradiance data from southern Brazil we present a scheme for the identification of situations for which elevated forecast errors are to be expected. For this, the classification technique Random Forests applied, using the history of the site specific irradiance data forecast errors together with a set of auxiliary meteorological variables. As byproduct, extracted systematic forecast errors are used to update the forecasts. The predictive performance of the Random Forest models are assessed by the predictions ability to reduce the number of hours or days with forecast errors exceeding the limits, and on the resulting overall forecast RMSE. Limited to none improvements are obtained when predicting next-hour forecast errors, while significant improvements are obtained when predicting next-day forecast errors. Setting a relatively low limit for forecast error exceedance is found to give the largest improvements in terms of reduction of forecast RMSE.

  12. Clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women in Southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Moreira, Leila Beltrami; Camey, Susi Alves; Moreira, Marina Beltrami; Fuchs, Flávio Danni

    2008-01-01

    The association between clustering of risk factors and self-reported cardiovascular disease among women was investigated in a cross-sectional study using a multistage population-based sample. Participants were interviewed at home about diabetes mellitus, physical activity, and diet pattern. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive medication. Cardiovascular disease included self-reported myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary artery bypass surgery, and stroke. A sample of 1,007 women from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, mostly white (73%), 44.8 +/- 0.8 years old, and with 9.3 +/- 0.3 years of schooling was investigated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, and lack of vigorous or moderate physical activity were clustered into a combination of risk factors, which were independently associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease. The main cluster included hypertension and diabetes, accounting for an independent risk ratio of 8.5 (95%CI: 3.0-24.5). Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is strongly associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease among women. PMID:18670708

  13. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Edenir I; Caleffi, Maira; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Roth, Fernanda L; Kalakun, Luciane; Netto, Cristina Brinkmann Oliveira; Skonieski, Giovana; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Weber, Bernadete; Giugliani, Roberto; Camey, Suzi A; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2009-07-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ? 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  14. Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

  15. Identification, occurrence and clinical findings of canine hemoplasmas in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valle, Stella de Faria; Messick, Joanne B; Dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Duda, Naila Cristina Blatt; Machado, Gustavo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; González, Felix Hilario Diaz

    2014-09-01

    Hemoplasmas are ubiquitous pleomorphic and epicellular bacteria detected in erythrocytes in several species. In Brazil, studies on hemoplasmas have not included information on occurrence, clinical signs, and risk factors in dogs. This paper investigates the occurrence of hemoplasmas in dogs, focusing on risk factors and clinical status. Conventional PCR for the four types of canine hemoplasmas was performed in 331 blood samples collected from dogs clinically treated at a teaching veterinary hospital. Of all samples, 17/331 (5.1%) were positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis and 6/331 (1.8%) were positive for a 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-like' organism. Risk factors included the presence of vectors, old age, dog bite wounds, and neoplastic diseases. In the multivariate analysis, a 4.40 odds ratio in dogs with vector-borne diseases indicated risk for hemoplasmosis. There was correlation between hemoplasma infection and neoplastic disease, suggesting that neoplastic conditions are a risk factor for hemoplasma infection in dogs. PMID:25159996

  16. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

  17. A study of (500/1000)-mb thickness distributions over the United States and southern Canada 

    E-print Network

    McDonell, James Edward

    1959-01-01

    A STUDY OF ( S00/1000)-M8 THICKNESS DISTRIBUTIONS OVER THE UNffED STATES AND SOUTHERN CANADA JAMES ED%'ARD MC DONE LL Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of omm1ttee) (Head of De partment) January 1959 Based on eleven years of data..., thickness distributions of the ( S00/1000)- mb layer for the month of March for twenty-eight upper-air observing stations in tbe United States and southern ~ are examined statistically, A com- plete set of stathstical quantities for each distribution...

  18. Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

  19. Early post-collisional Brasiliano magmatism in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil: Evidence from petrology, geochemistry, isotope geology and geochronology of the diabase and lamprophyre dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks de Campos, Roberto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Chemale, Farid

    2012-08-01

    The post-collisional magmatism related to Brasiliano orogeny represented the final stage of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, southern Brazil, presenting high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and alkaline chemical signatures. Magmatic episodes related to this early period were found in Botuverá region, Santa Catarina state, represented by diabase and lamprophyre (spessartite-type) dikes intrusive in metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Brusque Metamorphic Complex (CMB). These dikes have massive structure and igneous textures ranging from very fine equigranular to porphyritic, and the latter is characterized by the presence of phenocrysts of plagioclase and hornblende. The dikes have northeast direction and sharp contacts with the metamorphic rocks, indicating that its position was after the main orogenic regional metamorphism that affected the CMB, interpreted as of collisional nature. The diabase has a basic composition, whereas spessartite lamprophyres are intermediate, with geochemical affinities to the tholeiitic series, with a significant enrichment in light rare-earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Cs, Rb, Ba, K and Sr, and negative anomalies for high-field-strength elements (HFS) such as Nb, Ta, U and T. The concentration of standard trace elements and the Th/Yb and Ta/Yb ratios indicate that these magmas were derived from an enriched mantle source and were strongly contaminated by crust. Except for higher values of K, these features are similar to those found in basaltic volcanic rocks associated with the post-collisional period in south Brazil. The widely dispersed values of ?ND (618), ranging between -13.74 and +5.52, highlights the heterogeneity of the source and reinforces the importance of a crustal component in the generation of these rocks. The extremely low value of ?Nd (618), of -21.67 obtained for spessartite lamprophyres supports the importance of the involvement of crust in the genesis of this rock. Using the U-Pb and LA-ICP-MS method, a concordant age of 618 ± 8.7 Ma was obtained in zircon crystals of a diabase dike of the region of Barra do Areia, in Botuverá, SC. The existence of inherited zircon grains older than 1800 Ma in this sample supports the involvement of Paleoproterozoic continental crust. The data analysis characterizes the first magmatic age related to the post-collisional period of the Brasiliano orogeny in this region of the Santa Catarina Shield.

  20. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical bioluminescent beetles (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) in southern and central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R

    2014-08-01

    Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae. PMID:23868199

  1. Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

    2013-05-01

    The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey. PMID:23917551

  2. Paleomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the early Cretaceous Florianópolis dike swarm (Santa Catarina Island), Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, Maria Irene Bartolomeu; Ernesto, Marcia; Renne, Paul Randall

    1998-08-01

    The Florianópolis (FL) basaltic dikes are well exposed on Santa Catarina Island, close to the present southeastern border of the Paraná Magmatic Province in Southern Brazil, and their intrusion was related to the tectonic and magmatic evolution of rifting in the southern Atlantic. The dikes are vertical or subvertical, and cut the crystalline basement rocks, mainly Late Proterozoic granites. Most of the dikes exhibit NE trends, corresponding to structural trends of the crystalline basement. A few NW-trending dikes can also be observed, occasionally crosscutting the NE dikes. Samples from 73 dikes were collected for paleomagnetic work, and subjected to both alternating field and thermal demagnetization. Characteristic magnetizations of normal and reversed polarities interpreted as original thermoremanences are carried by Ti-poor magnetites showing remanent coercive forces in the range 18-45 mT. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole (FL pole) is located at 3.3°E, 89.1°S ( N=65; ?95=2.6°; k=47). Samples for 40Ar/ 39Ar dating were collected at the same paleomagnetic sites. Plagioclase samples from nine dikes were analyzed by stepwise heating; the apparent age spectra are strongly discordant due to excess 40Ar contamination, but five samples yielded plateau ages ranging from 119.0±0.9 Ma to 128.3±0.5 Ma. One additional sample yielded an isochron age of 121.5±0.5 Ma. The inferred ages apparently define two modes at ˜119-122 Ma and ˜126-128 Ma, although the data set is probably insufficient to determine whether dike intrusion was continuous or episodic. The ages of 128-119 Ma are coeval with the final stages of the rifting at this latitude, suggesting that the emplacement of the FL dikes is related to extension of the continental crust just prior to the formation of oceanic crust. By comparing the FL pole with the existing paleomagnetic poles for the NW Ponta Grossa dike swarm (mainly 130.5 Ma) to the north, the Paraná volcanics (mainly 133-132 Ma), and the Central Alkaline Province (127-130 Ma) on the western side of the Paraná Province it is concluded that the differences in pole positions reflect plate displacements, and therefore the FL pole is probably dominated by the dikes with ages younger than 127 Ma.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of rabies from Maranhão and surrounding states in the northeastern region of Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sato; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Shoji; T. Sato; T. Itou; F. H. Ito; H. P. Santos; C. J. C. Brito; T. Sakai

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Although many outbreaks of rabies have been reported in northern Brazil, few epidemiological studies of these outbreaks have\\u000a been undertaken. In this study, molecular epidemiological analyses were performed using 41 rabies virus samples isolated in\\u000a the Maranhão (MA), Pará (PA), and Tocantins (TO) states of northeastern Brazil. A 599-bp region of the glycoprotein (G) gene\\u000a was first amplified from each

  4. The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton Growing. 

    E-print Network

    Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

    1926-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - BULLETIN NO. 345 JULY, 1926 - The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton,Growing -- GRICULTURAL... Committee 7 ....... hltlster Spinners' ancl 1SiIanufacturers' .Association. 8 ................................. A llission to Brazil 8 ............ Cotton Conference at PLio de.Jaizeiro ill 1922 8 .................... Report of the "First Section" 8...

  5. Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Dena Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to…

  6. The Southern Sierra Nevada Drip and the Mantle Wind Direction Beneath the Southwestern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Zandt

    2003-01-01

    The Miocene-Pliocene convective removal of the southern Sierra Nevada batholithic root and its sinking through the upper mantle provides a natural experiment to estimate the direction and velocity of mantle flow beneath the southwestern United States. Xenolith data, volcanism patterns, and geologic evidence are used to constrain the location and timing of the initial detachment. Seismic tomography images of the

  7. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  8. Geographic Risk for Lyme Disease and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Southern New York State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS J. DANIELS; THERESA M. BOCCIA; SHOBHA VARDE; JONATHAN MARCUS; DORIS J. BUCHER; RICHARD C. FALCO; IRA SCHWARTZ

    1998-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector of Lyme disease and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), is prevalent in much of southern New York state. The distribution of this species has increased, as have reported cases of both Lyme disease and HGE. The unreliability of case reports, however, demonstrates the need for tick and pathogen surveillance in order to accurately define areas of

  9. Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

    2010-01-01

    The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

  10. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Northwest Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Pape; L. M. Liberty; T. L. Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is an active fault between the Seattle and Everett Basins in northwest Washington State. Marine seismic and geologic data characterize the SWIF as sub-parallel, northwest trending reverse faults that may extend over a 100 km distance and may be capable of producing M 7 or greater earthquakes. We acquired two land-based seismic transects crossing

  11. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

  12. An assessment of the chemical composition of precipitation and throughfall in rural-industrial gradient in wet subtropics (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Casartelli, M R; Mirlean, N; Peralba, M C; Barrionuevo, S; Gómez-Rey, M X; Madeira, M

    2008-09-01

    The chemical composition of bulk precipitation and throughfall were analyzed, during a 1-year period (2002), in rural-urban-industry gradients with similar forest cover (Eucalyptus spp.) in southern Brazil (Rio Grande and Porto Alegre cities). Values of pH varied from 5.0-5.1 in rural to 5.4-6.1 in industrial sites, and were intermediate in urban sites. The major ions in bulk precipitation were Na+, Cl-, NH+(4), NO-(3), and PO(3-)(4), and concentrations increased in urban and industrial sites. Principal component analysis identified the local main anthropogenic sources. Estimated annual amounts of dry deposition were generally greater in both industrial and urban sites than in rural sites. Areas close to industrial activity showed greater S and N total deposition (10.4-10.9 and 20.2-30.6 kg/ha, respectively) than in urban (3.4-7.3 and 14.6-24.1 kg/ha) and in rural (1.7-2.6 and 8.9-12.1 kg/ha) sites. Annual deposition of Ca and P varied from 0.6 and 3.0 kg/ha in rural to 45.4 and 32.4 kg/ha in industrial sites, maximum values being observed closed to the phosphate fertilizer plant of Rio Grande. Deposition in urban and industrial sites may be balanced by the alkaline cations, as bulk precipitation pH varied from 5.4 to 6.1, and was greater than in rural sites (5.0-5.1). PMID:17891507

  13. A comparative study of Ligophorus uruguayense and L. saladensis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Natalia C; Pariselle, Antoine; Pereira, Joaber; Agnese, Jean-Francois; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were found on the gills of Mugil liza Valenciennes caught in southern Brazil. They were identified as Ligophorus uruguayense Failla Siquier et Ostrowski de Núñez, 2009 and Ligophorus saladensis Marcotegui et Martorelli, 2009, even though specific identification proved to be difficult due to inconsistencies in some diagnostic features reported for these two species. Therefore, a combined morphological and molecular approach was used to critically review the validity of these species, by means of phase contrast and confocal fluorescence microscopical examination of sclerotised hard parts, and assessing the genetic divergence between L. saladensis, L. uruguayense and their congeners using rDNA sequences. The main morphological differences between the two species relate to the shape of the accessory piece of the penis and the median process of the ventral bar. The accessory piece in L. uruguayense is shorter than in L. saladensis, has a cylindrical, convex upper lobe and straight lower lobe (vs with the distal tip of the lower lobe turning away from the upper lobe in the latter species). The ventral bar has a V-shaped anterior median part in L. uruguayense (vs U-shaped in L. saladensis). The two species are suggested to be part of a species complex together with L. mediterraneus Sarabeev, Balbuena et Euzet, 2005. We recommend to generalise such comparative assessment of species of Ligophorus for a reliable picture of the diversity and diversification mechanisms within the genus, and to make full use of its potential as an additional marker for mullet taxonomy and systematics. PMID:25960568

  14. Lithofacies analysis of basic lava flows of the Paraná igneous province in the south hinge of Torres Syncline, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; de Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Scherer, Claiton Marlon; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May

    2014-09-01

    The Paraná igneous province records the volcanism of the earlier Cretaceous that preceded the fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Historically, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic pile as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. This work provides a detailed analysis of the emplacement conditions of these basic volcanic rocks, applying the facies analysis method integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. The Torres Syncline is a NW-SE tectonic structure, located in southern Brazil, where a thick sequence of the Paraná-Etendeka volcanic rocks is well preserved. This study was performed in the south hinge of the syncline, where the basaltic lava flows are divided into three lithofacies associations: early compound pahoehoe, early simple pahoehoe and late simple rubbly. The first lavas that erupted were more primitive compound pahoehoe flow fields composed of olivine basalts with higher MgO contents and covered the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flow fields is possibly related to intermittent low effusion rates, whereas the emplacement of simple pahoehoe is related to sustained low effusion rates with continuous supply. The thick simple rubbly lavas are associated with high effusion rates and were formed during the main phase of volcanism in the area. The absence of paleosoils between the lavas and lithofacies associations suggests that the successive emplacement of the lava flows occurred in a relatively short time gap. Geochemically, the lithofacies associations are low-TiO2 and belong to Gramado magma type. The lavas of the south hinge of the Torres Syncline have a similar evolution when compared to other Continental Basaltic Provinces with earlier compound flows at the base and thicker simple flows in the upper portions.

  15. Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; França, João B.; Moreira, Suzana; Gonçalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

    2011-01-01

    Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents. PMID:21248084

  16. GPR for mapping fractures and as a guide for the extraction of ornamental granite from a quarry: A case study from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Sauck, William A.; Júnior, Abad O. S.

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method for localizing fractures, unloading or exfoliation joints, massive blocks, and identifying the top of fresh granite. The reason for this work was to orient the mining operation in a way to optimize the extraction costs of large blocks of ornamental granite from a quarry in Capão Bonito region of São Paulo State, southern Brazil. Five GPR profiles using antennae of 25, 50, and 100 MHz were made, as well as six velocity soundings. The work was done in three distinct locations in the quarry: on the land surface above the quarry, along a road crossing the quarry, and in front or below the active quarry face. The results led to the definition of planes of structural discontinuity extending to 25 m depth, including inclined fractures and low-angle unloading joints; as well as the localization of massive blocks surrounded by weathered material. The inclined fractures and unloading joints appear as strong reflectors (high energy), and constitute excellent basal planes for the cutting and removal of standard-sized blocks. The location of these planes is important in the exploration process, as designing the quarrying to take advantage of these structural breaks can minimize the use of explosives and greatly facilitate the extraction of commercial-sized blocks. In addition, it was possible to delineate the regions of the quarry, where high-quality homogeneous granite was located, by the absence of strong internal radar reflectors. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of the joints and structural discontinuities, and mapping the localities of high-quality granite were fundamental for the mining engineer. This information served as the basis, and as a guide for planning the advance of the quarry front to minimize the extraction costs, resulting in significant economies for the company.

  17. Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

  18. [Dietary patterns and associated factors among children one to six years of age in a city in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Rosangela de Leon Veleda de; Madruga, Samanta Wink; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to describe dietary patterns and to investigate associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors among children one to six years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Pearson correlation was used to group different foods. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). Associations were established with the Kruskal Wallis test (? = 0.05). The study evaluated 667 children. Five dietary patterns were identified: "vegetables", "traditional" (bread, butter/margarine, rice/pasta, coffee, sugar), "sweets and sausages", "snacks" (dairy products, chocolate, cookies, and juice), and "fruits". Children of mothers with more schooling and higher income showed greater adherence to "vegetables" and "fruits". The "traditional" pattern was more common in children of mothers with less education and lower family income. The "vegetables" and "traditional" patterns showed greater variance. Families' socioeconomic status played a key role in determining children's dietary patterns. PMID:24356688

  19. Geochronological data from the Faxinal coal succession, southern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A preliminary approach combining radiometric U-Pb dating and palynostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Cazzulo-Klepzig, Miriam; Menegat, Rualdo; Formoso, Milton Luiz Laquintinie; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp; Barboza, Eduardo Guimarães; Simas, Margarete Wagner

    2008-03-01

    A radiometric zircon age of 285.4 ± 8.6 Ma (IDTIMS U-Pb) is reported from a tonstein layer interbedded with coal seams in the Faxinal coalfield, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Calibration of palynostratigraphic data with the absolute age shows that the coal depositional interval in the southern Paraná Basin is constrained to the Sakmarian. Consequently, the basal Gondwana sequence in the southern part of the basin should lie at the Carboniferous-Permian boundary, not within the Sakmarian as previously considered. The new results are significant for correlations between the Paraná Basin and the Argentinian Paganzo Basin (302 ± 6 Ma and 288 ± 7 Ma) and with the Karoo Basin, specifically with the top of the Dwyka Tillite (302 ± 3 Ma and 299.2 ± 3.2 Ma) and the lowermost Ecca Group (288 ± 3 Ma and 289.6 ± 3.8 Ma). The evidence signifies widespread latest Carboniferous volcanic activity in western Gondwana.

  20. Does inadequate diet during childhood explain the higher high fracture rates in the Southern United States?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Paulozzi

    2010-01-01

    Summary  Southern states have the highest age-adjusted hip fracture rates among older adults in the United States. Regional hip fracture\\u000a rates in the United States in 1986–1993 correlate with death rates from rickets in the 1940s. Historical patterns of bone\\u000a nutrition early in life might explain contemporary geographic patterns in bone fragility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  State of residence early in life is a better

  1. Breeding Jasmine-Type Aromatic Rice for Southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 70% of imported rice that currently makes up the 12% of domestic consumption is Jasmine, primarily from Thailand. Development of improved Jasmine-type cultivar with similar specialty characteristics (aroma, texture, and flavor) to those imports and with competitive grain a...

  2. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial-millennial scale El Niño/La Niña-state swings. Phases of El Niño dominance occur from 3,000 to 2,400 years BP, from 1,800 to 1,400 years BP and from c. 1,000 years BP onwards, while the brief periods of a predominant La Niña-state occurred from 2,400 to 1,800 years BP and 1,400 to 1,000 years BP. Our high-resolution ENSO-state reconstructions parallel terrestrial reconstruction from Laguna Pallcacocha (South America) and highlight the strong influence of ENSO on the palaeoceanographic development offshore southern Australia via teleconnections.

  3. Petrobras expands gas reinjection in Brazil`s Amazonas State and Campos Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cosso, S. [Dresser-Rand, Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Petrobras contracted with Dresser-Rand Co. and its affiliate Paragon Engineering Services Inc. to design, procure and fabricate the process modules and develop the overall layouts of the gas compression systems for four Brazilian projects: the Urucu region, the Marlim field (P-19), the Albacora field (P-31) and the Corvina field (P-9). The high-pressure Urucu injection project is the only one of the four that is onshore. This is the first time the two US companies have combined their expertise on joint projects in Brazil. However, it is not their first effort in South America. The paper briefly describes the gas compression efforts using turbocompressors.

  4. Caudex growth and phenology of Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin (Cyatheaceae) in secondary forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J L; Windisch, P G

    2012-05-01

    The leaf production and senescence, formation and release of spores of Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin were analysed based on the monthly monitoring of 50 plants growing in a secondary forest, in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, during the year 2004. The caudex height and number of mature and fertile leaves were recorded annually in 2004-09. In 2004, monthly production and senescence of leaves were concomitant, without total leaf abscission. Population synchrony at emergence (Z = 0.86) and leaf senescence (Z = 0.82) increased in spring but did not correlate with temperature and photoperiod. All individuals were fertile and the sporangia production and spore liberation presented higher and equal synchrony (Z = 0.84) respectively in spring and summer. Sporangia production was related with temperature and photoperiod, however taller plants did not produce more fertile leaves. Phenological events analysed were not influenced by precipitation, as expected for forests in non-seasonal climate. Over five years (2004-09), the annual mean caudex growth varied between 1.19 and 2.50 cm.year-1 and the plants appeared to have an ability to maintain a relatively stable amount of leaves throughout this period. PMID:22735150

  5. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  6. Basaltic lava flows covering active aeolian dunes in the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil: Features and emplacement aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M. S.; Frank, Heinrich T.

    2008-03-01

    Burial of active aeolian dunes by lava flows can preserve the morphology of the dunes and generate diverse features related to interaction between unconsolidated sediments and lavas. In the study area, located in southern Brazil, burial of aeolian deposits by Cretaceous basaltic lava flows completely preserved dunes, and generate sand-deformation features, sand diapirs and peperite-like breccia. The preserved dunes are crescentic and linear at the main contact with basalts, and smaller crescentic where interlayered with lavas. The various feature types formed on sediment surfaces by the advance of the flows reflect the emplacement style of the lavas which are compound pahoehoe type. Four feature types can be recognized: (a) type 1 features are related to the advance of sheet flows in dune-interdune areas with slopes > 5°, (b) type 2 is formed where the lava flows advance in lobes and climb the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 8-12°), (c) type 3 is generated by toes that descend the face of linear dunes (slopes 17-23°) and (d) type 4 occurs when lava lobes descend the stoss slope of crescentic dunes (slopes 10-15°). The direction of the flows, the disposition and morphology of the dunes and the ground slope are the main factors controlling formation of the features. The injection of unconsolidated sand in lava lobes forms diapirs and peperite-like breccias. Sand diapirs occur at the basal portion of lobes where the lava was more solidified. Peperite-like breccias occur in the inner portion where lava was more plastic, favoring the mingling of the components. The generation of both features is related to a mechanical process: the weight of the lava causes the injection of sand into the lava and the warming of the air in the pores of the sand facilitates this process. The lava-sediment interaction features presented here are consistent with previous reports of basalt lavas with unconsolidated arid sediments, and additional new sand-deformation features formed by lava breakouts and sand diapir injections are presented.

  7. Detection of R337H, a germline TP53 mutation predisposing to multiple cancers, in asymptomatic women participating in a breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Edenir Inêz; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia; Caleffi, Maira; Achatz, Maria Isabel Waddington; Olivier, Magali; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Marcel, Virginie; Aguiar, Ernestina; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Ewald, Ingrid Petroni; Giugliani, Roberto; Hainaut, Pierre; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    Germline TP53 mutations predispose to a rare familial cancer syndrome, the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), characterized by the early onset of multiple cancers including childhood adrenocortical carcinomas, sarcomas and brain tumors, and breast and colon cancer in young adults. An identical germline mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (R337H) has been shown to be causally related to an increased risk of multiple cancers in unrelated subjects with familial cancer risk in Southern Brazil. Here we have assessed the prevalence of R337H in 750 healthy women participating in a community-based breast cancer screening program in the area of Porto Alegre. The mutant was detected in two participants (0.3%) who were fourth-degree relatives and reported a familial history of cancer at multiple sites that did not match classical criteria for LFS and its variants. Testing in additional family members detected the mutation in three subjects, one of whom developed breast cancer at the age of 36. These findings indicate that R337H may be a low penetrance mutant which predisposes to multiple cancers and occurs in the population of Southern Brazil at a frequency 10-20 times higher than other TP53 mutants commonly associated with LFS. PMID:18248785

  8. Child Care in the Southern States: Expanding Access to Affordable Care for Low-Income Families and Fostering Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoney, Louise

    This report focuses on the financial aspects of child care from the perspective of families and government. The need for affordable child care in the Southern states is illustrated in a series of state-by-state charts and graphs. Information on the percentage of low-income families that receive help paying for child care in each state is also…

  9. Geothermal investigations in an area of induced seismic activity, northern São Paulo State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tereza Higashi Yamabe; Valiya M. Hamza

    1996-01-01

    Geothermal investigations were carried out in Nuporanga, state of São Paulo (Brazil), where occurrence of seismic activity has been found to be closely related to opening of groundwater wells. Results of macroseismic studies show that seismic activity had its beginning in May 1977, soon after completion of drilling of the COLABA well and most of the initial seismic events are

  10. INTOXICATION BY IPOMOEA SERICOPHYLLA AND IPOMOEA RIEDELII IN GOATS IN THE STATE OF PARAIBA, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A disease of the nervous system was observed in goats from two farms of the semiarid of the state of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil. Ipomoea sericophylla was found in one farm and I. riedelii in the other. Both plants were administered experimentally to five goats each. Both plants induced clinical...

  11. MINERALOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND PALYNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF LATE HOLOCENE MANGROVE SEDIMENTS FROM NORTHEASTERN PARÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCONDES LIMA DA COSTA; HERMANN BEHLING; JOSÉ FRANCISCO BERRÊDO

    Mangroves constitute an expressive ecosystem in the northeastern Amazon region and one of the best examples of them is located in the marine coastal plain of Pará State close do Bragança City in northern Brazil. They were the subjects of our m ulti- disciplinary researches carried out in past years. The gotten data included palynology, mineralogy, multi-element geochemistry and radiocarbon

  12. Survey of bovine mycotic mastitis in dairy herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. O. Costa; C. R. Gandra; M. F. Pires; S. D. Coutinho; W. Castilho; C. M. Teixeira

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate fungi from the quarter milk of cow udders from several dairy herds and to identify the different genera and species involved in mastitis. A total of 2078 milk samples from normal, clinical and subclinical mastitis quarters from 22 dairy herds of 16 districts in the State of São Paulo, Brazil was utilized

  13. Huanglongbing in the State of São Paulo - Brazil Current situation, regulation, management and economic impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvio A. Lopes; Cícero A. Massari; José C. Barbosa; Antonio J. Ayres

    São Paulo (SP), the most important citrus producing state in Brazil, has suffered from the attack of several pests and diseases, which has largely increased the costs of fruit production. Huanglongbing (HLB), associated with two Candidatus Liberibacter species and a phytoplasma, is currently the most serious of these epidemics. Control measures include elimination of symptomatic trees, insecticide application against the

  14. Higher Education for Mid-level Technology: A Comparative Analysis of Brazil and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    1988-01-01

    Compares education of lower-middle and working classes in Brazil and the United States to examine effects of the educational system in supporting the changing technological infrastructure. Concludes that both countries need to improve access and minimize stratification to make their systems of education for mid-level technology more equitable.…

  15. Characteristics of clays and properties of building ceramics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. F. Vieira; R. Sánchez; S. N. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    The general characteristics and technological properties of four types of clays obtained from the same location at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have been investigated. These clays are intended for applications in ceramics such as bricks and roofing tiles. Clays were first analyzed by X-ray diffraction, chemical composition particle size distribution, thermal analysis and plasticity.

  16. Nectar, fleshy fruits and the abundance of parrots at a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    The Blue?fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva) and the Nanday parakeet (Nandayus nenday) are often present in the gallery forests of Southern Pantanal, however the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unknown. In this study, I assessed the abundance of both species at a gallery forest in the Southern Pantanal and analyzed their relationship with foraging. While N.

  17. Induction of micronucleus of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to waters from the Cubatão do Sul River, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; Matias, William G

    2013-12-01

    In an effort to characterize the pollution of surface waters by potentially genotoxic agents, this study aimed at assessing the frequency of micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes of the fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, from the Cubatão do Sul River. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Negative control fish showed low frequency of MN, ranging between 0.49‰ and 0.90‰. Positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5 mg/L) organisms showed high MN frequency (16.82-17.25‰). The MN frequency increased along the river (Site 1--1.24‰ winter 2011; Site 4--9.76‰ summer 2011). Based on the observation of elevated MN erythrocytes frequency in O. niloticus exposed to water samples from along the river course, we conclude that the complex environmental mixtures of water from the Cubatão do Sul River have genotoxic potential. This genotoxicity most likely originated from agricultural runoff and domestic effluents released without treatment, based on the evidence from literature data and a survey in the region. This study provides a scientific basis for future studies regarding the genotoxicity of complex environmental mixtures in natural environments. PMID:24138896

  18. Echinococcosis in southern Brazil: efforts toward implementation of a control program in Santana do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul.

    PubMed

    Farias, Leila Neves; Malgor, Ramiro; Cassaravilla, Cecília; Bragança, Caio; de la Rue, Mário Luiz

    2004-01-01

    This investigation aimed to design a strategy for echinococcosis control in Santana do Livramento county, an endemic area in state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Fecal samples from 65 dogs were obtained from urban, suburban and rural areas. Purging with Arecoline Bromhidrate (AB) was done to visualize Echinococcus granulosus, and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to detect parasite coproantigen. Samples were obtained at the beginning and at the end of treatment with Praziquantel. A third fecal sampling was also done in rural areas four months after the end of treatment. Each dog was treated immediately after the first purging and every 30 days for eight months. In urban and suburban areas no infected dogs were found. In rural areas, first evaluation showed 11.36% and 27.69% of infected dogs by AB and ELISA, respectively. No infected dogs were diagnosed in the second evaluation and in the third evaluation 36.84% and 47.37% infected dogs were identified by AB and ELISA, respectively. Medication program to combat dog infection resulted in successful interruption of parasite transmission, but the project failed to create awareness of the need for dog prophylaxis among rural populations as well as to establish a permanent control program in this municipality. PMID:15286819

  19. Prevalence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders: associated factors in a population sample of young adults in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez; Spessato, Bárbara; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2014-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561) was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001). Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001) and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050) was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions. PMID:25493994

  20. Risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in populations of children from nine cities in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, A A; Colli, C M; Ferreira, É C; Viol, B M; Araújo, S M; Falavigna-Guilherme, A L

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological factors that contribute to the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. in children from Paraná state, Brazil. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to T. gondii were detected using indirect immunofluorescence, and IgG antibodies to Toxocara were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For each individual, a questionnaire was completed that contained epidemiological and clinical data. The data analysis was performed using multiple logistic regression. Of the 544 children investigated, 3.2% presented co-infection with T. gondii and Toxocara spp. Of this total, 7.4% were positive for antibodies to T. gondii, and 25% were positive for antibodies to Toxocara spp. The presence of antibodies to Toxocara spp. increased the risk of T. gondii infection (P= 0.029). Children who were 1-8 years of age were less infected by T. gondii than those who were 9-12 years of age. The variables that influenced positivity for anti-Toxocara spp. were the origin of the children and contact with sand. Children with positive serology for Toxocara spp. presented more eosinophilia compared with those with non-reactive serology. Infection with both parasites reveals the need for preventive measures, such as guidance about modes of infection, parasite control and monitoring recreational areas. PMID:24725417

  1. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of non-breaded shrimp in the Southern contiguous States, including North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and...

  2. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of non-breaded shrimp in the Southern contiguous States, including North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and...

  3. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the processing of non-breaded shrimp in the Southern contiguous States, including North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and...

  4. Kinematics and geometry of structures in the southern limb of the Paraíba do Sul divergent structural fan, SE Brazil: a true transtensional shear.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Nolan M; Machado, Rômulo; Dehler, Heloisa R S; McReath, Ian; Nummer, Alexis R

    2006-06-01

    Shear zones geometry in the Paraíba do Sul belt, southeastern Brazil, delineates a NE-trending fan-like structure. Shear zones dip towards SE in the northern limb, and towards NW in the southern one. This geometry has been interpreted either due to transpression or to late folding of flat-lying thrust surfaces. Stretching lineation plunges to ENE-ESE in the northern limb and towards NNE-NE in the southern one. Structural data in the southern limb of the divergent fan suggest a two stage kinematic evolution in high-temperature conditions: an earlier stage with top-to-SSW/SW sinistral thrusting and orogenic-parallel tangential motion, and a later stage with top-down to NNE/NE transtensional deformation. We propose a heterogeneous deformation model to explain the observed shear reversal, and suggest that the imposed transpressional displacement gradient may change during progressive deformation due to transient rheological inhomogeneities in bulk pure shear strain. In the earlier stage, the partially molten material could easily accommodate the imposed strain rates, giving rise firstly to the SW-directed shearing. As the thermal disturbance tended to vanish and the convergence increased, the NNE-directed transtensional shearing developed. We propose that the transtensional deformation characterized in this paper could be related to extrusion processes during regional transpressional strain. PMID:16710572

  5. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

  6. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  7. Late Holocene development of a mangrove ecosystem in southeastern Brazil (Itanhaém, state of São Paulo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Garcia Carvalho do Amaral; Marie-Pierre Ledru; Fresia Ricardi Branco; Paulo César Fonseca Giannini

    2006-01-01

    Most palynological studies of mangroves have been carried out in the Indo-Pacific region, but few have investigated these ecosystems along the southern Atlantic coast. This paper provides information on the palynology of a mangrove at Itanhaém, state of São Paulo, on the southeastern Brazilian coast. This mangrove occurs on microtidal flats adjacent to a fluvial-tidal channel mouth (Itanhaém River), part

  8. Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Alvaro F.; Studzinski, Caarem D.; Mechoso, Carlos R.

    1998-02-01

    This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between its anomalies and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The dataset is provided by 40 rainfall stations almost evenly distributed in space and covers the period 1917-80. The tools used in support of this research include principal component and canonical correlation analyses.It is found that total precipitation tends to be evenly distributed during the year. The largest spatial variability in the monthly deviations from the annual mean appears as a west-east (inland-coastal) dipole with the largest positive values in the west during early fall and midspring, and in the east along the Atlantic coast during winter. The second mode of rainfall variability appears as a north-south dipole with the largest positive values in the south during late summer and late fall, and in the north during early spring and early summer. The third mode appears primarily as a north-south dipole along the western boundary with the largest positive values in the southwest during fall and in the northwest during early spring. These modes explain 60%, 19%, and 8% of the total variance. Five subregions are identified according to similarities between the characteristics of the annual cycles in their rainfall stations.It is shown that there are significant relationships between anomalies in rainfall and in SST in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Some of these relationships confirm the results of previous studies, such as the links between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific Ocean and rainfall anomalies in Uruguay during late spring-early summer and late fall-early winter. Other relationships have not been reported before, such as the links between SST anomalies in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and rainfall anomalies in the entire region during October-December and April-July. It is also found that when SST anomalies are considered in both oceans simultaneously, their links with rainfall anomalies are in some cases enhanced and in others weakened.

  9. Snake bites by the jararacuçu (Bothrops jararacussu): clinicopathological studies of 29 proven cases in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Milani Júnior, R; Jorge, M T; de Campos, F P; Martins, F P; Bousso, A; Cardoso, J L; Ribeiro, L A; Fan, H W; França, F O; Sano-Martins, I S; Cardoso, D; Ide Fernandez, C; Fernandes, J C; Aldred, V L; Sandoval, M P; Puorto, G; Theakston, R D; Warrell, D A

    1997-05-01

    The jararacuçu, one of the most dreaded snakes of Brazil, southern Bolivia, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina, is a heavily-built pit viper which may grow to a length of 2.2 m. Up to 1000 mg (dry weight) of highly-lethal venom may be milked from its venom glands on a single occasion. It has accounted for 0.8% to 10% of series of snake bites in São Paulo State, Brazil. We examined 29 cases of proven jararacuçu bites recruited over a 20-year period in two São Paulo hospitals. Severe signs of local and systemic envenoming, (local necrosis, shock, spontaneous systemic bleeding, renal failure) were seen only in patients bitten by snakes longer than 50 cm; bites by shorter specimens were more likely to cause incoagulable blood. Fourteen patients developed coagulopathy, six local necrosis (requiring amputation in one) and five local abscesses. Two became shocked and four developed renal failure. Three patients, aged 3, 11 and 65 years, died 18.75, 27.75 and 83 h after being bitten, with respiratory and circulatory failure despite large doses of specific antivenom and intensive-care-unit management. In two patients, autopsies revealed acute renal tubular necrosis, cerebral oedema, haemorrhagic rhabdomyolysis at the site of the bite and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In one survivor with chronic renal failure, renal biopsy showed bilateral cortical necrosis; the patient remains dependent on haemodialysis. Effects of polyspecific Bothrops antivenom were not impressive, and it has been suggested that anti-Bothrops and anti-Crotalus antivenoms should be given in combination. PMID:9205667

  10. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

  11. Evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin in southern Brazil derived from zircon and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Markus; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Kollenz, Sebastian; Franco-Magalhaes, Ana O. B.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Hackspacher, Peter C.

    2013-09-01

    The area between São Paulo and Porto Alegre in southeastern Brazil plays a key area to understand and quantify the evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in Brazil. In this contribution, we present new thermochronological data attained by fission-track and (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis on apatites and zircons from metamorphic, sedimentary and intrusive rocks. The zircon fission-track ages range between 108.4 (15.0) and 539.9 (68.4) Ma, the zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 72.9 (5.8) and 525.1(2.4) Ma, whereas the apatite fission-track ages range between 40.0 (5.3) and 134.7 (8.0) Ma, and the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages between 32.1 (1.5) and 93.0 (2.5) Ma. The spatial distribution of these ages shows three distinct blocks with a different evolution cut by old fracture zones. While the central block exhibits an old stable block, the Northern and especially the Southern block underwent complex post-rift exhumation. The sample of the Northern block shows two distinct cooling phases in the Upper Cretaceous and the Paleogene to Neogene. After sedimentation of the Permian sandstones the samples of the Central block were never heated up over 100 °C with a following moderate to fast cooling phase in Cretaceous to Eocene time and a fast cooling between Oligocene to Miocene. The five thermal models obtained in the Southern block indicate a complex evolution with three cooling phases. The exhumation events of the three blocks correspond with the Paraná-Etendekka event, the alkaline intrusions due to the Trinidad hotspot, and the evolution of the continental rift basins in SE Brazil and are, therefore, most likely to be the major force for the post-rift evolution of the passive continental margin in SE Brazil, which therefore corresponds to the three main phases of the Andean orogeny.

  12. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. PMID:25466055

  13. Invasive potential of cattle fever ticks in the southern United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract' Background For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors of the subgenus Boophilus. In 1906 an eradication effort was started and by 1943 Boophilus ticks had been confined to a narrow tick eradication quarantine area (TEQA) along the Texas-Mexico border. However, a dramatic increase in tick infestations in areas outside the TEQA over the last decade suggests these tick vectors may be poised to re-invade the southern United States. We investigated historical and potential future distributions of climatic habitats of cattle fever ticks to assess the potential for a range expansion. Methods We built robust spatial predictions of habitat suitability for the vector species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus across the southern United States for three time periods: 1906, present day (2012), and 2050. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) to identify persistent tick occurrences and analysis of bias in the climate proximate to these occurrences to identify key environmental parameters associated with the ecology of both species. We then used ecological niche modeling algorithms GARP and Maxent to construct models that related known occurrences of ticks in the TEQA during 2001–2011 with geospatial data layers that summarized important climate parameters at all three time periods. Results We identified persistent tick infestations and specific climate parameters that appear to be drivers of ecological niches of the two tick species. Spatial models projected onto climate data representative of climate in 1906 reproduced historical pre-eradication tick distributions. Present-day predictions, although constrained to areas near the TEQA, extrapolated well onto climate projections for 2050. Conclusions Our models indicate the potential for range expansion of climate suitable for survival of R. microplus and R. annulatus in the southern United States by mid-century, which increases the risk of reintroduction of these ticks and cattle tick fever into major cattle producing areas. PMID:24742062

  14. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ?ST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  15. [Isolation of rabies virus in Artibeus fimbriatus bat in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cunha, Elenice M Sequetin; Lara, Maria do Carmo C S H; Nassar, Alessandra Figueiredo de Castro; Sodré, Miriam M; Amaral, Luis Flávio Vani

    2005-08-01

    This is the first report of the isolation and identification of the rabies virus in the frugivorous bat Artibeus fimbriatus in the city of Sao José do Rio Preto, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The virus was isolated from an animal found in an urban area. The animal was found on the ground under a tree, still alive. Diagnosis was made by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation of mice. PMID:16113922

  16. Dengue epidemic in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rivaldo V. Cunha; Hermann G. Schatzmayr; Marize P. Miagostovich; Ana M. A. Barbosa; Francisca G. Paiva; Regina M. O. Miranda; Carlos C. F. Ramos; Janice C. O. Coelho; F. B. dos Santos; Rita M. R. Nogueira

    1999-01-01

    During 1997 a large dengue epidemic occurred in Rio Grande do Norte, a State in north-east Brazil. The cocirculation of dengue virus type 1 and dengue virus type 2 was demonstrated by virus isolation in Aedes albopictus clone C6\\/36 cell-line and by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed 52·3% of the 8105 studied cases and

  17. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  18. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera) of the Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil: new records and description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Neto, Jaime De Liege Gama; Hamada, Neusa

    2014-01-01

    Miroculis (Miroculis) eldorado sp. nov. and Ulmeritoides passorum sp. nov. are described based on material from Serra do Tepequém, Roraima State, Brazil. Additional records of Leptophlebiidae genera and species are made. Askola Peters, 1969, Farrodes Peters, 1971, Microphlebia Savage & Peters, 1983, Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez, 1992, Hagenulopsis minuta Spieth, 1943 and Simothraulopsis demerara (Traver, 1947) are recorded for the first time in Roraima State. Simothraulopsis janae Mariano, 2010 is recorded for the first time in the Northern Brazil. PMID:25543739

  19. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marta Cocco da; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques; Soares, Joannie Dos Santos Fachinelli

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability. PMID:26017941

  20. Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and high HIV-1 genetic diversity in patients from Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriana Santarém; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-08-01

    Few reports have described the molecular characteristics of the AIDS epidemic within the interior regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimensions. To help fill this gap, the prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity in Mato Grosso State, central western Brazil are reported. Drug-naïve patients (n = 105) were recruited at a reference center in Cuiabá/Mato Grosso State located across the border with Bolivia and considered a southern gate to the Amazon forest. For 92 HIV-1 isolates, the protease and partial reverse transcriptase fragments were amplified by nested-PCR and sequenced. Drug resistance was analyzed by the Calibrated Population Resistance tool and the International AIDS Society-USA database. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by REGA and phylogenetic analyses. Recombinant viruses were analyzed by SIMPLOT. Drug resistance mutations were observed in 5.4%: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations M41L (n = 1), D67N (n?=?1), and K219E (n?=?1), the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation K103N (n?=?1) and the protease inhibitor mutation L90M (n?=?1). Around 20% of the isolates were recombinants: different patterns of B/F1 mosaics (n?=?11), four B/C, one F1/C/B, one F1/C, and one D/F1. Subtype B(PR) B(RT) represented 71.7%, 5.4% were of subtype C(PR) C(RT) and 3.3% were of subtype F1(PR) F1(RT) . A moderate prevalence of transmitted resistance and the co-circulation of subtypes B, F1, C, different recombinants, including the first report of subtype D, were found in Mato Grosso State, far from the epicenter of the epidemic. These results highlight the importance of monitoring transmitted drug resistance and HIV-1 genetic diversity in the interior regions of Brazil. PMID:21678433

  1. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  2. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen C Laura; Ana B Menezes; Ricardo B Noal; Pedro C Hallal; Cora L Araújo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births). In 2004,

  3. Sexual maturity of the deep sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae) in southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Rodrigo Sant’Ana

    2009-01-01

    The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently ex- ploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. Tha management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at

  4. Analysis of water resources requirement for the enhanced (tertiary) oil recovery in the southern plains region of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Shih; S. H. Hamilton

    1979-01-01

    This report analyzes the water resources requirements, in terms of both water quantity and quality, for the anticipated enhanced oil recovery operations to be implemented in the southern plains region of the United States. The enhanced oil recovery potential of each oil-producing reservoir in the four states of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Louisiana is assessed using parameters describing the

  5. Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2011-07-01

    The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled trees; n = 48). We discuss the impact of the fishermen's harvesting practices in the managed area with an emphasis on three main points: (1) the harvesting practices are likely not contributing to a decrease in diversity in the managed area; (2) the greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition found for the managed area may reflect a mosaic pattern created by the opening of small tree-gaps distributed across this area over the course of more than 50 years; (3) the disturbance promoted by the fishermen's harvesting practices can be compared to natural disturbances of low impact that create mosaic patterns in tropical forests. This study emphasizes the prominence of the human dimension in ecological processes and the importance of considering the perspectives of local people when discussing the conservation of the natural environments in which these people live. PMID:21396767

  6. Traffic fatality indicators in Brazil: State diagnosis based on data envelopment analysis research.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto

    2015-08-01

    The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning. PMID:25942692

  7. Geographical distribution of Biomphalaria snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, C P; Caldeira, R L; Drummond, S C; Melo, A L; Guimarães, C T; Soares, D; Carvalho, O

    2001-04-01

    Published and unpublished observations on geographical distribution of Biomphalaria snails in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compiled. This work is aimed at knowing the present occurrence of Biomphalaria species in this region, and at contributing to the elaboration of the planorbid chart of Minas Gerais. In malacological surveys, performed by several researchers, the presence of seven species of this genus was recorded. Those planorbids were found in 12 mesoregions, in 283 (33.1%) municipalities out of 853 with the following distribution: B. glabrata (185 municipalities), B. straminea (125), B. tenagophila (58), B. peregrina (57), B. schrammi (26), B. intermedia (20) and B. occidentalis (2). B. glabrata and B. tenagophila are found naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais. In 24 municipalities the three snail hosts of S. mansoni in Brazil, B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea, are present. PMID:11313634

  8. Bat diversity of Ilha da Marambaia, Southern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Chiroptera, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, E C; Costa, L M; Silva, R M; Esbérard, C E L

    2010-08-01

    Few sites have been well sampled for bats, and samplings in islands are even scarcer. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: (1) to list the bat species of Ilha da Marambaia; (2) to compare richness, abundance and biomass of bat guilds found there; (3) to analyse abundance patterns of bat species; and (4) to compare richness, abundance and composition of the bat fauna among different kinds of environment. To capture bats we used mist nets set in five different environments, totalising 3559.2 net-hours, during 37 nights between October 2006 and August 2008. A total of 1,133 captures were accomplished, comprising 34 species from five families. The most abundant species was Molossus molossus. Frugivorous bats exhibited higher richness, abundance and biomass if compared to other guilds. Most species (N = 22) exhibited abundances between 1 to 10% of all captures. Sixteen species were restricted to just one of the environments sampled. The high richness may be attributed to sampling carried out in several environments, and to the capture of insectivorous species over water bodies. PMID:20730337

  9. Natural Plasmodium infection in neotropical primates in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Di Santi, Silvia Maria Fátima; Figueiredo, Thaysa Araguaia Pereira; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-01-01

    The states that make up the Legal Amazon Region, which include the state of Maranhão, account for 99% of registered cases of human malaria in Brazil. It is also believed that transmission of malaria from nonhuman primates (NHP) to humans occurs in this region, because of current reports of seroepidemiological results from samples from humans and NHP coexisting in the same areas. This study aimed to make morphological, serological and molecular diagnoses of Plasmodium spp. in neotropical primates on the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The diagnostic techniques used were optical microscopy, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). From June 2009 to April 2010, 70 NHP were sampled: 50 at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS), located in the municipality of São Luís and 20 free-living individuals that were caught in a private reserve located in the municipality of São Jose de Ribamar, state of Maranhão. Under an optical microscope, 140 slides (two from each animal) were evaluated and five animals (7.1%) were found to be positive. IFA did not detect anti-Plasmodium spp. From PCR on the 70 animals sampled, amplified Plasmodium spp. products were observed in 13 samples, of which eight (61.5%) were from free-living animals and five (38.5%) were from animals at CETAS. PMID:26154952

  10. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon A.

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ?0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ?213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  11. The epidemiology of trachoma in Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile States, southern Sudan.

    PubMed Central

    Ngondi, Jeremiah; Onsarigo, Alice; Adamu, Liknaw; Matende, Ibrahim; Baba, Samson; Reacher, Mark; Emerson, Paul; Zingeser, James

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Limited surveys and anecdotal data indicate that trachoma is endemic in the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile in southern Sudan. However, its magnitude and geographical distribution are largely unknown. We conducted surveys to ascertain the prevalence and geographical distribution of trachoma, and to identify targets for control interventions. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in nine sites in southern Sudan between September 2001 and June 2004. Two-stage random cluster sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. FINDINGS: A total of 17 016 persons were examined, a response rate of 86.1% of the enumerated population. Prevalence of signs of active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years was: TF=53.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=52.1-55.3); TI=42.7% (95% CI=41.2-44.2); TF and/or TI=64.1% (95% CI=62.5-65.5). Prevalence of trichiasis (TT) in children aged less than 15 years was 1.2% (95% CI=0.9-1.4), while TT prevalence in persons aged 15 years and above was 9.2% (95% CI=8.6-9.9). Women were more likely to have trichiasis compared to men (odds ratio (OR)=1.57; 95% CI=1.34-1.84). Tentative extrapolation to the states of Eastern Equatoria and Upper Nile estimates that there is a backlog of 178,250 (lower and upper bounds=156,027-205,995) persons requiring surgery and the entire population, estimated to be over 3.9 million, is in need of the SAFE strategy to control blinding trachoma. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in all nine of the study sites surveyed. The unusually high prevalence of active trachoma and TT in children points to the severity of the problem. There is urgent need to implement trachoma control interventions in trachoma endemic regions of southern Sudan. PMID:16462982

  12. Lithofacies associations and structural evolution of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil: A review of the setting of gold deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. F. Baltazar; M. Zucchetti

    2007-01-01

    The Rio das Velhas greenstone belt is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, in the southern extremity of the São Francisco Craton, central-southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, SE Brazil. The metavolcano–sedimentary rocks of the Rio das Velhas Supergroup in this region are subdivided into the Nova Lima and Maquiné Groups. The former occurs at the base of

  13. Elemental composition and chemical characteristics of five edible nuts (almond, Brazil, pecan, macadamia and walnut) consumed in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Roshila; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-01-01

    The total elemental concentrations and proximate chemical composition of five different tree nuts, almond (Prunus dulcus), Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa), pecan (Carya pecan), macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) and walnut (Juglans nigra) that are consumed in South African households were investigated. In addition, six physicochemical properties of the extracted nut oils, namely acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, density and specific gravity were evaluated. A high concentration of Se (36.1 +/- 0.4 microg g(- 1)) was found in the Brazil nuts only. With maximum and minimum limits being set by the almond and pecan nut samples, Cr ranging from 0.94 +/- 0.14-2.02 +/- 0.07 microg g(- 1) was detected in the nut samples. Generally, the order of the concentrations of the elements in all the nut samples is found to be Mg > Ca > Fe > Cu > Cr > As > Se. The concentrations of Mn and Zn showed greater variation amongst the different types of nuts. The extracted oils showed low acid values and high saponification values with the macadamia nut sample having the highest oil content (76.0 +/- 0.5 g per 100 g of sample), the lowest acid value (0.42 +/- 0.01 mg KOH per g of oil) and highest saponification value (193.7 +/- 2.4 mg KOH per g of oil). The present findings are useful in calculating the Dietary Reference Intakes of these nutrients. PMID:17562467

  14. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

  15. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  16. Respondent Perceptions of Quality of Life: Findings from Survey Research in Rural Counties of Seven Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Edward L.

    In 1972 and 1973, 7 southern states (Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee) were surveyed to determine household head or spouse's perceptions of quality of life (QOL) in their county of residence and to determine perceptions of change in quality of life for their family situations, within their…

  17. Geographic population structure of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is cons...

  18. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing...Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of...

  19. Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blackwell, D.D. and others

    Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

  20. Simulated Impacts of El Nino/Southern Oscillation on United States Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Allison M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Brown, Robert A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rosenberg, Norman J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Izaurralde, R Cesar C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Legler, David (Florida State University); Srinivasan, Ragahvan (TEXAS EXPERIMENT STAT.)

    2003-02-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation alters global weather patterns with consequences for fresh water quality and supply. ENSO events impact regions and natural resource sectors around the globe. For example, in 1997-98, a strong El Ni?o brought warm ocean temperatures, flooding and record snowfall to the west coast of the US. Research on ENSO events and their impacts has improved long range weather predictions, potentially reducing the damage and economic cost of these anomalous weather patterns. Here, we simulate the impacts of four types of ENSO states on water resources in the conterminous United States. We distinguish between Neutral, El Ni?o, La Ni?a and strong El Ni?o years over the period of 1960-1989. Using climate statistics that characterize these ENSO states to drive the HUMUS water resources model, we examine the effects of 'pure' ENSO events, without complications from transition periods. Strong El Ni?o is not simply an amplification of El Ni?o; it leads to strikingly different consequences for climate and water resources.

  1. Morbidity of Schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Sandra Costa; Silva, Luciana Cristina dos Santos; Amaral, Ronaldo Santos do; Sousa-Pereira, Silvio Roberto; Antunes, Carlos Maurício; Lambertucci, José Roberto

    2006-09-01

    From 2002 to 2005, a program of active search for patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and schistosomal myeloradiculopathy has been implemented in the state of Minas Gerais by the local Health Department. The state was divided in 28 regional health centers and the local representatives have been trained to identify and direct patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and neuroschistosomiasis to a reference center in Belo Horizonte, the capital of the state of Minas Gerais. Seventy five patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and 54 with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy have been referred and examined in the reference center in a period of time of 3 years. Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy should be emphasized because the number of cases reported is increasing rapidly and when timely diagnosed and treated, they respond promptly to treatment. Left untreated, they die or become invalid for life. In our view, the time has come for more active investigation of the different aspects of morbidity caused by schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil. PMID:17308746

  2. Sulfate adsorption and its relationships with properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sulfate adsorption and its relationships with properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo, electrochemical and mineralogical properties of representative soils of the Sa~o Paulo State, Brazil, were, the current rules for gypsum amendments of agricultural soils of the Sa~o Paulo State should be revised

  3. Prevalence of group a Beta-hemolytic streptococcus oropharyngeal colonization in children and therapeutic regimen based on antistreptolysin levels: data from a city from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Alexandre B; Stocco, Carolina S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Arruda, Polliane; Bail, Larissa; Borges, Celso L; Dornelles, Cecília F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) in pediatric population of Ponta Grossa, a midsize city of southern Brazil; estimate the effectiveness of antistreptolysin-O (ASO), compared to culture, in presence of infection; and design an unpublished investigative algorithm of rheumatic fever's suspicion, based on needs identified in worldwide consensus. It is an epidemiologic, observational and transversal study, involving 180 children younger than 12 years. Secretion of posterior oropharynx was collected for culture; and peripheral blood for determination of ASO. Student-t and chi-square tests, with Yates correction, were performed for statistical analysis. The ASO cutoff was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence encountered was 3.9%, and 25.5% of the children showed reagent ASO. This serological test demonstrated quantitatively and qualitatively significant associations to the GABHS presence (p=0.0001 for both associations) throughout the ROC curve, 200 U Todd was the value that resulted in the best accuracy, demonstrating 100% of sensibility and 80% of specificity in the GAS infection documentation. Also, it was found that the value of 1.200 U represents a specificity of 100%. The results emphasize the need for similar studies in other populations, to provide better targeting of the diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngitis by GABHS, which in turn can prevent up to 80% the cases of rheumatic fever, and consequently, the chronic rheumatic heart disease. PMID:25136388

  4. Prevalence of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus Oropharyngeal Colonization in Children and Therapeutic Regimen Based on Antistreptolysin Levels: Data from a City From Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Alexandre B; Stocco, Carolina S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Arruda, Polliane; Bail, Larissa; Borges, Celso L; Dornelles, Cecília F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GABHS) in pediatric population of Ponta Grossa, a midsize city of southern Brazil; estimate the effectiveness of antistreptolysin-O (ASO), compared to culture, in presence of infection; and design an unpublished investigative algorithm of rheumatic fever's suspicion, based on needs identified in worldwide consensus. It is an epidemiologic, observational and transversal study, involving 180 children younger than 12 years. Secretion of posterior oropharynx was collected for culture; and peripheral blood for determination of ASO. Student-t and chi-square tests, with Yates correction, were performed for statistical analysis. The ASO cutoff was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence encountered was 3.9%, and 25.5% of the children showed reagent ASO. This serological test demonstrated quantitatively and qualitatively significant associations to the GABHS presence (p=0.0001 for both associations) throughout the ROC curve, 200 U Todd was the value that resulted in the best accuracy, demonstrating 100% of sensibility and 80% of specificity in the GAS infection documentation. Also, it was found that the value of 1.200 U represents a specificity of 100%. The results emphasize the need for similar studies in other populations, to provide better targeting of the diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngitis by GABHS, which in turn can prevent up to 80% the cases of rheumatic fever, and consequently, the chronic rheumatic heart disease. PMID:25136388

  5. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the association with sociodemographic characteristics among women attending general practices in southern Brazil: the ECCAGe Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Juliana Feliciati; Nunes, Maria Angélica Antunes; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Melere, Cristiane; Ozcariz, Silvia Giselle Ibarra; Buss, Caroline; Drhemer, Michele; Manzolli, Patrícia; Soares, Rafael Marques; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Camey, Suzi

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of the relationship between food intake and sociodemographic factors is crucial for developing effective public health policies. The present study aimed to examine dietary patterns in pregnant women and the association between these patterns and sociodemographic characteristics. Pregnant women attending general practices in southern Brazil (n = 712) answered a questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire with 88 items. Three dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis. The association between the dietary patterns and sociodemographic variables was analyzed using the chi-square test and adjusted standardized residuals (p < 0,05). The restricted pattern was associated with lower maternal age, not living with a partner and being a non-working student. The varied pattern was associated with older maternal age, living with a partner, being employed and higher levels of education and income. The common-Brazilian dietary pattern included traditional Brazilian food items and was associated with lower levels of education and income, being unemployed and being a non-student. PMID:23703002

  6. Detailed haplotype analysis at the TP53 locus in p.R337H mutation carriers in the population of Southern Brazil: evidence for a founder effect.

    PubMed

    Garritano, Sonia; Gemignani, Federica; Palmero, Edenir Inez; Olivier, Magali; Martel-Planche, Ghyslaine; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Brugiéres, Laurence; Vargas, Fernando Regla; Brentani, Ricardo Renzo; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Landi, Stefano; Tavtigian, Sean V; Hainaut, Pierre; Achatz, Maria Isabel W

    2010-02-01

    Due to patterns of migration, selection, and population expansion, founder effects are common among humans. In Southern Brazil, a recurrent TP53 mutation, p.R337H, is detected in families with cancer predisposition. We have used whole locus resequencing and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to refine TP53 locus haplotype definitions. Haplotyping of 12 unrelated p.R337H carriers using a set of 29 tag SNPs, revealed that all subjects carried the same haplotype, and presence of the mutation on this haplotype was confirmed by allele-specific PCR. The probability that this haplotype occurs independently in all index cases was of 3.1x10(-9), demonstrating a founder effect. Analysis of the patterns of 103 tumors diagnosed in 12 families showed that the presence of p.R337H is associated with multiple cancers of the Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) spectrum, with relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 but a lifetime risk comparable to classical LFS. The p.R337H families are mostly distributed along a road axis historically known as the main route used by merchants of Portuguese origin in the XVIII and XIX century. This historical circumstance and the relatively low penetrance before the age of 30 may have contributed to the maintenance of this pathogenic mutation in a large, open population. PMID:19877175

  7. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran. PMID:23903564

  8. [Health education for triatomine control in an area under epidemiological surveillance in Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia; Costa, Arnaldo Lima; Batista, Osmar; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; de Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a health education project targeting a rural community and health professionals from counties undergoing epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease vectors in the State of Paraná, Brazil. A group of technicians from the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FUNASA) was trained, together with teachers, workers, and students from the State University of Maringá, who prepared an instructions manual and drew up guidelines for reporting presence of triatomines or suspected cases of Trypanosoma cruziinfection. From June 1996 through February 2000, the activities reached 742 families, 2,300 schoolchildren, and 27 teachers from 18 elementary schools, and included a meeting between FUNASA members and 40 participants, 21 meetings in health centers, and provision of a set of preserved triatomine specimens for use in vector surveillance and identification. After three years of health education activities and insecticide treatment (cipermetrina 125 mg i.a./m2), there was a reduction of 80.6% in households infested with triatomines and increased awareness among rural residents and health workers. The authors discuss the need to train professionals committed to changing Brazil's prevailing health model. PMID:12488880

  9. Occurrence of Theileria equi in horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Nakaghi, Andrea Cristina Higa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2010-01-01

    Blood and serum samples from 170 horses raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil, were collected and tested by microscopic examination of blood smears, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) for Theileria equi infections. The association among the test results was verified by the McNemar test. During the examination of thin blood smears, parasites were detected in six (3.52%) horses. Anti-T. equi antibodies were detected in 100% sera samples, with titers ranging between 1:80 and 1:5120. The nPCR based on the T. equi merozoite antigen gene (EMA-1) allowed the visualization of species-specific amplified product in 108 (63.53%) horses. All six samples judged positive microscopically were also positive for nPCR. Statistical analysis indicated general disagreement (p < 0.0001) between IFAT and nPCR; IFAT and blood smear; and nPCR and blood smear on the detection of parasite carriers. The results of the present study indicate that T. equi is widely spread among horses in the Jaboticabal microregion, Northeast region of São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:21184699

  10. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

    2013-04-01

    Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

  11. Monitoring of the stress state variations of the Southern California for the purpose of earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M.; Garagash, I.; Bondur, V.; Steblov, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The three-dimensional geomechanical model of Southern California was developed, including a mountain relief, fault tectonics and characteristic internal features such as the roof of the consolidated crust and Moho surface. The initial stress state of the model is governed by the gravitational forces and horizontal tectonic motions estimated from GPS observations. The analysis shows that the three-dimensional geomechanical models allows monitoring of the changes in the stress state during the seismic process in order to constrain the distribution of the future places with increasing seismic activity. This investigation demonstrates one of possible approach to monitor upcoming seismicity for the periods of days - weeks - months. Continuous analysis of the stress state was carried out during 2009-2014. Each new earthquake with ?~1 and above from USGS catalog was considered as the new defect of the Earth crust which has some definite size and causes redistribution of the stress state. Overall calculation technique was based on the single function of the Earth crust damage, recalculated each half month. As a result each half month in the upper crust layers and partially in the middle layers we revealed locations of the maximal values of the stress state parameters: elastic energy density, shear stress, proximity of the earth crust layers to their strength limit. All these parameters exhibit similar spatial and temporal distribution. How follows from observations all four strongest events with ? ~ 5.5-7.2 occurred in South California during the analyzed period were prefaced by the parameters anomalies in peculiar advance time of weeks-months in the vicinity of 10-50 km from the upcoming earthquake. After the event the stress state source disappeared. The figure shows migration of the maximums of the stress state variations gradients (parameter D) in the vicinity of the epicenter of the earthquake 04.04.2010 with ?=7.2 in the period of 01.01.2010-01.05.2010. Grey lines show the major faults. In the table the values are sampled by 2 weeks, "-" indicates time before the event, "+" indicates time after the event.

  12. Integrated interpretation of new gravity and magnetic data of the Cerro do Jarau impact structure, southern Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Leite, Emilson; Bronzati Giacomini, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    The Cerro do Jarau structure was formed in Mesozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. The overall structure is approximately circular, having a diameter of ~13 km. Crests of silicified sandstones forming a semi-ring of elevated hills are found in the central-northern part of the structure, a feature that is not observed anywhere neither inside nor in the vicinities of the structure. The origin of such structure has been debated for decades. The two main hypotheses used to explain its formation are endogenous tectonic processes or an impact event. In spite of not having enough evidence that fully supports either hypothesis, a recently identified set of macroscopic and microscopic features point towards an impact origin. In the present work, new ground gravity and magnetic data of the Cerro do Jarau structure and an integrated geological interpretation are presented, aiming at providing more parameters to support or to reject the impact hypothesis. The collected data are irregularly distributed over the study area. The data were acquired using a gravimeter with a resolution of 0.001 mGal and a magnetometer with resolution of 0.01 nT. Horizontal and vertical spatial coordinates with precision in the range of 0.5 to 1 m were obtained after applying differential corrections to the acquired DGPS data. Standard Bouguer and free-air corrections were applied to the gravity data. Theoretical acceleration of gravity at each station was calculated using the WGS84 reference ellipsoid. A regional component was estimated by a polynomial trend surface. Both the theoretical acceleration and the regional component were removed from total Bouguer anomalies. Diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field were monitored and removed, along with a regional component, from total magnetic data. Both residual Bouguer anomalies and residual magnetic anomalies show an oriented NE-SW feature in the central-northern portion of the structure. Such feature is not commonly associated with impact structures and may possibly be related to an igneous intrusion generated as a result of a post-impact fault reactivation at local scale. However, the gravity anomaly in the central portion and the positive circular anomaly around it are commonly found on impact craters. On the other hand, it is difficult to associate gravity or magnetic anomalies with the edges of the structure, a characteristic that is also observed in other basaltic impact structures in Brazil. This may be related to different levels of post-impact fracturing or to the local silicification of sandstones. To improve interpretation, 3D geological models will be constructed in the future based on inversions of this set of geophysical data.

  13. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

  14. Late veins of C3 carbonatite intrusion from Jacupiranga complex (Southern Brazil): fluid and melt inclusions and mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Toscani, L.; Bersani, D.; Oddone, M.; Cancelliere, R.

    2012-01-01

    At Jacupiranga (Brazil) the latest manifestations of C3 carbonatite are veins and impregnations of sövite composition containing carbonates, Fe-oxides, apatite, phlogopite, olivine, clinohumite, pyrochlore, zirconolite. Apatite contains fluid inclusions l.s. of two types: (i) two-phase fluid inclusions of complex composition (H2O±CO2±NaCl±KCl±NaHCO3) with 17-50 vol.% of gas bubble, (ii) multi-phase melt inclusions of two types, carbonate-H2O rich and silicate-carbonate-H2O rich with very high homogenization temperatures up to 584°C and up to 1194°C, respectively. The coeval origin of fluid and melt inclusions allows to calculate the trapping pressures which indicate approximate depths of 30 to 60 km for the origin of the veins. Carbonatite veins contain Ba-poor tetra-ferriphlogopite of extreme composition which extends the compositional trend of the micas of Jacupiranga. The occurrence of zirconolite, Nb-rich pyrochlore and Ta-rich U-pyrochlore is mutually exclusive and related, probably, to the variation of fluorine content in the magmatic fluids.

  15. Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

    2013-07-01

    Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species. PMID:23562883

  16. Abdominal angiostrongylosis in southern Brazil--prevalence and parasitic burden in mollusc intermediate hosts from eighteen endemic foci.

    PubMed

    Rambo, P R; Agostini, A A; Graeff-Teixeira, C

    1997-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents and molluscs are the intermediate hosts. Nocturnal collection of molluscs and search for infective third stage larvae of A. costaricensis was carried out in 18 endemic foci identified by the notification of a confirmed diagnosis in human biopsies or surgical specimens. Molluscs were digested in acidic solution and isolation of larvae eventually present was done in a Baermann funnel. Larvae identified by the presence of a delicate groove in the tail were counted to assess the individual parasitic burden. Four species were found infected, with ranges of prevalence in parenthesis: Phyllocaulis variegatus (7% to 33.3%); Bradybaena similaris (11.7% to 24.1%); Belocaulus angustipes (8.3%) and Phyllocaulis soleiformis (3.3% to 14.2%). Parasitic burden varied from 1 to 75 with P. variegatus, 1 to 98 with B. similaris. 1 to 13 with B. angustipes and 1 larvae in each of two specimens of P. solciformis. P. variegatus was present in all sites and was found infected with the highest prevalence figures and the highest individual parasitic burdens. These data stress the importance of veronicellid slugs as intermediate hosts for A. costaricensis in the endemic areas in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:9302406

  17. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

  18. Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI--a case study in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L; Rossi, Francine A; Fiala, Dusan

    2012-05-01

    Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions. PMID:21604151

  19. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  20. The Stressed Vowels of Negro and White Speech of the Southern States: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayer, Howard B.

    The concept of the chorophone forms the basis for this study of vowel differences between Southern Negro English and Southern white English. The author isolates chorophones for the speech community under study according to the occurrence of a particular segmental phoneme or corresponding phoneme sequences in a set of words, all of which contain…

  1. Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Devall; B. R. Parresol

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub

  2. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

  3. A comparative study of negative cloud-to-ground lightning characteristics in São Paulo (Brazil) and Arizona (United States) based on high-speed video observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Saba, M. M. F.; Pinto, O.; Cummins, K. L.; Krider, E. P.; Campos, L. Z. S.

    2010-06-01

    There are only a few prior reports that detail accurate measurements of the number of strokes in natural negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. These are known as "accurate-stroke-count" studies, and they have been performed using various instruments and techniques. Here, we will examine the lightning characteristics produced by warm-season thunderstorms in two different climate regimes (southern Arizona, United States, and São Paulo, Brazil) using the same instrumentation. The lightning parameters were obtained from high-speed video recordings and time-correlated data provided by lightning locating systems (LLS). The use of these instruments has allowed us to measure the number of strokes in each flash and their polarity, the interstroke intervals, the number of different ground contacts, and the durations of the continuing currents. Altogether 209 negative flashes were recorded on video in the United States and 223 in Brazil (containing a total of 1681 strokes), and the majority of these flashes had at least one stroke reported by a LLS. Statistical analyses of these data sets as a whole did not show any significant differences in the characteristics of negative CG flashes from warm-season thunderstorms in both locations. The mean values for all data are as follows: video multiplicity, 3.9; single-stroke flashes, 19.5%; flash duration, 226.5 ms; interstroke interval, 61.5 ms; long continuing current, 17.5%; multigrounded flashes, 49.5%. Those characteristics were very similar to the well-accepted values for negative flashes in other regions. However, there were large storm-to-storm variations.

  4. Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 among blood donors in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Artur Souza; dos Santos, Alessandro Carvalho; Galvão, Carolina de Souza; da Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto

    2014-01-01

    Background Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1/2) is a major health problem. There is a public health policy defining measures for state hematology and hemotherapy centers in Brazil, in order to avoid virus transmission through blood donors. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HTLV -1/2 in blood donors in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, during routine blood unit screening. Methods Screening tests of blood donors using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect seropositivity for HTLV-1/2 performed at the Hematology and Hemotherapy Center of the State of Maranhão (HEMOMAR) between July of 2003 and December of 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Results Of the 365,564 blood donors, 561 (0.15%) were HTLV-1/2-positive, of whom 72 (12.8%) performed the confirmatory test (Western blot). In donors who had a confirmatory test, 53 (73.6%) were positive. The ages of the infected individuals ranged from 18 to 65 years; 305 (54%) were aged over 40 years. Among the infected individuals, 309 (55%) were male, 399 (71%) were mixed-race, and 259 (46%) were single. Co-infections were frequently found, especially with hepatitis B (in 68.6% of the cases). Conclusion The results obtained will contribute to the planning and implementation of control measures by the epidemiological surveillance agency of Maranhão, and will also contribute to reducing morbidity. The high seropositivity in a small sample in donors who had confirmatory tests indicates the need for confirmatory tests for all donors who initially test as seropositive. PMID:24624036

  5. Community ecology of euglossine bees in the coastal Atlantic forest of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar--Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  6. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2013-11-26

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. PMID:24284379

  7. Composition and structure of reef fish communities in Paraíba State, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Honório, P P F; Ramos, R T C; Feitoza, B M

    2010-09-01

    The composition and trophic structure of reef fish communities in two natural and two artificial reefs along the coast of Paraíba State in north-eastern Brazil were investigated. A total of 114 species of fish belonging to 47 families were recorded during 120 stationary visual surveys, slightly less than half (46·55%) of which were recorded at all four surveyed localities. Most species are widely distributed on the western Atlantic coast, but several are endemic to Brazil. The greatest diversity and equitability indexes were recorded at the reefs of Sapatas and Cabeço dos Cangulos, whereas the greatest richness and abundance were found at the Queimado shipwreck. The Alvarenga shipwreck reef had the least richness, diversity and equitability. The four localities studied had very similar ichthyofaunas, especially in relation to species composition. The reefs along the Paraíba coast are considered priority conservation areas by the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, and the information generated by this study will be useful for comparison with other reefs in the region and can be directly applied to programmes seeking to protect and manage these environments. PMID:20840619

  8. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered results may guide towards conservation and management of the geologic and natural processes associated with it, preserving geodiversity at the local scale, without the interruption of the geotourism network at Serra da Bocaina National Park. REFERENCES AB'SABER, Aziz NacibBrazil:. The nature of domains in Brazil: Landscape Potentials. São Paulo: Studio Editorial. 2003. GUERRA, Antonio Teixeira. Natural resources of Brazil. 3. ed. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE, 1980. IPHAN. National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage. International Declaration of Rights to the Land of Memory. [Digne-Les-Bains, France, 1991] Available at: http://portal.iphan.gov.br. Accessed on: 03, January 2014. UNESCO. Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural. Paris: UNESCO, 1972.

  9. Childhood trauma and suicide risk in a sample of young individuals aged 14-35 years in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luana Porto; Quevedo, Luciana; da Silva, Giovanna Del Grande; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Branco, Jerônimo; Lara, Diogo; Oses, Jean; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Suicide is among the main causes of death of people aged between 15 and 44 years old. Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for suicide. Hence, the objective of this study was to verify the relationship between childhood trauma and current suicide risk (suicidal behavior and ideation) in individuals aged 14-35 years, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Sample selection was performed by clusters. Suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Moreover, the participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, work, and substance use. The sample was composed of 1,380 individuals. The prevalence of suicide risk was 11.5%. The prevalence figures of childhood trauma were 15.2% (emotional neglect), 13.5% (physical neglect), 7.6% (sexual abuse), 10.1% (physical abuse), and 13.8% (emotional abuse). Suicide risk was associated (p<.001) with gender, work, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and all types of childhood trauma. The odds of suicide risk were higher in women (OR=1.8), people who were not currently working (OR=2.3), individuals who presented alcohol abuse (OR=2.6), and among tobacco smokers (OR=3.4). Moreover, suicide risk was increased in all types of trauma: emotional neglect (OR=3.7), physical neglect (OR=2.8), sexual abuse (OR=3.4), physical abuse (OR=3.1), and emotional abuse (OR=6.6). Thus, preventing early trauma may reduce suicide risk in young individuals. PMID:24629481

  10. Magnetostratigraphy and mid-palaeolatitude VGP dispersion during the Permo-Carboniferous Superchron: results from Paraná Basin (Southern Brazil) rhythmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Daniel R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Ponte-Neto, Cosme F.; Hinnov, Linda A.; Berquó, Thelma S.; Fabris, José D.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed magnetostratigraphic and rock-magnetism study of two Late Palaeozoic rhythmite exposures (Itu and Rio do Sul) from the Itararé Group (Paraná Basin, Brazil) is presented in this paper. After stepwise alterning-field procedures and thermal cleaning were performed, samples from both collections show reversed characteristic magnetization components, which is expected for Late Palaeozoic rocks. However, the Itu rocks presented an odd, flat inclination pattern that could not be corrected with mathematical methods based on the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) distributions. Correlation tests between the maximum anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility axis (K1) and the magnetic declination indicated a possible mechanical influence on the remanence acquisition. The Rio do Sul sequence displayed medium to high inclinations and provided a high-quality palaeomagnetic pole (after shallowing corrections of f = 0.8) of 347.5°E 63.2°S (N = 119; A95 = 3.3; K = 31), which is in accordance with the Palaeozoic apparent wander pole path of South America. The angular dispersion (Sb) for the distribution of the VGPs calculated on the basis of both the 45° cut-off angle and Vandamme method was compared to the best-fit Model G for mid-latitudes. Both of the Sb results are in reasonable agreement with the predicted (palaeo) latitudinal S-? relationship during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS), although the Sb value after the Vandamme cut-off has been applied is a little lower than expected. This result, in addition to those for low palaeolatitudes during the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron (PCRS) previously reported, indicates that the low secular variation regime for the geodynamo that has already been discovered in the CNS might have also been predominant during the PCRS.

  11. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  12. The perception of students on the use of animals in higher education at the Federal University of Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Bernardo G F; Molento, Carla F M; de Souza, Carlos E P

    2012-05-01

    The use of animals in education and research is a controversial issue that involves ethical considerations. In Brazil, Act 11,794, which was approved in 2008, established the National Council on the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and a database of institutions that use animals for research and education (CIUCA). This legislation also set out the regulations for the use of animals. In this study, we have evaluated the ethical issues involved in the use of animals for educational purposes at the Federal University of Paraná, through a qualitative-quantitative analysis that relied on written questionnaires. Our objective was to find out the opinions of students and staff from different academic fields, and at different stages in their professional development, on the use of animals for educational purposes. The study involved 101 students and 20 lecturers (i.e. tenure-track professors and all those who teach the students) in Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Approximately half of the students (45.5%) did not know the legislation that regulates the use of animals in education, and most of the lecturers believed that learning goals could not be achieved with alternative methods. Only 38.9% of the lecturers and 31.9% of the students trusted the usefulness of alternative methods. Furthermore, recent graduates were as unaware of the legislation, as were students in the first two years of their university courses. These results suggest that it is necessary to considerably expand the discussion on alternatives to animal use in the academic environment. PMID:22762192

  13. Outbreak of Avian Malaria Associated to Multiple Species of Plasmodium in Magellanic Penguins Undergoing Rehabilitation in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K. M.; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O.; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M.; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian malaria outbreaks to the penguins that are maintained throughout summer. PMID:24736326

  14. A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

    2013-01-01

    A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices. PMID:23102960

  15. Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer. PMID:25187024

  16. Single- and Dual-Aperture Interferometry at Southern Connecticut State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, E. P.

    2014-09-01

    Two instruments for astronomical interferometry built at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) are discussed. The first is the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI), which is a speckle camera built in 2008 and currently in operation at the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope at Kitt Peak. It is a two-channel speckle imaging system that utilizes electron-multiplying CCD cameras to capture speckle images in two colors simultaneously. The simultaneous information in two colors gives leverage on residual atmospheric dispersion that may be present in an observation. This allows reliable differential astrometry of binaries to be obtained on systems with separations smaller than one-quarter of the diffraction limit of the telescope, or under 10 mas at WIYN. A summary of the current observational projects being pursued with this system is given, including a survey of spectroscopic binaries from the Geneva-Copenhagen Catalogue. The second instrument, still being assembled and tested in the laboratory at SCSU, is a new two-station intensity interferometer that utilizes a Picoquant Picoharp timing module for real-time correlation of the photon signals received. The instrument and plans for observing with it are described.

  17. Habitat selection by large mammals in a southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Vilas Boas Goulart; Nilton Carlos Cáceres; Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Marcos Adriano Tortato; Ivo Rohling Ghizoni Jr; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos

    2009-01-01

    Habitat selection, which is mainly a consequence of competition and predation, allows species to coexist. The present study was conducted in two reserves in an Atlantic Forest area in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, and provided information on several large mammal species through photographic records. Records were related to certain environmental parameters, such as width of passages (trails and roads),

  18. DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT SITUATION OF ECOLOGICALLY-BASED AGRICULTURE IN BRAZIL AND IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucimar Santiago de Abreu; Paul Kledal; Kleber Pettan; Fernando Rabello; Sérgio C. Mendes

    Summary The objective of this scientific study is to present the current situation of the development of ecologically-based production in Brazil and in the state of São Paulo. In this way, the history of the emergence and expansion of ecologically-based agriculture was recovered. Production and market diversity, the motivating elements of this expansion, and obstacles were identified, taking the current

  19. The effect of climate change on the mobility and stability of coastal sand dunes in Ceará State (NE Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haim Tsoar; Noam Levin; Naomi Porat; Luis P. Maia; Hans J. Herrmann; Sonia H. Tatumi; Vanda Claudino-Sales

    2009-01-01

    The coast of Ceará State in NE Brazil is covered by vast fields of active and stabilized coastal sand dunes. Its tropical climate is characterized by two seasons, wet and dry, with wind intensity determined by the meridional shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The wind power is negatively correlated with precipitation, and precipitation is negatively correlated with the difference

  20. Two new species of Dryinidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Al; Lara, Rir; Perioto, Nw; Olmi, M

    2015-05-01

    Two new species of Dryinidae are described and illustrated Dryinus auratus Martins, Lara, Perioto & Olmi sp. nov. and Gonatopus mariae Martins, Lara, Perioto & Olmi sp. nov., both from areas of Atlantic Rainforest at São Paulo State, Brazil. Keys to species are provided. PMID:26132032

  1. Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paloma Shimabukuro; Túllio Romão Ribeiro da Silva; Frederico Fonseca; Luke Anthony Baton; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i) produce

  2. Epidemiological aspects of filariosis in dogs on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil: with emphasis on Dirofilaria immitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larissa Reifur; Vanete Thomaz-Soccol; Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and other filariae, from dogs in littoral areas of Paraná state, in Brazil. This survey spanned eight months, between 1998 and 1999, and was also designed to compare the efficacy of different tests for diagnosis of heartworm infection in that area. Blood samples were collected from 256 native-owned

  3. Production of citreoviridin by Penicillium citreonigrum strains associated with rice consumption and beriberi cases in the Maranhão State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Rosa; K. M. Keller; A. A. Oliveira; T. X. Almeida; L. A. M. Keller; A. C. Marassi; C. D. Kruger; M. V. Deveza; B. S. Monteiro; L. M. T. Nunes; A. Astoreca; L. R. Cavaglieri; G. M. Direito; E. C. Eifert; T. A. S. Lima; K. G. Modernell; F. I. B. Nunes; A. M. Garcia; M. S. Luz; D. C. N. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Penicillium citreonigrum and citreoviridin present in rice samples from Maranhão State, Brazil, where an outbreak of beriberi was reported and 32 deaths occurred (7% of the notified cases died in 2006). The ability of P. citreonigrum to produce citreoviridin was assessed, and a total of 420 samples of 21

  4. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  5. Land use effects on water quality in the urban agglomeration of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, central Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Zeilhofer; Eliana Beatriz Nunes Rondon Lima; Gilson Alberto Rosa Lima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between spatial patterns of water quality and land occupation in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, applying Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and Polynomial Redundancy Analysis. The results show a strong relationship between water quality and population density, urbanization rate and regionalized low water runoff. Higher treatment rates improve oxygenation

  6. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections. PMID:25076425

  7. Immature mosquitoes of Serra do Mar park, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; De Oliveira, Renata Freitas Nunes; Silva, Julia Dos Santos; Pacheco, Juliana Barreto; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2010-09-01

    With the objective of providing knowledge about the natural habitat of mosquito larvae, we conducted a study on the culicid fauna and identified larval habitat types at 3 different locations in the Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil, over the 12 months of 1991. We collected 1,425 larvae belonging to 23 species, of which the most frequent were Culex iridescens, Culex spp., Limatus durhami, and Trichoprosopon pallidiventer. The mosquito larval habitats presenting the greatest densities of specimens were bamboo, bromeliads, rubber boots, and streams. We observed that the culicids used a variety of containers as larval habitats and bred under a diversity of ecological conditions. Most of the habitats were natural, formed by bamboo, bromeliads, streams, and depressions in the ground and in rocks, along with artificial habitats consisting of rubber boots and abandoned metal cans. Seven species occurred preferentially in the internodes of closed bamboo stems, 6 in internodes of open stems, and 4 in bromeliads. PMID:21033051

  8. [Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

    2011-09-01

    This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

  9. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  10. Ticks infesting birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Gustavo Seron; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Lopes, Ileyne Tenório; Costa, Luís Flávio da Silva; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report tick infestations on wild birds in plots of the Atlantic Forest reforested fragments with native species and plots reforested with Eucalyptus tereticornis in the municipality of Rio Claro, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 256 birds were captured: 137 individuals of 33 species, in planted native forest; and 128 individuals of 37 species, in planted Eucalyptus tereticornis forest. Nymphs of two tick species were found on the birds: Amblyomma calcaratum and Amblyomma longirostre, the former was more abundant in the fragments reforested with Atlantic forest native species, and the latter in the fragment reforested with E. tereticornis. New host records were presented for A. calcaratum. PMID:24252949

  11. Spatial synchrony of a highly endemic fish assemblage (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Domingues, W M; Bini, L M; Agostinho, A A

    2005-08-01

    In this study, patterns of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations (cross-correlation) of an endemic fish assemblage of a Neotropical reservoir (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil) were reported. First, the level of population synchrony for 20 species was estimated. Second, population synchrony was correlated, using the Mantel test, with geographical distances among sites (n = 11) and also environmental synchrony (temperature). Nine species presented significant correlations between spatial synchrony and geographic distances (Astyanax sp. b, Astyanax sp. c, Pimelodus sp., Hoplias malabaricus, Crenicichla iguassuensis, Hypostomus derbyi, Hypostomus myersi, Rhamdia branneri, and R. voulezi). Considering the ecology of the species and the significant relationship between population and environmental synchronies, it seems that environmental stochasticity is the most plausible hypothesis in explaining the observed synchrony patterns. PMID:16341422

  12. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed. PMID:24627062

  13. [Echinococcus vogeli cysts in paca liver (Cuniculus paca) native from the Acre State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, U G; Martinelli, A L; Velludo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Four of the patients with polycystic hydatid disease observed by us reported that they were aware of the presence of liver disease in the pacas hunted for food. The viscera of these animals were usually given to domestic dogs. All of our 7 patients reported contact with dogs that had previously ingested viscera of pacas. Examination of the liver considered to be diseased by one of the patients and removed from a paca killed in the same region (State of Acre, Brazil) from which the human cases originated showed the presence of hydatid cysts. The characteristics of the rostellar hooks of the protoscolex indicated that this was the larval form of Echinococcus vogeli. These observations confirm the participation of pacas in the biological cycle of E. vogeli and the pathway through which man may become an alternative intermediate host of this echinococcus. PMID:2131493

  14. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  15. Use of fishing resources by women in the Mamanguape River Estuary, Paraíba state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Michelle S P; Santiago, Idalina M F L; Cortez, Creuza S; Trindade, Priscila M; Mourão, José S

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the appropriation and use of fishing resources by women residing near the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba state, Brazil. Were used combinations of qualitative (interviews and direct observations) and quantitative methods (use value and corrected principal use concordance). Thirty women were interviewed and reported the use of 41 species (30 fish, 8 crustaceans, and 3 mollusks), mainly for local consumption and sale. The species with the highest use value were Genidens genidens (0.7), Callinectes exasperatus (0.73) and Anomalocardia brasiliana (0.46). The diversity of resources exploited demonstrates the importance of the mangrove ecosystem to MRE families, and the data gathered can serve as a basis for formulating public policies to promote the equal participation of women in fishing and environmental conservation. PMID:22990603

  16. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes. PMID:11485676

  17. [Factors associated with participation in sports and physical education among students from Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coledam, Diogo Henrique Constantino; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli; Pires Junior, Raymundo; dos-Santos, Júlio Wilson; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors associated with participation in sports and physical education. The sample consisted of 827 young people selected in two stages and stratified by neighborhood of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The study analyzed participation in sports and physical education in relation to socio-demographic, behavioral, and environmental variables. Factors associated with participation in physical education included: male gender, age (10-13 years), equal to high self-rated physical activity, participation in sports, moving around during classes, and having classes on the court. Factors associated with participation in sports were male gender, age (10-13 years), equal to high self-rated physical activity, physical activity (? 7 hours/week), participation in physical education, having ? 10 friends, participation in sports with friends, and frequency using facilities for sports practice. These factors should be considered in programs to encourage sports and participation in physical education. PMID:24714943

  18. [Serological diagnosis of dengue and yellow fever infections in suspected cases from Pará State, Brazil, 1999].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Tais Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Costa, Maria Irene Weyl de A; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; da Rosa, Amélia P A Travassos

    2002-01-01

    From June to December 1999, 785 serum samples were obtained from patients clinically suspected of having dengue or yellow fever. The patients were referred by public health centers distributed within the six mesoregions of Par State, Brazil. Serum samples were tested for Flavivirus antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition test and for dengue and yellow fever viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgM detection. Of the sera collected, 563 (71.7%) were positive by HI test and out of these 150 (26.6%) were positive by ELISA-IgM. Dengue virus was responsible for most of the recent infections in all regions; yellow fever cases detected in the current study were restricted to the Maraj and Southeast regions. PMID:12612738

  19. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species. PMID:23644789

  20. The declining cocoa economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation attitudes of cocoa planters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Alger; Marcellus Caldas

    1994-01-01

    Summary The causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the south-eastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Large land-owners were found to be responsible for most of the forest clearing that occurred in the past: cocoa prices compensated investment in the expansion of the

  1. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil. PMID:15622852

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Southern Red-Backed Vole (Western United States)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the southern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. A review and synthesis of the literature is followed by development of a model of the species-habitat requirements of the southern red-backed vole. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Cumulatic Diorites Related to Post-Collisional, Brasiliano\\/Pan-African Mafic Magmatism in the Vila Nova Belt, Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciane Garavaglia; Maria de Fátima Bitencourt; Lauro Valentim Stoll Nardi

    2002-01-01

    The Capivaras Diorite, in the Vila Nova region, NW of the Sul-rio-grandense Shield, is composed of six NE- to NNE-oriented rock bodies of late-tectonic emplacement relative to the D3 deformation phase which forms subvertical high-strain zones in basement gneiss sequences. Within these intrusive bodies, a shape foliation is present, generally parallel to contacts and displaying a local solid-state deformational component.

  4. A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco-Southall, Crystal

    The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students who were enrolled in average science classes.

  5. Molecular characterization of noroviruses and HBGA from infected Quilombola children in Espirito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Fernando; Denadai, Wilson; Gomes, Yohanna Mayelle; Rose, Tatiana L; Ferreira, Mônica S R; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Le Pendu, Jacques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Spano, Liliana Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the main etiological agents of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and susceptibility to NoV infection has been related to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NoV strains and to evaluate the HBGA phenotype and genotype of children from semi-isolated Quilombola communities, descendents of black slaves in Brazil. A total of 397 children up to eleven years old, with and without diarrhea, from Quilombola Communities in the Espirito Santo State, Brazil, were investigated for the presence of NoV from August 2007 to September 2009. Feces were collected from all the children, and blood from the NoV positive children. NoV was screened by reverse transcription-PCR with primers for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region; genogroup was determined by PCR with primers for the C and D regions and genotyped by sequencing. HBGA phenotype was performed by gel-spinning and FUT2 and FUT3 were analyzed by PCR or sequencing analysis. NoV were detected in 9.2% (12/131) of diarrheic and 1.5% (4/266) of non-diarrheic children (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). GI and GII genogroups were present in 12.5% and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. The following genotypes were characterized: GII.4 (25%), GII.12 (25%), GII.6 (12.5%) and GI.1 (6.3%), GI.3 (12.5%) and GI.4 (6.3%). Children infected with NoV showed the A (n?=?6), O (n?=?6), and B (n?=?2) HBGA phenotypes, and 13 of them were classified as secretors (Se) and one as a non secretor (se). Mutations of Se (40), (171,216,357,428,739,960) were found for the FUT2 gene and mutations of Le (59, 202, 314) for the FUT3 gene. The only se child was infected by NoV GI, whereas the Se children were indiscriminately infected by GI or GII. This study showed rates of NoV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic Quilombola children consistent with other studies. However, children under 12 months were seven times more affected than those between 1 and 5 years old. GII.12 was as frequent as GII.4 and GI.1 and GI.4 were described for the first time in Brazil. Owing to the small number of cases studied, no clear pattern of susceptibility and/or HBGA resistance could be inferred. PMID:23894453

  6. Occurrence and sorption of fluoroquinolones in poultry litters and soils from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Figueira, Rafael Fernandes; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2012-08-15

    Animal production is one of the most expressive sectors of Brazilian agro-economy. Although antibiotics are routinely used in this activity, their occurrence, fate, and potential impacts to the local environment are largely unknown. This research evaluated sorption-desorption and occurrence of four commonly used fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in poultry litter and soil samples from São Paulo State, Brazil. The sorption-desorption studies involved batch equilibration technique and followed the OECD guideline for pesticides. All compounds were analyzed by HPLC, using fluorescence detector. Fluoroquinolones' sorption potential to the poultry litters (K(d) ?65 L kg(-1)) was lower than to the soil (K(d) ~40,000 L kg(-1)), but was always high (?69% of applied amount) indicating a higher specificity of fluoroquinolones interaction with soils. The addition of poultry litter (5%) to the soil had not affected sorption or desorption of these compounds. Desorption was negligible in the soil (?0.5% of sorbed amount), but not in the poultry litters (up to 42% of sorbed amount). Fluoroquinolones' mean concentrations found in the poultry litters (1.37 to 6.68 mg kg(-1)) and soils (22.93 ?g kg(-1)) were compatible to those found elsewhere (Austria, China, and Turkey). Enrofloxacin was the most often detected compound (30% of poultry litters and 27% of soils) at the highest mean concentrations (6.68 mg kg(-1) for poultry litters and 22.93 ?g kg(-1) for soils). These results show that antibiotics are routinely used in poultry production and might represent one potential source of pollution to the environment that has been largely ignored and should be further investigated in Brazil. PMID:22750180

  7. Patients' Perceptions on the Performance of a Local Health System to Eliminate Leprosy, Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Flávia Meneguetti; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Rodrigues, Ludmila Barbosa Bandeira; Yamamura, Mellina; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Dessunti, Elma Mathias; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Neto, Marcelino Santos; Garcia, Maria Concebida da Cunha; Popolin, Marcela Paschoal; Silveira, Tatiane Ramos dos Santos; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background In Brazil, leprosy has been listed among the health priorities since 2006, in a plan known as the “Pact for life” (Pacto pela Vida). It is the sole country on the American continent that has not reached the global goal of disease elimination. Local health systems face many challenges to achieve this global goal. The study aimed to investigate how patients perceive the local health system's performance to eliminate leprosy and whether these perceptions differ in terms of the patients' income. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil. Interviews were performed with the leprosy patients. The local health system was assessed through a structured and adapted tool, considering the domains judged as good quality of health care. The authors used univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and nineteen patients were recruited for the study, 50.4% (60) of them were male, 54.0% (64) were between 42 and 65 years old and 66.3% (79) had finished elementary school. The results showed that patients used the Primary Health Care service near their place of residence but did not receive the leprosy diagnosis there. Important advances of this health system were verified for the elimination of leprosy, verifying protocols for good care delivery to the leprosy patients, but these services did not develop collective health actions and did not engage the patients' family members and community. Conclusions/Significance The patients' difficulty was observed to have access to the diagnosis and treatment at health services near their homes. Leprosy care is provided at the specialized level, where the patients strongly bond with the teams. The care process is individual, with limited perspectives of integration among the health services for the purpose of case management and social mobilization of the community to the leprosy problem. PMID:25412349

  8. E-Learning of Genetic Counseling and Basic Genetics for Psychologists in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustilnick, Renato; Correia-Neto, Jorge S.; Vilar, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of a learning process of genetic counseling and basic genetics using an e-learning model and its application to a group of psychologists in the state of Parana in southern Brazil. The aim was to analyze the impact on the increase of knowledge in the presented subjects and the possibility of applying this…

  9. Identification and comparison of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) host strains in Brazil, Texas, and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm is a major economic pest throughout the western hemisphere. Studies of populations in the southern United States and the Caribbean demonstrated the existence of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct host strains. Fall armyworm populations in Brazil are geographically d...

  10. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks. PMID:24676160

  11. [Hospitalization and mortality from mansoni schistosomiasis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1992/2000].

    PubMed

    Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the historical trends, epidemiological profile, and spatial distribution of hospital admissions and deaths from schistosomiasis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, an analysis was conducted of data from the Hospital Information System and Mortality Information System from 1992 to 2000. The results showed a reduction in hospital admissions and mortality, while identifying more admissions and deaths among males. There was a lower percentage of deaths and admissions from schistosomiasis in individuals under 30 years of age. However, schistosomiasis is still of relevant magnitude, as evidenced by the number of deaths from this cause and the number of patients admitted to the hospital system in Pernambuco. A spatial analysis of the endemic's distribution in the State showed that although from 1995 to 1999 there was a greater spread of admissions due to schistosomiasis in the municipalities (counties) of the Sertão (backlands) and São Francisco river valley, the number of municipalities with hospitalizations due to schistosomiasis decreased from 1995 to 1998, followed by an increase in 1999 and 2000. PMID:16158144

  12. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Norovirus in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  13. An ecoregional classification for the state of Roraima, Brazil: the importance of landscape in malaria biology.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Tsouris, Pantelis; Peterson, A Townsend; Honório, Nildimar Alves; de Barros, Fábio Saito Monteiro; de Aguiar, Ducinéia Barros; Gurgel, Helen da Costa; de Arruda, Mércia Eliane; Vasconcelos, Simão Dias; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco

    2007-06-01

    Understanding the different background landscapes in which malaria transmission occurs is fundamental to understanding malaria epidemiology and to designing effective local malaria control programs. Geology, geomorphology, vegetation, climate, land use, and anopheline distribution were used as a basis for an ecological classification of the state of Roraima, Brazil, in the northern Amazon Basin, focused on the natural history of malaria and transmission. We used unsupervised maximum likelihood classification, principal components analysis, and weighted overlay with equal contribution analyses to fine-scale thematic maps that resulted in clustered regions. We used ecological niche modeling techniques to develop a fine-scale picture of malaria vector distributions in the state. Eight ecoregions were identified and malaria-related aspects are discussed based on this classification, including 5 types of dense tropical rain forest and 3 types of savannah. Ecoregions formed by dense tropical rain forest were named as montane (ecoregion I), submontane (II), plateau (III), lowland (IV), and alluvial (V). Ecoregions formed by savannah were divided into steppe (VI, campos de Roraima), savannah (VII, cerrado), and wetland (VIII, campinarana). Such ecoregional mappings are important tools in integrated malaria control programs that aim to identify specific characteristics of malaria transmission, classify transmission risk, and define priority areas and appropriate interventions. For some areas, extension of these approaches to still-finer resolutions will provide an improved picture of malaria transmission patterns. PMID:17568941

  14. A new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the state of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Hamdan, Breno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Chironius Fitzinger, 1826 from the highlands of Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from all currently recognized congeners by a unique combination of states of characters on coloration, scale counts, scale ornamentation, and hemipenis. The new species closely resembles Chironius flavolineatus (Jan, 1863) in color pattern, but differs from the later taxon by the presence of two to four posterior temporal scales; cloacal shield entire; six to ten rows of keeled dorsal scales at midbody; ventral scales with posterior dark edges forming conspicuous transverse bars along almost the entire venter; conspicuous dark longitudinal stripes (in "zigzag") in the midventral portion of subcaudals; region of medial constriction of hemipenis slightly covered with spinules separating calyces of apex from spines below region of constriction; and sulcus spermaticus situated on convex face of hemipenis in lateral view. The new species is apparently restricted to Chapada Diamantina, corroborating the biological importance of this region from a conservational perspective. PMID:25543653

  15. New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

  16. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25493694

  17. The sea-level highstand correlated to marine isotope stage (MIS) 7 in the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L; Ferigolo, Jorge; Ribeiro, Ana Maria; Pereira, Jamil C; Holanda, Elizete C; Pitana, Vanessa G; Kerber, Leonardo

    2014-12-01

    The coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil, includes four barrier-lagoon depositional systems formed by successive Quaternary sea-level highstands that were correlated to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 9, 5 and 1, despite the scarcity of absolute ages. This study describes a sea-level highstand older than MIS 5, based on the stratigraphy, ages and fossils of the shallow marine facies found in coastal barrier (Barrier II). This facies outcrops along the banks of Chuí Creek, it is composed of fine, well-sorted quartz sand and contains ichnofossils Ophiomorpha nodosa and Rosselia sp., and molluscan shells. The sedimentary record indicates coastal aggradation followed by sea-level fall and progradation of the coastline. Thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from sediments and fossil shells point to an age of ?220 ka for the end of this marine transgression, thus correlating it to MIS 7 (substage 7e). Altimetric data point to a maximum amplitude of about 10 meters above present-day mean sea-level, but tectonic processes may be involved. Paleoceanographic conditions at the time of the highstand and correlations with other deposits in the Brazilian coasts are also discussed. PMID:25590701

  18. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis . ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:24402151

  19. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Age 30, Birth Weight, Accelerated Growth during Infancy and Breastfeeding: A Birth Cohort Study in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Rogério da Silva; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) at age 30 and birth characteristics, growth during infancy, and breastfeeding duration, among subjects who have been prospectively followed since birth. Methods and Results In 1982, all births in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and those children (n = 5,914) whose families lived in the urban area of the city have been followed and evaluated at several time points. The cohort participants were evaluated in 2012–13, and IMT was measured at the posterior wall of the right and left common carotid arteries in longitudinal planes using ultrasound imaging. We obtained valid IMT measurements for 3,188 individuals. Weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at age 2 years, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at age 4, height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 4 years, WAZ at age 4 and relative conditional weight at 4 years were positively associated with IMT, even after controlling for confounding variables. The beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. WAZ at age 2 (compared to those with a <–1 s.d.) was 3.62 ?m (95% CI 0.86 to 6.38). The beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. WHZ at 4 (in relation to <–1 s.d) was 3.83 ?m (95% CI 0.24 to 7.42). For HAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient for ?1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.19 ?m (95% CI 1.14 to 7.25). For WAZ at 4, the beta-coefficient associated with ?1 s.d. in relation to <–1 s.d. was 4.28 ?m (95% CI 1.59 to 6.97). The beta-coefficient associated with conditional weight gain at age 2–4 was 1.26 ?m (95% CI 0.49 to 2.02). Conclusion IMT at age 30 was positively associated with WAZ at age 2 years, WHZ at age 4, HAZ at age 4, WAZ at age 4 and conditional weight gain at age 4 years. PMID:25611747

  20. Importance of LA-ICP-MS Zircon Geochronology and Geochemistry in Determining the History of Magmatic Systems: Insights from the Graciosa A-type Province, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, S.; Gualda, G. A.; Bream, B. R.; Vlach, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Graciosa Province comprises more than 20 A-type granitic and syenitic plutons in southern Brazil. This province was emplaced during a period of tectonic change, with A-type magmatism post-dating syntectonic I- and S-type magmatism to the east. Dating the age of magmatism has proven challenging, with current published results showing a wide range of ages (550-590 Ma), most of which with low analytical resolution (2? errors >15 Ma). We use Laser Ablation ICP-MS to determine U-Pb ages and trace element compositions of zircon crystals in-situ. We analyzed zircon from ten samples representative of the petrographic diversity observed in the 5 plutons located in the Serra da Graciosa region1, which include monzodiorites, granites, and alkali-feldspar granites and syenites. The graintoids include rocks with aluminous affinity (biotite-bearing), and others with alkaline affinity (sodic amphibole-bearing). Our results show three age populations with concordant ages at ~633±6, 581±3, and 539±4 Ma (all errors 2?): - The oldest zircon ages come from analyses of zircon cores that display overgrowth and resorption textures. - The majority of zircon grains analyzed yield ages ~581 Ma. Zircons of this age can be found in all but two samples analyzed. Spots yielding these ages come from rim regions free of fractures or inclusions. REE patterns show enrichment in HREE, and pronounced positive Ce anomaly, as typically seen in magmatic zircons. - Strongly altered grains from alkali-feldspar granites with biotite dominate the youngest zircon population. These grains have myriad inclusions of thorite, REE fluorides (fluocerite, CeF3 - confirmed by EBSD), and REE phosphates. A few analyses in other rocks yield similar ages. REE patterns are much less steep for these zircons, and Ce anomalies are much more subdued, as characteristic of hydrothermal zircons. Further, these zircons are enriched in high field-strength elements such as Nb and Hf, as well as in Th and U. Based on textural and geochemical evidence, we interpret these 3 age populations as being representative of inheritance (>620 Ma), magmatism (~581 Ma), and hydrothermal alteration (~540 Ma). In light of these results, it is not surprising that previous age determinations using whole-zircon TIMS U/Pb and whole-rock Rb/Sr found a wide range of ages. Our study highlights the benefits of in-situ LA-ICPMS zircon geochronology as a method to deconvolve the evolution of igneous provinces, and shows that adequate precision (~0.5%) can be achieved in favorable circumstances. 1 GAR Gualda & SRF Vlach (2007) Anais Acad. Bras. Ciências, 79: 405-430

  1. Seasonal variation, chemical composition, and analgesic and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil from leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Nascimento, Izalina Ansilieiro; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of Tetradenia riparia (Hochst.) Codd grown in southern Brazil was analyzed by GC-MS, and the analgesic and antimicrobial activities of this oil were assayed. The yield of essential oil ranged from 0.17% to 0.26%, with the maximum amount in winter and the minimum in spring. The results obtained from principal components analysis (PCA) revealed the existence of high chemical variability in the different seasons. The samples were clearly discriminated into three groups: winter, autumn, and spring-summer. Samples collected during winter contained the highest percentages of calyculone (24.70%), abietadiene (13.54%), and viridiflorol (4.20%). In autumn, the major constituents were ledol (8.74%) and cis-muurolol-5-en-4-alpha-ol (13.78%). Samples collected in spring-summer contained the highest percentages of fenchone (12.67%), 14-hydroxy-9-epi-caryophyllene (24.36%), and alpha-cadinol (8.33%). Oxygenated sesquiterpenes were predominant in all the samples analyzed. The observed chemovariation might be environmentally determined by a seasonal influence. The essential oil, when given orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg, exhibited good analgesic activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, inhibiting the constrictions by 38.94% to 46.13%, and this effect was not affected by seasonal variation. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil against the bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, and Enterobacter cloacae, and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was assessed by the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained, followed by measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), indicated that S. aureus, B. subtilis, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive microorganisms, showing largest inhibition, and the lowest MIC values varied from 15.6 to 31.2 microg/mL, 7.8 to 15.6 microg/mL, and 31.2 to 62.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:20714310

  2. High Resolution Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Northwest Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, K. M.; Liberty, L. M.; Pratt, T. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is an active fault between the Seattle and Everett Basins in northwest Washington State. Marine seismic and geologic data characterize the SWIF as sub-parallel, northwest trending reverse faults that may extend over a 100 km distance and may be capable of producing M 7 or greater earthquakes. We acquired two land-based seismic transects crossing LIDAR and magnetic lineaments associated with the SWIF near Woodinville, WA, to relate surface scarps to subsurface structures and to characterize deformation in the upper 0.5 km of strata. Nearby borehole data place Pleistocene and younger deposits at depths less than 0.2 km, with Tertiary and older strata identified below. The 2 km, north-south Crystal Lake transect crosses the surface locations of LIDAR and magnetic lineaments and shows reverse faulting that offsets Tertiary and younger strata in a zone that extends more than 1.25 km. In contrast, we interpret relatively undeformed, flat lying Tertiary strata at depths of 0.1 to 0.2 km south of the observed surface lineaments. In the 3 km, east-west Woodinville transect, we identify reverse faulting and folding that forms a small 0.75 km-wide graben within a broader deformation zone. These anomalies are on strike with the LIDAR and magnetic lineaments identified near Crystal Lake. The presence of a small graben in the SWIF is consistent with models that hypothesize strike-slip motion on the fault system, with curvature of adjacent fault strands forming a small pull-apart basin. Our observations suggest that other magnetic lineaments in the region also are likely associated with fault strands. We acquired three additional transects upwards of 30 km southeast of Woodinville to determine whether the SWIF extends beyond surface lineaments and potentially merging with the Seattle Fault. Our preliminary analysis shows faulted Tertiary and younger strata on these profiles. If the observed fault strands on these transects are related to the SWIF, this suggests the SWIF extends at least 60 km into the mainland, 30 km farther than previously estimated. Associated earthquake hazards for the SWIF would therefore appear to be greater than previously estimated.

  3. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Maria Edileuza Soares; da Guarda Reis, Mônica Nogueira; Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2015-05-01

    HIV-1 transmitted-drug-resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross-sectional study describes transmitted-dru- resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV-1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self-declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted-drug-resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic inference. Overall, transmitted-drug-resistance rate was 11.2% (10/89; CI 95%: 5.8-19.1%); 22.7% among men who have sex with men (5/22; CI 95%: 8.8-43.4%), 10% in heterosexual men (2/20; CI 95%: 1.7-29.3%) and 6.8% in women (3/44; CI 95%: 1.8-17.4%). Singleton mutations to protease-inhibitor/PI, nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NRTI or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NNRTI predominated (8/10): PI mutations (M46L, V82F, L90M); NRTI mutations (M41L, D67N) and NNRTI mutations (K103N/S). Dual class resistance mutations to NRTI and NNRTI were observed: T215L (NRTI), Y188L (NNRTI) and T215N (NRTI), F227L (NNRTI). Subtype B prevailed (86.6%; 77/89), followed by subtype F1 (1.1%, 1/89) and subtype C (1.1%, 1/89). B/F1 and B/C intersubtype recombinants represented 11.2% (10/89). In Piauí State extensive testing of incidence and transmitted-drug-resistance in all populations with risk behaviors may help control AIDS epidemic locally. PMID:25649362

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  7. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-01-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  8. Holocene mangrove dynamics and sea-level changes in northern Brazil, inferences from the Taperebal core in northeastern Pará State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Vedel; Hermann Behling; Marcelo Cohen; Ruben Lara

    2006-01-01

    A 450 cm sediment core from Taperebal, in the mangrove region of northeastern Pará State in northern Brazil has been studied\\u000a through pollen analysis in order to reconstruct mangrove development and dynamics and to infer relative sea-level (RSL) changes\\u000a during the Holocene. Six AMS radiocarbon dates, which provide a somewhat limited age control with some uncertainties, suggest\\u000a early and late Holocene

  9. Serologic survey for transmissible gastroenteritis virus neutralizing antibodies in selected feral and domestic swine sera in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Woods, R D; Pirtle, E C; Sacks, J M; Gibbs, E P

    1990-07-01

    Serum samples collected from feral and domestic swine (Sus scrofa) in Florida and feral swine in Georgia and Texas were assayed by plaque reduction for their virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies against the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGE). None of 560 samples collected from feral swine contained VN antibodies for TGE virus, but experimentally infected feral swine seroconverted. None of 665 samples from domestic swine contained TGE-VN antibodies. These results indicate feral swine are not a significant reservoir for TGE virus in southern states, but are capable of becoming infected and developing VN antibodies against TGE. PMID:2167395

  10. [Variables associated with sedentary leisure time in the elderly in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zaitune, Maria Paula do Amaral; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of sedentary leisure time (no type of leisure-time exercise once a week or more) among the elderly in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic factors, other health-related behaviors, and the presence of morbidity. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling. Data analysis considered the sample design. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 70.9%, and the prevalence ratio was significantly higher than 1.0 for the elderly with lower socioeconomic status (1.31: 1.11-1.55), smokers (1.39: 1.23-1.57), those with common mental disorders (1.20: 1.04-1.39), and females (1.16: 1.00-1.35). Prevalence of walking was 23.5%, followed by fitness or bodybuilding programs (3.8%), and swimming or water aerobics (3.6%). The results show the need to develop global action for health-related behaviors in order for this approach to succeed. Attention should focus on the elderly with common mental disorders and those with lower socioeconomic status to ensure equity in health promotion practices. PMID:17546324

  11. [Public policy to control violence: a case study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Costa, Heloniza Oliveira Gonçalves; Vilasbôas, Ana Luiza Queiroz

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the formulation and preliminary developments of a public policy to control violence in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. The study's theoretical reference was the cycle of public policies and contributions by 'rational choice'. The public policy analyzed here reached the first three levels of the political decision-making process: the issue was placed on the public agenda and was present in the discourse of public authorities, and a plan was drafted at the municipal level. The fact that various stakeholders and sectors were convened in the organizational structure proposed by the plan was not sufficient to encourage cooperation among individuals to act jointly in the plan's implementation. The mechanisms used to sensitize the stakeholders were not sufficient to mobilize them for the fight against violence under the proposed format. A public policymaking process should also consider the set of factors that encourage or constrain cooperation among individuals for collective action from the perspective of the common good. PMID:19300837

  12. [Development of secondary dental care: a study on specialized dental clinics in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Nilcema; Goes, Paulo Sávio Angeiras de

    2009-02-01

    This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the Specialized Dental Care Centers in Pernambuco State, Brazil, based on secondary outpatient treatment data from 2006 and standards and criteria adopted to implement these services. The study describes the overall achievement of targets by these specialized dental clinics and variables for characterization of the dental services and municipalities (counties). The methodology included descriptive analysis and non-parametric correlation analysis (Spearman coefficient), with significance set at 5%. Of the 22 specialized dental clinics, 40.9% showed good performance, and 81.8% met the target for basic dental care, as compared to 13.6% that met the target for minor oral surgery. Among the independent variables, only population size and Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) were correlated with the performance of the specialized dental clinics: the smaller the city (r = 0.678; p < 0.001) and the lower the MHDI (r = 0.599; p < 0.001), the worse the performance. The findings suggest that standardization of the implementation and functioning of specialized dental clinics should be monitored and evaluated in order to ensure better quality of services for the population. PMID:19219233

  13. Interdisciplinary paleovegetation study in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Pernambuco State), northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessenda, Luiz C R; Gouveia, Susy E M; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Aravena, Ramon; Ricardi-Branco, Fresia S; Bendassolli, José A; Ribeiro, Adauto de S; Saia, Soraya E M G; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Menor, Eldemar de A; Oliveira, Sônia M B de; Cordeiro, Renato C; Freitas, Angela M de M; Boulet, René; Filizola, Heloisa F

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to reconstruct vegetation changes (with climate inferences) that occurred during the Holocene in the Fernando de Noronha Island, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The research approach included the use of geochemical (mineralogy, elemental), carbon isotopes (delta13C, 14C) and pollen analyses in soil organic matter (SOM) and sediments collected in Lagoa da Viração and Manguezal do Sueste. The carbon isotopes data of SOM indicated that there was no significant vegetation changes during the last 7400 BP, suggesting that the climate was not the determinant factor for the vegetation dynamics. The pollen analysis of the sediment of a core collected in the Lagoa da Viração showed the absence of Quaternary material in the period between 720 BP and 90 BP. The mineralogical analysis of deeper layer showed the presence of diopside indicating this material was developed "in situ". Only in the shallow part of the core were found pollen of similar plant species of the modern vegetation. The geochemistry and isotope results, in association with the sediment type and pollen analyses of sediment samples of Manguezal do Sueste, indicated variations in the vegetation and in its location since the middle Holocene. Such variations can be associated with climatic events and sea level oscillations and also with anthropogenic events considering the last five hundred years. PMID:19039491

  14. Land Use Intensification Effects in Soil Arthropod Community of an Entisol in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, G. M.; Silva, E. F. F.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between soil invertebrates and land use and management are fundamental for soil quality assessment but remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil arthropod community of an entisol brought about by different land use systems under semiarid climate in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The soil invertebrate community was sampled using pitfall traps from areas with eight vegetation types by the end of the austral winter. The land uses studied were native thorn forest plus seven agricultural fields planted with elephant grass, apple guava, passion fruit, carrot, maize, tomato, and green pepper. Native vegetation was considered as a reference, whereas the agricultural fields showed a range of soil use intensities. The abundance of organisms, the total and average richness, Shannon's diversity index, and the Pielou uniformity index were determined, and all of these were affected by several crop and soil management practices such as residue cover, weed control, and pesticide application. Our study found differences in community assemblages and composition under different land use systems, but no single taxa could be used as indicator of soil use intensity. PMID:25431792

  15. Plankton diversity and limnological characterization in two shallow tropical urban reservoirs of Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Viviane L S; Melão, Maria da Graça G; Moura, Ariadne N

    2012-06-01

    Plankton diversity, physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a were analyzed in two shallow urban reservoirs with different trophic degrees on Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. High eutrophication levels were observed in Apipucos reservoir, while Prata reservoir was considered oligotrophic. Values reported for physical and chemical variables and chlorophyll a differed among the studied ecosystems. Richness and plankton diversity were higher in Apipucos reservoir especially for phytoplankton. The presence of potential toxic Cyanophyceae in both reservoirs reflects a problem mainly to Prata reservoir, which is used for public water supply. Differences were observed for some variables among sites of study in Apipucos reservoir, while the differences among strata were negligible in both reservoirs, reflecting the water column mixing by wind action. Rainfall regulated the temporal dynamics for the analyzed variables, with significant seasonal differences, mainly for the major of limnological variables in Apipucos reservoir. Plankton diversity was higher in Apipucos reservoir, especially to phytoplankton, showing that eutrophication and pollution can favor plankton diversity in tropical urban shallow reservoirs. PMID:22534751

  16. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  17. Epidemiology of snakebite accidents in the municipalities of the state of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Renner de Souza; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; Lopes, Ysabel Arianne Cordeiro Ferreira; Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Vieira, Alecxandro Alves

    2013-05-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals represent an important, albeit neglected, public health issue worldwide. A descriptive study was made of snakebite cases attended and recorded between 2007 and 2010 in the health units of the municipalities of Cariri, State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Health Ministry and a total of 351 records of snakebite victims were reviewed. Victims were predominantly male farm workers over 50. The highest incidence of snakebites occurred in rural areas, between April and June of 2007 and 2010. Snakes of the genus Bothrops were responsible for most cases, and victims were mostly bitten on the feet. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after being bitten. The most common clinical manifestations were pain, edema and ecchymosis, which were mainly classified as mild or moderate. Two deaths were reported. It was concluded that there is a significant impact of seasonality in snakebites, the prevalence of attacks caused by Bothrops, affecting the lower limbs of adult male farmers in rural areas. The findings of this study may contribute to identify the conditions that increase the risk of snake attacks in the northeastern region. PMID:23670475

  18. Epidemiology of bee stings in Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study aims to investigate the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of bee sting cases recorded between 2007 and 2012 in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, Brazil. Data were collected from the database of the Injury Notification Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results A total of 459 bee sting cases were retrospectively analyzed. The average annual incidence was 19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases were distributed in all months of the year, with higher prevalence in September and February. Most victims were men aged between 20 and 29 years. The highest incidence of cases was recorded in urban areas. Victims were stung mainly on the head and torso and received medical assistance predominantly 1 to 3 hours after being stung. The most frequent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and itching. Most cases were classified as mild, and three deaths were reported. Conclusions The high incidence of envenomations provoked by bees in Campina Grande suggests that it may be an important risk area for accidents. Since several medical records lacked information, clinical-epidemiological profile of bee sting cases in the studied region could not be accurately determined. The current study provides relevant data for the development of strategies to promote control and prevention of bee stings in this area. Further training for health professionals seems to be necessary to improve their skills in recording clinical-epidemiological information as well as in treating bee sting victims. PMID:24694193

  19. Management of gillnet fisheries in the south coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Jocemar T; Pereira, Alineide L C

    2014-09-01

    Gillnetting is one of the most practiced fishing methods adopted in the South of Brazil and has been increasingly expanding over the last years. This paper presents the characterization of the activity and discusses its management, in accordance to results from the discussions on the development of regulations on net fisheries in the South Coast Marine Protected Area (APAMLS) in the state of São Paulo. Gillnet fleets are formed by small-scale boats, with low autonomy, and lower fishing capacity, when compared to boats from other ports in the South and Southeast. However, the number of fishing units is high, reaching 1,709 units operating in the South coast of São Paulo in 2010. This kind of fleet uses several types of gillnets, and the activity may be classified according to the fishery type (industrial, coastal artisanal and estuarine artisanal). The activity was discussed in the APAMLS and the fishing industry, with the participation of all segments, and a proposal for gillnetting regulation was reached. The results suggested that gillnet length for industrial fisheries should be reduced by 30%. It must be emphasized that without effective inspection measures leading the fishing industry to believe in the enforcement of the proposal, private interests of the most influential political sectors may cause the process to retrocede. PMID:25211105

  20. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-01-01

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face. PMID:25781778

  1. Survey for Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the State of Espirito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spolidorio, Mariana G.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Zago, Augusto M.; Donatele, Dirlei M.; Pinheiro, Sônia R.; Silveira, Iara; Caliari, Késia M.; Yoshinari, Natalino H.

    2010-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 201 humans, 92 dogs, and 27 horses in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were tested by polymerase chain reaction, indirect immunofluorescence assays, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for tick-borne diseases (rickettsiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, borreliosis, babesiosis). Our results indicated that the surveyed counties are endemic for spotted fever group rickettsiosis because sera from 70 (34.8%) humans, 7 (7.6%) dogs, and 7 (25.9%) horses were reactive to at least one of the six Rickettsia species tested. Although there was evidence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis) and babesiosis (Babesia canis vogeli, Theileria equi) in domestic animals, no human was positive for babesiosis and only four individuals were serologically positive for E. canis. Borrelia burgdorferi-serologic reactive sera were rare among humans and horses, but encompassed 51% of the canine samples, suggesting that dogs and their ticks can be part of the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the Brazilian zoonosis, named Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome. PMID:20595502

  2. Epidemiological evaluation of notifications of environmental events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Cassia dos Santos Nery, Telma; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights "environmental events", such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  3. Prevalence of serological markers and risk factors for bloodborne pathogens in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, S B; Jesus, A L S R; Pedroza, K C M C; Sodre, H R S; Ferreira, T L H; Lima, F W M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, Treponema cruzi and T. pallidum infections. The association of these infections with risk factors in a population from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil was also analysed. Of the 780 enrolled individuals, 545 (70%) were female and 235 (30%) were male. Seroprevalence of 0·8% (6/702), 1·3% (9/678), 1·5% (10/684), 3·5% (23/663) and 11·5% (77/668) for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV, T. cruzi and T. pallidum infections, respectively, was observed. The seroprevalence of T. pallidum was higher in males 20% (43/210) than in females 7% (34/458) (P < 0·01). An association between age and seroprevalence for T. cruzi (P = 0·02) and T. pallidum (P < 0·01) was observed. HBsAg was associated with having tattoos (3/37 vs. 6/623, P = 0·01) and not having a steady sexual partner (5/141 vs. 4/473, P = 0·04), while anti-HIV-1/2 was associated with having tattoos (2/39 vs. 4/647, P = 0·04); however, larger studies are needed to categorically state the relationship of these risk factors with infectious agents. The prevalence of serological markers for HIV-1/2, HBV, HCV and T. cruzi was consistent with other studies. PMID:22417705

  4. Schistosoma mansoni and other larval trematodes in Biomphalaria tenagophila (Planorbidae) from Guarulhos, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Josué de; Silva, Marcos Paulo Nascimento da; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Kawano, Toshie

    2009-01-01

    A total of 909 Biomphalaria tenagophila were collected from two areas in Guarulhos (Metropolitan area of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil) to assess larval trematode infections. In all collection sites, only this species was found and 183 (20.13%) harbored trematode infections. In these collections, four morphologically distinguishable types of cercariae were identified by confocal microscopy. Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria lutzi) was the most common type of cercaria recovered, contributing 76.5% of all infections. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were recovered and comprised the total of 13.11%. Strigea cercaria (Cercaria caratinguensis) and Brevifurcate pharyngeate Clinostomatoide cercaria (Cercaria ocellifera) contributed 8.33% and 2.22% of all infections, respectively. Double infections (S. mansoni and C. lutzi) were found in twelve snails, contributing 6.55% of all infections. In all sites studied, small vertebrates were found in snail habitats and it was observed human contact with the water. The presence of trematode infected snails in large cities has public health implications. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and biology of trematode of medical and veterinary importance. PMID:19390735

  5. Notes on parasitism by Amblyomma humerale (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A; Terrassini, Flávio A; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Camargo, Erney P

    2002-11-01

    The tick Amblyomma humerale Koch is endemic to South America. All host records refer to the adult stage parasitizing tortoises, mostly yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.), and red-footed tortoise, Geochelone carbonaria (Spix). The current study reports the presence of A. humerale in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. A total of 215 adult ticks (201 males, 14 females) was collected from six G denticulata in an Indian reserve and nine Geochelone sp. in rural Monte Negro County, giving an overall mean infestation of 14.3 +/- 12.0 (range: 2-44) ticks per tortoise. Male ticks always outnumbered females on the host and nine tortoises had only male ticks. Male ticks were mostly attached in clusters on the ventral sides of the carapace near the anterior and posterior margins, and more rarely on the outer margin of the plastron. All females were found attached to the tortoise skin, at different sites such as head, neck, shoulders or legs. Male ticks were rarely observed attached to the body skin. Seven engorged nymphs collected on small vertebrates from Monte Negro County molted to adults of A. humerale. This included one nymph each on the seven-colored lizard, Plica plica (L), green tree climber, Plica umbra (L.), and wide-foraging lizard, Kentropyx calcarata Spix,three nymphs on the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis L., and one nymph on the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus L. These constitute the first host records for the immature stages of the tick A. humerale. PMID:12495177

  6. New species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp (Diptera: Chironomidae) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanseverino, Angela M; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2010-01-01

    Tanytarsus lenyae sp. n., T. giovannii sp. n., T. fittkaui sp. n. and T. alfredoi sp. n. from São Paulo State (Brazil) are described and diagnosed, the first as adult male and pupa, and the remaining as male, pupa and larva. The species were collected in areas of Cerrado, at the boundaries of São Carlos city. Complete diagnoses and drawings of the species are given. The imagos can be separated from other species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp mainly by differences in the antennal ratio, dorsomedian extension of the eyes, the thorax and wing setation, the shape of anal tergal bands, the anal point armament and the shape of superior volsella, digitus and median volsella. The pupae are characterized by the thoracic horn armament, the arrangement of the precorneals, the shape of anal comb and the abdominal setation. The larvae can be separated by differences in the antennal pedestal, the sclerotization of the second antennal segment, the size of Lauterborn organ pedicels, the shape of the clypeal seta S3 and the sclerotization of the mentum. Apparently, the four new species are not closely related, and the anal point armament alone would be enough to separate one species from the other. PMID:20305901

  7. [General awareness and use of generic medication among citizens of Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Blatt, Carine Raquel; Trauthman, Silvana Cristina; Schmidt, Edegar Henrique; Marchesan, Samuel; da Silva, Luana May; Martins, João Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Although generic medication has been introduced in the country to offer an accessible alternative to brand-name medication, it represents only 14% of sales in number of units within the pharmaceutical market. The aim of this work was to research the level of awareness and the use of generic products among residents of the municipality of Tubarão, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A transversal study was carried out with a sample of 234 interviewees, distributed among municipal areas. With regard to use, the majority of those interviewed had used generic medication, and half of them had at least one such product in their home. To verify awareness of different types of medication, pictures with the generic, brand name and similar packaging for paracetamol and atenolol were shown and 91% were able to identify all products correctly. To be of higher economic standing, already having used generic products, believing that the generic medication has the same effect as the brand name medication, finding generic products in drugstores easily and being accustomed to buy generic products, were factors that were positively associated with the correct identification. PMID:22218542

  8. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings. PMID:21789421

  9. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, A R; Bruno, S F; Navegantes, A Q

    2012-08-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W). The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian) and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian). Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated. PMID:22990826

  10. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Conclusions Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area. PMID:23849624

  11. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; dos Reis, Neilane Bertoni; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

    2014-04-01

    The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

  12. Ethnotaxonomy of birds by the inhabitants of Pedra Branca Village, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on popular names of birds help to understand the relationship between human beings and birds and it also contributes to the field of ornithology. Methods This study aims to register the ethnotaxonomy of birds in the village of Pedra Branca, Santa Teresinha municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, by cataloguing and identifying their popular names, besides understanding the ethnoclassification system of local bird species. The ethno-ornithological data were obtained by means of semi-structured open interviews, and projective tests. Results We interviewed 48 residents and, in order to identify species, we chose five informants with a more detailed knowledge on local avifauna. We registered 139 common names, distributed into 108 ethnospecies and 33 synonyms, referring to 117 species. Nomenclatural criteria more frequently used were vocalization and coloring patterns. Following Berlin’s principles of ethnobiological classification, three hierarchical levels were registered: life form, generic and specific, with three types of correspondence between Linnaean and folk classification systems. The bird life form (“pássaro” in Portuguese) was associated only to wild species. Conclusions The ethno-ornithological research in Pedra Branca Village has contributed with new information on popular nomenclature of birds and their etymology, showing that folk knowledge on birds is conveyed within the community. PMID:25012812

  13. Life cycle environmental impacts of a prospective palm-based biorefinery in Pará State-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Delivand, Mitra Kami; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2013-12-01

    The availability of about 18 million hectares of grassland in Pará State, Brazil, and the possibility of increasing the livestock density display a good perspective for the oil palm expansion in pasture land. A life cycle assessment is performed for a prospective palm-based biorefinery to view two regional and one global environmental impact and the consequences of the land-use change in terms of GHG emissions. Oil palm cultivation in an area of ?110,000 hectares of land can annually produce ?39,000 tons of bioethanol, ?340,000 tons of biodiesel, ?268 GW h net electricity and other co-products. The life cycle GHG emissions reduction for biodiesel and bioethanol as compared to fossil diesel and gasoline would be 76.9-79.3% and 83.7-88.6%. The advantage of grassland rehabilitation by oil palm plantation is the removal of ?188 t CO2/ha from the atmosphere during the plant lifetime. The entire inflows and outflows for the conversion processes are schemed. PMID:23958338

  14. Personal and behavioral factors associated with bicycling in adults from Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kienteka, Marilson; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Bicycling is an important form of physical activity that can promote health benefits. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between personal and behavioral aspects in transportation bicycling and leisure time bicycling in adults. Data was drawn from a household survey involving 677 adults (53.1% female) in Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil. The prevalence of bicycling was 11.2% for transportation and 16.7% for leisure. The frequency of leisure time bicycling was higher among men (PR = 2.08; p < 0.001), young people < 30 and adults aged between 30 and 39.9, bicycle owners (PR = 8.76; p < 0.001) and among the physically active. Transportation bicycling occurred more frequently among men (PR = 3.63; p < 0.001), individuals aged 30 to 39.9, those with a low socioeconomic status (PR = 5.00; p = 0.006), bicycle owners (PR = 10.2; p < 0.001) and individuals with a negative perception of their quality of life. The prevalence of bicycling is low in Curitiba considering its potential as a means of physical activity. Personal and behavioral factors were associated with each form of bicycling. PMID:24627015

  15. Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Prisoners in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Blay, Sergio Luiz; Taborda, Jose Geraldo Vernet; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression), the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. Conclusions This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations. PMID:24551174

  16. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. PMID:23993759

  17. Northern?=?smart and Southern?=?nice: the development of accent attitudes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-06-01

    Adults evaluate others based on their speech, yet little is known of the developmental trajectory by which accent attitudes are acquired. Here we investigate the development of American children's attitudes about Northern- and Southern-accented American English. Children in Illinois (the "North") and Tennessee (the "South") evaluated the social desirability, personality characteristics, and geographic origins of Northern- and Southern-accented individuals. Five- to 6-year-old children in Illinois preferred the Northern-accented speakers as potential friends, yet did not demonstrate knowledge of any stereotypes about the different groups; 5-6-year-old children in Tennessee did not show a preference towards either type of speaker. Nine- to 10-year-old children in both Illinois and Tennessee evaluated the Northern-accented individuals as sounding "smarter" and "in charge", and the Southern-accented individuals as sounding "nicer." Thus, older children endorse similar stereotypes to those observed in adulthood. These accent attitudes develop in parallel across children in different regions and reflect both positive and negative assessments of a child's own group. PMID:23153362

  18. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is increasing (reducing) with significance in almost all regions. "Região dos Lagos" has the most significant trends of increasing in temperature, thereby influencing the local production of salt and alkaline minerals in medium and long term. The goal of this research is, through the analysis of results, support studies of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change scenarios in Rio de Janeiro State.

  19. Biomphalaria molluscs (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Michele Soares; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Muller, Gertrud; Jannotti-Passos, Liana Konovaloff; Rodrigues, Alice Pozza; Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

    2009-08-01

    The present study was aimed at characterising Biomphalaria species using both morphological and molecular (PCR-RFLP) approaches. The specimens were collected in 15 localities in 12 municipalities of the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The following species were found and identified: Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, Biomphalaria oligoza and Biomphalaria peregrina. Specimens of the latter species were experimentally challenged with the LE Schistosoma mansoni strain, which showed to be refractory to infection. PMID:19820842

  20. Direct\\/Delayed Response Project: Quality-assurance report for physical and chemical analyses of soils from the Southern Blue Ridge Province of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Van Remortel; G. E. Byers; J. E. Teberg; M. J. Miah; M. L. Papp

    1988-01-01

    The Direct\\/Delayed Response Project is designed to address the concern over potential acidification of surface waters by atmospheric sulfur deposition within the United States. The Southern Blue Ridge Province Soil Survey was conducted during the summer of 1986 as a synoptic physical and chemical survey to characterize watersheds located in a region of the United States believed to be susceptible

  1. The Water Reuse project: Sustainable waste water re-use technologies for irrigated land in NIS and southern European states; project overview and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. van den Elsen; S. Doerr; C. J. Ritsema

    2009-01-01

    In irrigated areas in the New Independent States (NIS) and southern European States, inefficient use of conventional water resources occurs through incomplete wetting of soils, which causes accelerated runoff and preferential flow, and also through excessive evaporation associated with unhindered capillary rise. Furthermore, a largely unexploited potential exists to save conventional irrigation water by supplementation with organic-rich waste water, which,

  2. Vertical Profiles Of 226Ra, 232Th And 40K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Paraná Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Paraná sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq?kg-1 for 226Ra, 1.84 Bq?kg-1 for 232Th and 4.20 Bq?kg-1 for 40K. Activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq?kg-1), 232Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq?kg-1) and 40K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq?kg-1). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81±0.22 Bq?kg-1 for 226Ra, 4.21±0.07 Bq?kg-1 for 232Th, and 50.11±0.82 Bq?kg-1 for 40K). Higher concentrations were measured for the bituminous shale samples (average values and respective deviations were 108.10±12.17 Bq?kg-1 for 226Ra, 43.69±0.30 Bq?kg-1 for 232Th, and 465.82±3.99 Bq?kg-1 for 40K). The concentrations were intermediate for the rhythmite samples (average values and respective deviations were 50.69±1.09 Bq?kg-1 for 226Ra, 7.63±0.21 Bq?kg-1 for 232Th, and 85.96±2.47 Bq?kg-1 for 40K). As the analyzed rocks are raw materials for the ceramic, cement and soil correction compound industries, the results of this work furnish data to estimate the contribution of these products to the general public's radiation exposure.

  3. Grain size and heavy minerals of the Late Quaternary eolian sediments from the Imbituba-Jaguaruna coast, Southern Brazil: Depositional controls linked to relative sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Giannini, P. C. F.; Martinho, C. T.; Tanaka, A. P. B.

    2009-12-01

    The stratigraphic subdivision and correlation of dune deposits is difficult, especially when age datings are not available. A better understanding of the controls on texture and composition of eolian sands is necessary to interpret ancient eolian sediments. The Imbituba-Jaguaruna coastal zone (Southern Brazil, 28°-29° S) stands out due to its four well-preserved Late Pleistocene (eolian generation 1) to Holocene eolian units (eolian generations 2, 3, and 4). In this study, we evaluate the grain-size and heavy-mineral characteristics of the Imbituba-Jaguaruna eolian units through statistical analysis of hundreds of sediment samples. Grain-size parameters and heavy-mineral content allow us to distinguish the Pleistocene from the Holocene units. The grain size displays a pattern of fining and better sorting from generation 1 (older) to 4 (younger), whereas the content of mechanically stable (dense and hard) heavy minerals decreases from eolian generation 1 to 4. The variation in grain size and heavy-mineral content records shifts in the origin and balance (input versus output) of eolian sediment supply attributable mainly to relative sea-level changes. Dunefields submitted to relative sea-level lowstand conditions (eolian generation 1) are characterized by lower accumulation rates and intense post-depositional dissection by fluvial incision. Low accumulation rates favor deflation in the eolian system, which promotes concentration of denser and stable heavy minerals (increase of ZTR index) as well as coarsening of eolian sands. Dissection involves the selective removal of finer sediments and less dense heavy minerals to the coastal source area. Under a high rate of relative sea-level rise and transgression (eolian generation 2), coastal erosion prevents deflation through high input of sediments to the coastal eolian source. This condition favors dunefield growth. Coastal erosion feeds sand from local sources to the eolian system, including sands from previous dunefields (eolian generation 1) and from drowned incised valleys. Therefore, dunefields corresponding to transgressive phases inherit the grain-size and heavy-mineral characteristics of previous dunefields, leading to selective enrichment of finer sands and lighter minerals. Eolian generations 3 and 4 developed during a regressive-progradational phase (Holocene relative sea level highstand). The high rate of sediment supply during the highstand phase prevents deflation. The lack of coastal erosion favors sediment supply from distal sources (fluvial sediments rich in unstable heavy minerals). Thus, dunefields of transgressive and highstand systems tracts may be distinguished from dunefields of the lowstand systems tract through high rates of accumulation (low deflation) in the former. The sediment source of the transgressive dunefields (high input of previously deposited coastal sands) differs from that of the highstand dunefields (high input of fluvial distal sands). Based on this case study, we propose a general framework for the relation between relative sea level, sediment supply and the texture and mineralogy of eolian sediments deposited in siliciclastic wet coastal zones similar to the Imbituba-Jaguaruna coast.

  4. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

  5. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. F.; Suski, K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Zaveri, R. A.; Prather, K. A.

    2012-11-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influences their optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime, thus impacting climate forcing. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that are internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles in California are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most prevalent in the particular region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

  6. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in Northern and Southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. F.; Suski, K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Zaveri, R. A.; Prather, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influences their optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime, thus impacting climate forcing. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that are internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in Southern and Northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in Southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in Northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in Northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles in California are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most prevalent in the particular region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

  7. Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poli, C; Lopez, L C S; Mesquita, D O; Saska, C; Mascarenhas, R

    2014-05-01

    This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1). Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6%) became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March). We found evidence of human interactions (injuries) in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes. PMID:25166312

  8. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n?=?191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2)?=?0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types. PMID:24135921

  9. Stability and adaptability of popcorn genotypes in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Candido, L S; Vittorazzi, C; Ribeiro, R M; Freitas, S P

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain estimates of stability and adaptability of phase launched materials and materials recommended in the country, for the northern and northwestern regions of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and made a comparative analysis of different methods to evaluate stability and adaptability of grain yield and popping expansion. To this end, 10 genotypes were evaluated (UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, Beija-Flor, IAC 112, IAC 125, Zélia, Jade, and UFVM2 Barão de Viçosa) in five environments. The Yates and Cochran method revealed that genotypes UFV2M Barão de Viçosa, BRS Angela and UNB2U-C3 were the most stable for grain yield. This method also indicated superiority of genotypes UNB2U-C3, UNB2U-C4, BRS Angela, Viçosa, IAC 125, and Zélia for popping expansion. The Plaisted and Peterson and Wricke methods demonstrated that genotypes Zélia and UNB2U-C4 were the most productive and stable. These methods indicated genotypes UNB2U-C3 and BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. The Kang and Phan ranking system uses methods based on analysis of variance and classified population UNB2U-C4 as the genotype with the highest stability of grain production and confirmed cultivar BRS Angela as the most stable for popping expansion. Genotypes IAC 112 and UNB2U-C4 were the most stable and adapted for grain yield, according to the Lin and Binns method. The P(i) statistics also ranked UNB2U-C3 and UNB2U-C4 as the genotypes with the best predictability and capacity for popping expansion. PMID:23007981

  10. The Fazenda Largo off-craton kimberlites of Piauí State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Sablukova, Ludmila I.; Zakharchenko, Olga D.

    2009-10-01

    In the late 1990s, the Fazenda Largo kimberlite cluster was discovered in the Piauí State of Brazil. As with earlier known kimberlites in this area - Redondão, Santa Filomena-Bom Jesus (Gilbues) and Picos - this cluster is located within the Palaeozoic Parnaiba Sedimentary Basin that separates the São Francisco and the Amazonian Precambrian cratons. Locations of kimberlites are controlled by the 'Transbrasiliano Lineament'. The Fazenda Largo kimberlites are intensely weathered, almost completely altered rocks with a fine-grained clastic structure, and contain variable amounts of terrigene admixture (quartz sand). These rocks represent near-surface volcano-sedimentary deposits of the crater parts of kimberlite pipes. By petrographic, mineralogical and chemical features, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites are similar to average kimberlite. The composition of the deep-seated material in the Fazenda Largo kimberlites is quite diverse: among mantle microxenoliths are amphibolitised pyrope peridotites, garnetised spinel peridotites, ilmenite peridotites, chromian spinel + chromian diopside + pyrope intergrowths, and large xenoliths of pyrope dunite. High-pressure minerals are predominantly of the ultramafic suite, Cr-association minerals (purplish-red and violet pyrope, chromian spinel, chromian diopside, Cr-pargasite and orthopyroxene). The Ti-association minerals of the ultramafic suite (picroilmenite and orange pyrope), as well as rare grains of orange pyrope-almandine of the eclogite association, are subordinate. Kimberlites from all four pipes contain rare grains of G10 pyrope of the diamond association, but chromian spinel of the diamond association was not encountered. By their tectonic position, by geochemical characteristics, and by the composition of kimberlite indicator minerals, the Fazenda Largo kimberlites, like the others of such type, are unlikely to be economic.

  11. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

  12. Schistosomiasis infection among primary school students in a war zone, Southern Kordofan State, Sudan: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a major health problem adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations in Sudan. Methods We conducted a school-based survey to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in 36 villages in Southern Kordofan (SK) State. A total of 2,302 primary school students were recruited. Each student completed a questionnaire and submitted one urine and one stool sample. Results The prevalence of schistosomiasis haematobium was 23.7%, while schistosomiasis mansoni was not detected among the study participants. S. haematobium infection was identified in all areas, with the highest prevalence in the western locality of SK State. The infection was associated with the distance between home/school and open water sources. In addition, S. haematobium infection was associated with the existence of and distance to open water sources, higher frequency of contact with open water, absence of a health advocacy group in the school and history of schistosomiasis treatment. Conclusions This study highlights schistosomiasis as a public health problem in SK State. The findings will guide the schistosomiasis Control Program of the State Ministry of Health in developing and applying treatment plans for schistosomiasis in SK State. PMID:23845226

  13. The Galahad Platform -- A state of the art minimum facilities installation for the southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, H.; Stadler, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Mobil North Sea Limited recently brought the Galahad Platform into production in the North Sea UK Southern Sector. Galahad is a minimum facility not normally manned production platform. The platform was designed, procured, fabricated, installed and commissioned in approximately half the time of previous Southern Sector platforms. The work was completed between November 1994 and October 1995 at a considerably lower cost than previous developments. Several key learning areas were identified from the project including: project management applying the principles of the CRINE (Cost Reduction Initiative in the New Era) process; minimum facilities installations -- comparison of various concepts; the use of QRA (Quantified Risk Analysis) in design development; and the future of minimum facilities in the North Sea. While designing the Galahad minimum facilities installation the overall strategy was to reduce costs without compromising safety or reliability. Although not normally manned, the platform will be visited on average one day each month to perform routine maintenance. QRA was used to demonstrate that personnel working on the monopod installation would not be exposed to significantly higher levels of risk than are associated with conventional four pile installations. QRA techniques were also employed in design development, accepting or rejecting safety features with the overall goal of developing a workplace where major hazards were prevented, controlled or mitigated to ensure that individual risks were as low as reasonably practicable.

  14. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Methods Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. Results During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. Conclusions The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the island. The presence of L. (N.) flaviscutellata in peridomestic areas is also an important finding, since the species is involved in the transmission of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Health education practices directed to the local community and tourists are important control actions that can be taken in Ilha Grande to reduce the burden of leishmaniases. PMID:24499568

  15. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

  16. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION SOUTHERN ROCKIES PILOT STUDY AREA DATA AND PRODUCT BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale assessme...

  17. Late Quaternary Araucaria forest, grassland (Campos), fire and climate dynamics, studied by high-resolution pollen, charcoal and multivariate analysis of the Cambará do Sul core in southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann Behling; Valerio DePatta Pillar; László Orlóci; Soraia Girardi Bauermann

    2004-01-01

    Late Quaternary vegetation, fire and climate dynamics have been studied based on high-resolution dated pollen and charcoal samples and multivariate data analysis. The samples were taken from a 212-cm-long sediment core of a bog in the Cambará do Sul region on the highlands of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The records, including seven AMS radiocarbon dates, span 42?840

  18. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  19. Amblyomma dissimile Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) attacking Primolius maracana Vieillot (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Amazon region, State of Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, A; Bahia, M; Martins, A L; Góes-Cavalcante, G; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B

    2011-01-01

    The tick Amblyomma dissimile Koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (Squamata), although amphibians (Anura) also seem to be important hosts. We report an A. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana, held in captivity in the Mangal das Garças Park, State of Pará, Brazil. Environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (Iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the A. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged macaw. We provide the second world record of a bird host for A. dissimile, and the first bird record for this species in South America. PMID:21952971

  20. [The legitimacy of representation in forums with social participation: the case of the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bispo Júnior, José Patrício; Gerschman, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    The electoral representation model is insufficient and inadequate for new participatory roles such as those played by members of health councils. This article analyzes representation and representativeness in the Bahia State Health Council, Brazil. The study included interviews with 20 current or former members of the State Health Council, analysis of the council minutes and bylaws, and observation of plenary meetings. Discourse analysis technique was used to analyze interventions by members. The article discusses the results in four analytical lines: the process by which various organizations name representatives to the Council; the relationship between Council members and their constituencies; interest representation in the Council; and criteria used by the plenary to take positions. The study reveals various problems with the representativeness of the Bahia State Health Council and discusses the peculiarities of representation in social participation forums and the characteristics that give legitimacy to representatives. PMID:25715302

  1. Cross-sectional serological study of canine Leishmania infection in Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. M. Rondon; C. M. L. Bevilaqua; C. R. Franke; R. S. Barros; F. R. Oliveira; A. C. Alcântara; A. T. Diniz

    2008-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations

  2. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; de Mattos, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). PMID:17326958

  3. On the scent of standing variation for speciation: behavioral evidence for native sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas H Q; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-09-01

    Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly's sympatric shift in the northeastern United States from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles generate prezygotic isolation. Apples emit volatiles that appear to be missing from gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection profiles for flies infesting downy hawthorns, raising the question of how R. pomonella evolved a preference for apple. In the southern United States, R. pomonella attacks several native hawthorns. Behaviorally active volatile blends for R. pomonella infesting southern hawthorns contain the missing apple volatiles, potentially explaining why downy hawthorn flies could have evolved to be sensitive to a blend of apple volatiles. Flight tunnel assays imply that southern hawthorn populations were not the antecedent of a preassembled apple race, as southern flies were not attracted to the apple volatile blend. Instead, behavioral evidence was found for southern host races on native hawthorns, complementing the story of the historical sympatric shift to introduced apple in the North and illustrating how R. pomonella may evolve novel combinations of agonist and antagonist responses to volatiles to use new fruit resources. PMID:22946800

  4. 'Gupton' southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium sp.) are hybrids derived from crosses between the (northern) highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and germplasm developed from Vaccinium spp. that are both native and adapted to the southeastern United States. Southern highbush blueberries have an advantage o...

  5. Remote sensing of the absorption coefficients and chlorophyll a concentration in the United States southern Middle Atlantic Bight from SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoju Pan; Antonio Mannino; Mary E. Russ; Stanford B. Hooker

    2008-01-01

    At present, satellite remote sensing of coastal water quality and constituent concentration is subject to large errors as compared to the capability of satellite sensors in oceanic waters. In this study, field measurements collected on a series of cruises within United States southern Middle Atlantic Bight (SMAB) were applied to improve retrievals of satellite ocean color products from the Sea-viewing

  6. Fossil biotas from the Okanagan Highlands, southern British Columbia and northeastern Washington State: climates and ecosystems across an Eocene landscape1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Greenwood; S. Bruce Archibald; Rolf W. Mathewes; Patrick T. Moss

    The late Early to early Middle Eocene Okanagan Highlands fossil sites, spanning 1000 km north-south (northeastern Washington State, southern British Columbia) provide an opportunity to reconstruct biotic communities across a broad upland landscape during the warmest part of the Cenozoic. Plant taxa from these fossil sites are charac- teristic of the modern eastern North American deciduous forest zone, principally the

  7. Sequential opening and filling of cavities forming vesicles, amygdales and giant amethyst geodes in lavas from the southern Paraná volcanic province, Brazil and Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léo Afraneo Hartmann; Lauren da Cunha Duarte; Hans-Joachim Massonne; Cassiana Michelin; Leonardo Manara Rosenstengel; Magda Bergmann; Thomas Theye; Juliana Pertille; Karine Rosa Arena; Sandro Kucera Duarte; Viter Magalhães Pinto; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Maria Luiza C. C. Rosa; Wilson Wildner

    2010-01-01

    The opening and filling of cavities in rocks are the major processes related to the generation and sealing of porosity in ore deposits. This study documents three stages of opening and filling of vesicles and geodes in the basalts and rhyodacites of the southern Paraná volcanic province. Each step detailed here is actually part of a sequence of minor hydrothermal

  8. Sequential opening and filling of cavities forming vesicles, amygdales and giant amethyst geodes in lavas from the southern Paraná volcanic province, Brazil and Uruguay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Léo Afraneo Hartmann; Lauren da Cunha Duarte; Hans-Joachim Massonne; Cassiana Michelin; Leonardo Manara Rosenstengel; Magda Bergmann; Thomas Theye; Juliana Pertille; Karine Rosa Arena; Sandro Kucera Duarte; Viter Magalhães Pinto; Eduardo Guimarães Barboza; Maria Luiza C. C. Rosa; Wilson Wildner

    2012-01-01

    The opening and filling of cavities in rocks are the major processes related to the generation and sealing of porosity in ore deposits. This study documents three stages of opening and filling of vesicles and geodes in the basalts and rhyodacites of the southern Paraná volcanic province. Each step detailed here is actually part of a sequence of minor hydrothermal

  9. Racial Disparities in Preschool Special Education Eligibility for Five Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2012-01-01

    More than 67,000 preschoolers with disabilities across five states were examined for disproportionate special education eligibilities using risk ratios (RRs). Results indicated children classified as American Indian (RR = 2.25) and Black (RR = 1.64) were disproportionate in one state, whereas children classified as Asian, Hispanic, and White…

  10. Bloodborne Pathogen Control Efforts for Physical Education and Athletic Programs in Southern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiddon, Sue; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    1996-01-01

    Study examined roles assumed by state departments of education in bloodborne pathogen exposure control to protect physical educators and athletic coaches from contracting HIV and hepatitis B. Surveys indicated that 75% of states required written exposure control plans, but many failed to require full compliance with mandated federal guidelines.…

  11. Comparison of Fatal Traffic Crashes in Southern and Northern Regions of the State of Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirup Hanumantharayappa Kadavagere

    2003-01-01

    The highway fatality rate in the state of Florida is very high, with 40 percent more facilities per vehicle mile than the national average in 1999. Crashes involving trucks are fatal more than crashes involving passenger cars. The State Safety Office of the Florida Department of Transportation proposed conducting a review and analysis of traffic fatalities and truck crashes on

  12. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock types, landforms, occurrence of fossils, drainage system, soil and other processes that outline the geodiversity. In addition to the wealth index number, which presents a quantity and area ratio, another way of analyzing the geodiversity of a case study is the abundance, dominance or the relative frequency of geodiversity (Carcavilla et al, 2007). As for the southwestern region of Paraná State case study, we used a set of cartographic databases at the 1:250.000 scale; for example: geomorphological and soil compartments, rivers, geological formations, structural lineaments, as well as temperature, rainfall and humidity average maps. The maps were organized relating the attribute tables, quantifying the sum of different elements each sample cell contained in a regular grid of 4km2. As a result, a map of the geodiversity wealth index of the region has been generated. High geodiversity wealth index comprises more carved valleys with steep slopes on some structural lines; on the other hand, less wealthy areas are located on softer relief plateaus with large hills, more homogeneous soils and lower relief structural control. These results, as well as adjustments and efficiency of the method seem to indicate an important tool for area management, especially regarding the selection of priority areas for nature conservation.

  13. Attenuation in the upper mantle beneath Southern California: Physical state of the lithosphere and asthenosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yingjie; Forsyth, Donald W.

    2008-03-01

    We invert phase and amplitude data of Rayleigh waves for attenuation (Q-1) and shear wave velocities beneath southern California using teleseismic sources recorded by the TriNet/USArray network. Fundamental mode surface wave studies from 25 to 143 s period allow us to constrain the vertical variation of shear quality factor Q? in the upper mantle. We use 2-D sensitivity kernels for surface waves based on single-scattering (Born) approximation to account for the effects of scattering on amplitude. A one-dimensional shear velocity model reveals a pronounced low velocity zone (LVZ) from ˜80 km to ˜200 km underlying a high velocity lid. Q? shows a similar pattern; large Q? at depths shallower than 80 km and much smaller Q? at depths greater than 100 km. Models that attribute the variations of attenuation and shear velocities with depth solely to temperature and pressure effects predict too low Q? values if they match the shear velocities. Alternative models considering the presence of partial melt can explain the observed very low Vs velocities in the asthenosphere. Partial melt in the asthenosphere could be generated due to decompression and the reduced solidus for damp mantle when the asthenosphere rose to fill the space left by the subducted Farallon plate.

  14. Late-Pleistocene and mid-Holocene environmental changes in highland valley head areas of Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo A. T. de Oliveira; Hermann Behling; Luiz C. R. Pessenda

    2008-01-01

    Low resolution of the continental sedimentary record is a common source of skepticism about the application of geomorphology and sedimentology to Quaternary studies. In spite of this, when supported by independent proxy data, geomorphology and sedimentology may favor palaeo-hydrologic interpretation. This paper associates geomorphologic, stratigraphic, sedimentologic, isotopic, palynologic and geochronologic data. The research was conducted in valley head sites in

  15. Fatal and nonfatal injuries involving fishing vessel winches--Southern shrimp fleet, United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Workers in the commercial fishing industry have the highest occupational fatality rate in the United States, nearly 35 times higher in 2011 than the rate for all U.S. workers. During 2000-2009, a total of 504 fishermen were killed in the U.S. fishing industry, most commonly by drowning as a result of vessels sinking (51%) and falls overboard (30%). Another 10% of fatalities (51 deaths) were caused by injuries sustained onboard vessels, such as entanglement in machinery. This type of fatality occurred most often in the Gulf of Mexico. To analyze fatal and nonfatal injuries involving deck winches in the Southern shrimp fleet during 2000-2011, CDC obtained data from its Commercial Fishing Incident Database and the U.S. Coast Guard. Injury patterns were examined, and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated to compare the probability of fatal outcomes from incidents involving different winch mechanisms and operating situations. During 2000-2011, eight fatal and 27 work-related injuries involving deck winches occurred in the Southern shrimp fleet, which operates in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Atlantic coast from Florida to North Carolina. Injuries involving the winch drum had a higher risk for fatal outcomes compared with injuries involving the winch cathead. Fatal outcomes also were associated with being alone on the vessel and being alone on deck. Interventions to prevent deck winch injuries might include guarding of winch drums and catheads, avoiding working alone on deck, not wearing baggy clothing, and improvements to cable winding guides. Training of deckhands in first aid and emergency procedures might reduce the severity of injuries when entanglements occur. PMID:23466433

  16. Landowner perception, awareness, and adoption of wildfire programs in the Southern United States

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Adam R.

    2009-05-15

    ...................................................... 3 II LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................... 5 2.1 History of Fire Policy in the United States .............................. 5 2.2 Hazard Fuel Reduction and Bioenergy: Policies..., Programs, and Potentialities?. ................................................................ 7 2.3 NIPF Landowner Studies ......................................................... 12 III METHODOLOGY...

  17. Landowner perception, awareness, and adoption of wildfire programs in the Southern United States 

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Adam R.

    2009-05-15

    ...................................................... 3 II LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................................... 5 2.1 History of Fire Policy in the United States .............................. 5 2.2 Hazard Fuel Reduction and Bioenergy: Policies..., Programs, and Potentialities?. ................................................................ 7 2.3 NIPF Landowner Studies ......................................................... 12 III METHODOLOGY...

  18. 76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Thailand (litchis, longans, mangoes, mangosteens, pineapples, and rambutans), and Vietnam (dragon fruits), and the...declaration stating that the longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, or rambutan were treated with irradiation as described...

  19. [Training health workers to deal with sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to identify initiatives for training staff in the municipal healthcare system in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, to deal with cases of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. The reference for this exploratory study was the training program provided by the municipal government in 2010-2012 for administrators and health professionals in the public healthcare system in Fortaleza. At the time, the issue of sexual abuse was low in the system's training programs, despite recognition of its importance. Federal and State programs have provided input for such training programs in the various municipal health departments. The main strategy was to invest in training for health workers in primary care. Social workers were found to have insufficient training, aggravated by temporary work contracts and high staff turnover. The study suggests the need for training to deal with violence, particularly sexual abuse. PMID:25760175

  20. [Arbovirus eco-epidemiology in the area affected by the Cuiabá-Santarém Highway (BR-163), Pará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; Barbosa, Taciana Fernandes Souza; Casseb, Lívia Medeiros Neves; Nunes Neto, Joaquim Pinto; Segura, Nazaré de Oliveira; Monteiro, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira; Pinto, Eliana Vieira; Casseb, Samir Mansour; Chiang, Jannifer de Oliveira; Martins, Lívia Caricio; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2009-12-01

    The current study describes the eco-epidemiological aspects of arbovirus diseases in the municipalities (counties) of Novo Progresso and Trairão, Para State, Brazil, in the area affected by highway BR-163. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to different arboviruses were detected, with monotypic reactions to MAYV and OROV, two important arboviruses associated with epidemics in the Amazon. IgM antibodies to OROV and MAYV were found in human sera, suggesting recent infections by these viruses. Two DENV-3 strains were isolated from febrile patients in Novo Progresso and identified as genotype III strains. In general, the data suggest that the area displays ideal conditions for maintenance and circulation of arboviruses, plus a population with low immunization levels. Dynamic surveillance of local immigrants and wild animals is thus important, focusing on antibody prevalence and isolation of arboviruses, thereby allowing effective control of infections by these viral agents in the resident population along highway BR-163 in Pará State. PMID:20191150

  1. Influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on tornado and hail frequency in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John T.; Tippett, Michael K.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is characterized by changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric convection in the tropical Pacific, and modulates global weather and climate. The phase of ENSO influences United States (US) temperature and precipitation and has long been hypothesized to influence severe thunderstorm occurrence over the US. However, limitations of the severe thunderstorm observational record, combined with large year-to-year variability, have made it difficult to demonstrate an ENSO influence during the peak spring season. Here we use environmental indices that are correlated with tornado and hail activity, and show that ENSO modulates tornado and hail occurrence during the winter and spring by altering the large-scale environment. We show that fewer tornadoes and hail events occur over the central US during El Niño and conversely more occur during La Niña conditions. Moreover, winter ENSO conditions often persist into early spring, and consequently the winter ENSO state can be used to predict changes in tornado and hail frequency during the following spring. Combined with our current ability to predict ENSO several months in advance, our findings provide a basis for long-range seasonal prediction of severe thunderstorm activity.

  2. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  3. Genetic Heterogeneity in a Cyclical Forest Pest, the Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is Differentiated Into East and West Groups in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Schrey, Natalie M; Schrey, Aaron W.; Heist, Edward J.; Reeve, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an economically important pest species throughout the southeastern United States, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Previous research identified population structure among widely distant locations, yet failed to detect population structure among national forests in the state of Mississippi. This study uses microsatellite variation throughout the southeastern United States to compare the southern pine beetle's pattern of population structure to phylogeographic patterns in the region, and to provide information about dispersal. Bayesian clustering identified east and west genetic groups spanning multiple states. The east group had lower heterozygosity, possibly indicating greater habitat fragmentation or a more recent colonization. Significant genetic differentiation (?ST = 0.01, p < 0.0001) followed an isolation-by-distance pattern (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) among samples, and a hierarchical AMOVA indicated slightly more differentiation occurred between multi-state groups. The observed population structure matches a previously identified phylogeographic pattern, division of groups along the Appalachian Mountain/Apalachicola River axis. Our results indicate that the species likely occurs as a large, stable metapopulation with considerable gene flow among subpopulations. Also, the relatively low magnitude of genetic differentiation among samples suggests that southern pine beetles may respond similarly to management across their range. PMID:22220595

  4. Microbiological quality of salmon (Salmo salar) sold in cities of the state of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Natália Maramarque; Martineli, Thaís Mioto; Rossi Jr., Oswaldo Durival

    2012-01-01

    The present paper evaluated the microbiology of salmon by quantifying mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms, total and thermotolerant coliforms, and the presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli and Aeromonas sp. in the meat. This study can provide technical support for the suggestion of a new regulation of a Brazilian legislation through specific microbiological standards concerning the consumption of raw fish. A number of 31 (16 cooled and 15 frozen) samples of salmon were collected in the retail market network of a few cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results presented populations of mesophilic heterotrophic microorganisms ranging from 1.0 × 10 and 3.9 × 106 CFU/g, total and thermotolerant coliforms in 32.25% and 19.35% of the samples, respectively, and Aeromonas sp. in 41.95% of the samples with a populational variation ranging from 2.0 × 102 to 8.0 × 103 CFU/g. Staphylococcus aureus was found in one sample whereas Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli were not found. These results demonstrated the presence of potencially pathogenic microorganisms in fresh fish consumed in Brazil, highlighting the necessity of control measures to avoid public health problems related to the consumption of raw fish. PMID:24031968

  5. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Silvina; de Queiroz, Fábio Ferreira; Campos, Adélia Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL). This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109) and distal (r = 0.9092) radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055). Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies. PMID:26017269

  6. [Prevalence of wheezing and associated factors in children under 5 years of age in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Antonia Maria; Jacobson, Ludmilla da Silva Viana; Botelho, Clóvis; Ignotti, Eliane

    2013-09-01

    Wheezing is highly prevalent in Brazil, with variations in rates and risk factors between the regions of the country. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the prevalence of wheezing in children under 5 years of age (n = 733) in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The study used a brief version of the standardized instrument from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL). Analysis of factors associated used logistic regression with a hierarchical approach. Prevalence of wheezing in the previous 12 months was 43.2%. Factors associated with wheezing were: lack of at least 6 months of breastfeeding (adjusted OR = 1.91; 95%CI: 1.18-3.06), diagnosis of asthma in the family (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95%CI: 1.06-3.87), current respiratory infection (adjusted OR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.05-3.14), and male gender (adjusted OR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.07-2.11). The study concludes that prevalence of wheezing is high among children in this age bracket in Cuiabá and is associated with factors related to allergy, current respiratory infection, and male gender. PMID:24068227

  7. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoclimate Changes Since 21,000 Cal Years BP in the Northeastern part of Brazil Inferred From Sediment Records in Lagoa do Caco (Maranhao State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifeddine, A.; Meyers, P. A.; Gustavo, A.; Spadano Albuquerque, A. L.; Turcq, B.; Campbello Cordeiro, R.; Abrao, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Two cores from Caco Lake, Maranhao State (North Brazil) record different histories of sediment accumulation on the margin and center of the lake that reflect changes in lake level. Seismic profiles, mineralogy and organic geochemical studies, backed by radiocarbon dating, reveal variable climatic and environmental conditions over the last 21 Cal Kyr BP. During the Last Glacial Maximum, regional climate was predominantly dry but was interrupted by short humid phases as reflected by a succession of very thin layers of sand and organic matter. The late glacial climate was relatively wet and included two rapid lake-level increases accompanied by forest expansion. The two wet phases were separated by a phase where the lake level remained stable and the forest changes were marked by the development of cool "Podocarpus" forest. These humid climate periods differed significantly from present warm tropical conditions.. The Holocene period is characterized by progressive increase of lake level, which reaches his maximum at around 7,000 Cal years BP. The period between 4,000 Cal years BP and the present shows high variability in lake level. Comparing with other South American and African records, we conclude that Late Glacial humid conditions were controlled by intensification of the ITCZ or shifts of its position, resulting in southeasterly trade wind variations and in interconnection between northern South America and the Atlantic tropical ocean-atmosphere system. The climatic variability during the Holocene is probably the result of sub-Milankovitch solar cycles and regional responses to these global forcings that are related to Atlantic and Pacific variability and their interconnections.

  8. Relation between nematode communities and trophic state in southern Swedish lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Ristau; Walter Traunspurger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether littoral nematode community patterns are shaped by lake trophic state. It was\\u000a hypothesized that trophic level is associated negatively with the proportion of omnivores and positively with the percentages\\u000a of bacterial feeders, but not at all with the diversity, abundance, and biomass of freshwater nematodes. Sediment samples\\u000a were taken at littoral

  9. Between Heaven and Hell: Perceptions of Brazil and the United States in "Brazuca" Literature

    E-print Network

    Tosta, Antonio Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Brasil e Aqui! there are at least two examples of this. One is when the character Bolo Fofo complains that Cieraldinho broke h is "perfume de 100 dolares" (163 -64). Bolo Fofo s sentence contains more information than the price of the perfume. It implies... that the perfume is expensive, and that he would never be able to buy it if he were in Brazil. He emphasizes the price of the perfume because he wants to call attention not only to what he lost, but also to his augmented economic power. In this case, the United...

  10. Radiocarbon measurements of stromatolite heads and crusts at the Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, Melayne M.; Silva, Cleverson G.; Barbosa, Cátia F.; Mueller, Ken A.

    2000-10-01

    In this work, we prepared and measured some stromatolite carbonate samples, from Salgada Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Stromatolites are bio-sedimentary, laminated, carbonate structures produced by sedimentary, chemical and biological processes related to the development and growth of microbial benthic communities, mainly dominated by blue algae and cyanobacteria. These structures are present in the geological record in rocks older than 3.0 billion years and have been used to study the origin of primitive life and variations in past environmental conditions. Detailed AMS measurements were performed at PRIME Lab (Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory, Purdue University, IN, USA).

  11. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pinese, Jose P. P. [Department of Geosciences-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  12. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Eleven Potential Reservoir Species from Six States Across the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Gompper, Matthew E.; Monello, Ryan J.; Wenning, Krista M.; Gabriel, Mourad W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is a substantial public health concern in Latin America. Although rare in humans and domestic animals in the United States, T. cruzi is commonly detected in some wildlife species, most commonly raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana). To increase our understanding of the reservoir host species range and geographic distribution, 11 species of mammals from six states spanning the known range of T. cruzi (Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Missouri, and Virginia) were tested for antibodies to T. cruzi using indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. In addition, culture isolation attempts were conducted on a limited number of animals from Georgia and Florida. Evidence of T. cruzi was found in every state except California; however, low numbers of known reservoirs were tested in California. In general, the highest seroprevalence rates were found in raccoons (0–68%) and opossums (17–52%), but antibodies to T. cruzi were also detected in small numbers of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from Arizona and Georgia, bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Georgia, two coyotes (Canis latrans) from Georgia and Virginia, and a ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) from Arizona. Culture-based prevalence rates for raccoons were significantly greater than those for opossums; however, seroprevalences of raccoons and opossums from several geographic locations in Georgia and Florida were not different, indicating that exposure rates of these two species are similar within these areas. For both raccoons and opossums, seroprevalence was significantly higher in females than in males. No difference was detected in seroprevalence between adults and juveniles and between animals caught in urban and rural locations. Our results indicate that T. cruzi prevalence varies by host species, host characteristics, and geographic region and provides data to guide future studies on the natural history of T. cruzi in the United States. PMID:20020815

  13. Genetic diversity of terricolous Peltigera cyanolichen communities in different conservation states of native forest from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Fernández, Lía; Zúñiga, Catalina; Méndez, Marco A; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2013-12-01

    Decreasing quality of forest habitats is among the major factors leading to a loss of epiphytic lichen diversity. However, there is little information about how this factor influences the diversity of terricolous lichens, which do not grow over living trees and could be less susceptible to such disturbances. In this work we describe the genetic diversity of Peltigera terricolous cyanolichens and their cyanobiont (Nostoc) from three habitats at the Karukinka Natural Park (Tierra del Fuego, southern Chile), which represent different conservation states: native mature-forest (low disturbance intensity), native young-forest (medium disturbance intensity) and grassland (high disturbance intensity). In both forest contexts, a higher diversity and a higher number of unique OTUs (operational taxonomic units) were found. In contrast, in the grassland, the diversity was lower and the Peltigera species were mostly cosmopolitan. The presence of unique OTUs and the higher diversity of lichens in native forest areas highlight the importance of their preservation, indicating that decreasing forest quality also has a negative impact on terricolous lichens diversity. PMID:25102725

  14. Locating spatial variation in the association between wildland fire risk and social vulnerability across six Southern states.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Neelam C; Johnson-Gaither, Cassandra; Goodrick, Scott; Bowker, J M; Gan, Jianbang

    2012-03-01

    Wildland fire in the South commands considerable attention, given the expanding wildland urban interface (WUI) across the region. Much of this growth is propelled by higher income retirees and others desiring natural amenity residential settings. However, population growth in the WUI increases the likelihood of wildfire fire ignition caused by people, as humans account for 93% of all wildfires fires in the South. Coexisting with newly arrived, affluent WUI populations are working class, poor or otherwise socially vulnerable populations. The latter groups typically experience greater losses from environmental disasters such as wildfire because lower income residents are less likely to have established mitigation programs in place to help absorb loss. We use geographically weighted regression to examine spatial variation in the association between social vulnerability (SOVUL) and wildfire risk. In doing so, we identify "hot spots" or geographical clusters where SOVUL varies positively with wildfire risk across six Southern states--Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. These clusters may or may not be located in the WUI. These hot spots are most prevalent in South Carolina and Florida. Identification of these population clusters can aid wildfire managers in deciding which communities to prioritize for mitigation programming. PMID:22218459

  15. Response of native plants of northeastern United States and southern Spain to ozone exposures; determining exposure/response relationships.

    PubMed

    Orendovici, T; Skelly, J M; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Sanz, M-J; Smith, G C

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone has been identified as the most important regional scale air pollutant across much of eastern United States of America and many areas of Mediterranean climes in southern Europe. Recent field surveys in the northeastern USA and in southeastern Spain have revealed many additional plant species that exhibit symptoms typical of ozone-induced injuries. Objectives of this study were to confirm ozone as the cause of the observed foliar symptoms, determine ozone induced exposure/response relationships, and identify possible bio-indicator species. Thirteen native species of northeastern USA and 27 native species of southeastern Spain were selected for study. Plant species were exposed to ozone within 16 CSTR chambers in a greenhouse during the summer seasons of 2000 and 2001; ozone exposures of 30, 60, 90, and 120 ppb were delivered for 7 h/day, 5 days/week. Results have confirmed that with few exceptions, symptoms observed in the field were induced by exposures to ambient ozone. Species differed significantly in terms of the exposures required for the initiation of visible symptoms and subsequent injury progression. PMID:12804825

  16. Agent-based modeling of deforestation in southern Yucatan, Mexico, and reforestation in the Midwest United States.

    PubMed

    Manson, Steven M; Evans, Tom

    2007-12-26

    We combine mixed-methods research with integrated agent-based modeling to understand land change and economic decision making in the United States and Mexico. This work demonstrates how sustainability science benefits from combining integrated agent-based modeling (which blends methods from the social, ecological, and information sciences) and mixed-methods research (which interleaves multiple approaches ranging from qualitative field research to quantitative laboratory experiments and interpretation of remotely sensed imagery). We test assumptions of utility-maximizing behavior in household-level landscape management in south-central Indiana, linking parcel data, land cover derived from aerial photography, and findings from laboratory experiments. We examine the role of uncertainty and limited information, preferences, differential demographic attributes, and past experience and future time horizons. We also use evolutionary programming to represent bounded rationality in agriculturalist households in the southern Yucatán of Mexico. This approach captures realistic rule of thumb strategies while identifying social and environmental factors in a manner similar to econometric models. These case studies highlight the role of computational models of decision making in land-change contexts and advance our understanding of decision making in general. PMID:18093928

  17. Sustainability of forest management under changing climatic conditions in the southern United States: adaptation strategies, economic rents and carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Carter, Douglas R; Adams, Damian C

    2014-06-15

    The impacts of climate change on profitability and carbon storage in even-aged forest stands of two dominant commercial pine species, loblolly and slash pine, in the southern United States were assessed under alternative assumptions about the impact of climate change on forest productivity and catastrophic disturbance rates. Potential adaptation strategies to reduce losses from disturbance included: 1) alternative planting densities, and 2) planting slash pine instead of loblolly pine. In addition, the amount of sequestered carbon was used to develop an index of economic efficiency for carbon sequestration, which further helps rank the suitability of alternative adaptation strategies. Our results indicate that greater economic rents from forests occur with lower planting densities and the substitution of slash pine for high density loblolly pine. However, less carbon is sequestered by low density loblolly pine compared to slash pine and high density loblolly pine. Both adaptation strategies are economically more effective in terms of carbon sequestration compared to the baseline since they generate more economic revenues per Mg of sequestered carbon. PMID:24681367

  18. The first records of Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis in dogs ( Canis familiaris) diagnosed clinically as having canine visceral leishmaniasis from Araçatuba County, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José E. Tolezano; Sílvia R. B. Uliana; Helena H. Taniguchi; Maria F. L. Araújo; José A. R. Barbosa; José E. R. Barbosa; Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter; Jeffrey J. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Two cases of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis are reported in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). These are the first records of this parasite in this species. The animals lived in the endemic visceral leishmaniasis area of Araçatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil and were initially diagnosed, on clinical grounds, as having visceral leishmaniasis. Attempted parasite isolation from inguinal lymph node aspirates was

  19. Biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change in Brazil's Amazonian “arc of deforestation”: The states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Martin Fearnside; Ciro Abbud Righi; Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro Graça; Edwin W. H. Keizer; Carlos Clemente Cerri; Euler Melo Nogueira; Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    We calculate greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change in Mato Grosso and Rondônia, two states that are responsible for more than half of the deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia. In addition to deforestation (clearing of forest), we also estimate clearing rates and emissions for savannas (especially the cerrado, or central Brazilian savanna), which have not been included in Brazil's monitoring of deforestation.

  20. Vegetation dynamics during the late Pleistocene in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, based on carbon isotopes in soil organic matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Carlos Ruiz Pessenda; Adauto de Souza Ribeiro; Susy Eli Marques Gouveia; Ramon Aravena; Rene Boulet; José Albertino Bendassolli

    2004-01-01

    The study place is in the Barreirinhas region, Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. A vegetation transect of 78 km was studied among four vegetation types: Restinga (coastal vegetation), Cerrado (woody savanna), Cerradão (dense woody savanna), and Forest, as well as three forested sites around Lagoa do Caçó, located approximately 10 km of the transect. Soil profiles in this transect were sampled

  1. Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Obesity Rates in Four Southern States and Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H. Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between the increase in body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic factors (eg, income level, % below poverty line, unemployment rates and persons receiving food stamps) in Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee and Colorado. Design Data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Department of Labor/ Bureau of Labor were obtained and analyzed for the years 1995–2008. Results Results from this study showed a strong association between obesity and the tested variables (R2=.767). Factors more closely related with obesity were: income below poverty level; receipt of food stamps; unemployment; and general income level. The coefficient of determination for these variables were 0.438, 0.427. 0.103 and 0.018, respectively. The highest rate of obesity was found in Mississippi (26.5% ± 4.13%) followed by Alabama (25.18% ± 4.41%), while Colorado had the lowest rate of obesity (15.4% ± 2.63%). By ethnicity, African Americans had the highest rate of obesity (32.64 ± 5.99%). Conclusion We found a significant effect of consumption of low-quality food, due to economic factors, on increased BMI. Besides physical activity, the quality and the quantity of food are important factors that contribute to obesity rates. PMID:21462731

  2. A genetic survey of Salvinia minima in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madeira, P.T.; Jacono, C.C.; Tipping, P.; Van, T.K.; Center, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic relationships among 68 samples of Salvinia minima (Salviniaceae) were investigated using RAPD analysis. Neighbor joining, principle components, and AMOVA analyses were used to detect differences among geographically referenced samples within and outside of Florida. Genetic distances (Nei and Li) range up to 0.48, although most are under 0.30, still relatively high levels for an introduced, clonally reproducing plant. Despite the diversity AMOVA analysis yielded no indication that the Florida plants, as a group, were significantly different from the plants sampled elsewhere in its adventive, North American range. A single, genetically dissimilar population probably exists in the recent (1998) horticultural introduction to Mississippi. When the samples were grouped into 10 regional (but artificial) units and analyzed using AMOVA the between region variance was only 7.7%. Genetic similarity among these regions may indicate introduction and dispersal from common sources. The reduced aggressiveness of Florida populations (compared to other states) may be due to herbivory. The weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae, a selective feeder, is found in Florida but not other states. The genetic similarity also suggests that there are no obvious genetic obstacles to the establishment or efficacy of C. salviniae as a biological control agent on S. minima outside of Florida.

  3. [Diet quality and associated factors among the elderly: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Daniela de; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of diet among the elderly and associations with socio-demographic variables, health-related behaviors, and diseases. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,509 elderly participants in a health survey in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Food quality was assessed using the Revised Diet Quality Index (DQI-R). Mean index scores were estimated and a multiple regression model was employed for the adjusted analyses. The highest diet quality scores were associated with age 80 years or older, Evangelical religion, diabetes mellitus, and physical activity, while the lowest scores were associated with home environments shared with three or more people, smoking, and consumption of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. The findings emphasize a general need for diet quality improvements in the elderly, specifically in subgroups with unhealthy behaviors, who should be targeted with comprehensive strategies. PMID:25210908

  4. [Seroepidemiological survey for infections by fungi causing systemic mycoses in the Xacriabá Indian Reserve, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Roberto; Vitali, Lúcia Helena; Henriques, José Humberto da Silva; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Albernaz, André; Lima, Andréa Alves

    2002-01-01

    Xacriabá Indian Reserve is situated in the north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, near the municipality of Manga and São Francisco River. The Indian population is miscegenated with caucasian and negroid people and have farming activities. Blood samples were collected from 180 inhabitants of the reserve (85 men and 95 women), 15 to 84 years old. Serum antibodies against antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans were tested for by counterimmunoelectrophoresis method. Seropositivity was verified in 5%, 3.9%, 4.2%, and 6.7%, respectively of the 180 samples. Those seropositive for antigens of P. brasiliensis and H. capsulatum were predominantly women and had lower age and more elevated mean titers of antibodies than individuals whose sera reacted with antigens of C. neoformans and C. albicans. The results suggest the occurrence of paracoccidioidomycosis-infection and histoplasmosis-infection in the Xacriabá Indian Reserve, particularly in the first decades of life of the inhabitants. PMID:12170330

  5. [Schistosomiasis mansoni and distribution of freshwater mollusks in natural bodies of water in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Almir de Souza; Cruz, Oswaldo José da; Fernandez, Monica Ammon

    2002-01-01

    The authors report on the distribution of freshwater mollusks in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and notification of schistosomiasis cases in this municipality from 1995 to 2000. All breeding sites favorable to freshwater mollusks were surveyed, showing the following species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954), Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848), Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835), Lymnaea columella Say, 1817, Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774), Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839, Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828, and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823). Some 3,691 specimens of snail hosts for Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 were examined by exposure to artificial light and crushing. No S. mansoni cercariae were found, although other types of cercariae were observed. PMID:12244379

  6. [Slave-descendent communities in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil: self-rated health and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Kochergin, Clavdia Nicolaevna; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; César, Cibele Comini

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of negative self-rated health and associated factors in the quilombola community (descendants of escaped slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. A household survey was conducted with 797 adults in 2011. Data on self-rated health, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, social support, health status, and access to health services were obtained through questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for sex and age. Prevalence of negative self-rated health was 12.5%. After statistical modeling, the following variables remained associated with self-rated health: skin color, schooling, adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, chronic illness, physical limitations, and at least one medical visit in the previous 12 months. Self-rated health was associated with socioeconomic/demographic dimensions, lifestyle, social support, and health status. PMID:25166945

  7. Biological and environmental factors associated with risk of schistosomiasis mansoni transmission in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, Onicio Batista; Gomes, Elainne Christine de Souza; Oliveira Junior, Fernando José Moreira de; Andrade, Rafael; Reis, Diego Leandro; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Bocanegra, Silvana; Barbosa, Constança Simões

    2013-02-01

    Schistosomiasis has expanded to the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where there are frequent reports of Biomphalaria glabrata snails and human cases of the disease. This study analyzes factors related to schistosomiasis transmission risk in Porto de Galinhas. A one-year malacological survey was conducted to identify biological, abiotic, and environmental factors related to the host snail breeding sites. Data analysis used Excel 2010, GTM Pro, and ArcGis 10. A total of 11,012 B. glabrata snails were captured in 36 breeding sites, and 11 schistosomiasis transmission foci were identified. A negative correlation was found between breeding site temperature and snail density and infection rate, and a positive correlation with pH and salinity. The rainy season showed a positive correlation with snail density and infection rate. The study emphasizes the factors involved in the maintenance of schistosomiasis breeding sites, in light of persistence of this disease in Porto de Galinhas for more than 10 years. PMID:23459821

  8. [A study of groundwater contamination with organic fuels and potential public health impact in Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosimar Lima Brandão; Barra, Cristina Maria; Monteiro, Teófilo Carlos do Nascimento; Brilhante, Ogenis Magno

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention is current focused on urban groundwater contamination with gasoline hydrocarbon compounds in Brazil. The compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) contained in fuels are highly toxic and can have severe public health consequences, besides posing the risk of intake from the water table by way of contamination. After two years of a steady gasoline storage tank leak, water samples from private household wells in the district of Brisa Mar, Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro State, were analyzed and the concentration of BTEX compounds was evaluated. Two out of ten water samples from the study area presented BTEX concentrations above the National Water Quality Standard (Brazilian Health Ministry Ruling No. 1469/2000), in which the maximum permissible benzene concentration is 5 micro g.L-1. Four others wells were also contaminated with nitrate, responsible for the induction of methemoglobinemia. Natural attenuation (intrinsic biodegradation) mechanisms through electron acceptors was also investigated in this study. PMID:12488887

  9. Helminth parasites of Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from south-eastern Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campião, K M; da Silva, R J; Ferreira, V L

    2009-12-01

    Forty-three specimens of Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) were collected in the south-eastern Pantanal, municipality of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil in February and July 2007, and examined for endoparasites. Forty (93%) specimens were infected with at least one helminth species. The predominant parasites were nematodes (Aplectana sp., Cosmocerca podicipinus, Oswaldocruzia lopesi, Physalopteroides venancioi, Rhabdias sp.), but the trematode Catadiscus propinquus also showed high prevalence. The trematodes Infidum infidum and Travtrema stenocotyle were also found, but in only one specimen. Adult frogs showed higher parasite diversity than subadults. Leptodactylus podicipinus was preferentially infected by direct life-cycle parasites and was reported as a new host record for seven helminth species. PMID:19422730

  10. Relationships between obesity and cardiovascular diseases in four southern states and Colorado.

    PubMed

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is among the leading causes of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. In the present study, the associations between the increase in body mass index (BMI) and the increase rates of CVD and high blood pressure (HBP) in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Colorado are examined using regression analysis and by means of neural network models for obesity and HBP. Data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were obtained and analyzed for obesity rates, percent of myocardial infarction, stroke, and HBP from 2005-2009. Results of this study showed a low association between obesity and myocardial infarction rates (R2=0.067); a moderate association with stroke rates ((R2=0.462); and a strong association with HBP rates ((R2=0.811). The highest rates of obesity, CVD, and HBP were found in Mississippi, while Colorado had the lowest rates. Maintaining healthy weight helps reduce the risks of developing CVD. PMID:22102306

  11. Relationships between Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases in Four Southern States and Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Ahmad, H. Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is among the leading causes of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. In the present study, the associations between the increase in body mass index (BMI) and the increase rates of CVD and high blood pressure (HBP) in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Colorado are examined using regression analysis and by means of neural network models for obesity and HBP. Data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were obtained and analyzed for obesity rates, percent of myocardial infarction, stroke, and HBP from 2005–2009. Results of this study showed a low association between obesity and myocardial infarction rates (R2=0.067); a moderate association with stroke rates (R2=0.462); and a strong association with HBP rates (R2=0.811). The highest rates of obesity, CVD, and HBP were found in Mississippi, while Colorado had the lowest rates. Maintaining healthy weight helps reduce the risks of developing CVD. PMID:22102306

  12. Southern Extension of the Range of Human Babesiosis in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Eskow, Eugene S.; Krause, Peter J.; Spielman, Andrew; Freeman, Kathy; Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    1999-01-01

    We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable DNA by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in New Jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern United States. PMID:10325378

  13. Direct/Delayed Response Project: Quality-assurance report for physical and chemical analyses of soils from the Southern Blue Ridge Province of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Van Remortel, R.D.; Byers, G.E.; Teberg, J.E.; Miah, M.J.; Papp, M.L.

    1988-09-01

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project is designed to address the concern over potential acidification of surface waters by atmospheric sulfur deposition within the United States. The Southern Blue Ridge Province Soil Survey was conducted during the summer of 1986 as a synoptic physical and chemical survey to characterize watersheds located in a region of the United States believed to be susceptible to the effects of acidic deposition. The document addresses the quality assurance program and its implementation in the assessment of the verified analytical data base for the Southern Blue Ridge Province Soil Survey. Data quality is assessed by describing the detectability, precision, accuracy (interlaboratory differences), representativeness, completeness, and comparability of the data for the quality assurance samples used throughout the soil survey. The fifty-one parameters in the data base are segregated into nine groups for ease in discussion.

  14. Seismic zoning of the southern slope of Greater Caucasus from the fractal parameters of the earthquakes, stress state, and GPS velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Gadirov, A. G.; Babayev, G. R.; Agayeva, S. T.; Mammadov, S. K.; Garagezova, N. R.; Safarov, R. T.

    2013-07-01

    By complex analysis of GPS velocities, seismicity, fractal dimensions of the spatial distribution of seismic epicenters, focal mechanisms of the earthquakes, and stress state of the Earth's crust, four seismic zones (Balaken-Zagatala, Sheki-Gabala, Shamakhy-Ismailly, and Absheron) are revealed within the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus. The suggested method can be used as a criterion in seismotectonic zoning; it could also be useful in the assessment of seismic hazards in the collision zones.

  15. Phenotype adaptability and stability of sugarcane genotypes in the sugarcane belt of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra Filho, J A; Junior, T C; Simões Neto, D E

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the agroindustrial performance of 25 sugarcane genotypes adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, within the microregions Mata Norte, Mata Sul, Região Central, Litoral Norte, and Litoral Sul. The variables analyzed were POL tonnage per hectare, sugarcane tonnage per hectare, fiber and total recoverable sugar tonnage per hectare, using a randomized block design with four repetitions. Combined variance of experiments, genetic parameter estimates, decomposition of the genotype-environment interaction, and environment stratification were analyzed. Phenotype adaptability and stability were also analyzed. The various genotypes presented great potential for improvement and a similar response pattern to the microregions Centro and Mata Sul of the state of Pernambuco. Genotypes RB863129, RB867515, RB92579, RB953180, SP81-3250, RB75126, and RB942520 were better in productivity and phenotype adaptability and stability compared to genotypes RB892700, RB943365, SP79-1011, Q138, RB943538, SP78-4764, RB953281, RB943066, RB928064, RB93509, RB72454, RB952675, RB952991, RB943161, RB942898, RB872552, RB952900, and RB942849. These genotypes are recommended as cultivation options in the sugarcane belt in the state of Pernambuco, since they stand out in terms of phenotype adaptability and stability as evaluated using the method by Annicchiarico, Lin and Bins, and the method by Eberhart and Russel. PMID:25177966

  16. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infestation in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Woli, P; Ortiz, B V; Buntin, D; Flanders, K

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is expected to have an influence on the population of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a serious insect pest of winter wheat in the southeastern United States. This study had two objectives: 1) to examine the effects of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Hessian fly infestation and 2) to develop a weather-based Hessian fly infestation model for wheat yield loss prediction. At least 20 years of Hessian fly infestation and wheat yield records from two locations in South Georgia were used for this study. The yearly values of infestation were separated by ENSO phase and tested to assess the infestation differences across ENSO phases. Each year, yield losses from infestation were calculated by subtracting the yields of resistant varieties from those of susceptible ones. The yield losses were then separated by ENSO phase and tested. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the contribution of monthly weather variables and changes in wheat acreage to Hessian fly infestation. Results showed that Hessian fly infestation and yield losses were greatest during the La Niña and least during the El Niño phase. The weather conditions that significantly increased the risk for infestation were those of the August-February period. The risk of infestation was higher during August-September under wetter, cooler conditions and during October-February under drier, warmer conditions. These findings could help wheat growers reduce the risk of infestation in the years that are expected to have more infestation through the adoption of necessary mitigation measures before the crop season. PMID:25290163

  17. Southern Ocean Winds and Precipitation at the LGM: The Influence of State Dependency and Sea Surface Changes on CMIP5-PMIP3 Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Louise; Hodgson, Dominic; Bracegirdle, Tom; Allen, Claire; Stephen, Roberts; Perren, Bianca

    2015-04-01

    One hypothesis to explain the apparent tight coupling of deglacial atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature is latitudinal shifts in the Southern Ocean westerly wind belt: shifts could drive changes in the ocean CO2 inventory. PMIP2 and PMIP3 models show considerable disagreement in their simulation of deglacial, 21 ky to 0 ky, Southern Ocean wind changes. This is despite nearly all CMIP5 models exhibiting a poleward shift and all models a strengthening of the surface jet following from 1900 to 2100, following the RCP8.5 scenario. Understanding what drives modelled wind changes, and the reasons for inter-model inconsistencies, should help our understanding of large changes in past CO2 and climate. We find that that jet position is strongly related to the sea ice edge latitude in PMIP3-CMIP5 simulations. An equatorwards shift in the sea ice edge correlates with a poleward shift in the jet latitude (r ~ -0.9). The relationship is strongest for 850 hPa winds, however similar results are obtained using 1000 hPa and ?U. A 1° difference in the sea ice edge suggests a -0.8° shift in the 850 hPa jet. However this applies only to models which have jets which are at a realistic latitude at 0 ky; if the 0 ky modelled jet sits equatorward of 47°S this relationship does not apply. If we look at the relationship between Southern Ocean sea surface temperature changes and jet shifts, a cooling of -1 K between 0 to 21 ky over the Gersonde et al. (2005) Southern Ocean compilation locations results in a 3.0° poleward shift in the 850 hPa jet (r = 0.83; n=5). The ensemble of present day CMIP5 model run data show an equatorward bias of 3.3° in the ensemble mean position of the surface zonal mean jet. We thus also calculate the impact of initial jet position, or state, dependency for Southern Ocean jet shifts and intensity changes across the various oceanic sectors. We find that state dependency explains up to 56% of the 0 to 21 ky jet shifts in the Atlantic (r=-0.75, N=9, for ?U), and 41% in the Indian Ocean (r = -0.64, N = 9, for ?U). State dependency is much weaker in the Pacific; here any influence is negligible. We generally find state dependence stronger for ?U than for the 850 hPa winds. For the whole of the Southern Ocean, the variance explained by state dependency is 38% (r = -0.62, N = 9, for ?U). Finally we also find that state dependency has a large influence on the simulation of past observed moisture changes. In the majority of cases model-data agreements at 21 ky are highly dependent on the jet position at 0 ky, indicating that state dependence is also critical in determining model-data moisture agreements. This finding also has implications for the calculation of Southern Ocean buoyancy forcing during the deglacial.

  18. Climate forcings of changes in paleoprecipitation patterns in Brazil from oxygen isotope ratios on speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, F.; Cheng, H.; Barreto, E. S.; Wang, X.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Karmann, I.; Burns, S. J.; Auler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Stable oxygen isotope records in speleothems have provided new insights into changes in the tropical precipitation patterns over South America during Holocene. This is evident in the antiphasing observed between rainfall in northeastern Brazil and in areas affected by the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM), such as southern Brazil, the Amazon and the tropical Andes on orbital time-scales (Cruz et al., 2009). This pattern is attributed to changes in the strength of both Hadley and Walker-cells due to the influence of insolation on the global summer monsoons. A higher incoming austral summer insolation can intensify the SASM by favoring moisture convergence in the Amazon Basin and promote a substantial increase in monsoon precipitation in southern Brazil. Simultaneously, northeastern Brazil experiences arid conditions because of increased west-east upper-level subsidence induced by the convection in the monsoon core. A new speleothem record from Bahia State in NE Brazil confirms this antiphasing pattern of long-term precipitation for last 90 ky B.P. in Brazil, but in contrast with what is seen in southern Brazil, the records from the NE part of the country are mostly in phase with the Chinese speleothem records. Besides, it also shows that insolation exerts a strong forcing during MIS 5c to 5a, which is not as apparent during the MIS 4, 3 and 2. We suggest that the glacial boundary conditions play an important role in the SASM intensification between 60 and 20 ky during the latter marine isotope stages triggering wetter and drier conditions in southern and northeastern Brazil, respectively. On the other hand, the abrupt increases in precipitation during Heinrich events indicate a similar rainfall pattern everywhere in Brazil and suggest a more direct response from changes in oceanic conditions on millennial time-scales, which is relatively independent of monsoon activity in South America. References Cruz, F.W; Vuille, M.; Burns, S.J.; Wang, X.; Cheng H; Werner M.; Edwards R.L.; Karmann, Ivo; Auler, A.S.; Nguyen, H., 2009. Orbitally driven east-west anti-phasing of South American precipitation. Nature Geoscience 2, 210 - 214.

  19. [Epidemiology of schoolchildren's cognitive development in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil: assessment procedures and general results].

    PubMed

    Santos, Darci Neves; Borges, Ana Patrícia V; Pereira, Paula Sanders; Chalhub, Anderson Almeida; Happe, Francesca; Silva, Rita C Ribeiro; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Blanton, Ronald E; Parraga, Isabel M; Reis, Mitermayer G; Almeida Filho, Naomar M; Barreto, Maurício L

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology, applicability and utility of the Raven Progressive Matrix (Raven Test) and the Brazilian Intellectual Probe (TSI), comparing them with school achievement in a typical medium-size urban community of Northeastern Brazil. 388 schoolchildren (7-17 years old) were examined, with 371 Raven tests applied. Only 231 TSIs were completed, since 106 students were illiterate. School grades were obtained for all participants. A questionnaire evaluating school resources, and teacher profiles was answered by 200 teachers. Raven and TSI test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.53, p < 0.001), but both correlated weakly with overall school grade (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and r = 0.12, p < 0.07 respectively). For individual school grades, the Raven scores showed statistically significant correlation with all subjects, while the Brazilian TSI presented statistically significant correlation only with geography, history and sciences. Boys' mean scores were higher than girls' for both the Raven and the TSI Tests, but for the school grades girls performed better. In general, level of cognitive development was below that expected for children in the age-group analyzed. PMID:12048598

  20. Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avancini, Régia Maria; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; de Mesquita, Sueli Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Organochlorines are highly hydrophobic, synthetic organic pollutants that accumulate in the environment and in food webs. The primary route of human exposure to organochlorines is through food-mainly fat-rich food of animal origin such as meat, fish, and dairy products. Here we determined the presence and concentration of organochlorine residues in pasteurized milk from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, to monitor consumer exposure to these contaminants. Organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction in octadecyl silica-prepacked columns and identified by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Of the 100 composite samples analyzed, more than 90% contained residues of organochlorine pesticides: aldrin was present in 44% of the samples, followed by ?DDT (36%), mirex (34%), endosulfan (32%), chlordane (17%), dicofol (14%), heptachlor (11%) and dieldrin (11%). Compared to the values established by law, the concentration of the compounds in some samples was above the reference values. Given the importance that milk and its products have in the human diet, it is essential to know whether the levels of pesticide residues are kept well below the recommended levels to minimize the risk to human health. PMID:23177004

  1. Volcanic cycles and setting in the Neoproterozoic III to Ordovician Camaquã Basin succession in southern Brazil: characteristics of post-collisional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildner, W.; Lima, E. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.; Sommer, C. A.

    2002-11-01

    The Camaquã Basin comprises a volcano-sedimentary succession, located in southernmost Brazil, and represents a molasse basin formed at the post-collisional stage of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenic cycle in the Neoproterozoic III to Ordovician period. This basin is one of the most well-preserved ancient volcano-sedimentary sequences undeformed and unmetamorphic in the world, dominantly developed on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. It is composed of five major stratigraphic units, four of them with a distinct volcanic character from the bottom to the top, as: (1) Maricá; (2) Bom Jardim; (3) Acampamento Velho; (4) Santa Bárbara; and (5) Guaritas Allogroups. A concise sight of geochemical and isotopic rock data is presented, as well as stratigraphic correlation and description of rock structures and textures that lead to the identification of their genetic processes, the aim of this paper, indicating a relation with a coeval plutonism, and volcanism that evolved from high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, with a crustal component represented by peraluminous granites. Volcanic deposits from bottom to top are made mostly of volcanogenic sedimentary deposits, succeeded by basic to intermediate lava and pyroclastic flows of shoshonitic affinity, followed by intermediate and acid lava flows and ignimbrites of sodic alkaline affinity. The last volcanic event is represented by basalt pahoehoe flows, probably of mildly alkaline sodic affinity.

  2. Palynofacies and organic geochemistry studies of organic matter from a wetland system of southern Brazil influenced by different hydrological regimes in the Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadens-Marcon, Gabrielli Teresa; Guerra-Sommer, Margot; Mendonça-Filho, João Graciano

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively characterize the sedimentary organic matter (OM) and demonstrate the usefulness of geochemistry and palynofacies analysis for obtaining paleoenvironmental data for the Holocene in southernmost Brazil. The results indicate that during the time interval from 10,586 cal yr BP to the present, the study area housed a wetland characterized by different hydrologic regimes. The basal peaty deposits correspond to a phase influenced mainly by the groundwater table, whereas the upper deposits composed of silty organic mud indicate fluvial influence related to river overflow events. In a similar manner, the TOC (total organic carbon) and TS (total sulfur) contents are higher in the basal portion of the profile, decreasing toward the top. These findings could be related to granulometry alterations that are linked to hydrologic regimes or anthropogenic interference in the landscape dynamics. Anomalous TS content observed in one of the samples might be due to an external source and perhaps related to the presence of thermal springs in the region. These types of areas have potential as a modern reference that can be applied in the reconstruction of past analogous environments such as coal deposits associated with fluvial paleoenvironments.

  3. Long-term (?57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ?57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core. PMID:25545204

  4. [Deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in two cities of the Southern Cone: Córdoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil), 1990-2010].

    PubMed

    Rojas Cabrera, Eleonora Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyze and compare the evolution of deaths from violent causes among adolescents and young adults in the cities of Cordoba (Argentina) and Porto Alegre (Brazil). It also seeks to establish if the results are consistent with those reported in previous national and local research. Based on official data, specific mortality rates (by sex, age and cause) are calculated for the 1990-92 and 2008-10 periods. In general, violent causes play a significant part in the total number of deaths especially among young men and as they get older. In line with the reality of the country, in Córdoba both non-traffic-related and also traffic-related deaths are most frequent. On the other hand, in Porto Alegre (where the level of deaths from violent causes is higher), homicides and traffic accidents are the most common cause of death. Beyond the actions taken so far, it is necessary to redouble efforts to counter the problem in question, both in the recording of information for decision-making and in regard to the decisions when they are put into practice. PMID:25650595

  5. Genetic data and de novo mutation rates in father-son pairs of 23 Y-STR loci in Southern Brazil population.

    PubMed

    Da Fré, Nicole Nascimento; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Hanson, Erin; Ballantyne, Jack; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2014-11-13

    We evaluated haplotype and allele frequencies, as well as statistical forensic parameters, for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) loci of the PowerPlex®Y23 system (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, Y-GATA-H4, DYS481, DYS533, DYS549, DYS570, DYS576, DYS643) in a sample of 150 apparently healthy males, resident in South Brazil. A total of 150 different haplotypes were identified. The highest gene diversity (GD) was observed for the single locus marker DYS570 (GD?=?0.7888) and for a two-locus system DYS385 (GD?=?0.9009). We also examined 150 father-son pairs by the same system, and a total of 13 mutations were identified in the 3450 father-son allelic transfers, with an overall mutation rate across the 23 loci of 3.768?×?10(-3) (95 % CI: 3.542?×?10(-3) to 3.944?×?10(-3)). In all cases there was only one locus mutated with gain/loss of repeats in the son (5 one-repeat gains, and 7 one-repeat and 1 two-repeat losses); we observed no instances of mutations involving a non-integral number of repeats. PMID:25391811

  6. Dominant and co-existing species of Cyanobacteria from a Eutrophicated reservoir of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappa, Naithirithi T.; Costa, Maria Aliete Medeiros

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports on the cyanobacterial population, its ecology, dominance and coexistence characteristics in one annual cycle of a eutrophicated Gargalheiras reservoir (Marechal Dutra) of Acari, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte of Brazil. The study was conducted between November 1999 and May 2000, which included the dryand wet seasons. It is an old, man-made impounded water reservoir. The methodology included the collection of phytoplankton samples from the surface to the bottom in a fixed station to include four vertical profiles and to analyse them for physico-chemical and algological characteristics. Ecological indices, such as Shannon-Weaver for species diversity, Margalef's species richness and Pielou's evenness were calculated. The results reveal the characteristics of the eutrophic to the hyper trophic state for the Gargalheiras reservoir with the dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Raphidiopsis curvata, Microcystis aeroginosa and Oscillatoria sp during the dry period. Cages were suspended to culture Amazonian fish, Tambaqui, at the beginning of the wet period close to the sampling stations in the reservoir and treated for point source nutrient loading and disturbance factor. This localised disturbance stimulated the growth of Chlorophyceae species, which co-existed along with the species of cyanobacteria to finally dominate; coinciding with the stability of monsoon rain in May. The conclusion drawn from the study period revealed that the reservoir with high inorganic nutrients had reduced transparency, anoxic hypolimnion, elevated levels of electrical conductivity and the dominance of cyanobacteria during the dry period and the dominance of chlorophyceae in the wet period.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors associated with goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Ribeiro, Ana Raquel Carneiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Gastrointestinal helminthiasis represents an obstacle to goat raising, causing severe damage to herds such as growth retardation, weight loss, and even death. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to goat gastrointestinal helminthiasis in the Sertão region of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 256 goats from 54 farms were systematically sampled. Blood and fecal samples were collected from each animal for egg per gram (EPG), larval culture, and packed cell volume (PCV) analyses. We found that 79.3% of the goats investigated were parasitized with gastrointestinal helminths. Significant correlation (p = 0.004) was observed between the EPG and PCV of the animals studied, and it was observed that the EPG increases as the PCV decreases. In the larval culture, the most prevalent helminth was Haemonchus sp. (83.2%). Age and sex were significant variables (p ? 0.20) for the development of gastrointestinal helminths: 86.8% of animals over 36 months of age and 81.7% of females were infected. The variable type of animal exploitation was also significant, with 90.3% (p ? 0.20) of the animals presenting double suitability (milk and meat). The Sertão region of Paraíba State presents high prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in goats, and age and type of animal exploitation are the most relevant risk factors to the development of these parasites. PMID:24214525

  8. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD?=?13,142?ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  9. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78?years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  10. Pre-harvest sugarcane burning emission inventories based on remote sensing data in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, Daniela; Longo, Karla; Rudorff, Bernardo; Aguiar, Daniel; Freitas, Saulo; Stockler, Rafael; Pereira, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The state of São Paulo is the largest sugarcane producer in Brazil, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 Mha were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The development of emission inventories for sugarcane straw burning is crucial in order to assess its environmental impacts. This study aimed to estimate annual emissions associated with the pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in the state of São Paulo based on remote sensing maps and emission and combustion factors for sugarcane straw burning. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOx, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area, due to unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  11. Production of citreoviridin by Penicillium citreonigrum strains associated with rice consumption and beriberi cases in the Maranhão State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, C A R; Keller, K M; Oliveira, A A; Almeida, T X; Keller, L A M; Marassi, A C; Kruger, C D; Deveza, M V; Monteiro, B S; Nunes, L M T; Astoreca, A; Cavaglieri, L R; Direito, G M; Eifert, E C; Lima, T A S; Modernell, K G; Nunes, F I B; Garcia, A M; Luz, M S; Oliveira, D C N

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Penicillium citreonigrum and citreoviridin present in rice samples from Maranhão State, Brazil, where an outbreak of beriberi was reported and 32 deaths occurred (7% of the notified cases died in 2006). The ability of P. citreonigrum to produce citreoviridin was assessed, and a total of 420 samples of 21 different kinds of rice were collected. Mycobiota isolation and identification, the ability of citreoviridin strains to produce toxin, and the natural occurrence of citreoviridin were established. Rice samples were found to have high fungal counts and showed increasing levels from 2004 to 2007 harvest years. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus followed by Penicillium and Cladosporium. Ten out of eleven strains of P. citreonigrum were able to produce citreoviridin. Three rice samples had levels of citreoviridin ranging from 12 to 96.7 ng g(-1), and two bran samples had levels of 128 and 254 ng g(-1). These samples contaminated with P. citreonigrum and citreoviridin were involved in the beriberi cases from Maranhão State. Monitoring rice for mycotoxins in areas where this substrate is the basic food is crucial to prevent outbreaks like the one reported in this study, to improve management practice, and to diminish exposure risk of humans to these harmful toxins. PMID:19802756

  12. Assessing the MODIS crop detection algorithm for soybean crop area mapping and expansion in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Anibal; Arvor, Damien; Ducati, Jorge Ricardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R (2) = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  13. [Contact dermatitis by pederine: clinical and epidemiological study in Ceará State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Diógenes, M J

    1994-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the contact dermatitis by Paederus are studied. This zoodermatosis is observed in many countries of the Ceará, State of Brasil, during the rainy season, specially at the months of april and may. The etiological agent of this disease is an insect of the generus Paederus. Two species were identified in the State: Paederus brasiliensis and Paederus columbinus. PMID:7997775

  14. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a Tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netro, J

    2005-05-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aestiva, foraged for T. aurea nectar, but Nandayus nenday was by far the major nectar consumer, and the results of each of their visits, like those of the other species, was damage of a substantial proportion of the existing flower crop. Parrots foraged mostly during the afternoon, when nectar concentration tended to be higher. Nevertheless, compared to bird-pollinated flowers, which produce copious nectar, T. aurea had a smaller mean nectar volume per flower. Hence, presumably the amount of damage wreaked by these parrots resulted from their efforts to obtain part of their daily energy and water requirements. Thus, the synchronous and massive flowering occurring in such a brief period in the dry season may be related to, among other factors, the necessity of satiating predators such as parrots, which are still abundant in the Pantanal. PMID:16097737

  15. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA REGIONAL EELGRASS

    E-print Network

    #12;RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA REGIONAL EELGRASS MONITORING PROGRAM Prepared you to parties that have provided eelgrass survey data to support the preparation of our state of knowledge regarding eelgrass distribution in southern California as of 2010. These contributors

  16. Tooth loss and associated factors in patients with coagulopathies in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Moreira, Mayara dos Santos Camêlo; de Oliveira, Carla Ramos; de Medeiros, Julia Julliêta; Lima, Eufrásio de Andrade; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    2013-01-01

    Background The most common and best known hereditary coagulopathies are hemophilia A and B followed by von Willebrand Disease. Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tooth loss and investigate its association with demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as to discuss self-reported oral morbidity and use of health services by patients with coagulopathies treated in blood centers in Paraíba, Brazil. Methods This was a quantitative cross-sectional epidemiological survey. Data was collected in the period from October 2011 to July 2012 by clinical examination and by assessing interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics with the level of significance (?) being set at 10%. Results One hundred and six, predominantly male (88.8%), patients with coagulopathies were evaluated. The ages ranged from one to 59 years. Most patients were of mixed race (61.3%), most reported family incomes between R$ 501.00 and R$ 1500.00 (49.1%), and most had not completed elementary school (37.1%). Hemophilia A was found in 76.4% of the cases. The prevalence of dental caries among individuals was 50.0% predominantly in the 13- to 19-year-old age range (66.7%). As regards to tooth loss, teeth were missing in 35.1% of the study participants. Conclusion Tooth loss is high in this population. Males with severe hemophilia A, those who use fluoride and have a good or very good perception about their last dental appointment have a reduced chance of losing their teeth. PMID:24255614

  17. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this study and annual emissions from four other different approaches indicated that the estimates obtained by satellite fire detection or low spatial resolution approaches tend to underestimate sugarcane burned area. Overall, our results also indicated that government actions to reduce sugarcane straw burning emissions are becoming effective.

  18. Volcanic-sedimentary features in the Serra Geral Fm., Paraná Basin, southern Brazil: Examples of dynamic lava-sediment interactions in an arid setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petry, Karla; Jerram, Dougal A.; de Almeida, Delia del Pilar M.; Zerfass, Henrique

    2007-01-01

    The formation of volcanic-sedimentary interaction features in extreme arid environments is not a commonly described process. Specifically the occurrence of dynamically mixed sediments and juvenile igneous clasts as peperites, for water has been considered one major important factor in the processes of magma dismantling and mingling with unconsolidated sediment to form such deposits. The study area, located in south Brazil, shows a sequence of lava flows and intertrapic sandstone layers from the Paraná Basin, associated with the formation of clastic dykes, flow striations, peperite and 'peperite-like' breccias. Four processes are suggested for the genesis of the peperites: (a) fragmentation of the flow front and base; (b) sand injection; (c) dune collapse; (d) magma cascade downhill. The continued flow of a lava, while its outer crust is already cooling, causes it to break, especially in the front and base, fragments falling in the sand and getting mixed with it, generating the flow front 'peperite-like' breccia. The weight of the lava flow associated to shear stress at the base cause sand to be injected inwards the flow, forming injection clastic dykes in the cooled parts and injection peperite in the more plastic portions. The lava flow may partially erode the dune, causing the dune to collapse and forming the collapse 'peperite-like' breccia. The shear stress at the base of a flowing lava striates the unconsolidated sand, forming the flow striations. The sand that migrates over a cooled, jointed lava flow may get caught in the cavities and joints, forming the filling clastic dykes. These deposits are analogous to those found in the Etendeka, NW Namibia, and show that sediment-lava interactions in arid settings are widespread throughout the Paraná-Etendeka province during the onset of flood volcanism.

  19. Identical Assemblage of Giardia duodenalis in Humans, Animals and Vegetables in an Urban Area in Southern Brazil Indicates a Relationship among Them

    PubMed Central

    Colli, Cristiane Maria; Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Nishi, Letícia; Bignotto, Thaís Souto; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis infects humans and other mammals by ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food, or directly in environments with poor hygiene. Eight assemblages, designated A–H, are described for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated by microscopy or by direct immunofluorescence technique the occurrence of G. duodenalis in 380 humans, 34 animals, 44 samples of water and 11 of vegetables. G. duodenalis cysts present in samples were genotyped through PCR-RFLP of ? giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes and sequencing of gdh. The gdh gene was amplified in 76.5% (26/34) of the human faeces samples with positive microscopy and in 2.9% (1/34) of negative samples. In 70.4% (19/27) of the positive samples were found BIV assemblage. In two samples from dogs with positive microscopy and one negative sample, assemblages BIV, C, and D were found. Cysts of Giardia were not detected in water samples, but three samples used for vegetable irrigation showed total coliforms above the allowed limit, and Escherichia coli was observed in one sample. G. duodenalis BIV was detected in two samples of Lactuca sativa irrigated with this sample of water. BIV was a common genotype, with 100% similarity, between different sources or hosts (humans, animals and vegetables), and the one most often found in humans. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study in Brazil that reports the connection among humans, dogs and vegetables in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in the same geographic area finding identical assemblage. BIV assemblage was the most frequently observed among these different links in the epidemiological chain. PMID:25761119

  20. Population parameters of the endangered titi monkey, Callicebus coimbrai Kobayashi and Langguth, 1999, in the fragmented landscape of southern Sergipe, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, R R D; Ferrari, S F

    2011-08-01

    The recently-discovered titi, Callicebus coimbrai, is endemic to the coastal Brazilian Atlantic Forest south of the São Francisco River, a region with a long tradition of deforestation. While a number of C. coimbrai populations have now been identified, little is known about basic population parameters. Considering the importance of this information for conservation planning, the population of a site in southern Sergipe (with a total area of forest of approximately 500 ha) was surveyed between April and October 2008. Standard line transect procedures were used in the four largest fragments, and additional monitoring included the use of playback broadcasts for the observation of titi groups. The presence of titis was confirmed in all the forest fragments at the site, including one of only five hectares. Two other primates - Callithrix jacchus and Cebus xanthosternos - were also recorded at the site, but were less abundant than titis. A total transect walk of 476 km provided 164 sightings of primates, the majority of which (104) were of Callicebus coimbrai. Titi groups ranged in size between two and five individuals. The most reliable estimate of overall population density, derived from the combined data set, was 12.6 individuals per km²;, although density was much higher in smaller (more disturbed) fragments. The total population of Callicebus coimbrai at the site was estimated to be at least 50 individuals, which may represent a considerable proportion of the population of the species remaining in the wild. In addition to its apparent tolerance of habitat fragmentation, densities of C. coimbrai recorded at the site compare favourably with those of other Atlantic Forest titi species. PMID:21881780