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1

TORNADOES IN SANTA CATARINA STATE (SOUTHERN BRAZIL): EVENT DOCUMENTATION, METEOROLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the space and time distributions of tornado events in Santa Catarina state, located in southern Brazil, based on reports obtained from a data set of 27 years of damage assessment files from Santa Catarinas Civil Defense System. We also evaluate the vulnerability of the local residents to such weather phenomenon. For the period analyzed, we

Isabela Pena; Viana de Oliveira Marcelino; Nelson Jesus Ferreira

2

Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004  

PubMed Central

Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37%) were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%). Animal origin foods - especially eggs and meat products - were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%). The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81%) and food services (12.1%), and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7%) and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%). Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004. PMID:24516439

Wagner, Vanessa Rech; Silveira, Josete Baialardi; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

3

Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapu? State Park, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

Tacuatia, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

2012-01-01

4

Desmodus rotundus (Mammalia: Chiroptera) on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals. PMID:21881799

Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L

2011-08-01

5

Assessing the epidemiological data of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain. PMID:24516420

Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Marcia Regina; Casarin, Leticia Sopena; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

2013-01-01

6

PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

2013-01-01

7

Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters. PMID:24871179

Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

2014-01-01

8

A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR. PMID:24031304

de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Pipole, Fernando; Werner, Vera Regina; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood Dail; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos M.; Rangel, Marisa; Konno, Katsuhiro; Sant' Anna, Celia Leite

2008-01-01

9

Yellow fever outbreak affecting Alouatta populations in southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State), 2008-2009.  

PubMed

The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded. PMID:22020690

de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo

2012-01-01

10

Automatic interpretation of MSS-LANDSAT data applied to coal refuse site studies in southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.

1982-01-01

11

Plastic ingestion by Procellariiformes in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Procellariiformes are the birds most affected by plastic pollution. Plastic fragments and pellets were the most frequent items found in the digestive tract of eight species of Procellariiformes incidentally caught by longline fisheries as well as beached birds in Southern Brazil. Plastic objects were found in 62% of the petrels and 12% of the albatrosses. The Great shearwater, Manx

Fernanda I. Colabuono; Viviane Barquete; Beatriz S. Domingues; Rosalinda C. Montone

2009-01-01

12

Mountain lion depredation in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain lion (Puma concolor) depredation incidents on livestock herds were recorded at 15 ranches in southern Brazil from 1993 to 1995. Maximum losses to mountain lions were 78% for goats, 84% for sheep, and 16% for cattle. Cattle mortality arising from causes other than depredation assumed a greater importance in herd productivity. In contrast, attacks on sheep and goats were

Marcelo Mazzolli; Mauricio E. Graipel; Nigel Dunstone

2002-01-01

13

A new Gloeoporus species growing on bamboo from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Gloeoporus guerreroanus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens collected on bamboo in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new taxon presents hymenium continuum along the tubular internal surface and dissepiments and represents an addition into the relatively small, poroid-merulioid genus Gloeoporus. PMID:17256585

Coelho, Gilberto; da Silveira, Rosa Mara Borges; Rajchenberg, Mario

2006-01-01

14

Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study. PMID:25351322

Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

2014-11-01

15

Southern States` Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state`s designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

16

Southern States' Routing Agency Report  

SciTech Connect

The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs and authorities for high-level radioactive materials transportation. The report includes the identification of each state's designated routing agency and state legislation and regulations pertaining specifically to the shipment routing of high-level radioactive materials. Using information collected and compiled by the Hazardous Materials Information Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the report also addresses local government routing restrictions for high-level radioactive materials transportation. Whether local or state routing restrictions have been legally challenged and found to be inconsistent and preempted by the federal Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1974 (49 App. USC. 1801 et seq.) is noted. Finally, the state agency and contact designated by each state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 71 and 73 is listed.

Not Available

1988-02-01

17

Landscape genetics of mountain lions ( Puma concolor) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that mountain lions have suffered a bottleneck and lost their genetic diversity in an area in southern Brazil. In this study, we correlated landscape connectivity and patterns of gene flow to identify landscape permeability and possible sources of migrants for the population of mountain lions in southern Brazil, using circuit theory. Population structure was analyzed with Bayesian

Camila Schlieper Castilho; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Thales O. Freitas

2011-01-01

18

New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

2013-01-01

19

Valuation and characterization of the timber species in remnants of the Alto Uruguay River ecosystem, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turvo Park in the Alto Uruguay River region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul is the last intact remnant of the Seasonally Deciduous Forest in southern Brazil. This forest once covered large parts of southern Brazil but it is now reduced to less than 3% of its original size due to intensive logging caused by its exceptional richness

Ademir R. Ruschel; Miguel P. Guerra; Bruno M. Moerschbacher; Rubens O. Nodari

2005-01-01

20

Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater: An analysis over 62 cities in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water availability has been a matter of concern all over the world. This paper describes the water availability scenario in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and evaluates the potential for potable water savings estimated for the residential sector of 62 cities in the state. Water availability in Santa Catarina amounts to about 10,000m3 per capita per year, but

Enedir Ghisi; Andreza Montibeller; Richard W. Schmidt

2006-01-01

21

Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD?), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin. PMID:21225160

Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

2010-12-01

22

Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

2014-01-01

23

Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

2013-01-01

24

Determinants of Educational Performance in Southern Brazil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the effects of socioeconomic origin (SES) and mental ability (MA) on levels of educational (EA) and occupational aspiration (OA), academic performance (AP), and significant others' influence (SOI) for 1,950 5th grade elementary and 4th year gymnastic students in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Representative samples of approximately…

Hansen, David O.

25

Hepatitis B virus infection in Haemodialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Predictive risk factors for infection and molecular epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Background Patients under haemodialysis are considered at high risk to acquire hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Since few data are reported from Brazil, our aim was to assess the frequency and risk factors for HBV infection in haemodialysis patients from 22 Dialysis Centres from Santa Catarina State, south of Brazil. Methods This study includes 813 patients, 149 haemodialysis workers and 772 healthy controls matched by sex and age. Serum samples were assayed for HBV markers and viraemia was detected by nested PCR. HBV was genotyped by partial S gene sequencing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses with stepwise logistic regression analysis were carried out to analyse the relationship between HBV infection and the characteristics of patients and their Dialysis Units. Results Frequency of HBV infection was 10.0%, 2.7% and 2.7% among patients, haemodialysis workers and controls, respectively. Amidst patients, the most frequent HBV genotypes were A (30.6%), D (57.1%) and F (12.2%). Univariate analysis showed association between HBV infection and total time in haemodialysis, type of dialysis equipment, hygiene and sterilization of equipment, number of times reusing the dialysis lines and filters, number of patients per care-worker and current HCV infection. The logistic regression model showed that total time in haemodialysis, number of times of reusing the dialysis lines and filters, and number of patients per worker were significantly related to HBV infection. Conclusions Frequency of HBV infection among haemodialysis patients at Santa Catarina state is very high. The most frequent HBV genotypes were A, D and F. The risk for a patient to become HBV positive increase 1.47 times each month of haemodialysis; 1.96 times if the dialysis unit reuses the lines and filters ? 10 times compared with haemodialysis units which reuse < 10 times; 3.42 times if the number of patients per worker is more than five. Sequence similarity among the HBV S gene from isolates of different patients pointed out to nosocomial transmission. PMID:15113436

Carrilho, Flair J; Moraes, Cleusa R; Pinho, João RR; Mello, Isabel MVGC; Bertolini, Dennis A; Lemos, Marcílio F; Moreira, Regina C; Bassit, Leda C; Cardoso, Rita A; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Gabriela; Da Silva, Luiz C

2004-01-01

26

Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km2 with steep altitudinal gradients (200–950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest hotspot.

Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

2014-01-01

27

THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BISCUTATE SWIFT (STREPTOPROCNE BISCUTATA) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding biology of the Biscutate Swift (Streptoprocne biscutata) was studied in a cave located in the Paraná State, southern Brazil. Besides monitoring of the nests, eggs, and nestlings every 2 days, the field works involved banding of adult birds with metallic bands and phosphorescent markers. Nest building begins in October; the nest material is collected with the bill. Nest

Mauro Pichorim

28

Molecular epidemiology of adrenocortical tumors in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The high frequency of TP53 R337H carriers in southern Brazil is responsible for the highest known incidence of childhood adrenocortical tumor (ACT). Our aims were to examine other contributing mutations, age-related risk factors, epidemiological differences in ACT and to shed light on a method for increasing the survival rate of children. The fetal zone of the adrenal cortex is believed to be one of the tissues most susceptible to adenoma or carcinoma formation due to loss of p53 function. The founder germline R337H mutation is found in 95% of ACTs of young children, a much greater proportion than in adults. Despite intense educational campaigns about the high incidence of ACT in Paraná State, advanced cases remain common. Four advanced ACT cases (4/5) were admitted to a single institution in the first 6months of 2011 in Paraná State, none of the families knew about ACT, and 2 reported no familial cancer syndrome. Curative resection is possible when a small ACT is detected early. PMID:22056871

Custódio, Gislaine; Komechen, Heloisa; Figueiredo, Francisco R O; Fachin, Natasha D; Pianovski, Mara A D; Figueiredo, Bonald C

2012-03-31

29

Phylogeographic analysis of HIV-1 subtype C dissemination in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 subtype C has spread efficiently in the southern states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná). Phylogeographic studies indicate that the subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil was initiated by the introduction of a single founder virus population at some time point between 1960 and 1980, but little is known about the spatial dynamics of viral spread. A total of 135 Brazilian HIV-1 subtype C pol sequences collected from 1992 to 2009 at the three southern state capitals (Porto Alegre, Florianópolis and Curitiba) were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to explore the degree of phylogenetic mixing of subtype C sequences from different cities and to reconstruct the geographical pattern of viral spread in this country region. Phylogeographic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the HIV-1 subtype C clade circulating in southern Brazil and placed the root of that clade in Curitiba (Paraná state). This analysis further suggested that Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state) is an important staging post in the subtype C dissemination displaying high viral migration rates from and to the other cities, while viral flux between Curitiba and Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul state) is very low. We found a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.64) between routine travel and viral migration rates among localities. Despite the intense viral movement, phylogenetic intermixing of subtype C sequences from different Brazilian cities is lower than expected by chance. Notably, a high proportion (67%) of subtype C sequences from Porto Alegre branched within a single local monophyletic sub-cluster. These results suggest that the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil has been shaped by both frequent viral migration among states and in situ dissemination of local clades. PMID:22530062

Bello, Gonzalo; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Iamarino, Atila; Gräf, Tiago; Pinto, Aguinaldo R; Couto-Fernandez, José C; Morgado, Mariza G

2012-01-01

30

Phylogeographic Analysis of HIV-1 Subtype C Dissemination in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The HIV-1 subtype C has spread efficiently in the southern states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná). Phylogeographic studies indicate that the subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil was initiated by the introduction of a single founder virus population at some time point between 1960 and 1980, but little is known about the spatial dynamics of viral spread. A total of 135 Brazilian HIV-1 subtype C pol sequences collected from 1992 to 2009 at the three southern state capitals (Porto Alegre, Florianópolis and Curitiba) were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods were used to explore the degree of phylogenetic mixing of subtype C sequences from different cities and to reconstruct the geographical pattern of viral spread in this country region. Phylogeographic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the HIV-1 subtype C clade circulating in southern Brazil and placed the root of that clade in Curitiba (Paraná state). This analysis further suggested that Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state) is an important staging post in the subtype C dissemination displaying high viral migration rates from and to the other cities, while viral flux between Curitiba and Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul state) is very low. We found a positive correlation (r2?=?0.64) between routine travel and viral migration rates among localities. Despite the intense viral movement, phylogenetic intermixing of subtype C sequences from different Brazilian cities is lower than expected by chance. Notably, a high proportion (67%) of subtype C sequences from Porto Alegre branched within a single local monophyletic sub-cluster. These results suggest that the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in southern Brazil has been shaped by both frequent viral migration among states and in situ dissemination of local clades. PMID:22530062

Bello, Gonzalo; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A.; Iamarino, Atila; Graf, Tiago; Pinto, Aguinaldo R.; Couto-Fernandez, Jose C.; Morgado, Mariza G.

2012-01-01

31

Toxocara spp. seroprevalence in sheep from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health. PMID:23832639

Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires

2013-09-01

32

Astronomy in the Curriculum Proposals of Southern Region of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is a science that has attracted attention and fascination of different people. Because it is a subject that arouses curiosity, Astronomy has been the subject of several studies related to the area of education. In this respect, this article presents partial results of an ongoing Doctoral research. The objective is to analyze and compare the contents related to Astronomy present in curricular proposals that guide the Basic Education in Southern Brazil. The methodological approach followed the assumptions of qualitative research. We used content analysis to make the comparison between the astronomical content present in the curriculum proposals from the states of Parana, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The reading of the proposals has possible to reorganize the content into categories. As a result the category is displayed Earth and its analysis, which shows the lack of clarity and specificity in the presentation of the contents of the curriculum proposals. This finding may be an indicator that affect the integration of astronomical content in the curriculum of schools.

Albrecht, Evonir; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

2013-08-01

33

Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in the General Population of Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples were collected from 113 subjects (56 males and 57 females) living in the district of Alfenas, in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, to establish reference values for delta- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity (ALA-D, EC 4.2.1.24). The state of health of the population was confirmed by hematological and biochemical parameters analyzed in blood and urine samples. ALA-D determination was

Maria Elisa; Pereira Bastos de SIQUEIRA; Patricia Penido; Danielle Palma de OLIVEIRA; Denise Moura; Leite LUENGO

34

Juvenile accretion at 750 700 Ma in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Juvenile, mantle-derived complexes are relatively rare in the late Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogenic belts of western Gondwana, which consist primarily of reworked older crust. The Vila Nova belt in the São Gabriel block of the southern Mantiqueira province, southern Brazil, consists of granodioritic to tonalitic gneisses (Cambaí group) and deformed basaltic to rhyolitic volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks (Vacacaí supergroup). U-Pb zircon data show that plutonic and volcanic rocks of both groups formed between 750 and 700 Ma. Sm-Nd model ages range from 1000 to 800 Ma with positive ?Nd(t) values, identifying the Vila Nova belt as a juvenile terrane. We postulate that 1000 800 Ma oceanic crust was subducted eastward below a Transamazonian (2100 Ma) craton; this process formed supracrustal rocks of the Vacacaí supergroup and plutons and supracrustal rocks of the Cambaí group and caused associated deformation. This juvenile terrane represents another tectonic marker for defining the earlier stages of western Gondwana assembly.

Babinski, Marly; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hartmann, Léo A.; van Schmus, W. R.; da Silva, Luiz Carlos

1996-05-01

35

Future drying of the southern Amazon and central Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate modeling suggests that the Amazon rainforest could exhibit considerable dieback under future climate change, a prediction that has raised considerable interest as well as controversy. To determine the likelihood and causes of such changes, we analyzed the output of 15 models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC/AR4) and a dynamic vegetation model VEGAS driven by these climate output. Our results suggest that the core of the Amazon rainforest should remain largely stable. However, the periphery, notably the southern edge, is in danger of drying out, driven by two main processes. First, a decline in precipitation of 24% in the southern Amazon lengthens the dry season and reduces soil moisture, despite of an increase in precipitation during the wet season, due to the nonlinear response in hydrology and ecosystem dynamics. Two dynamical mechanisms may explain the lower dry season precipitation: (1) a stronger north-south tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature gradient; (2) a general subtropical drying under global warming when the dry season southern Amazon is under the control of the subtropical high pressure. Secondly, evaporation will increase due to the general warming, thus also reducing soil moisture. As a consequence, the median of the models projects a reduction of vegetation by 20%, and enhanced fire carbon flux by 10-15% in the southern Amazon, central Brazil, and parts of the Andean Mountains. Because the southern Amazon is also under intense human influence, the double pressure of deforestation and climate change may subject the region to dramatic changes in the 21st century.

Yoon, J.; Zeng, N.; Cook, B.

2008-12-01

36

Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately after the landslide event. Numerical simulations with the SHALSTAB model were carried out in the basin and the results compared to the original location of the scars in the field. The results suggest that the combination of field mapping with the numerical simulation scenarios may contribute to the definition of better land management practices in such environment. Besides this, the replacement of the natural rain forest by huge banana plantations in this environment may have played a major role in defining the spatial distribution of landslides scars and the magnitude of the landslides generated.

Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

2013-04-01

37

Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008  

PubMed Central

Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222

Cardoso, Jader da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.

2010-01-01

38

Lagochilascariasis in cats (Felis catus domesticus) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Lagochilascariasis, a parasitic disease little known in Brazil, is caused by an ascarid nematode that has a peculiar life cycle, with a predilection site for the cervical region in the final hosts: humans, cats and dogs. We aimed to record the occurrence of Lagochilascaris minor in domestic cats from rural areas in the Municipality of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, with reports of clinical signs and the treatment applied. PMID:24692048

Fehlberg, Marta F; da Silva, Diego S; Langone, Patrícia Q; da Silva, Maria Amp; Pesenti, Tatiana C; Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Gomes, Sâmara N; Gallina, T; Mendes, Mariana de M; de Macedo, Márcia Rp; Bernardon, Fabiana F; Berne, Maria Ea; Müller, Gertrud

2014-12-01

39

Precipitation Anomalies in Southern Brazil Associated with El Niño and La Niña Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of El Nino and La Nina events (warm and cold phases of the Southern Oscillation) on rainfall over southern Brazil is investigated through the use of a large dataset of monthly precipitation from 250 stations. This region is partly dominated by rough orography and presents different climatic regimes of rainfall. As previous global studies on Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships

Alice M. Grimm; Simone E. T. Ferraz; Júlio Gomes

1998-01-01

40

Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009

de Gasper, Andre Luis; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luis Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo Jose; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

2014-01-01

41

Genotoxic Potential and Physicochemical Parameters of Sinos River, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring. PMID:24285934

Scalon, Madalena C. S.; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L.; Rodrigues, Manoela T.; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S.

2013-01-01

42

Population ecology of hantavirus rodent hosts in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

Teixeira, Bernardo R; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H B V; Raboni, Sonia M; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S

2014-08-01

43

Tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil. The Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire was used in eight dental schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Of the 663 eligible students, 576 (87%) participated. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.9-25.3%], and 61.6% (95% CI: 54.9-68.3%) of students reported having smoked at least once in their lifetime. The prevalence of dental students who had smoked ?100 cigarettes in their lifetime was 17.1% (95% CI: 12.5-21.7%). Being frequently exposed to other smokers at home or in other places (second-hand smoke) increased the likelihood of current smoking by two- to threefold. Approximately 6.1% (95% CI: 3.5-8.7%) of the students reported that they currently wanted to stop smoking and 7.5% (95% CI: 5.3-9.6%) had tried to stop smoking in the last year. Friends and family were the most frequent sources of help or counselling, and only a limited proportion of students received help from health professionals. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoking is widespread among dental students in southern Brazil. Smoking-cessation initiatives targeting health care students are urgently needed. PMID:25123054

Musskopf, Marta L; Fiorini, Tiago; Haddad, Daniel C; Susin, Cristiano

2014-12-01

44

The conservation status of the tuco-tucos, genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae), in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The goal of conservation biology should be related to the preservation of species and also to the evolutionary and ecological processes that were responsible to form them and that are still acting. We review the conservation status of the species of tuco-tuco (Ctenomys torquatus, C. lami, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni) from southern Brazil, and relate these data to the geological history of a particular area in that region, the Coastal Plain of the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The implications of the data on these species from the Southeastern Brazil are also discussed in relation to the evolution and risk of extinction of these subterranean rodents. PMID:18278350

Fernandes, F A; Fernández-Stolz, G P; Lopes, C M; Freitas, T R O

2007-12-01

45

Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2%) of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0%) were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%), jaundice (13.8%), and microcephaly (6.9%). During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein?200mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p=0.0325). Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases), developmental delay (31.0%), motor deficit (13.8%), convulsion (27.5%), and attention deficit (10.3%). All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences. PMID:24662141

Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Breganó, Regina Mitsuka; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Rezende Neto, Claudio Pereira; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes; Pagliari, Sthefany; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

2014-01-01

46

Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

2014-11-01

47

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA  

E-print Network

18. STATUS OF CORAL REEFS IN SOUTHERN TROPICAL AMERICA IN 2000-2002: BRAZIL, COLOMBIA, COSTA RICA for Southern Tropical America (STA), covering coral reef areas of the Eastern Pacific and the Western Atlantic. The coral reefs have been limited in their growth because of the strong influence of the major continental

Bermingham, Eldredge

48

UPb ages of plutonic and metaplutonic rocks in southern Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Timing of Brasiliano  

E-print Network

U­Pb ages of plutonic and metaplutonic rocks in southern Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Timing, central, and southern. Several U­Pb zircon ages of plutons and orthogneisses became available plutons (Cachoeirinha syenitic pluton and Cabanas granite) south of the East Pernambuco shear zone system

Demouchy, Sylvie

49

GENDER ROLE ATTITUDES IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that gender role attitudes are more traditional in the southern United States than elsewhere in the nation. We examine this notion, using eight gender-related questions from the NORC General Social Survey data. Responses to these questions suggest that Southerners tend to hold more conservative opinions on questions about women in politics and employed women. On questions

TOM W. RICE; DIANE L. COATES

1995-01-01

50

English in the Southern United States. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers provides a broad overview of the foundations of, and current research on, language variation in the southern United States, exploring historical and cultural elements, iconic contemporary features, and current changes in progress. The 12 papers are: (1) "The Origins of Southern American English" (John Algeo); (2)…

Nagle, Stephen J., Ed.; Sanders, Sara L., Ed.

51

The Poverty of Trust in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the intersection of…

Simpson, Brent

2006-01-01

52

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.

Diego G Bassani; Lilian S Palazzo; Jorge U Béria; Luciana P Gigante; Andréia CL Figueiredo; Denise RGC Aerts; Beatriz CW Raymann

2009-01-01

53

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil  

E-print Network

INVASION NOTE Crassostrea gigas in natural oyster banks in southern Brazil Cla´udio M. R. Melo � December 2008 / Accepted: 28 April 2009 / Published online: 12 May 2009 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract We report on the invasion of Brazil by the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and discuss

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

54

Production and analysis of a Southern Ocean state estimate  

E-print Network

A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence toward the state estimate solution is carried ...

Mazloff, Matthew R

2006-01-01

55

Taxonomic reports of Otobothrioidea (Eucestoda, Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranch fishes of the southern coast off Brazil.  

PubMed

Specimens of elasmobranch fishes, captured in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, of the southern coast off Brazil, represented by three families, four genera, and four species, were parasitized with otobothrioid trypanorhynch cestodes: Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788), Squalus sp. and Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868) were parasitized with Progrillotia dollfusi Carvajal & Rego,1987; Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) with Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1841) Dollfus, 1942. Details of internal morphology and/or scolex and/or proglottids surface ultrastructure, that expanded the description of M. horridus, through observations with lightfield, and/or scanning eletronic microscopy, are provided. The known geographical distribution for the species M. horridus is enlarged. P. dollfusi is reported for the first time in elasmobranchs. PMID:15057344

Knoff, Marcelo; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Lanfredi, Reinalda Marisa; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

2004-02-01

56

Precipitation variability in São Paulo State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The State of São Paulo is the richest in Brazil, responsible for over 30% of the Brazilian gross rate. It has a population\\u000a of around 30 million and its economy is based on agriculture and industrial products. Any change in climate can have a profound\\u000a influence on the socio-economics of the State.\\u000a \\u000a In order to determine changes in total and

A. S. Dufek; T. Ambrizzi

2008-01-01

57

SF State Southern California Attrition Study, October 2012 Southern California Attrition Study  

E-print Network

California attrition by county or ethnicity, and Latino students. SF State is striving to become an Hispanic Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura counties. 0 Origin Six Bay Area county "Local Area" Southern California counties All other areas #12;SF State

58

Divergent Profile of Emerging Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Subtropical Brazil: New Endemic Areas in the Southern Frontier  

PubMed Central

Background Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. Methodology/Principal Findings For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n?=?401, 73.99%) and occurring in urban zones (n?=?422, 77.86%). Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56–21.09). Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania) amazonensis cases (1.20%), majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia) braziliensis (n?=?248, 98.80%). Conclusions/Significance CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V.) braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region. PMID:23457521

Marlow, Mariel Asbury; da Silva Mattos, Marise; Makowiecky, Maria Ernestina; Eger, Iriane; Rossetto, Andre Luiz; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Steindel, Mario

2013-01-01

59

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

Not Available

1989-02-01

60

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

61

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, Joao Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Leticia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

62

SOCIAL STATUS AND FOOD PREFERENCE IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prestige value of food and food behaviors is a topic of inquiry that complements the study of nutritional aspects of food use. In this work, varying social groups in Brazil are examined with regard to their evaluation of the status of available foods, and in turn, the frequencies with which they consume high and low status foods. Ethnographic and

KATHRYN S. OTHS; ADRIANA CAROLO; JOSE ERNESTO DOS SANTOS

2003-01-01

63

Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

2014-01-01

64

Construction of a remotely sensed area sampling frame for Southern Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.

Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (principal investigators)

1982-01-01

65

Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. METHODS: This

Leila Tannous; Luciana P Gigante; Sandra C Fuchs; Ellis DA Busnello

2008-01-01

66

Use of artificial substrata by introduced and cryptogenic marine species in Paranaguá Bay, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 × 20 cm) were

Carolina Somaio Neves; Rosana Moreira Rocha; Fabio Bettini Pitombo; James J. Roper

2007-01-01

67

FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL: THE ANTI-DAM MOVEMENT IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL, 1979-19921  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of the movement of people affected by dams in southern Brazil shows how particular local mobilizations are linked to national and global economics, politics, and social movements. In the early stages, the progressive church was the predominant influence and was largely responsible for framing the key issue as peasants' right to land, while left intellectuals contributed a

FRANKLIN DANIEL ROTHMAN

68

Frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler chickens during industrial processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken.2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71·3% were

P. R. Franchin; P. J. Ogliari; C. R. V. Batista

2007-01-01

69

Taphonomy of recent freshwater molluscan death assemblages, Touro Passo stream, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative taphonomic data for the freshwater mollusk shells from death assemblages found in straight and meandering fluvial channels of the Touro Passo Stream, southern Brazil, are here presented. A total of 245 gastropod and 485 bivalve shells were collected and analyzed. Complete valves, showing small chipped margins, dominated the studied shell material. The periostracum was present in the

CARLA BENDER KOTZIAN

2006-01-01

70

Leprosy and hepatitis B coinfection in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

To investigate the association of leprosy with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, as yet unknown for South Brazil, we assessed hepatitis B virus coinfection in 199 South Brazilian leprosy patients (119 lepromatous, 15 tuberculoid, 30 borderline, 12 undetermined and 23 unspecified) and in 681 matched blood donors by screening for the hepatitis B virus markers HBSAg and anti-HBc, using ELISA. Positive samples were retested and anti-HBc+ only samples were tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs). There was a strong association between leprosy and hepatitis B virus infection (OR=9.8, 95% CI=6.4-14.7; p=0.004 · E(-30)), as well as an association between HBV infection and lepromatous leprosy, compared to other forms (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-4.8; p=0.017). We also found that confinement due to leprosy was associated with hepatitis B virus infection (OR=3.9, 95% CI=2.1-7.4; p=0.015 · E(-3)). Leprosy patients are susceptible to develop hepatitis B virus infection, especially lepromatous. Institutionalized patients, who probably present a stronger Th2 response, have higher risk of being exposed to hepatitis B virus. This clearly emphasizes the need for special care to leprosy patients in preventing hepatitis B virus coinfection in South Brazil. PMID:23933408

Leitão, Cleverson; Ueda, Denis; de Moraes Braga, Anna Carolina; Boldt, Angelica B W; Messias-Reason, Iara J T

2014-01-01

71

Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species. PMID:25075466

Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

2014-02-01

72

Rendezvous with the World: Missouri Southern State University's Themed Semesters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…

Stebbins, Chad

2011-01-01

73

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

2010-01-01

74

Age distribution of Serra Geral (Parana??) flood basalts, southern Brazil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Parana??) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ???130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35?? and 19??S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140-160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques. ?? 1989.

Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

1989-01-01

75

Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) poisoning in cattle in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data on Pteridium aquilinum intoxication in cattle the state of Santa Catarina were obtained by review of diagnostic records from 1987 to 2001. Of 3,407 necropsied cattle, 244 (7.16%) were diagnosed as intoxicated by Paquilinum; 122 of those were of the hemorrhagic form, 103 had tumors in the upper digestive tract, 19 were cases of chronic hematuria. Annual losses due to this intoxication in this State are estimated at 10,657 cattle. The highest incidence of the hemorrhagic form occurs in 1-3-y-old cattle between March and July, and most cases of tumors of the upper digestive tract affect cattle older than Sy. The highest incidence of digestive tract tumors is at the base of the tongue and pharynx, and the lowest frequency is in the rumen and esophagus. The large economic losses caused PaQuilinum in Santa Catarina call for improved control measures for the disease. PMID:12458643

Gava, Aldo; da Silva Neves, Dalmo; Gava, Daniele; de Moura, Saliba Thiago; Schild, Ana Lucia; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2002-12-01

76

The holoplankton of the Santa Catarina coast, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This paper presents information from different sampling surveys carried out along the Santa Catarina coast in order to outline the biogeographical characteristics of the zooplankton in this region and identify species or groups of species with potential use as bioindicators. Based on a checklist of species of the zooplankton community in the state, it was observed that, in the warmer months of the year, the fauna is similar to that of the states of Paraná and São Paulo (e.g. Creseis virgula f. virgula, Penilia avirostris; Acartia lilljeborgi and Oithona oswaldocruzi), while in the colder months there are coastal representatives of the fauna of Rio Grande do Sul (e.g. Acartia tonsa). However, the zooplankton consists predominantly of warm water species for most of the year, which is typical of Tropical Shelf Waters. Various species of zooplankton can be used as hydrological indicators, enabling a distinction to be made between coastal waters which are influenced by continental inputs (e.g. Paracalanus quasimodo and Parvocalanus crassirostris), common in the north of the state, and processes of upwelling (e.g. Podon intermedius) and the influence of the Subtropical Shelf Front (e.g. Pleopis polyphemoides), coming from the south. The different environments investigated present a zooplankton abundance that depends on the influence of continental inputs and the possibility of their retaining and contribution for the coastal enrichment, which varies seasonally. PMID:21670880

Resgalla, Charrid

2011-06-01

77

Child and adolescent labor and smoking: a cross-sectional study in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study assessed the association between smoking and child and adolescent labor among 3,269 individuals 10 to 17 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil (excluding higher income census tracts) in 1998. Adjusted hierarchical analysis was performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of child labor was 13.8%. Current smoking prevalence was 6.3% in the sample as a whole (15.7% among working versus 3.4% among non-working children). In the multivariate analysis, smoking was significantly associated with child labor, with a prevalence ratio of 1.75 (95%CI: 1.30-2.36). Smoking was also associated with family characteristics (lower maternal schooling, mother currently without husband/partner, household members with alcohol or drug problems, single mother, and history of serious injuries), and the children's characteristics (age greater than 16 years, inadequate school performance, and externalizing behavior). The findings point to smoking as one of the harmful consequences of child labor and suggest the workplace as an appropriate target for smoking prevention. PMID:21340103

Dall'Agnol, Marinel Mór; Fassa, Ana Claudia Gastal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

2011-01-01

78

Reduced riparian zone width compromises aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in streams of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Recent changes in Brazilian legislation reduced the width of riparian forest buffer needed to be preserved in private properties from 30 to 15 m or less. The consequences of these modifications can be dramatic, mainly because riparian buffer width is an important parameter for riparian forest structure and functioning. Our study assessed whether (1) macroinvertebrate family richness and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) family richness decrease with reduced riparian buffer width; (2) taxonomic composition and functional feeding group (FFG) composition of macroinvertebrates vary with a reduced riparian buffer width; and (3) reduced riparian buffer width similarly influence the macroinvertebrate community in different stream substrates. We selected three fragments with different riparian buffer widths (>40, <30, and <15 m) in three streams (fourth and fifth orders) in the Sinos River watershed, southern Brazil. Our results show that on all substrate types, reducing the width of the riparian buffer altered neither the macroinvertebrate richness nor EPT richness. However, EPT richness was greater in the substrates stone and gravel than leaf litter, independent of riparian buffer width. There was a significant difference in macroinvertebrate composition among riparian buffer widths. The macroinvertebrate composition and FFG differed among substrates, independent of riparian buffer width. This study showed that riparian buffer widths <15 m altered the macroinvertebrate community. A width greater than 15 m is necessary to maintain the composition and trophic conditions of macroinvertebrate families similar to those found in reference states of conservation. PMID:25052327

Moraes, Aline Bianca; Wilhelm, Andréia Emília; Boelter, Thaíse; Stenert, Cristina; Schulz, Uwe H; Maltchik, Leonardo

2014-11-01

79

Research, part of a Special Feature on The influence of human demography and agriculture on natural systems in the Neotropics Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that

Sandra R. Baptista

80

Gastrointestinal parasites of cavy (Cavia aperea aperea) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal parasitism in Cavia aperea aperea (cavy), captured in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State. Fecal samples from five free-living cavies were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst and egg size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. were observed in one or more cavies. Eggs of Paraspidodera uncinata were observed in three of the five rodents. All infected animals showed mild infection by parasite. This is the first report of Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. in Cavia a. aperea. PMID:20227736

Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; da Silva, Marcos Kipper; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

2010-10-01

81

Dental caries and associated factors among young male adults between 1999 and 2003 in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the prevalence, severity and distribution of dental caries and associated factors among young male adults from Florianopolis (Southern Brazil) and to compare these results with those from a previous study. Method: A cross-sectional study (n=414) was conducted among Brazilian Army subjects in 2003. Dental caries experience was recorded using the DMF-T Index (WHO, 1997). Non-clinical data were

J. L. D. Bastos; L. H. Nomura; M. A. Peres

2007-01-01

82

On the diversity of mollusc intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Cespedes, 1971 in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are considered the most important intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis, an intra-arterial nematode of rodents. Studies undertaken in three localities in southern Brazil led to identification of molluscs other than veronicellid slugs as hosts of A. costaricensis: Limax maximus, Limax flavus and Bradybaena similaris. These data indicate a low host specificity of larval stages of A. costaricensis, as it has been reported to other congeneric species. PMID:8107609

Teixeira, C G; Thiengo, S C; Thome, J W; Medeiros, A B; Camillo-Coura, L; Agostini, A A

1993-01-01

83

Obesity, overweight and thinness in schoolchildren of the city of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the prevalence of obesity, overweight (including obesity) and thinness in children of the city of Florianopolis (southern Brazil).Design:Cross-sectional study.Subjects:Representative sample of 7–10-y-old schoolchildren of the first four grades of elementary schools (1432 girls, 1504 boys).Methods:Measurements of weight, height and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were taken following standard techniques. The body mass index (BMI) was computed as weight\\/height2. Nutritional

M A A de Assis; M F Rolland-Cachera; S Grosseman; F A G de Vasconcelos; M E P Luna; M C M Calvo; M V G Barros; M M S Pires; F Bellisle; MAA de Assis

2005-01-01

84

Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also

Juliana G Assumpção; Ana Luíza Seidinger; Maria José Mastellaro; Raul C Ribeiro; Gerard P Zambetti; Ramapriya Ganti; Kumar Srivastava; Sheila Shurtleff; Deqing Pei; Luiz Carlos Zeferino; Rozany M Dufloth; Silvia Regina Brandalise; José Andres Yunes

2008-01-01

85

Family farm sustainability in southern Brazil: An application of agri-environmental indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sustainability of agroecological and conventional agriculture on small farms in southern Brazil. A methodology was developed to identify agri-environmental indicators of the environmental, economic and social dimensions of the farming systems. The criteria used for selecting sustainability indicators were policy relevance, measurability, validity\\/analytical soundness, level of aggregation\\/communication to the user. Based on these criteria indicators were

Lúcio André de O. Fernandes; Philip J. Woodhouse

2008-01-01

86

Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region\\u000a of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained\\u000a by the modified

Aleksandro S. da Silva; Régis A. Zanette; Valéria M. Lara; Luciane T. Gressler; Adriano B. Carregaro; Janio M. Santurio; Silvia G. Monteiro

2009-01-01

87

Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

Not Available

1989-07-01

88

The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Southern Latin America: Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was conducted in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and involved 182 farms located in 26 countries. In addition to the three major broad-spectrum anthelmintic groups (viz. benzimidazole, levamisole and ivermectin) the combination benzimidazole and leyamisole and the H. contortus specific anthelmintic, closantel, were tested by the faecal egg count reduction method for the prevalence

F. Echevarria; M. F. S. Borba; A. C. Pinheiro; P. J. Waller; J. W. Hansen

1996-01-01

89

First Evaluation of an Outbreak of Bovine Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis in Southern Brazil Using Multiplex PCR  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699

Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa

2014-01-01

90

Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States  

E-print Network

1 Water Policy and Economics Conference 21st Century Water Issues in the Southern States October 13 The Water Policy and Economics Team of the CSREES Southern Region Water Program is a dynamic group actively address water policy issues in 13 southern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana

91

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

92

Geophysical structures and tectonic evolution of the southern Guyana shield, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerogeophysical data of an area located on the southern portion of the Guyana shield in Brazil was processed using a fine interpolating mesh, and a corresponding spatial data integration strategy which included the stacking of different high-resolution images, and interpretation following quality control of these. The selected images were correlated to the local known surface geologic units, and to the spatial distribution of the main geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton. The interpretation of the results also included the available geophysical information for the region, related to Moho depth values, and previously determined SKS shear-wave splitting direction. The observed magnetic regional trends may be strongly influenced by the Proterozoic crustal structure in the area, while radiometric anomalies correlate with the more detailed geologic features. Based on the parallelism among mapped geochronological provinces of the Amazonian craton, and observed geophysical structures on the study area, a geotectonic model is proposed for southern Guyana shield at Proterozoic age.

Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

2014-07-01

93

Gastrointestinal parasites of owls (Strigiformes) kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection. PMID:19005679

da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

2009-01-01

94

Microhabitat use by three species of egret (Pelecaniformes, Ardeidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined the role of different habitat components and their relationship with microhabitat use by three species of egret: Cocoi heron (Ardea cocoi), Great egret (Ardea alba), and Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), in wetlands of southern Brazil. Ardea alba and A. cocoi were not habitat-specific (e.g. vegetation cover and flooding level). Conversely, B. ibis was associated with drier microhabitats. Relative air humidity and air temperature were the main variables which correlated with the occurrence of these species and supported the plasticity of B. ibis and its predominance in drier habitats. PMID:24789395

Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Bergmann, F B; Tozetti, A M

2013-11-01

95

RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil. PMID:24878996

Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Fernandez, Heriberto; De Bona, Laura Renata; Neuhauss, Erli; Longo, Larisse; Prolla, Joao Carlos

2014-01-01

96

Fruits and vegetables intake and characteristics associated among adolescents from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Increased body weight has been associated with an unhealthy diet, low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our objective was to investigate whether adolescents had low intake of fruits and vegetables, and whether gender, age and education could affect the feeding patterns. Methods A population-based sample of adolescents, aged 12–19 years, were randomly selected in southern Brazil and included in this cross-sectional study. The total daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans were investigated in standardized household interviews, using a food frequency questionnaire and questions, being categorized as five or more servings per day as the five-a-day diet. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and modified Poisson regression were used in the analysis. Results Adolescents (n?=?568) were included, 49.5% boys, 14.3% had overweight and 8.8% obesity. Approximately 23% of participants consumed five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. It was observed that 36.7% of boys and 31.0% of girls consumed less than one serving of fruit per day, and 58.4% and 44.6%, respectively, consumed less than one serving of vegetables. The consumption of vegetables, fruits, and rice and beans were not independently associated with gender. Overweight was associated with higher intake of five-a-day, independently of confounding factors. Conclusions Adolescents from southern Brazil have lower frequency of consumption of five servings a day of fruits and vegetables combined. PMID:23158078

2012-01-01

97

Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa  

E-print Network

Thermal, hydrous, and mechanical states of the mantle transition zone beneath southern Africa John cratons in southern Africa; consequently, the mantle transition zone is 20 km thicker than beneath post: lithosphere; upper mantle; transition zone; cratoni convection; Southern Africa 1. Introduction The upper

Shen, Yang

98

Effect of Land-Cover Change on Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-cover change has significant influence on carbon storage and fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. The southern United States is thought to be the largest carbon sink across the conterminous United States. However, the spatial and temporary variability of carbon storage and fluxes due to land-cover change in the southern United States remains unclear. In this study, we first reconstructed the annual

Hua Chen; Hanqin Tian; Mingliang Liu; Jerry Melillo; Shufen Pan; Chi Zhang

2006-01-01

99

Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

Ruhoff, Anderson

2014-05-01

100

Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust. Synkinematic granitoids localize most, if not all, deformation in the studied shear zone. The regional continuity and the pervasive character of the magmatic fabric in the various synkinematic granitic bodies, consistently displaying similar plane and direction of flow, argue for accommodation of large amounts of orogen-parallel movement by viscous deformation of these magmas. Moreover, activation of high-temperature deformation mechanisms probably allowed a much easier deformation of the hot synkinematic granites than of the colder country rock and, consequently, contributed significantly to the localization of deformation. Finally, the small extent of the low-temperature deformation suggests that the strike-slip deformation ended approximately synchronously with the final cooling of the peraluminous granites. The evolution of the deformation reflects the strong influence of synkinematic magma emplacement and subsequent cooling on the thermomechanical evolution of the shear zone. Magma intrusion in an orogen-scale transcurrent shear zone deeply modifies the rheological behavior of the continental crust. It triggers an efficient thermomechanical softening localized within the fault that may subsist long enough for large displacements to be accommodated. Therefore the close association of deformation and synkinematic magmatism probably represents an important factor controlling the mechanical response of continental plates in collisional environments.

Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

1994-04-01

101

Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points) in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay) and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season) were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae. PMID:23538501

Brandão, Rosana Pinho; Boehs, Guisla; Silva, Patrícia Mirella da

2013-01-01

102

Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M

2014-08-01

103

A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: A case study in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco) from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76) and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species. PMID:23412911

Castilho, Camila S.; Gava, Adriana; de Freitas, Thales R.O.

2012-01-01

104

A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: A case study in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco) from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76) and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species. PMID:23412911

Castilho, Camila S; Gava, Adriana; de Freitas, Thales R O

2012-12-01

105

Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission track thermochronology obtained in the adjacent basement units. The main denudation events are 140 ± 20 Ma (rifting), 75 ± 15 Ma, and 30 ± 10 Ma (estimated age of the Cone do Rio Grande structure formation). We conclude that the subsidence, uplift and denudation events that affected the eastern margin of Brazil and Uruguay and western margin of Africa segmented most of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas, difficulting the paleogeographic reconstruction and plate kinematic of the Brasiliano/Pan-African belts.

Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

2012-12-01

106

Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2008-01-01

107

Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose 65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to 22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to 15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of 130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction.

Frisvold, George B.; Konyar, Kazim

2012-05-01

108

An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

Navarro, Hector

1997-01-01

109

Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Alligatorweed Survey of Ten Southern States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.) is an exotic South American plant introduced into the United States prior to 1897. It rapidly developed into problem levels throughout most southern states, where it outcompetes native vegetation...

A. F. Confrancesco

1988-01-01

110

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS and SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION, LOCAL 1199, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE, Defendant

Jones, Michelle

111

What can tree plantations do for forest birds in fragmented forest landscapes? A case study in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that tree plantations are not able to completely replace the ecological function of natural forests, the present study proposes to evaluate for which bird species or avian groups tree plantations act as habitat in fragmented landscape in southern Brazil. We compared the richness and abundance of bird species in a natural forest to adjacent plantations of Araucaria,

Graziele Hernandes Volpato; Vitor Miranda Prado; Luiz dos Anjos

2010-01-01

112

Mycotic Dermatitis in Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Southern Brazil, with a Confirmed Record of Lobomycosis Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobomycosis or lacaziosis is a chronic localized, cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by a dimorphic fungus (Lacazia loboi), that naturally affect humans and, at least, two dolphins species, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis). In cetaceans, the disease is widely distributed occurring from southern Brazil (Tramandaí River) to Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast

Ignacio B. Moreno; Paulo H. Ott; Maurício Tavares; Larissa R. Oliveira; Mauro R. Borba

113

Potential for potable water savings by combining the use of rainwater and greywater in houses in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on rainwater and greywater have been performed all over the world as a way of promoting potable water savings. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in two houses in southern Brazil. An economic analysis is performed to evaluate the benefits of using rainwater and greywater

Enedir Ghisi; Sulayre Mengotti de Oliveira

2007-01-01

114

Potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-storey residential building in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the use of rainwater and greywater to promote potable water savings have been performed in different countries. The main objective of this article is to evaluate the potential for potable water savings by using rainwater and greywater in a multi-storey residential building composed of three blocks, located in Florianópolis, southern Brazil. Water end-uses were estimated by applying questionnaires

Enedir Ghisi; Daniel F. Ferreira

2007-01-01

115

A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV\\/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Itajai is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and\\/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability

M. Malta; F. I. Bastos; E. M. Pereira-Koller; M. D. Cunha; C. Marques; S. A. Strathdee

2006-01-01

116

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships Between Antartic Oscillation and ENSO, and their Impacts on Rainfall and Temperature over Southern Brazil Clóvis Angeli Sansigolo CPTEC, INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil This study investigates the AOI-ENSO seasonal relationships and their combined impacts on rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature over Southern Brazil. Monthly 3x3 contingency tables, evaluated by ROC scores, were used to assess the significant, simultaneous and 1 to 6 months lagged relationships between their lower and upper terciles. Significant simultaneous relationships between the negative (positive) AOI phases and El Niño (La Niña) events were obtained during the austral fall months (ROC= 0.61 and 0.63) and spring months (ROC=0.52 and 0.44). Furthermore, significant 1, 3, and 6 months Niño/La Niña lagged relationships were respectively found in fall and spring, in summer, fall, and winter, and in fall and winter. Three months AOI lagged relationships were significant in summer, fall, and spring, and 6 months lagged in fall. Related to the AO and ENSO impacts on the surface regional climate, we observed that El Niño (La Niña) events were respectively, simultaneously and 1 month lagged, associated with above (below) normal rainfall in Spring (ROC=0.65, 0.74, 0.46 and 0.35), and with lags of 2 and 3 months in winter (ROC=0.68, 0.54, 0.69, and 0.60). The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with below normal rainfall in the austral summer (ROC=0.35), winter (0.38) and spring months (0.30) and the AOI negative phases with above normal rainfall in summer (ROC=0.34). Both AOI phases were inversely related to 1 and 3 months lagged rainfall anomalies in winter. El Niño (La Niña) events were significantly associated with above (below) normal minimum temperature (Tmin) anomalies in the spring months (ROC=0.31, and 0.34).With 1 month lag, only El Niño events were related to above normal Tmin in summer and winter, with 2 months lag the significant relations were between La Niña and below normal Tmin in fall, and with 3 months lag, both ENSO events were directly associated with Tmin anomalies. The AOI positive phases were simultaneously associated with above normal Tmin in fall (ROC=0.54), and in spring (ROC=0.32), and their negative phases, with below normal anomalies in spring (ROC=0.38). With 1 and 2 months lag, the significant relations were between -AOI and above normal Tmin in summer and winter, and +AOI and below normal Tmin in summer. El Niño (La Niña) events were also associated with above (below) normal maximum temperature (Tmax) anomalies in fall (ROC=0.45 and 0.37), and inversely related in spring (ROC=0.33 and 0.36). With 1 month lag, significant direct relationships were observed in fall and inverse ones in spring. With 2 months lag, the significant relationships were in fall, winter and spring. The lagged and simultaneous relationships between AO, ENSO and the surface climate over southern Brazil provide a useful tool for monitoring and prediction of rainfall, Tmin and Tmax in the region.

sansigolo, clovis

2013-04-01

117

[Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].  

PubMed

This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population. PMID:25272107

Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

2014-10-01

118

Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marilia; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vania A.; Tercas, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

2012-01-01

119

Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

Trigo, Tatiane C; Tirelli, Flávia P; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

2014-01-01

120

Comparative Assessment of Genetic and Morphological Variation at an Extensive Hybrid Zone between Two Wild Cats in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657

Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flavia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

2014-01-01

121

The taxonomy of some Poecilacanthoidea (Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from elasmobranchs off the southern coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Specimens of elasmobranchs, collected in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, were parasitized with Poecilacanthoidea trypanorhynch cestodes. Sharks of the species Prionace glauca harboured Callitetrarhynchus gracilis and Floriceps saccatus, and those of the species Sphyrna zygaena were infected with Callitetrarhynchus speciosus. Details of the proglottids of F. saccatus, provided by bright-field, and/or scanning electron microscopy, are described. Adults of F. saccatus are reported for the first time in the Brazilian coast. PMID:16923274

Pinto, R M; Knoff, M; São Clemente, S C; Lanfredi, R M; Gomes, D C

2006-09-01

122

Distribution of Tetranychus evansi and its predator Phytoseiulus longipes (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetranychus\\u000a evansi is an important pest of tomato in several countries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus\\u000a longipes has been found in association with it in Uruguaiana, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objective of this study was\\u000a to evaluate the distribution of those two species in Uruguaiana region. Bi-weekly samples of plant parts were taken between\\u000a January 28 and

Fernando R. da Silva; Gilberto J. de Moraes; Markus Knapp

2008-01-01

123

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

124

Institutional Effectiveness in Two-Year Colleges: The Southern Region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using institutional effectiveness criteria established by the Southern Assocation of Colleges and Schools, the authors surveyed administrators and faculty at institutions granting associate's degrees in the southern United States to elicit (a) the extent to which effectiveness components were implemented, (b) the importance placed on those components by institutional leaders, and (c) discrepancies between reported implementation and perceived importance. The

Timothy S. Todd; George A. Baker

1998-01-01

125

Racialization and “Southern” Identities of Resistance: A Psychogeography of Internal Orientalism in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the “voices of the Others” of internal orientalism in the United States. Internal orientalism creates a binary of the imagined spaces of “America” and “the South,” simultaneously racializing both spaces as white spaces. The article explores the extent to which this discourse informs a “Southern” resistance identity among members of the white “Southern” nationalist organization the League

David Jansson

2010-01-01

126

Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.  

PubMed

Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

2011-08-01

127

Potential of carbon accumulation in no-till soils with intensive use and cover crops in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT. The cropping system and NT effects on C stocks were attributed to an increase in the lability of SOM, as evidenced by the higher POC to TOC ratio, which is very important to C and energy flux through the soil. PMID:16825480

Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton

2006-01-01

128

Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding. PMID:23571856

Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

2013-01-01

129

Risk perception and occupational accidents: a study of gas station workers in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

2012-07-01

130

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

2009-10-01

131

High frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains. PMID:25109547

Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W

2014-10-13

132

Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

2009-01-01

133

Socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with dietary patterns of women living in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study focused on the association between dietary patterns and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed in 1,026 adult women from Southern Brazil. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. In the multivariable analysis, a Poisson regression model was used to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95%CI. Wealthier women were more likely to follow healthy diets. A Low Cost Healthy Diet was more prevalent among women with a partner, and a High Cost Healthy Diet was more prevalent among women not currently working and who exercised regularly. Women with lower education levels were less likely to follow a Low Cost Healthy Diet, but more likely to follow the Higher-Risk Low Cost Diet. The Low Cost Higher-Risk Diet was more prevalent among women with a lower income. Low and medium cost healthy diets were positively associated with age. The results showed that women's dietary choices are influenced by socioeconomic factors and are not only dependent on food prices. PMID:19503960

Lenz, Adriana; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal S; Alves, Ana Luisa; Balbinotti, Marcos; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Bassani, Diego Garcia

2009-06-01

134

Feeding habits of coypu in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops. PMID:21562696

Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P

2010-09-01

135

Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948

Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Leticia Silveira

2012-01-01

136

DETECTION OF Leishmania (Viannia) IN Nyssomyia neivai AND Nyssomyia whitmani BY MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION, IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. The natural infection of sandflies by Leishmania (Viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of Paraná, in Southern Brazil. Sandflies were collected with Falcão and Shannon traps. After dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (multiplex PCR) for detection of the fragment of the kDNA of Leishmania (Viannia) and the fragment from the IVS6 cacophony gene region of the phlebotomine insects. The analysis was performed in pools containing seven to 12 guts from females of the same species. A total of 510 female sandflies were analyzed, including nine Migonemyia migonei, 17 Pintomyia fischeri, 216 Nyssomyia neivai, and 268 Nyssomyia whitmani. Although none of the females was found naturally infected by flagellates through dissection, the fragment of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia) was shown by multiplex PCR in one sample of Ny. neivai (0.46%) and three samples of Ny. whitmani (1.12%). It was concluded that Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani are susceptible to Leishmania infection, and that multiplex PCR can be used in epidemiological studies to detect the natural infection of the sandfly vector, because of its sensitivity, specificity and feasibility. PMID:25229218

Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Karin Rosi; Venazzi, Mateus Sabaini; Scodro, Regiane Bertin de Lima; Dias, Alessandra de Cassia; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Teodoro, Ueslei; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana

2014-01-01

137

Amblyomma aureolatum and Ixodes auritulus (Acari: Ixodidae) on birds in southern Brazil, with notes on their ecology.  

PubMed

Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'. PMID:14974693

Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

2003-01-01

138

A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Itajaí, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Itajaí is the largest port in southern Brazil and has one of the nation's highest AIDS incidence rates. Since over 400 truck drivers enter the city daily, they may play a key role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic due to transactions with commercial sex workers (CSWs) and/or substance use. We conducted a rapid assessment to establish the context of HIV vulnerability among truckers and CSWs in Itajaí. Forty three in-depth interviews and eight focus groups were conducted with truckers and CSWs. Two truck-driving routes involving brothels, meeting places and drug-use locations were mapped and field observations were collected. Tapes and field notes were transcribed and analyzed for emerging themes. Truck drivers typically had unprotected sex with several partners, including CSWs and truckstop employees. Both truckers and CSWs had low perceived HIV risk in spite of being engaged in high-risk sex behaviors. Use of alcohol and amphetamine-like drugs was frequent among truckers and appeared to influence unsafe sex practices. Knowledge about amphetamine-related risks was low, as was access to health services and HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions. Interventions, targeting truckers, CSWs and truckstop employees, are needed that traverse cities, states and borders and take into account seasonality, spatial context and workplace conditions. PMID:16777641

Malta, M; Bastos, F I; Pereira-Koller, E M; Cunha, M D; Marques, C; Strathdee, S A

2006-07-01

139

Neotropical Monogenoidea 59. Polyonchoineans from Characidium spp. (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) are described or reported from three species of Characidium Reinhardt (Crenuchidae), small species of Characiformes, from streams located in southern Brazilian states. Gyrodactylus carolinae sp. n. (Gyrodactylidae) is described from the body surface of Characidium lanei Travassos (type host), C. pterostictum Gomez, and Characidium sp. from streams in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. This new species closely resembles species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 described from species of Poeciliidae, from which it differs by the morphology of the hooks and nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Gyrodactylus inesperatus sp. n. is described from the body surface of Characidium sp. from a stream in the State of São Paulo. The latter new species is characterised by lacking a shield on the superficial bar and by the morphology of the hooks, both unique characteristics for Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus. Marumbius gen. n. (Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate two species, M. dorsivaginatus sp. n. from the gills of Characidium pterostictum (type host) and C. lanei, and M. amplexus sp. n. from the gills of C. lanei (all from the state of Paraná). Both species are characterised by having dorsal vagina, hook pairs 2-4, 6 and 7 composed by two subunits, hook pairs 1 and 5 lacking proximal subunit, and by the length of proximal subunits (when present) varying among hook pairs, completely or partially overlapping gonads, and male copulatory organ (MCO) represented by an incomplete coil of a sclerotized tube articulated to the accessory piece by a copulatory ligament. Cacatuocotyle paranaensis Boeger, Domingues et Kritsky, 1997 is reported from C. lanei at low prevalence in the Rio Marumbi (state of Paraná). The Monogenoidea that parasitize species of Characidium are members of several independent lineages, some of distant evolutionary relationships, suggesting a complex origin for this parasitic fauna. PMID:24822318

Boeger, Walter A; Ferreira, Renata C; Vianna, Rogério T; Patella, Luciana

2014-04-01

140

76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-03-07

141

78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2013-05-29

142

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par? State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jose D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natalia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

143

Telementoring Between Brazil and the United States: Initial Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose : To assess the safety and feasibility of transcontinental telementored and telepres- ence surgery, we report on two procedures carried out with participation by surgeons in Baltimore in the United States and Sã o Paulo and Recife in Brazil. Patients and Methods : Over a period of 3 months, a laparoscopic bilateral varicocelectomy and a percuta- neous

Nelson Rodrigues Netto; Anuar I. Mitre; Salvador Vilar C. Lima; Oscar E. Fugita; Marcelo Lopes Lima; Dan Stoianovici; Alexandru Patriciu; Louis R. Kavoussi

2003-01-01

144

Tracing anthropogenically driven groundwater discharge into a coastal lagoon from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWe investigated the distribution of naturally occurring geochemical tracers ( 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, CH 4, ?18O, and ?2H) in the water column and adjacent groundwater of Mangueira Lagoon as proxies of groundwater discharge. Mangueira Lagoon is a large (90 km long), shallow (˜4-5 m deep), fresh, and non-tidal coastal lagoon in southern Brazil surrounded by extensively irrigated rice plantations and numerous irrigation canals. We hypothesized that the annual, intense irrigation for rice agriculture creates extreme conditions that seasonally change groundwater discharge patterns in the adjacent lagoon. We further supposed that dredging of irrigation canals alters groundwater fluxes. While the activities of 222Rn in shallow groundwater were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in surface water, CH 4 and radium isotopes were only ˜1 order of magnitude higher. Therefore, 222Rn appears to be the preferred groundwater tracer in this system. Radon concentrations and conductivities were dramatically higher near the pump house of rice irrigation canals, consistent with a groundwater source. Modeling of radon inventories accounting for total inputs (groundwater advection, diffusion from sediments, and decay of 226Ra) and losses (atmospheric evasion, horizontal mixing and decay) indicated that groundwater advection rates in the irrigation canals (˜25 cm/d) are over 2 orders of magnitude higher than along the shoreline (˜0.1 cm/d). Nearly 75% of the total area of the canals is found in the southern half of the lagoon, where groundwater inputs seem to be higher as also indicated by methane and stable isotope trends. In spite of the relatively small area of the canals, we estimate that they contribute nearly 70% of the total (˜57,000 m 3/d) groundwater input into the entire Mangueira Lagoon. We suggest that the dredging of these canals cut through aquitards which previously restricted upward advection from the underlying permeable strata. The irrigation channels may therefore represent an important but previously overlooked source of nutrients and other dissolved chemicals derived from agricultural practices into the lagoon.

Santos, Isaac R.; Niencheski, Felipe; Burnett, William; Peterson, Richard; Chanton, Jeffrey; Andrade, Carlos F. F.; Milani, Idel B.; Schmidt, Axel; Knoeller, Kay

2008-05-01

145

The southern ocean meridional overturning circulation as diagnosed from an eddy permitting state estimate  

E-print Network

A modern general circulation model of the Southern Ocean with one-sixth of a degree resolution is optimized to the observed ocean in a weighted least squares sense. Convergence to the state estimate solution is carried out ...

Mazloff, Matthew R

2008-01-01

146

The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

2012-07-01

147

Species-area relationship and environmental predictors of fish communities in coastal freshwater wetlands of southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Neotropics where fragmentation is common, environmental factors structuring fish communities are poorly known. In this\\u000a study two hypotheses were tested in 13 coastal wetlands of southern Brazil: 1) physical features (such as wetland area, habitat\\u000a diversity, water depth and temperature, and water and sediment chemistry) are important determinants of richness, density\\u000a and composition of fish assemblages; and 2)

Leonardo Maltchik; Luis Esteban Krause Lanés; Cristina Stenert; Elvio S. F. Medeiros

2010-01-01

148

STANDARDIZED CPUE OF BLUE SHARK (PRIONACE GLAUCA) CAUGHT BY SANTOS LONGLINER IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL (1984-2005)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Catch rate data from commercial fisheries have often been used as a relative index of fish stock abundance. Blue shark catch\\/effort data (1984-2005) caught off Southern Brazil by the tuna fleet based in Santos were standardized using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) approach. The modeling procedures assumed a log-normal error distribution. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and deviance analysis were

Bruno L. Mourato; Alberto F. Amorim; Carlos A. Arfelli

149

CHEl UF Serum Cholinesterase Phenotype in Whites and Non-Whites from Southern Brazil as Determined by a New Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 251 Whites and 818 Non-Whites, from Curitiba (southern Brazil), was typed with a new method with the aim of estimating the frequency of the CHE1 *F allele. The frequency of this allele did not differ between Whites (0.60 ± 0.34%) and Non-Whites (0.49 ± 0.17%), being estimated as 0.51 ± 0.15% for the whole sample. The use

Vânia M. Alcântara; Eleidi A. Chautard-Freire-Maia; L. Culpi

1991-01-01

150

HOME RANGES AND MOVEMENT PATTERNS OF THE MARINE TUCUXI DOLPHIN, SOTALIA FLUVIATILIS, IN BAÍA NORTE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract - Marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) studied in Baía Norte, southern Brazil, exhibited very small overall home ranges with daylight movements in consistent water depths of around 3m. Mean overall home range areas calculated through two methodologies were similar, measuring 13.38km² ± 1.92 using the Minimum Convex Polygon method and 15.22km² ± 0.66 through the kernel estimator. Mean

Paulo A. C. Flores; Mariel Bazzalo

2004-01-01

151

HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such

J. Pulerwitz; A. P. Michaelis; S. A. Lippman; M. Chinaglia; J. Díaz

2008-01-01

152

April Showers Bring May Flowers to the Southern United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner.

The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 22810 and 23276. The panels cover an area of about 380 kilometers x 704 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 61 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 26.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

153

Altered States of Rurality: Cultural Forays into Southern Ontario Country  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines contemporary cultural representations of rurality in southern Ontario. It demonstrates how literary and cultural texts construct, support and\\/or expand our understandings of the social composition and character of rural culture. Examining various literary forms (drama, life narrative, and the novel), music, and photography, my research and analysis responds to Chris Philo’s pivotal call in the field of

Riisa Walden

2011-01-01

154

Synsedimentary deformation and the paleoseismic record in Marinoan cap carbonate of the southern Amazon Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults, and fractures and folds of events 3 and 4 are consistent with regional extensional tectonics associated with earthquakes that triggered sediment deformation. The 200 km that separate the occurrences of cap carbonates suggest that important seismic events took place during the early Ediacaran in the southern Amazon Craton.

Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio

2013-12-01

155

Marginal malnutrition and reduced physical work capacity of migrant adolescent boys in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

We measured the effect of marginal malnutrition on physical work capacity of adolescent children of agricultural migrant workers in Southern Brazil. Nutritional status was evaluated using 24-h dietary recall. Body size was evaluated anthropometrically. Biochemical assessments were also made. Physical work capacity (PWC170) was assessed by measuring heart rate, blood lactic acid levels, and oxygen consumption during submaximal bicycle ergometer work. The same tests were also carried out on a comparable group of local well-to-do boys of the same age in the same community who served as controls. The dietary results suggest that adolescent boys of migrant families were marginally malnourished. Their physical growth and development were retarded by at least 1 yr. They had significantly lower reserves of body fat and less muscle mass when compared with controls. Their Hb levels were normal. At the submaximal work loads measured (0, 25, 50, 75 W) the migrant children exhibited similar oxygen consumption and gross exercise efficiency as the control children, but achieved this work at a higher percentage of their maximum work capacity as shown by significantly higher heart rates for the same oxygen consumption. Higher blood lactic acid levels in the migrant children suggest that the available muscle mass was under greater stress to accomplish the same task. PWC170 was reduced one-third in the migrant children (migrant 643 +/- 162 kpm/min, control 905 +/- 345 kpm/min; p less than 0.005). These differences were largely associated with weight (migrant 20.6 +/- 5.9 kpm/min; control 18.8 +/- 4.3 kpm/kg/min; p greater than 0.1). These observations suggest that marginal as well as severe malnutrition affect physical work capacity at levels low enough to affect growth and development. PMID:6741846

Desai, I D; Waddell, C; Dutra, S; Dutra de Oliveira, S; Duarte, E; Robazzi, M L; Cevallos Romero, L S; Desai, M I; Vichi, F L; Bradfield, R B

1984-07-01

156

Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 clade C- versus B-infected individuals in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C-infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in Southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS)), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B- and C-infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437

de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J

2013-12-01

157

Ecological traits of two sympatric species of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work was performed with the aim to test theoretical predictions regarding that the sympatric species Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi might show distinct population biology to facilitate its coexistence. The specimens were collected monthly with nets from August 2003 through July 2004 in two trout ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. In the laboratory, the specimens were measured as cephalothorax length (mm), being the sex and ovigerous conditions checked. The species H. pleoacuta was 2.94 times more frequent than H. castroi. Males were significantly greater in size than females ( H. pleoacuta—males: 0.74 ± 0.002 mm and females: 0.66 ± 0.001 mm; H. castroi—males: 0.84 ± 0.00 mm and females: 0.72 ± 0.003 mm). Males and females of H. castroi showed a greater mean body size than H. pleoacuta. Sexual maturity was attained at 0.53 mm in males and 0.48 mm in females of H. pleoacuta, and 0.72 mm in males and 0.67 mm in females of H. castroi. The frequency distribution in size classes was usually bimodal in H. pleoacuta and polymodal in H. castroi throughout the year. Sex ratio was female-biased in either species of Hyalella. Ovigerous females (carrying eggs or juveniles in the marsupium) were collected throughout the year in both Hyalella species, but H. pleoacuta and H. castroi were found with more frequency during the winter and fall, respectively. Recruitment occurred in all months of sampling, the juvenile frequency being more than 50% of the amphipods collected in almost all months in both species. The biological differences (especially body size, size at sexual maturity, number of specimens collected and reproductive peak) and microhabitat specialization can be facilitating factors in the coexistence of H. pleoacuta and H. castroi in artificial ponds raising trout.

da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Buckup, Georgina Bond

2008-01-01

158

Disproportionate Representation in Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities in Five Southern States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.

2011-01-01

159

Comparing phosphorus indices from twelve southern U.S. states against monitored phosphorus loads from six prior southern studies.  

PubMed

Forty-eight states in the United States use phosphorus (P) indices to meet the requirements of their Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) Code 590 Standard, which provides national guidance for nutrient management of agricultural lands. The majority of states developed these indices without consultation or coordination with neighboring states to meet specific local conditions and policy needs. Using water quality and land treatment data from six previously published articles, we compared P loads with P-Index values and ratings using the 12 southern P indices. When total measured P loads were regressed with P-Index rating values, moderate to very strong relationships (0.50 to 0.97) existed for five indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina) and all but one index was directionally correct. Regressions with dissolved P were also moderate to very strong ( of 0.55 to 0.95) for the same five state P indices (Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina); directionality of the Alabama Index was negative. When total measured P loads were transformed to current NRCS 590 Standard ratings (Low [<2.2 kg P ha], Moderate, [2.2-5.5 kg P ha], and High [>5.5 kg P ha]) and these ratings were then compared to the southern-Index ratings, many of the P indices correctly identified Low losses (77%), but most did not correctly identify Moderate or High loss situations (14 and 31%, respectively). This study demonstrates that while many of the P indices were directionally correct relative to the measured water quality data, there is a large variability among southern P indices that may result in different P management strategies being employed under similar conditions. PMID:23128731

Osmond, D; Sharpley, A; Bolster, C; Cabrera, M; Feagley, S; Lee, B; Mitchell, C; Mylavarapu, R; Oldham, L; Walker, F; Zhang, H

2012-01-01

160

Relationships between Precipitation Anomalies in Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Sea Surface Temperature in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study focuses on precipitation in Uruguay and the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which extend along the Atlantic coast of southern South America. The present paper has two principal goals: 1) to describe the annual cycle of precipitation and 2) to investigate the relationships between,its anomalies,and those in sea surface temperature (SST) in the Pacific and

Alvaro F. Diaz; Caarem D. Studzinski; Carlos R. Mechoso

1998-01-01

161

Spatiotemporal Distribution and Population Structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an Estuary in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

Freitas-Junior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araujo, Joafrancio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

162

Spatiotemporal distribution and population structure of Monokalliapseudes schubarti (Tanaidacea: Kalliapseudidae) in an estuary in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211

Freitas, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto

2013-01-01

163

Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. PMID:24566128

Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

2014-05-28

164

Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. PMID:22571833

Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

2012-09-10

165

Population structure and reproductive biology of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.

Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

2005-11-01

166

The Pariquera Açu K-alkaline complex and southern Brazil lithospheric mantle source characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the most important K-alkaline magmatic complexes of southern Brazil are associated with two main NW-trending structures. The Lages occurrence is linked to the uplift of a large crustal block, the Lages Dome, tectonically controlled by old NW-trending fault zones. The Jacupiranga, Juquiá and Pariquera Açu (PGAM) occurrences are related to the Ponta Grossa Arch, a NW-trending uplift structure that produced tensional tectonic lineaments with the same direction and influenced the emplacement of both alkaline rocks and dyke swarms associated with Paraná flood basalt activity. The Pariquera Açu complex, petrographically and geochemically described here for the first time, comprises coarse- to fine-grained rocks representing two main suites with different degrees of alkalinity: theralite to essexite and syenogabbro to syenodiorite. In both series highly evolved products are lacking. The presence of carbonatites is inferred. In the Jacupiranga complex (ca. 130 Ma), clinopyroxenite (jacupirangite) cumulates with minor dunites are associated with ankaratrites, alkali gabbros and leucocratic rocks such as syenites, nepheline syenites and peralkaline phonolites. Many phases of both calcic and magnesian carbonatite intrusions, to which relevant fenitization processes of jacupirangite are related, characterize the district. The Juquiá complex (130-135 Ma) consists of prevalent olivine clinopyroxenite cumulates and nepheline syenites, the latter arranged in subanular concentric patterns together with subordinate ijolites-melteigites-urtites, essexites and syenodiorites. The central part of the intrusion is occupied by a small Mg-carbonatite body. The Lages complex (78-63 Ma) is made up of mafic-ultramafic rock-types (olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites) and prevalent leucocratic bodies mainly consisting of peralkaline phonolites. Kimberlitic breccias and carbonatites are also present. Petrography, mineral and bulk-rock chemistry and mass balance calculations show that shallow-level fractional crystallization processes controlled the evolution from mafic to leucocratic rocks in all four complexes. Starting from a mantle source composition as suggested for the eastern Paraguay alkaline (ASU) magmatism, mass balance calculations indicate that primary magmas with high LILE contents and high La/Yb ratios are consistent with a garnet peridotite or phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotite solid residuum and less than 6% melting. The mantle sources are inferred to have been derived by different incompatible element enrichment probably associated with two late Proterozoic metasomatic processes: ASU (1.1 Ga) and Alto Parana?´ba Igneous Province (APIP; 0.5 Ga). Mainly on the basis of geochemical evidence (e.g. Nb-Ta anomaly), mantle sources for PGAM and Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites seem to have been affected by an APIP-like event. On the other hand, an ASU-like metasomatic process is suggested for the Lages basanite mantle source, which may be indicative of vertical mantle heterogeneity. Geochemical data also point to a large-scale northward increase in concentration of incompatible elements (e.g. Lages Ol-melilitites and Ol-nephelinites vs APIP kamafugites). An attempt to correlate the chemical composition of silicate rocks and carbonate metasomatism shows that the mantle sources for PGAM and Lages occurrences plot on a mixing curve linking depleted peridotites and the average Ca-carbonatite. This fact supports the view that carbonatitic fluids/melts have been involved in the metasomatic processes responsible for variable incompatible element enrichment of the lithospheric mantle of SE Brazil.

Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Brotzu, P.; D'Acquarica, S.; Garbarino, C.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

2000-04-01

167

Legal opportunity structure and social movement strategy in Northern Ireland and southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Civil Rights Movements in the southern United States and Northern Ireland were able to mobilize African Americans and Irish Catholics respectively against minority discrimination. These movements initially displayed very similar goals and tactics, looking at courts to counter institutional discrimination, but in successive stages of contention their trajectories fundamentally diverged. While legal mobilization in the United States constituted one

Gianluca De Fazio

2012-01-01

168

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO  

E-print Network

1 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION THE NORTHEAST OHIO COALITION FOR THE HOMELESS, et al., Plaintiffs, OHIO DEMOCRATIC PARTY, Intervenor-Plaintiff Case No. C2-06-896 Judge Algenon L. Marbley v. JENNIFER BRUNNER, OHIO SECRETARY OF STATE Defendant

Jones, Michelle

169

A Manual for Dialect Research in the Southern States. Second edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (LAGS) Project is a survey of regional and social dialects in eight southern states: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas. This manual has been prepared both for those who will conduct the research and for those who are interested in the aims and methods of the…

Pederson, Lee, Ed.; And Others

170

Early State Formation in Southern Mesopotamia: Sea Levels, Shorelines, and Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the earliest complex state-level societies and cities from small sedentary communities took place in southern Mesopotamia between 8000 and 5000 cal yrs BP during the ‘Ubaid and Uruk periods. Attempts to explain this transition often discount the role of environmental change and tend to evaluate available archaeological evidence for urban-based state development either within a static environmental

Douglas J. Kennett; James P. Kennett

2006-01-01

171

The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa Keith Priestley a,, Dan McKenzie a  

E-print Network

The state of the upper mantle beneath southern Africa Keith Priestley a,, Dan McKenzie a , Eric model for southern Africa based on the fitting of a large (3622 waveforms) multi-mode surface wave data models. The seismic lithosphere beneath the cratonic region of southern Africa in this model is about 175

172

United States and Brazil : Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely compelling website, dedicated to examining the interactions between Brazil and the United States from the 18th century to the present, grew out of discussions between Dr. James H. Billington, the Librarian of Congress, and the former President of Brazil, Fernando Hernrique Cardoso. Developed under the auspices of the Global Gateway program at the Library of Congress, the site contains an impressive amount of primary source materials, including maps, rare books, prints, photographs, and manuscripts. When completed, the project will contain materials organized around four primary themes, but currently only the theme of Historical Foundations is complete. As might be expected, the site is presented in both Portuguese and English, and a powerful multifaceted search engine will help guide users to particular documents of interest. Browsing through the Historical Foundations section of the site, visitors will find a timeline (complete with accompanying visual materials), and five separate sections dedicated to exploration, the colonial period, and so on.

Billington, James H.; Cardoso, Fernando H.

173

The new Brazilian traffic code and some characteristics of victims in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective—The aim was to study characteristics of traffic accident victims before and after the implementation of the new Brazilian traffic code, in January 1998. Subjects and methods—The study population was car and motorcycle occupants seen in a pre-hospital care service in Londrina, Paraná State (Brazil) before the introduction of the new Brazilian traffic code, from 22 January to 21 July 1997, and after its implementation during the same period in 1998. Victims were analyzed over the time periods according to helmet and seat belt use, gender, underage driving, and alcohol on the breath. Results—Use of seat belts increased from 45% to 62.6% and of helmets from 31.2% to 66.2% after the introduction of the new Brazilian code. The proportion driving under age 18 and with perceptible alcoholic breath declined significantly only among motorcycle riders. There was a 20% decline in car occupant injuries along with a 9% reduction in motorcycle related injuries after the change of the law. Conclusion—Results favor the hypothesis that rigorous legislation increases safer practices in traffic, at least during the first months of its implementation. PMID:11565982

Liberatti, C; Andrade, S; Soares, D

2001-01-01

174

Neosporosis as a cause of abortion in dairy cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Forty-six aborted bovine fetuses submitted to the Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Clinical Pathology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, were examined histopathologically. Non-suppurative inflammation was observed mainly in the brain and heart of 22 fetuses. Brain lesions consisted primarily of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates with occasional foci of necrosis. Protozoa that reacted with Neospora caninum antisera were seen in 18 of the 22 (81.8%) brain specimens from fetuses with encephalitis. Blood samples collected from 223 Holstein cows on five dairy herds were tested for N. caninum antibodies by an immunofluorescent antibody technique. These samples were obtained from aborting cattle and normally calving cattle (control group). Overall, 11.2% of cows sampled had N. caninum antibodies at a dilution of 1:200. Seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.0053) in aborting (23.3%) than in non-aborting cows (8.3%). Association between seropositivity to N. caninum and abortion was found, with seropositive cows being 3.3 times more likely to abort than seronegative cows (OR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.38, 8.062). Additionally, N. caninum antibodies were detected in sera from seven cows that had aborted fetuses with lesions suggestive of protozoal infection. These results suggest that N. caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:11750112

Corbellini, L G; Driemeier, D; Cruz, C F E; Gondim, L F P; Wald, V

2002-01-28

175

Seasonal variation on the ectoparasitic communities of Nile tilapia cultured in three regions in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A total of 240 Nile tilapia were examined between April 2007 and March 2008, gathered from three different fish farms, 20 fish in each fish farm, in the four seasons of the year. Fish ponds were located in Joinville, Blumenau and Ituporanga, Santa Catarina state, Brazil and each pond had a different culture system. Prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were compared among fish ponds and seasons. During this period, the water quality was kept in normal values. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida) was the most dominant parasite followed by Trichodina magna e T. compacta (Ciliophora), Cichlydogyrus sclerosus, C halli, C. thurstonae, Scutogyrus longicornis (Monogenoidea), copepodids Lernaeidae gen. sp. The highest prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of ectoparasites were found on the body surface in fish from Joinville followed by Blumenau and Ituporanga. In the gills, the highest mean intensity and mean abundance were found in fish from Blumenau and Ituporanga in the winter. Piscinoodinium pillulare showed prevalence 100% during autumn in Blumenau and Ituporanga. In winter P. pillulare occurred in all study facilities. Fish from Joinville showed 100% prevalence of Monogenoidea during all seasons, as well as the highest mean intensity and abundance. The results showed that the majority of examined fish had higher infestations by protozoan during autumn and winter and higher infestations by metazoan have occurred in spring and summer. PMID:21755153

Jerônimo, G T; Speck, G M; Cechinel, M M; Gonçalves, E L T; Martins, M L

2011-05-01

176

Phytolith studies applied to geomorphologic analysis in the Southern Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These factors accounts as well for the larger diameter of the gravels in P1, giving evidences of a more effective action of mechanical weathering near the outcrop. The stock of phytoliths of P1 follows a normal trend of decrease with depth, while P2 presents a very large increase in the organic horizon. In the surface horizons, the indexes D/P are characteristic of open vegetation, but in P1 the current tree cover density is slightly higher than in P2, probably because, being closer to the outcrop, it is located in a place that concentrates more humidity, or because phytoliths comes from the more wooded vegetation of the hillside. D/P index decreases with depth, except for a significant increase in the detritic pavement, suggesting a more humid environment. In the deeper horizons the values are lower than today, but the weathering of phytoliths at this depth is so great that the phytolith signal is weak, remaining only phytoliths that are more resistant to dissolution. In this case, the reconstitution of vegetation by the phytoliths is not reliable, and we can only infer that the erosive processes during this period were very noticeable, indicating a high-energy environment.

Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.

2012-12-01

177

Survey of stocking policies for tailwater trout fisheries in the southern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of the 16 southern states showed that 48 tailwaters in 13 states were stocked with trout in 1980. Of the almost 3.7 million trout released in these waters, 81% were of catchable size and 19% were fingerlings (Salmo gairdneri). A trend away from "put-grow-and-take" fisheries toward "put-and-take" fisheries was noted. Limited creel data confirmed that fishing pressure in southern tailwaters was heavy, and that 25 to 90% of the trout stocked were recovered by anglers

Swink, William D.

1983-01-01

178

HIV-related stigma, service utilization, and status disclosure among truck drivers crossing the Southern borders in Brazil.  

PubMed

HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such as fear of casual contact and blame towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine correlations. Less stigma (both individual items and grouped as a scale) was significantly correlated with VCT use (pSouthern Brazil. Learning more about stigma is important given the growing assertions that testing is a 'critical gateway' to HIV prevention and treatment. As access to HIV testing and treatment improves, providers increasingly need to understand and address how stigma acts as a barrier to services. PMID:18767210

Pulerwitz, J; Michaelis, A P; Lippman, S A; Chinaglia, M; Díaz, J

2008-08-01

179

Does the Lagoa do peixe sandbar opening influence the macrophyte richness and composition in Southern Brazil wetlands?  

PubMed

The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil. PMID:23894991

Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo

2013-03-01

180

Landslide initiation in saprolite and colluvium in southern Brazil: Field and laboratory observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The weathering of granitic and gneissic rocks in tropical regions can reach depths of more than 100 m. In southeast Brazil there are situations where landslide initiation depends on the fluctuation of the groundwater level, on the impact of falling rocks and on intense rainfall, causing superficial slides. The fluctuation of groundwater induces cyclical variations of the pore water pressure, and consequently of the effective stresses. This variation causes cyclic expansion and contraction of the structure of the saprolitic soil, weakening the imbrication of grains and loss of the cementation that may exist. This could be called a "fatigue" phenomenon. The practical effect is the lowering of the Mohr shear strength envelope, and a sudden rupture of the soil at a lower groundwater level than that which would be compatible with the intact soil strength properties, initiating a landslide. Another situation arises during intense rains, when a rock slab or a rock block detaches from the uppermost parts of a slope. This occurs where steep rock outcrops exhibit relief joints or where residual blocks of granite roll down the slope, impacting the compressible, saturated colluvial soil overlying the saprolitic soil. The sudden increase of pore pressure can liquefy the soil. Finally, another mechanism is that of the advance of a saturation front in a steep slope of unsaturated saprolitic soil, reaching a depth below the root zone. The loss of the cohesion due to suction, without the beneficial contribution of the roots to the shearing strength, causes a sudden slide. During extreme rain episodes literally hundreds of such superficial slides, reaching 1 to 3 m in depth, occur in a given basin. The concentrated runoff that flows along the surface of the thalweg of the basin carries this soil in a muddy state, and a debris flow ensues.

Lacerda, Willy A.

2007-06-01

181

An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

2012-04-01

182

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

183

Comparisons of biologically effective doses of solar UV-radiation determined with spore dosimetry and spectral photometry in 2000 2003 at Southern Space Observatory, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the impact of solar-UV radiation on biosphere and human health, spore dosimetry and spectral photometry have been performed in parallel at the Southern Space Observatory, São Martinho da Serra in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (southern region of Brazil, latitude 29.44°S, longitude 53.8°W). Daily and monthly cumulative doses obtained from spore dosimeters were compared with the doses derived from the integration of the daily effectiveness spectra obtained by multiplications of the spectral irradiance from Brewer spectrophotometers with the action spectra for spore inactivation and erythema induction. For daily exposures performed on 24 days in 2002-2003, the values of the observed spore inactivation doses (SID) and the calculated ones were closely correlated with a mean ratio (observed SID/calculated SID) of 0.7 ± 0.3, while the values of the observed SID were regressed to the erythemal doses (MED) by a power function with a correlation coefficient r2 ˜ 0.9. For cumulative monthly doses, the values of calculated SID and MED were regressed to the observed values of SID by power functions for each year with r2 = 0.5-0.9 and r2 = 0.5-0.9, respectively. The applicability of the spore dosimetry for continuous long-term monitoring of biologically effective doses of solar-UV radiation has been verified in this work.

Schuch, A. P.; Guarnieri, R. A.; Rosa, M. B.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Munakata, N.; Schuch, N. J.

184

Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

2013-01-01

185

Honors Programs at Colleges and Universities in the Southern Region of the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the major characteristics of honors programs at colleges and universities in the southern region of the United States and to review the perceptions of honors programs directors relating to the effectiveness of and challenges facing honors programs at these institutions. A survey was administered to…

Owens, Dena Ann

2010-01-01

186

Land Use Change Effects on Forest Carbon Cycling Throughout the Southern United States  

E-print Network

and deforestation on carbon cycling in forest floor and soil from 1900 to 2050 throughout 13 states in the southern because afforestation causes a gradual gain in carbon stocks for many decades, while deforestation causes Tg C, and deforestation caused emission of 49 Tg C. However, the net effect of land use change

187

AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION OF RABBIT MEAT IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a random sample of 1421 households in the southern United States suggest that the most likely consumers of rabbit meat are men, non-college graduates, those with household incomes at or below $50,000, households with children, and Louisiana residents. The current market for rabbit meat is small. However, the meat is lower in fat, cholesterol, and calories, and higher

Meghan N. Beal; Patricia E. McLean-Meyinsse; Cheryl Atkinson

2004-01-01

188

Training for Adoption Competency (TAC) UConn School of Social Work and Southern CT State University  

E-print Network

Training for Adoption Competency (TAC) held at UConn School of Social Work and Southern CT State Code Position Title Highest Degree Yrs. of Adoption Exp. Work Phone Home Phone Email Please attach your as the foundation for the TAC. Please describe your interest in working with adopted persons, birth parents

Oliver, Douglas L.

189

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

190

Proterozoic contraction/extension tectonics of the southern São Francisco Region, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern São Francisco region comprises the southern portion of the São Francisco craton, which is underlain by Archean basement, and its fringing Proterozoic orogenic belts. Included in this region are three geologic provinces: the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF), the São Francisco Basin, and the Cordilheira do Espinhaço. We synthesize preliminary results of ongoing structural analysis, reconnaissance field studies, and published reports to provide a concise review of the geology of the region and to propose a working tectonic model for its Proterozoic evolution. Interpretation of superimposed folds, faults, and foliations leads to the conclusion that the southern São Francisco region records the effects of four principal tectonic events that occurred subsequent to deposition of the Lower Proterozoic Minas Supergroup. The first event resulted in formation of a northwest-verging fold-thrust belt. The second event led to development of high-angle reverse faults, open folds, and basement uplift. The third event is manifested in the QF by the formation of normal faults and by the intrusion of mafic dikes; these extensional structures may be associated with formation of the sedimentary basins east and south of the São Francisco craton. The final event resulted in formation of a west-verging fold-thrust belt that affected the QF, the Cordilheira Espinhaço, and the São Francisco basin. The events that we describe can be tentatively associated with regionally recognized orogenic periods (Trans-Amazonian, Uruaçuano, Brasiliano).

Marshak, Stephen; Alkmim, Fernando F.

1989-06-01

191

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in southern Brazil: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors for presence of anti-HCV antibody in blood donors in southern Brazil. Methods One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users. Conclusion Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered. PMID:12169200

Brandao, Ajacio BM; Costa Fuchs, Sandra

2002-01-01

192

An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

G. Coelho de Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

193

An ethnobiological assessment of Rumohra adiantiformis (samambaia-preta) extractivism in Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fronds of Rumohra adiantiformis, also known as ‘7-weeks-fern,’ ‘leatherleaf’ or ‘samambaia-preta,’ are used worldwide as florists’ greenery. Costa Rica and\\u000a the USA cultivate and export R. adiantiformis, whereas in South Africa and Brazil this trade is based on extractivism. In Brazil, R. adiantiformis is harvested in the Atlantic Forest biome; 50% of the production comes from the slopes of

G. Coelho De Souza; R. Kubo; L. Guimarães; E. Elisabetsky

2006-01-01

194

Fish assemblage structure in an estuary of the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot (southern Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described the fish assemblage in the estuary of the Guaraguaçu River (one of the largest tributaries of the Paranaguá Bay\\u000a Estuary, located within Brazil’s Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve) from June 2005 to May 2006, and assessed the seasonal\\u000a and spatial effects of abiotic environmental attributes on the fish assemblage structure. Despite some oscillations in salinity,\\u000a the upper and lower

Riguel Feltrin ContenteMarina; Marina Freitas Stefanoni; Henry Louis Spach

2011-01-01

195

Employment Risk in Nonmetropolitan Counties in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Most U.S. residents depend on labor income to maintain their standard of living. This makes changes in employment an important indicator of the health of a local economy. In addition, the stability of employment changes is frequently cited by state and local government,officials as a policy goal. While employment,(and unemployment),stability has been the topic of a large literature in

Eric Thompson; George W. Hammond

196

Does inadequate diet during childhood explain the higher high fracture rates in the Southern United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Southern states have the highest age-adjusted hip fracture rates among older adults in the United States. Regional hip fracture\\u000a rates in the United States in 1986–1993 correlate with death rates from rickets in the 1940s. Historical patterns of bone\\u000a nutrition early in life might explain contemporary geographic patterns in bone fragility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  State of residence early in life is a better

L. J. Paulozzi

2010-01-01

197

Influence of interhemispheric thermal gradient on the tropical climate state and Southern Hemisphere Westerlies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent paleoclimate proxy study (Anderson et al., 2009) indicated enhanced upwelling rates in the Southern Ocean during the late Pleistocene glacial termination that coincided with the deglacial warming in Antarctica and the rise in atmospheric CO2. Anderson et al. (2009) suggested the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere to the Southern Hemisphere, specifically affecting the midlatitude westerlies. Our previous modeling study (Lee et al. 2011) showed the viability of such a teleconneciton, albeit in a relatively simplified modeling framework (an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a simplified ocean) and using idealized experiments. In the study, we explore the climate connection between interhemispheric thermal gradient, tropical climate state, Southern Ocean wind response, and ocean overturning circulation in a realistic 21,000 year transient coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model simulation encompassing the most recent deglaciation and the Holocene (the TraCE-21k simulation). We find a significant connection between the interhemispheric surface temperature gradient and the upper level westerlies over the Southern Ocean, in particular in the South Pacific during austral winter. In tropics, we observe a marked southward shift of the tropical precipitation, indicating an alteration of the Hadley circulation. The climate response resembles our previous idealized study (Lee et al., 2011), albeit with smaller magnitude. Our results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that northern hemisphere climate changes can influence the southern hemisphere westerlies via the tropics through an atmospheric teleconnection.

Lee, S.; Chiang, J. C.

2013-12-01

198

Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

2013-06-01

199

The high prevalence of Torque teno virus DNA in blood donors and haemodialysis patients in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigates the frequency of Torque teno virus (TTV) infection in 150 blood donors and 77 patients requiring haemodialysis in southern Brazil. Plasma samples were screened for TTV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV among blood donors and patients requiring haemodialysis were 73.3% and 68.8%, respectively. The presence of TTV was correlated with age in the blood donors (p = 0.024). In haemodialysis patients, no association was found between TTV infection and the demographic parameters (age, sex and education), the duration of haemodialysis or a history of blood transfusion. This study is the first to evaluate the prevalence of TTV infection in Brazilian patients requiring haemodialysis. PMID:22850961

Massaú, Aline; Martins, Cristiana; Nachtigal, Gilca Costa; Araújo, Anelise Bergmann; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Niel, Christian; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles

2012-08-01

200

Description of Epistylis riograndensis n.sp. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) found in an artificial lake in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Epistylis riograndensis n. sp., a freshwater peritrich hosting symbiotic algae in its cytoplasm, was collected from an artificial lake, in a Botanical garden in Southern Brazil. Its detailed morphology was investigated using live and silver-stained specimens. The colonial sessile E. riograndensis has elongate zooids measuring, on average, 162 ?m in length and 45 ?m in width. A single contractile vacuole located near the infundibulum and a C-shaped macronucleus located transversely in the adoral half of the cell were also observed. The oral infraciliature revealed in silver-stained specimens was typical of peritrich ciliates. Three infundibular polykineties consisting of 3 rows of kinetosomes were observed. Molecular analyses of 18s rDNA placed E. riograndensis among other Epistylis species in the Order Vorticellida. PMID:25283938

Utz, Laura R P; Farias, Ana Carolina Silva Rodrigues; Freitas, Eduarda Correa; Araújo, Gabriella Oliveira De

2014-01-01

201

Landslide initiation in saprolite and colluvium in southern Brazil: Field and laboratory observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of granitic and gneissic rocks in tropical regions can reach depths of more than 100 m. In southeast Brazil there are situations where landslide initiation depends on the fluctuation of the groundwater level, on the impact of falling rocks and on intense rainfall, causing superficial slides. The fluctuation of groundwater induces cyclical variations of the pore water pressure, and

Willy A. Lacerda

2007-01-01

202

Landslide initiation in saprolite and colluvium in southern Brazil: Field and laboratory observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of granitic and gneissic rocks in tropical regions can reach depths of more than 100 m. In southeast Brazil there are situations where landslide initiation depends on the fluctuation of the groundwater level, on the impact of falling rocks and on intense rainfall, causing superficial slides. The fluctuation of groundwater induces cyclical variations of the pore water pressure,

Willy A. Lacerda

2007-01-01

203

Life support limitation at three pediatric intensive care units in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe causes of death and factors involved in the decision-making process related to life support limitation at three university-affiliated pediatric intensive care units in the south of Brazil. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, based on a review of the medical records of all deaths occurring during 2002 at three pediatric intensive care units in Porto Alegre. Three

Patrícia M. Lago; Jefferson P. Piva; Délio J. Kipper; Pedro Celiny Ramos Garcia; Cristiane Pretto; Mateus Giongo; Ricardo Garcia Branco; Fernanda Bueno; Cristiane Traiber; Taisa Araújo; Daniela Wortmann; Graziele Librelato; Deise Soardi

2005-01-01

204

COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND CARBONATE PRODUCTION OF A TEMPERATE RHODOLITH BANK FROM ARVOREDO ISLAND, SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T A small (100,000 m 2 ) rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil) has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores,

Douglas F. M. Gherardi

2004-01-01

205

HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osorio, Marta R.; Sanchez, Alexandra; Seuanez, Hector N.; Larouze, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

2013-01-01

206

Gendering Representation: Parties, Institutions, and the Under-Representation Of Women In Brazil's State Legislatures  

E-print Network

This dissertation provides insights on what influences women's descriptive representation in state legislatures in Brazil. The study of female representation in Brazil provides for a good case study as the country uses a ...

dos Santos, Pedro G.

2012-12-31

207

Serologically Defined Variations in Malaria Endemicity in Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Measurement of malaria endemicity is typically based on vector or parasite measures. A complementary approach is the detection of parasite specific IgG antibodies. We determined the antibody levels and seroconversion rates to both P. vivax and P. falciparum merozoite antigens in individuals living in areas of varying P. vivax endemicity in Pará state, Brazilian Amazon region. Methodology/Principal Findings The prevalence of antibodies to recombinant antigens from P. vivax and P. falciparum was determined in 1,330 individuals. Cross sectional surveys were conducted in the north of Brazil in Anajás, Belém, Goianésia do Pará, Jacareacanga, Itaituba, Trairão, all in the Pará state, and Sucuriju, a free-malaria site in the neighboring state Amapá. Seroprevalence to any P. vivax antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1) was 52.5%, whereas 24.7% of the individuals were seropositive to any P. falciparum antigens (MSP1 or AMA-1). For P. vivax antigens, the seroconversion rates (SCR) ranged from 0.005 (Sucuriju) to 0.201 (Goianésia do Pará), and are strongly correlated to the corresponding Annual Parasite Index (API). We detected two sites with distinct characteristics: Goianésia do Pará where seroprevalence curve does not change with age, and Sucuriju where seroprevalence curve is better described by a model with two SCRs compatible with a decrease in force of infection occurred 14 years ago (from 0.069 to 0.005). For P. falciparum antigens, current SCR estimates varied from 0.002 (Belém) to 0.018 (Goianésia do Pará). We also detected a putative decrease in disease transmission occurred ?29 years ago in Anajás, Goianésia do Pará, Itaituba, Jacareacanga, and Trairão. Conclusions We observed heterogeneity of serological indices across study sites with different endemicity levels and temporal changes in the force of infection in some of the sites. Our study provides further evidence that serology can be used to measure and monitor transmission of both major species of malaria parasite. PMID:25419900

Cunha, Maristela G.; Silva, Eliane S.; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Costa, Sheyla P. T.; Saboia, Tiago C.; Guerreiro, João F.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Corran, Patrick H.; Riley, Eleanor; Drakeley, Chris J.

2014-01-01

208

Andropogon bicornis (Poales, Poaceae): a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in a rice-growing region of Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Tussocks of Andropogon bicornis (Poaceae) make up a significant part of the landscape of the rice-growing region of south Brazil. However, little is known about their role in maintaining insect diversity in anthropized regions. We tested the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) by analyzing the composition, structure, and diversity of pentatomoid assemblages over the course of a year. A total of 208 tussocks were removed at fortnightly intervals from April 2010 to March 2011. We collected 3,423 pentatomoid specimens belonging to 22 species distributed in 13 genera of three families, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, and Thyreocoridae. The most common species was Tibraca limbativentris Stål, the main rice pest in southern Brazil, followed by Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer) and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius). Abundance and species richness were the lowest in January, February, and March and the highest in July, August, and September. A combination of high species diversity observed during the colder months, including several unrelated to rice, and the absence of immature specimens in the tussocks strengthens the hypothesis that A. bicornis is a hibernation site for pentatomoids in the region. PMID:23949805

Klein, J T; Redaelli, L R; Barcellos, A

2013-06-01

209

Biomarkers in croakers Micropogonias furnieri (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from polluted and non-polluted areas from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil): Evidences of genotoxic and immunological effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomarkers of exposure and effect of pollutants were analyzed in croakers Micropogonias furnieri (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) captured in winter and summer in a polluted and in a non-polluted site at the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities (exposure biomarkers) and lipid peroxidation (effect biomarker) were analyzed in liver samples. Other two effect biomarkers were also studied: blood

Lílian Lund Amado; Carlos Eduardo da Rosa; Alice Meirelles Leite; Loraine Moraes; Wagner Vaz Pires; Grasiela L. Leães Pinho; Camila Martinez Gaspar Martins; Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo; Luis Eduardo Maia Nery; José Maria Monserrat; Adalto Bianchini; Pablo Elias Martinez; Laura Alicia Geracitano

2006-01-01

210

Gastrointestinal Helminths of Six Sympatric Species of Leptodactylus from Tocantins State, Brazil  

E-print Network

Gastrointestinal Helminths of Six Sympatric Species of Leptodactylus from Tocantins State, Brazil), and Leptodactylus pustulatus (n 5 19), collected in the Brazilian state of Tocantins, were examined for helminths, Tocantins, Brazil. The Brazilian state of Tocantins is exceptionally diverse because of its location

Shepard, Don

211

Exploring retrofit alternatives for State Houses in Southern New Zealand: an intensive monitoring process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previous findings of an energy efficiency retrofit programme of state houses in southern New Zealand regions indicated that low internal temperatures occurred during the winter months and that it was difficult to reach minimum levels of indoor comfort. Houses were found to be 0.4ºC warmer (annual average increase) after a ceiling\\/underfloor insulation upgrade with 0.6 ºC increase recorded in

Maria Callau; Tim Bishop

212

HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

2010-01-01

213

Geochemical and ecotoxicological assessment for estuarine surface sediments from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Sediments from Guaratuba Bay (PR, Brazil), a marine protected area, were collected and evaluated for geochemistry and toxicity. High levels of P and acute toxicity were observed in some samples. Concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were relatively low; however, Cd levels eventually exceeded Threshold Effect Level. Toxicities were associated to nutrients and metals enrichment. Results suggest that impacts are incipient and occur only at specific sites, associated to multiple contamination sources. Despite sediments quality seems to range between good and fair, attention is required to land-use planning around Guaratuba Bay and controlling local pollution sources. PMID:23507043

Rodrigues, Sarah K; Abessa, Denis M S; Machado, Eunice C

2013-10-01

214

76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration...2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This notice announces membership...

2011-10-24

215

Ionospheric imaging of the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-dimensional time-dependent tomographic algorithm, named Multi Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS), is used to image the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere over the central-eastern sides of the Brazilian territory. From differential phase data obtained by a chain of ground-based GPS receiver the total electron content (TEC) is estimated and then, together with a modeled ionosphere from International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, the electron density distribution is reconstructed and the parameters of the F2-peak layer are accessed from the images. This paper presents the first study of ionospheric tomography using real dual-frequency data from the Brazilian Network for Continuous GPS Monitoring (RBMC). Ionospheric F2- peak electron density (NmF2) accessed from the images are compared to concurrent measurements from three ionosondes installed across Brazil. One year of data during the solar maximum period from March/2001 to February/2002 is used to analyze the seasonal and hourly variation of the F2-layer peak density. The accuracy with which MIDAS images the electron density during geomagnetic quiet periods is investigated through its correlation and deviation with the ionosonde and IRI model data, respectively. The main aspects of the reconstruction results at the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region over Brazil are highlighted and discussed.

Muella, Marcio; De Paula, Eurico; Batista, Inez S.; Mitchell, Cathryn; Paes, Ricardo R.

2012-07-01

216

Radar image with color as height, Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

217

Merit Scholarships for Star Students; Keeping the Brightest at In-State Colleges. Regional Spotlight. Southern Regional Education Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of merit scholarships to keep bright students at in-state colleges is discussed. Today more than half of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states have credited merit scholarships to encourage their top high school graduates to attend in-state colleges. While athletic scholarships often receive greater visibility, SREB states are…

Gaines, Gale F.

218

Serotypes and Genotypes of Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Before and After PCV10 Implementation in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

To reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases, different formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have been introduced in many countries. In Brazil, PCV10 has been available since 2010. We aimed to analyze the serotype and genetic composition of invasive pneumococci from Brazil in pre- and post- vaccination periods (2007–2012). Antibiotic susceptibility was determined and genotypes of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance were characterized. The genotypes of isolates of the most frequent serotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing. The study included 325 isolates, which were primarily recovered from blood. The most common serotypes recovered were 14, 3, 4, 23F, 7F, 9V, 12F, 20, 19F, 8, 19A, and 5. Thirty-eight pneumococci (11.7%) were from children ?5 years old. Considering the overall population, PCV10 and PCV13 serotype coverage was 50.1% and 64.9%, respectively. During the pre-vaccine period, isolates with serotypes belonging to the PVC10 represented 51.5% (100/194), whereas in the post vaccine they represented 48.0% (63/131). PCV13 serotypes represented 67.5% (131/194) and 59.2% (77/131) of total for pre- and post-vaccination periods, respectively. Seventy different sequence types [STs] were found, accounting for 9 clonal complexes [CCs] and 45 singletons. Eight STs (156, 180, 218, 8889, 53, 191, 770, and 4967) represented the majority (51.5%) of isolates. Fifty STs were associated with the pre-vaccination period (27 exclusive) and 43 (20 exclusive) with the post-vaccination period; 23 STs were identified in both periods. Some serotypes were particularly clonal (7F, 8, 12F, 20). Non-susceptibility to penicillin was associated with serotype 19A, CC320. Erythromycin resistance was heterogeneous when considering serotype and ST. A single serotype 23F (ST4967) isolate was resistant to levofloxacin. Continued surveillance is required to determine vaccine impact and to monitor changes in pneumococcal population biology post-PCV10 introduction in Brazil. PMID:25356595

Caierão, Juliana; Hawkins, Paulina; Sant’anna, Fernando Hayashi; da Cunha, Gabriela Rosa; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; McGee, Lesley; Dias, Cícero

2014-01-01

219

Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8%) samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83%) samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%), of these 6 (10%) herpes simplex virus, 1 (2%) Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3%) human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2%) mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent virus, with circulation during summer and was observed with higher frequency between 4 to 17 years of age. PCR methodology is an important method for rapid detection of RNA enterovirus and DNA herpesvirus in CSF. PMID:21755125

Vidal, Luine Rosele Renaud; Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro de; Messias-Reason, Iara José de; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Debur, Maria do Carmo; Pessa, Luís Felipe Cavalli; Pereira, Luciane Aparecida; Rotta, Indianara; Takahashi, Gislene Reche de Almeida; Silveira, Clyete Santos da; Araújo, Josianne Maria Reimann; Raboni, Sonia Mara

2011-06-01

220

Identification, occurrence and clinical findings of canine hemoplasmas in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemoplasmas are ubiquitous pleomorphic and epicellular bacteria detected in erythrocytes in several species. In Brazil, studies on hemoplasmas have not included information on occurrence, clinical signs, and risk factors in dogs. This paper investigates the occurrence of hemoplasmas in dogs, focusing on risk factors and clinical status. Conventional PCR for the four types of canine hemoplasmas was performed in 331 blood samples collected from dogs clinically treated at a teaching veterinary hospital. Of all samples, 17/331 (5.1%) were positive for Mycoplasma haemocanis and 6/331 (1.8%) were positive for a 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum-like' organism. Risk factors included the presence of vectors, old age, dog bite wounds, and neoplastic diseases. In the multivariate analysis, a 4.40 odds ratio in dogs with vector-borne diseases indicated risk for hemoplasmosis. There was correlation between hemoplasma infection and neoplastic disease, suggesting that neoplastic conditions are a risk factor for hemoplasma infection in dogs. PMID:25159996

Valle, Stella de Faria; Messick, Joanne B; Dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Duda, Naila Cristina Blatt; Machado, Gustavo; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; González, Felix Hilario Diaz

2014-09-01

221

Foraminifera as indicators of marine pollutant contamination on the inner continental shelf of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Analyses of living foraminiferal and environmental parameters near an outfall at Mar Grosso Beach (Laguna, SC, Brazil) demonstrate its usefulness as indicators of domestic sewage pollution. The low species diversity may be due to sand accumulation in the central part. Higher diversity was noted closer to the mouth of Laguna estuarine system where reduced salinity and higher temperatures indicate freshwater influence, suggesting a relationship between increased diversity and greater availability of terrestrial food. On the basis of foraminiferal diversity and average coliform count the higher values are closer to the mouth of the estuarine system and under the influence of the outfall. Due to the effect of local hydrodynamics, the particulate organic waste derived from the outfall does not settle down locally, and thus, do not accumulate nearby. Our hypothesis is that the fine material derived from the outfall is accumulating on the southwestern and northwestern parts of the beach. PMID:22118897

Eichler, Patricia P B; Eichler, Beatriz B; Gupta, Barun Sen; Rodrigues, André Rösch

2012-01-01

222

The interplay between turbidity and contour current processes on the Columbia Channel fan drift, Southern Brazil Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of sedimentary processes and associated deposits on the Columbia Channel fan drift system (Southern Brazil Basin), were investigated on the basis of 3.5-kHz echosounding profiles and core lithology. This system is composed of a sediment levee elongated downslope with a W-E then SW-NE trend, bounded to the south by the Columbia Channel and to the north by the Vitoria-Trindade seamounts. Turbidites are widespread on the shallowest part of the system: (1) thick turbidite sequences composed of quartz-rich sandy material originating from the upper continental margin are found in the axis of the channel; the turbidity currents do not significantly overflow the northern levee, where only sparse and thin silty-muddy turbidites, occur close to the axis of the channel; (2) the major part of the levee shows quartz-poor, mica- and foram-rich turbidite material originating from the Vitoria-Trindade seamounts. The abundance of this material decreases southwards and eastwards. The whole area is swept by the northward flowing Antarctic Bottom Water. Contour-current deposited muds are dominant on the southern flank of the Columbia Channel, free of any turbidite supply as a consequence of the Coriolis effect, and on the deepest part of the northern levee, remote from turbidite source areas. However, the contour currents interplay with the turbidity currents on the shallowest part of the levee. Contour-current deposited muds are interbedded with silty-sandy turbidite sequences, and a part of the muddy material has probably been pirated from the finer tails of the turbidity flows, the other part being transported from southernmost areas by the bottom currents. The interplay of both processes is also responsible for the deposition of silty turbidite beds, top-truncated by contour currents and overlain by bioturbated muddy contourites.

Massé, L.; Faugères, J. C.; Hrovatin, V.

1998-01-01

223

A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping indicates that the mylonite zone is not a plate boundary because motion along it is maximum a few tens of kilometres and the same litho-stratigraphic units are present on either side. Based on these arguments, the new interpretation is that the Embu terrane is the continuation of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe and therefore also part of the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent. The Brasília belt is preserved even further within the central Ribeira belt than previously envisaged.

Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.

2013-12-01

224

Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the southern Amazon Craton (Brazil): insight into its origin and deposit textures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Amazon craton hosts a primitive volcanic activity that took place in a region completely stable since 1.87 Ga. The current geotectonic context is very different from what caused the huge volcanism that we are presenting in this work. Volcanic rocks in several portions of the Amazon craton were grouped in the proterozoic Uatumã supergroup, a well-preserved magmatic region that covers an area with more than 1,200,000 km2. In this work one specific region is considered, the southwestern Tapajos Gold province (TGP) that is part of the Tapajós-Parina tectonic province (Tassinari and Macambri, 1999). TGP consists of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary sequences resulted from a ca. 2.10-1.87 Ga ocean-continent orogeny. High-K andesites to felsic volcanic sequences and plutonic bodies, andesitic/rhyolitic epiclastic volcanic rocks and A-type granitic intrusions form part of this volcanism/plutonism. In this work we focus particularly our attention on welded, reomorphic and lava-like rhyolitic ignimbrites and co-ignimbrite brecchas. Fiamme texture of different welding intensity, stretched obsidian fragments, "glassy folds", relict pumices, lithics, rotated crystals of feldspars, bipiramidal quarz, and devetrification spherulites are the common features represented by our samples. Microscopical images are provided to characterize the deposits analyzed during this preliminary research. The lack of continuum outcrops in the field made more difficult the stratigraphic reconstruction, but the superb preservation of the deposits, apparently without any metamorphic evidences (not even low-grade), permits a clearly description of the textures and a differentiation between deposits. A detailed exploration of this ancient andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic activity could contribute greatly to the knowledge of the Amazon territory and in particular for the recognition of the various units that form the supergroup Uatumã, especially in relation to different eruptive style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).

Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano

2014-05-01

225

Heavy metals in stream sediments from copper and gold mining areas in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is part of a research effort which is intended to identify natural and anthropogenic sources for metal contamination in gold and copper mining areas of the Camaquã River Basin, located in the shield region of the Rio Grande do Sul state. This particular study area is located in the upper Camaquã River Basin, where gold, copper and marble

Maria Heloisa D. Pestana; Milton L. L. Formoso; Elba C. Teixeir

1997-01-01

226

Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The ?13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early to late Holocene, when somewhat wetter and warmer conditions (since around 9000 cal yr BP) enabled a stronger colonization of the ridge of Pico Caratuva by mainly C3 plants, especially grassland species. However, at the same time, even near the summit, the soil core from the forest site already presented the current physiognomy (or a shrubby/elfin or successional forest), indicating that the colonization of the neighboring uppermost saddles and valleys were probably populated mainly by upper montane forest species.

Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

2014-12-01

227

Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey. PMID:23917551

Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

2013-05-01

228

Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

2011-12-01

229

Seasonal variation in body size and diet of the sea star Astropecten marginatus (Paxillosida, Astropectinidae) off coast of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The sea star Astropecten marginatus has a neotropical distribution and is a highly abundant and frequent species in shrimp trawling by-catchin many places along the Brazilian coast. This has caused its threat to extinction and in addition, its bio-ecological aspects are poorly known. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of population length structure and feeding habits of the sea stars A. marginatus inhabiting off state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The analyzed specimens were collected in February (summer), April (fall), June (winter) and October (spring) of 2008 from shrimp by-catch trawling. In the laboratory, each individual had its length measured and then weighed on an analytical scale. Afterwards, the stomach contents of 10 individuals of each of two most frequent length classes were seasonally analyzed. The relative frequency and abundance for each prey category was determined and, then combined into an index of alimentary importance. A total of 994 individuals of A. marginatus were collected with length ranging from 7.0 to 56.2mm, but most individuals were in the 20.1-25mm length classes. Individuals larger than 40mm were only collected in the spring while a few recruits (<10mm) were found in fall and winter. The total weight of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 15.3g and the weight-length relationships showed a negative allometric growth (b<2.54). Regarding its food consumption, this sea star explored eleven food items, with cumaceans and mollusks as the most frequent items. High frequency of empty stomach was recorded at fall. Seasonal differences in the amount explored preys and ingested items as well as in the prey composition were also observed. Higher amount of explored prey categories and ingested items were recorded at winter-spring than summer-fall periods. Predominance in prey category changed from gastropods (summer and fall) to cumaceans (winter and spring). The importance of gastropods as main prey category at summer and fall should be carefully considered since it was coincidently observed with high frequency of empty stomach and low amount of ingested items. The observed seasonal differences in feeding behavior pattern were mainly associated to low prey availability and to changes in the sea star feeding rates, and probably reflected in some biological traits such as small body size of the population inhabiting waters off the Paraná coast, Southern Brazil. PMID:24912343

Guilherme, Pablo D B; Rosa, Leonardo C

2014-03-01

230

Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments). PMID:23025102

Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

2012-09-01

231

Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson’s regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347

Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

2009-01-01

232

Fluoride distribution in the environment along the gradient of a phosphate-fertilizer production emission (southern Brazil).  

PubMed

Airborne fluoride was determined in the rainwater, surface soil and groundwater along a gradient of emission of a phosphate fertilizer factory in Rio Grande, southern Brazil. Concentrations of fluoride in rainwater and groundwater achieved 3 mg l(-1) and 5 mg l(-1), respectively, and were dependent on pH. The fluoride deposited from emissions accumulated in a superficial horizon of soil in quantities comparable to those in the manufactured end-products--up to 23,000 mg kg(-1). Fluoride distribution in the environment is controlled by physical-chemical parameters of emission, rain intensity and soil properties. The highest fluoride concentrations were registered at a close distance of up to 2 km from the factory. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater resembled the same distribution in rainwater due to the high permeability of the local soils. Fluoride penetration to the groundwater also depended on the type of vegetation cover. The groundwater in woodland areas was less affected by contamination of fluoride than in the grassland areas, most probably because of the influence of eucalyptus throughfall, which increases the pH of wet precipitates. PMID:17288010

Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari

2007-06-01

233

Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353

Behague, Dominique P; Goncalves, Helen

2009-01-01

234

Evidence of HLA-DQB1 Contribution to Susceptibility of Dengue Serotype 3 in Dengue Patients in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Dengue infection (DI) transmitted by arthropod vectors is the viral disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, an estimated 300 million cases per year. In addition to environmental factors, genetic factors may also influence the manifestation of the disease; as even in endemic areas, only a small proportion of people develop the most serious form. Immune-response gene polymorphisms may be associated with the development of cases of DI. The aim of this study was to determine allele frequencies in the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 loci in a Southern Brazil population with dengue virus serotype 3, confirmed by the ELISA serological method, and a control group. The identification of the HLA alleles was carried out using the SSO genotyping PCR program (One Lambda), based on Luminex technology. In conclusion, this study suggests that DQB1?06:11 allele could act as susceptible factors to dengue virus serotype 3, while HLA-DRB1?11 and DQA1?05:01 could act as resistance factors. PMID:24817893

Cardozo, Daniela Maria; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Sell, Ana Maria; Guelsin, Glaucia Andreia Soares; Beltrame, Leticia Maria; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Reis, Pamela Guimaraes; Alves, Hugo Vicentin; Mazini, Priscila Saamara; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

2014-01-01

235

Comparison between spore dosimetry and brewer photometry for monthly UV doses in 2000 - 2003 at Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the human risks due to the environmental UVB exposure, it is necessary to determine the biologically effective doses relevant to DNA damage. Spore dosimetry employing dried spores of Bacillus subtilis strainTKJ 6312 (uvr spl) has been performed under various conditions as well at a variety of geometrical and temporal modes at Southern Space Observatory, Sao Martinho da Serra/RS - Brazil (Lat. 29.44°S, Long. 53.82°W), and the results were compared with the irradiance spectra obtained by Brewer spectrophotometers of MKII (June/2000 - August/2002) and MKIII (August/2002 - December/2002). The monthly cumulative doses were analyzed based on the daily effectiveness spectra obtained through the multiplications of the irradiance and the action spectra for spore inactivation and erythema induction. The calculated values from both spectra exhibited good correlations (r =0.8 from the power regression) with the direct measurements of spore inactivation doses. The results indicate the usefulness of the spore dosimetry system for the continuous long-term monitoring of solar-UVB radiation at various sites under various climates.

Schuch, A. P.; Guarnieri, R. A.; Rosa, M. B.; Pinheiro, D. K.; Munakata, N.; Schuch, N. J.

236

In situ U/Pb dating of impact-produced zircons from the Vargeão Dome (Southern Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vargeão impact structure was formed in the Serra Geral basaltic and rhyodacitic to rhyolitic lava flows of southern Brazil, that belong to the Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province. The Chapecó-type rhyodacites contain small baddeleyite crystals recently dated at 134.3 (±0.8) Ma, which is regarded as the age of this acid volcanism coeval to the flood basalt eruption. Inside the impact structure, a brecciated rhyodacitic sample displays fine veinlets containing numerous lithic fragments in a former melt. This impact breccia contains newly formed zircons, either in the veins or at the contact between a vein and the volcanic matrix. The zircons are 10-50 ?m in length, clear and nearly unzoned. In situ laser-ablation dating of the zircons provides a concordant Early Aptian age of 123.0 ± 1.4 Ma that is regarded as the age of the impact event. As in situ age determination ensures the best possible selection of the analyzed mineral grains, the methodology employed in this study also represents a promising method for dating other impact structures.

NéDéLec, Anne; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Yokoyama, Elder; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Aigouy, Thierry; Baratoux, David

2013-03-01

237

[Prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students of a city in the mountains of southern Brazil].  

PubMed

Obesity is considered the most important nutritional disorder due to a rapid increase in its prevalence in recent years. The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students aged 11 to 14 (boys and girls) from a town in the mountains of southern Brazil, and to verify the possible associations with economic classification, gender, age, eating habits, lifestyle habits (physical activity and sedentary activities) and dissatisfaction with body image. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1230 students. The anthropometric variables studied were the waist circumference and the skin folds of the triceps and calf. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was conducted between the independent variables and the outcome. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess body fat were 28.7% and 40.1% respectively. There was a statistically significant association between a greater number of meals and dissatisfaction with body image and abdominal obesity, which was also associated with girls evaluated, and to excess body fat. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess body fat are high and justify the implementation of health actions in schools. PMID:23670470

Pedroni, Josué Luís; Rech, Ricardo Rodrigo; Halpern, Ricardo; Marin, Simone; Roth, Lahna dos Reis; Sirtoli, Mariana; Cavalli, Andressa

2013-05-01

238

Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our ?11B data are in the range between - 15‰ and 4‰. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite.

Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Koglin, Nikola; Lehmann, Bernd; de Abreu, Francisco R.

2012-05-01

239

Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ? 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

2009-01-01

240

[Urban work profile among adolescents aged 14-15 years: a population-based study in Southern Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article was to describe the urban work patterns among 14 to 15-year-old youths from Southern Brazil. Child labor was characterized as any activity that resulted in retribution in the form of goods, services or money. The analyses were stratified by sex and economic level. Of the 4325 adolescents interviewed, the proportion of labor in the last year was 22.2%, namely 27.7% for the male sex, and 17% for the female sex. This proportion was also higher among the poorer strata of the population (30.0%) than the more affluent (14.3%). The majority of adolescents worked away from home and approximately half of them began working before 14 years of age, and around 80.0% reported that they worked by choice. Only 1.0% had a labor contract or work booklet, 30.0% worked more than six hours per day, and the average income was less than US$85/month. Domestic work predominated among the poorest teenagers. There is a need for greater surveillance of child labor and of interventions seeking to enforce prevailing legislation. PMID:22634819

Gonçalves, Helen; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Bacchieri, Giancarlo; Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Bocanegra, Carlos Alberto Delgado; Castilhos, Eduardo Dickie; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fantinel, Everton José; Fiori, Nadia Spada; Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Carvalho, Samuel

2012-05-01

241

Maternal Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism as Risk Factors for Down Syndrome Offspring in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the role of maternal polymorphisms, as well as their risk genotypes combinations of MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS 844ins68, and RFC A80G, involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism, as possible risk factors for Down syndrome (DS) in Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 239~mothers of DS children and 197 control mothers. The investigation of polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. The distribution of genotypic variants was similar in both groups when they were analyzed separately. An investigation of combined risk genotypes showed that the risk of having a DS child for one, two or three risk genotypes was 6.23, 6.96 and 5.84 (95%CI 1.48–26.26; 1.69–28.66; 1.37–24.86), respectively. The combined MTRR 66G and MTHFR 677T alleles were significantly more common among mothers of children with DS than among control mothers (OR 1.55; IC 95% 1.03–2.35). The results show that individual polymorphisms studied in this work are not associated with DS; however, the effects of the combined risk genotypes among MTR, MTRR, CBS and RFC genes are considered maternal risk factors for DS offspring in our population. PMID:21045269

Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Bandinelli, Eliane; Santos, Pollyanna Almeida Dos; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

2010-01-01

242

Chemical fate of iron in a peatland developing in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland (geographical coordinates of the sampling site, 18° 05' 43.6? S, 43° 47' 6.4? W; altitude 1,330 m asl) in São João da Chapada, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with different vegetation coverings (namely, field grassland and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes of the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals like basic rock very likely influenced by hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Mössbauer spectroscopy spectra at room temperature and chemical composition analysis reveal that the iron contents for the peatlands under both vegetations decreases on going from the surface downwards. Also, a central doublet of (super)paramagnetic ferric chemical species, even for samples from deeper positions on the profile, where the reducing chemical potential of the pedoenvironment is thought to be higher, dominates the spectral patterns for all samples. In agreement with the Mössbauer results, magnetic measurements give evidence that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and a slight but steady increase with depth down along the profile.

Mercader, R. C.; Silva, A. C.; Montes, M. L.; Sives, F. R.; Paesano Junior, A.; Fabris, J. D.

2014-04-01

243

The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin. PMID:23917575

Nemésio, A

2013-05-01

244

HTLV-1 in pregnant women from the Southern Bahia, Brazil: a neglected condition despite the high prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies as part of routine prenatal care. So far, no studies of HTLV-1 seroprevalence in pregnant women in the Southern region of Bahia, Brazil, have been described. Methods Pregnant women were selected at the two regional reference centers for health care from Southern Bahia. A total of 2766 pregnant women attending the antenatal unit between November 2008 and May 2010 have been analyzed. An extra blood sample was drawn during their routine antenatal testing. A standardized questionnaire was applied and all positive plasma samples were tested by ELISA and were confirmed by Western Blot and PCR. Besides that, positive women were contacted and visited. The family members that were present during the visit were asked to be serologically screened to the virus. A prospective study was also carried out and newborns were followed up to two years for evaluation of vertical transmission. Results HTLV prevalence was 1.05% (CI 95%: 0.70-1.50). There was no association of HTLV-1 infection with age, education, income and ethnic differences. The association with marital status was borderline (OR?=?7.99; 95% CI 1.07-59.3; p?=?0.042). In addition, 43 family members of the HTLV-1 seropositive women have been analyzed and specific reactivity was observed in 32.56%, including two children from previous pregnancy. Conclusion: It is very important to emphasize that the lack of HTLV-1 screening in pregnant women can promote HTLV transmission especially in endemic areas. HTLV screening in this vulnerable population and the promotion of bottle-feeding for children of seropositive mothers could be important cost-effective methods to limit the vertical transmission. Besides that, our data reinforce the need to establish strategies of active surveillance in household and family contacts as important epidemiological surveillance actions for the early detection of virus infection and the prevention of transmission by sexual or and parenteral contact. PMID:24524416

2014-01-01

245

Diet of brown-nosed coatis and crab-eating raccoons from a mosaic landscape with exotic plantations in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described the diets of two procyonids, the brown-nosed coati Nasua nasua and the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus, through analysis of stomach contents of road-killed specimens in southern Brazil. We compared them with previously published dietary information for another syntopic mesopredator, the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous. The landscape of the study area includes native grasslands, forests, exotic tree plantations, and

Lucas M. Aguiar; Rodrigo F. Moro-Rios; Thiago Silvestre; José E. Silva-Pereira; Diego R. Bilski; Fernando C. Passos; Margareth L. Sekiama; Vlamir J. Rocha

2011-01-01

246

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charao, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marilia; Brucker, Natalia; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Avila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

247

Laboratory Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Outcomes of Pandemic Influenza A and Community Respiratory Viral Infections in Southern Brazil?  

PubMed Central

Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents. PMID:21248084

Raboni, Sonia M.; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R.; Franca, Joao B.; Moreira, Suzana; Goncalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B.; Vidal, Luine R.; Almeida, Sergio M.; Debur, Maria C.; Carraro, Hipolito; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

2011-01-01

248

Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes do; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Jr, Fernando Barbosa; Bohrer, Denise; Avila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

249

Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in Prescriptions to Patients over 45 Years of Age in Primary Care, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Few cross-sectional studies involving adults and elderly patients with major DDIs have been conducted in the primary care setting. The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in patients treated in primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study involving patients aged 45 years or older was conducted at 25 Basic Health Units in the city of Maringá (southern Brazil) from May to December 2010. The data were collected from prescriptions at the pharmacy of the health unit at the time of the delivery of medication to the patient. After delivery, the researcher checked the electronic medical records of the patient. A total of 827 patients were investigated (mean age: 64.1; mean number of medications: 4.4). DDIs were identified in the Micromedex® database. The prevalence of potential DDIs and major DDIs was 63.0% and 12.1%, respectively. In both the univariate and multivariate analyses, the number of drugs prescribed was significantly associated with potential DDIs, with an increasing risk from three to five drugs (OR?=?4.74; 95% CI: 2.90–7.73) to six or more drugs (OR?=?23.03; 95% CI: 10.42–50.91). Forty drugs accounted for 122 pairs of major DDIs, the most frequent of which involved simvastatin (23.8%), captopril/enalapril (16.4%) and fluoxetine (16.4%). Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study on primary care carried out in Latin America. Based on the findings, the estimated prevalence of potential DDIs was high, whereas clinically significant DDIs occurred in a smaller proportion. Exposing patients to a greater number of prescription drugs, especially three or more, proved to be a significant predictor of DDIs. Prescribers should be more aware of potential DDIs. Future studies should assess potential DDIs in primary care over a longer period of time. PMID:23071711

Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Crozatti, Marcia Terezinha Lonardoni; dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Romano-Lieber, Nicolina Silvana

2012-01-01

250

Assessment of the labile fractions of copper and zinc in marinas and port areas in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The dissolved labile and labile particulate fractions (LPF) of Cu and Zn were analyzed during different seasons and salinity conditions in estuarine waters of marina, port, and shipyard areas in the southern region of the Patos Lagoon (RS, Brazil). The dissolved labile concentration was determined using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). DGT devices were deployed in seven locations of the estuary for 72 h and the physicochemical parameters were also measured. The LPF of Cu and Zn was determined by daily filtering of water samples. Seasonal variation of DGT-Cu concentrations was only significant (p?

Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica

2013-08-01

251

Lithofacies analysis of basic lava flows of the Paraná igneous province in the south hinge of Torres Syncline, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paraná igneous province records the volcanism of the earlier Cretaceous that preceded the fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Historically, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic pile as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. This work provides a detailed analysis of the emplacement conditions of these basic volcanic rocks, applying the facies analysis method integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. The Torres Syncline is a NW-SE tectonic structure, located in southern Brazil, where a thick sequence of the Paraná-Etendeka volcanic rocks is well preserved. This study was performed in the south hinge of the syncline, where the basaltic lava flows are divided into three lithofacies associations: early compound pahoehoe, early simple pahoehoe and late simple rubbly. The first lavas that erupted were more primitive compound pahoehoe flow fields composed of olivine basalts with higher MgO contents and covered the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flow fields is possibly related to intermittent low effusion rates, whereas the emplacement of simple pahoehoe is related to sustained low effusion rates with continuous supply. The thick simple rubbly lavas are associated with high effusion rates and were formed during the main phase of volcanism in the area. The absence of paleosoils between the lavas and lithofacies associations suggests that the successive emplacement of the lava flows occurred in a relatively short time gap. Geochemically, the lithofacies associations are low-TiO2 and belong to Gramado magma type. The lavas of the south hinge of the Torres Syncline have a similar evolution when compared to other Continental Basaltic Provinces with earlier compound flows at the base and thicker simple flows in the upper portions.

Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; de Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Scherer, Claiton Marlon; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May

2014-09-01

252

Sexual Knowledge of College Students in a Southern State: Related Factors and Impact of Previous Sex Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed college students in one southern state to determine their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A group of 915 students (602 female and 313 male) attending 4 state universities completed the Sexual Knowledge instrument during class. The instrument contained 27 sex knowledge items, 5 demographic questions, 3 items to…

Synovitz, Linda; Hebert, Eddie; Kelley, R. Mark; Carlson, Gerald

253

Mapping and Quantification of the Milk Chain in São Paulo State - Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of the Mapping and Quantification of the Milk Chain in Brazil, a PENSA project, which was financed by the São Paulo Milk Sector Council, to analyze the milk chain focusing the São Paulo state competitiveness. The research could emphasize the importance of this chain, as one of the biggest chains in Brazil, in terms of

M. F. Neves; M. A. Consoli; F. F. Lopes; E. M. Campos; H. A. B. Paiva

254

SOYBEAN PRODUCTION COSTS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRAZIL, AND ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. farmers' share of world soybean exports has declined, while Brazil and Argentina are gaining. There is much debate concerning the competitive advantage of U.S. versus Latin American soybean producers. A detailed analysis of soybean production costs under different systems and technologies in the United States, Argentina, and Brazil was conducted.

Alexandria I. Huerta; Marshall A. Martin

2002-01-01

255

Cesio-137 E Radionuclideos Naturais Em Solos Do Sul Do Brasil E Em Solos E Outras Amostras Ambientais DA Antartica (Cesium-137 and Natural Radionuclides in Soils from Southern Brazil and in Soils and Others Environmental Samples from Antarctic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples from Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is...

L. A. Schuch

1993-01-01

256

Cesio-137 e radionuclideos naturais em solos do sul do Brasil e em solos e outras amostras ambientais da Antarctica. (Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 whic...

L. A. Schuch

1993-01-01

257

Outbreaks due to Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii in southern Brazil: persistence of a single clone from 2007 to 2011.  

PubMed

Outbreaks associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been increasingly reported worldwide, including in Brazil. Among the RGM, the Mycobacterium abscessus complex is the most pathogenic and related to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile of RGM isolates involved in new postsurgical infection outbreaks in Brazil since 2007. Of the 109 cases reported in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2007 and 2011, 43 (39?%) had confirmed mycobacterial growth in culture. Clinical isolates were obtained from biopsy specimens or abscess aspirates. PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern identified the isolates as M. abscessus type 2, and partial rpoB sequencing confirmed the identification as M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and resistant to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin and tobramycin. Most isolates (72?%) were fully susceptible to cefoxitin but six isolates (14?%) were fully resistant to clarithromycin. The latter differed from the susceptibility profiles of the previously described BRA100 clone from other Brazilian regions. Nevertheless, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to a single BRA100 clone. In conclusion, our study reports the persistence of an emergent single and highly resistant clone of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii for several years even after national implementation of infection control measures. PMID:25038135

Nunes, Luciana de S; Baethgen, Ludmila F; Ribeiro, Marta O; Cardoso, Cássia M; de Paris, Fernanda; De David, Simone M M; da Silva, Marlei G; Duarte, Rafael S; Barth, Afonso L

2014-10-01

258

Decadal Variability in an OGCM Southern Ocean: intrinsic modes, forced modes and metastable states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is used to identify a Southern Ocean southeast Pacific intrinsic mode of low frequency variability. Using CORE data a comprehensive suite of experiments were carried out to elucidate excitation and amplification responses of this intrinsic mode to low frequency forcing (ENSO, SAM) and stochastic forcing due to high frequency winds. Subsurface anomalies were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) thermocline. The Pacific region of the ACC is characterised by intrinsic baroclinic disturbances that respond to both SAM and ENSO, while the Atlantic sector of the ACC is sensitive to higher frequency winds that act to amplify thermocline anomalies propagating downstream from the Pacific. Non-stationary cluster analysis was used to identify the system's dynamical regimes and characterise meta-stability, persistence and transitions between the respective states. This analysis reveals significant trends, indicating fundamental changes to the meta-stability of the ocean dynamics in response to changes in atmospheric forcing. Intrinsic variability in sea-ice concentration was found to be coupled to thermocline processes. Sea-ice variability localised in the Atlantic was most closely associated with high frequency weather forcing. The SAM was associated with a circumpolar sea-ice response whereas ENSO was found to be a major driver of sea-ice variability only in the Pacific. This simulation study identifies plausible mechanisms that determine the predictability of the Southern Ocean climate on multi-decadal timescales.

O'Kane, Terence; Matear, Richard; Chamberlain, Matthew; Risbey, James; Horenko, Illia; Sloyan, Bernadette

2014-05-01

259

Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

2014-04-01

260

[Cervical cancer screening coverage and associated factors in a city in southern Brazil: a population-based study].  

PubMed

This study focused on coverage of screening for cervical cancer and associated factors in women 20 to 59 years of age in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Two outcomes were examined: a history of at least one Papanicolaou test and delaying the test (never performed or performed more than three years previously). Among 952 women, 93% (95%CI: 91.5-94.7) had ever had a Pap smear, whereas 14% (95%CI: 11.8-16.2) had delayed the test. According to Poisson regression, both outcomes were associated with marital status, schooling, presence of chronic disease, and consulting a physician for other reasons. Age, income, and hospitalization in the previous year were only associated with ever having a Pap smear. Although test coverage was high, much of the screening was opportunistic. In addition, various social, economic, and demographic disparities influenced the odds of being screened. PMID:21808816

Gasperin, Simone Iara; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Kupek, Emil

2011-07-01

261

Assessing Public Preferences for Forest Biomass Based Energy in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article investigated public preferences for forest biomass based liquid biofuels, particularly ethanol blends of 10% ( E10) and 85% ( E85). We conducted a choice experiment study in three southern states in the United States: Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia. Reducing atmospheric CO2, decreasing risk of wildfires and pest outbreaks, and enhancing biodiversity were presented to respondents as attributes of using biofuels. Results indicated that individuals had a positive extra willingness to pay (WTP) for both ethanol blends. The extra WTP was greater for higher blends that offered larger environment benefits. The WTPs for E10 were 0.56 gallon-1, 0.58 gallon-1, and 0.48 gallon-1, and for E85 they were 0.82 gallon-1, 1.17 gallon-1, and 1.06 gallon-1 in Arkansas, Florida, and Virginia, respectively. Although differences in WTP for E10 were statistically insignificant among the three states, significant differences were found in the WTP for E85 between AR and FL and between AR and VA. Preferences for the environmental attributes appeared to be heterogeneous, as respondents’ were willing to pay a premium for E10 in all three states to facilitate the reduction of CO2 and the improvement of biodiversity but were not willing to pay more for E85 in order to enhance biodiversity.

Susaeta, Andres; Alavalapati, Janaki; Lal, Pankaj; Matta, Jagannadha R.; Mercer, Evan

2010-04-01

262

Estimating populations of men who have sex with men in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Population estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM) by state and race/ethnicity are lacking, hampering effective HIV epidemic monitoring and targeting of outreach and prevention efforts. We created three models to estimate the proportion and number of adult males who are MSM in 17 southern states. Model A used state-specific census data stratified by rural/suburban/urban area and national estimates of the percentage MSM in corresponding areas. Model B used a national estimate of the percentage MSM and state-specific household census data. Model C partitioned the statewide estimates by race/ethnicity. Statewide Models A and B estimates of the percentages MSM were strongly correlated (r = 0.74; r-squared = 0.55; p < 0.001) and had similar means (5.82% and 5.88%, respectively) and medians (5.5% and 5.2%, respectively). The estimated percentage MSM in the South was 6.0% (range 3.6-13.2%; median, 5.4%). The combined estimated number of MSM was 2.4 million, including 1,656,500 (69%) whites, 339,400 (14%) blacks, 368,800 (15%) Hispanics, 34,600 (1.4%) Asian/Pacific Islanders, 7,700 (0.3%) American Indians/Alaska Natives, and 11,000 (0.5%) others. The estimates showed considerable variability in state-specific racial/ethnic percentages MSM. MSM population estimates enable better assessment of community vulnerability, HIV/AIDS surveillance, and allocation of resources. Data availability and computational ease of our models suggest other states could similarly estimate their MSM populations. PMID:19911282

Lieb, Spencer; Thompson, Daniel R; Misra, Shyam; Gates, Gary J; Duffus, Wayne A; Fallon, Stephen J; Liberti, Thomas M; Foust, Evelyn M; Malow, Robert M

2009-11-01

263

The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread zoonosis in Brazil and, up to now, there has been no record of the main vector of its agent, Lutzomyia longipalpis, in the Southern Region. Due to the diagnosis of VL in a dog in October 2008 in the city of São Borja, in the southernmost Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, a collection of phlebotomines was undertaken to detect the presence of the vector Lu. longipalpis. The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector. PMID:20140381

Souza, Getúlio Dornelles; Santos, Edmilson dos; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

2009-12-01

264

Geothermal Well and Heat Flow Data for the United States (Southern Methodist University (SMU) Geothermal Laboratory)  

DOE Data Explorer

Southern Methodist University makes two databases and several detailed maps available. The Regional Heat Flow Database for the United States contains information on primarily regional or background wells that determine the heat flow for the United States; temperature gradients and conductivity are used to generate heat flow measurements. Information on geology of the location, porosity, thermal conductivity, water table depth, etc. are also included when known. There are usually three data files for each state or region. The first files were generated in 1989 for the data base creating the Decade of North America Geology (DNAG) Geothermal Map. The second set is from 1996 when the data base was officially updated for the Department of Energy. The third set is from 1999 when the Western U.S. High Temperature Geothermal data base was completed. As new data is received, the files continue to be updated. The second major resource is the Western Geothermal Areas Database, a database of over 5000 wells in primarily high temperature geothermal areas from the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. The majority of the data are from company documents, well logs, and publications with drilling dates ranging from 1960 to 2000. Many of the wells were not previously accessible to the public. Users will need to register, but will then have free, open access to the databases. The contents of each database can be viewed and downloaded as Excel spreadsheets. See also the heat flow maps at http://www.smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

Blackwell, D.D. and others

265

[Health care user satisfaction in Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2005].  

PubMed

Researching the users' satisfaction is a key task for management. With the Project for Strengthening the Evaluation Capacity of the State, the Pernambuco Health Secretariat has defined to evaluate the health system performance as priority. The current study aimed to know the factors associated with the users' satisfaction of the Pernambuco health system. It was an evaluative study based on the results obtained in a population survey carried out on 2005 in Pernambuco. The data analysis considered the use of multivariate methods and the satisfaction as dependent variable. The main analyzed aspects were the professionals quality, the health services quality and the health system resolubility. The analysis has revealed that the waiting time for health care and the availability of medicines were the factors with the lowest percentage of users' satisfaction, what generate reflections about if the access has been actually related to the offering of health services, adequate or not to the people demands and the pharmaceutical assistance policy in the state. In conclusion, it was possible to obtain a more complete overview about how the health system of Pernambuco has attended the people expectations by the users perspectives. PMID:21519674

Gouveia, Giselle Campozana; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de

2011-03-01

266

[Therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this paper is to shed light on the therapeutic itineraries of transvestites from Santa Maria in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The study sought to follow the complex trajectories followed by transvestites in their quest for health care. Field research was conducted between January and November 2012 with transvestites from different cities in the state who were living in Santa Maria at the time. It involved qualitative methodology using ethnographic research. The results showed that the interviewees avoid institutionalized health services, opting for other forms of health care. In this respect, it is noteworthy that of the group of 49 transvestites who were included in this study, 48 sought health care in "African religion groups" or "batuque" ("drumming"), as they refer to them. The transvestites stated that they opted for "African religion groups" as they saw them as places that were able to afford forms of care and protection, without questioning bodily changes and sexual orientation. This article may help to shed light on some of the unusual trajectories of transvestites in their quest for health care. PMID:25014306

Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Coviello, Denise Martin; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

2014-07-01

267

Traditional birth attendants and their practices in the State of Pernambuco rural area, Brazil, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain socioeconomic information about TBAs in the State of Pernambuco and information concerning their practices. Method: Statistical analysis of the answers to structured questionnaires applied to 127 TBAs. Results: The results of a survey with 127 TBAs conducted in the rural area of the State of Pernambuco (Brazil) is presented in this paper. TBAs in rural Pernambuco are

I Carvalho; A. S Chacham; P Viana

1998-01-01

268

Lyme disease in the state of Tocantins, Brazil: report of the first cases.  

PubMed

Lyme disease is an underdiagnosed zoonosis in Brazil. There are no cases registered in the state of Tocantins, the newest Brazilian state. The cases of three patients in contact with rural areas in three Tocantins' districts are herein described, and the Brazilian literature is reviewed. PMID:23141972

Carranza-Tamayo, César Omar; Costa, José Nilton Gomes da; Bastos, Whisllay Maciel

2012-01-01

269

Spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from patients residents of 11 states of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the high tuberculosis (TB) incidence countries in the world, Brazil is characterized by considerable differences in TB incidence on regional and state level. In the present study, we describe Brazilian spoligotypes of 1991 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) clinical isolates from patients residents of 11 states from different regions of the country, diagnosed between 1996 and 2005. By performing

Harrison Magdinier Gomes; Atina Ribeiro Elias; Maranibia Aparecida Cardoso Oelemann; Márcia Aparecida da Silva Pereira; Fátima Fandinho Onofre Montes; Ana Grazia Marsico; Afrânio Lineu Kritski; Luciano dos Anjos Filho; Paulo C. Caldas; Lia Gonçalves Possuelo; Patrícia Cafrune; Maria Lúcia Rossetti; Norma Lucena; Maria Helena Feres Saad; Hebe Rodrigues Cavalcanti; Clarisse Queico Fujimura Leite; Rossana Coimbra de Brito; Maria Luiza Lopes; Karla Lima; Maisa Souza; Rita de Cássia Trindade; Thierry Zozio; Christophe Sola; Nalin Rastogi; Philip Noel Suffys

270

Mapping oil spill environmental sensitivity in Cardoso Island State Park and surroundings areas, São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an environmental oil spill sensitivity map of Cardoso Island State Park, located in São Paulo state, Brazil, including some of its surrounding areas. This map was designed following the procedures determined by the Brazilian Federal Environment Organ (Ministry of the Environment), which separates coastal habitats in different littoral sensitivity indexes (LSI) to oil spills. We have also

Arthur Wieczorek; Dimas Dias-Brito; João Carlos Carvalho Milanelli

2007-01-01

271

Geographic Population Structure of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in the Southern United States  

PubMed Central

The sugarcane borer moth, Diatraea saccharalis, is widespread throughout the Western Hemisphere, and is considered an introduced species in the southern United States. Although this moth has a wide distribution and is a pest of many crop plants including sugarcane, corn, sorghum and rice, it is considered one species. The objective was to investigate whether more than one introduction of D. saccharalis had occurred in the southern United States and whether any cryptic species were present. We field collected D. saccharalis in Texas, Louisiana and Florida in the southern United States. Two molecular markers, AFLPs and mitochondrial COI, were used to examine genetic variation among these regional populations and to compare the sequences with those available in GenBank and BOLD. We found geographic population structure in the southern United States which suggests two introductions and the presence of a previously unknown cryptic species. Management of D. saccharalis would likely benefit from further investigation of population genetics throughout the range of this species. PMID:25337705

Joyce, Andrea L.; White, William H.; Nuessly, Gregg S.; Solis, M. Alma; Scheffer, Sonja J.; Lewis, Matthew L.; Medina, Raul F.

2014-01-01

272

The Relationship between Sexist Naming Practices and Athletic Opportunities at Colleges and Universities in the Southern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the phenomenon of sexist naming of women's athletic teams at four-year colleges and universities in the southern United States. Drawing on theoretical and methodological insights from feminist scholarship on gender and sports, gendered language, and intersecting systems of race and gender inequalities, the author analyzes…

Pelak, Cynthia Fabrizio

2008-01-01

273

76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing...Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral, Coral Reefs, and Live/Hard Bottom Habitats of...

2011-10-26

274

Shortleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration: Impacts on Soils and Woody Debris in the Ouachita Mountains of the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of organizations and government agencies have been involved with restoration of overstocked shortleaf pine-hardwood stands to shortleaf pine- bluestem ecosystems in the Ouachita Mountains of the southern United States. These restoration efforts entail the reduction of stand density by harvesting and midstory competition control as well as the reintroduction of repeated fires. Application of these restoration practices has

Hal O. Liechty; Kenneth R. Luckow; Jessica Seifert; Daniel A. Marion; Martin Spetich; James M. Guldin

275

Mechanisms of seismic attenuation in the crust: Scattering and anelasticity in New York State, South Africa, and southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The envelopes of high-frequency seismograms from earthquakes in New York State, South Africa, and southern California are analyzed to determine how much of the observed attenuation of shear waves in the crust is caused by anelasticity and how much is produced by scattering from small-scale heterogeneities. For seismograms from New York and South Africa, there is a systematic enrichment of

Arthur Frankel

1991-01-01

276

Aging and eating in the rural, southern United States: Beliefs about salt and its effect on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws upon qualitative research conducted among older adults in the rural, southern United States in which they articulated their beliefs and experiences with nutrition and foods, and lay models of the connection of diet with chronic disease. Salt emerged as a focus of contention. The goals of the paper are to (1) present the culturally constructed meaning of

Shannon L. Smith; Sara A. Quandt; Thomas A. Arcury; Lindsay K. Wetmore; Ronny A. Bell; Mara Z. Vitolins

2006-01-01

277

The limited extent of plume-lithosphere interactions during continental flood-basalt genesis: geochemical evidence from Cretaceous magmatism in southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that large areas of the Earth's lithospheric mantle undergo pervasive dehydration melting during the impact of mantle plumes and the Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka continental flood-basalt (CFB) province has repeatedly been cited as evidence of this phenomenon. During the Cretaceous, however, southern Brazil experienced two phases of mafic magmatism. These igneous events occurred 50Ma apart and therefore represent distinct episodes of melt genesis in the underlying mantle. The first phase of magmatism, in the Early Cretaceous, included the emplacement of lava flows associated with the Paraná-Etendeka CFB province and also the intrusion of small-volume mafic alkaline magmas (e.g. Anitápolis, Jacupiranga and Juquiá) in the Dom Feliciano and Ribeira mobile belts. During the Late Cretaceous, both sodic and potassic mafic magmas were emplaced on the margin of the adjacent Luis-Alves craton and intrude the flood-basalts at Lages. On the basis of variations in incompatible trace-element concentrations (e.g. Ba=1000 to 2000ppm), initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048-0.7064) and ?Nd values (-3 to -12), we suggest that all of the Late-Cretaceous mafic potassic magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) which was metasomatically enriched during the Proterozoic. We propose that these relatively low temperature, volatile-rich, mafic melts provide direct evidence that the underlying SCLM did not melt wholesale during the previous Early-Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka CFB event. Late-Cretaceous melting of the SCLM beneath southern Brazil may have been caused by heat conduction from either: (1) ponded 132Ma Tristan plume-head material; or (2) 85Ma Trindade plume-head material channelled southwards between the thick cratonic keels of the Amazonas and São Francisco cratons. The Late-Cretaceous magmatism appears to have been contemporaneous with uplift across southern Brazil and Paraguay; we suggest that both of these phenomena represent the widespread effects of the impact of the Trindade mantle plume on the base of the SCLM. Plate margin stresses and lithospheric extension associated with the opening of the South Atlantic may also have changed the geothermal gradient beneath southern Brazil and contributed to mantle melting.

Gibson, S. A.; Thompson, R. N.; Leonardos, O. H.; Dickin, A. P.; Mitchell, J. G.

278

The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton Growing.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - BULLETIN NO. 345 JULY, 1926 - The Possibilities of Brazil as a Competitor of the United States in Cotton,Growing -- GRICULTURAL... Committee 7 ....... hltlster Spinners' ancl 1SiIanufacturers' .Association. 8 ................................. A llission to Brazil 8 ............ Cotton Conference at PLio de.Jaizeiro ill 1922 8 .................... Report of the "First Section" 8...

Youngblood, B. (Bonney)

1926-01-01

279

Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669

Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

2013-01-01

280

Induction of micronucleus of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to waters from the Cubatão do Sul River, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In an effort to characterize the pollution of surface waters by potentially genotoxic agents, this study aimed at assessing the frequency of micronucleated (MN) erythrocytes of the fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, from the Cubatão do Sul River. This river is the source of drinking water for the region of Florianópolis, capital of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Negative control fish showed low frequency of MN, ranging between 0.49‰ and 0.90‰. Positive control (potassium dichromate 2.5 mg/L) organisms showed high MN frequency (16.82-17.25‰). The MN frequency increased along the river (Site 1--1.24‰ winter 2011; Site 4--9.76‰ summer 2011). Based on the observation of elevated MN erythrocytes frequency in O. niloticus exposed to water samples from along the river course, we conclude that the complex environmental mixtures of water from the Cubatão do Sul River have genotoxic potential. This genotoxicity most likely originated from agricultural runoff and domestic effluents released without treatment, based on the evidence from literature data and a survey in the region. This study provides a scientific basis for future studies regarding the genotoxicity of complex environmental mixtures in natural environments. PMID:24138896

Fuzinatto, Cristiane F; Flohr, Letícia; Melegari, Silvia P; Matias, William G

2013-12-01

281

Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and for a wet condition, -43% and -36% respectively, relatively to the present land use. If the present pattern of urbanization is applied to the whole area of the basin, an impermeable area of 81% would be achieved and the simulated peak flow and the runoff volume for a dry condition would be changed +24% and +25%, respectively, and for a wet condition, +44% and +25% respectively, relatively to the present land use. Finally, if the entire basin is considered impervious, for a dry condition, these changes would be in +101% and +65% respectively and, for a wet condition, in +158% and +87% respectively, relatively to the present land use.

Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

2011-12-01

282

Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources contribution. Both conventional and alternative methods were capable to discriminate 100% of the sediment sources. Conventional fingerprinting method provided a sediment sources contribution of 33±19% by crop fields, 25±13% by unpaved roads and 42±19% by stream channels. The contribution of sediment sources obtained by alternative fingerprinting method using near-infrared spectroscopy was 71±22% of crop fields, 21±12% of unpaved roads and 14±19% of stream channels. No correlation was observed between source contribution assessed by the two methods. Notwithstanding, the average contribution of the unpaved roads was similar by both methods. The highest difference in the average contribution of crop fields and stream channels estimated by the two methods was due to similar organic matter content of these two sediment sources which hampers their discrimination by assessing the near-infrared spectra, where much of the bands are highly correlated with the TOC levels. Efforts should be taken to try to combine both the geochemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy information on a single estimative of the sediment sources contribution.

Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

2014-05-01

283

Age, Growth, and Structure of Vertebra in the School Shark Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and growth of the school shark Galeorhinusgaleus was studied from rings in the verte­ bra and length-frequency data. Sam­ ples were collected by trawling off the southern Brazilian coast from June 1980 to September 1986. Histo­ logical studies were also conducted on the characteristics of the verte­ bra. Standard histological techniques and microradiography were used to determine the pattern

Carolus Maria Vooren; Beatrice Padovanl Ferreira

284

Conserving the Grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International's Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing exist- ing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories should provide input to urgent regional conservation

Adrián S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

285

Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

2012-08-01

286

Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio of ethanol produced at the mill was found to be 3.2. The unit cost of production of ethanol was estimated to be $2.05 per gasoline gallon energy equivalent. The study also found that the emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets will significantly increase land expectation values and, thus, the profitability of landowners. Results suggest that the optimal rotation age is insensible to alternate management scenarios. Finally, it was found that all stakeholder groups perceive that the overall benefits of forest biomass-based bioenergy development were higher than its weaknesses.

Dwivedi, Puneet

287

The effects of unpaved roads on suspended sediment concentration of third- to fifth-order streams- A case study from southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg L-1) or a value that was 26 and 9 times higher than upstream and downstream samples, respectively. Event-by-event comparisons for each individual site display a tendency for road crossings to statistically increase mean concentration by an average of 6.9 times relative to upstream values only for those streams with the smallest catchment areas (< 2.6 km2). Meanwhile, for stream segments draining an excess of 9.5 km2 there was a tendency for upstream and downstream mean concentration to be statistically similar, presumably due to the minimal amount of road runoff contributed at a single crossing relative to the discharge being carried by the streams. The localized increase in sediment concentration by unpaved road crossing was not found to be associated to road surface area nor average slope. In summary, these findings suggest that the effect of unpaved roads on the local concentration of suspended sediment being transported by streams is strongly scale-dependent in that the impact tends to be important for the low-order headwater streams and undetectable for their higher order counterparts. These results point to the importance of low-order stream crossings in degrading water quality and the need to further explore the role of unpaved roads as agents of degradation in rural areas.

Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.

2012-12-01

288

Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets. PMID:17505751

Scheibler, D R

2007-02-01

289

Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed debates in the American South between traditional white Southerners and African American Southerners over whether and how symbols from the region's two defining historical events – the Civil War and the Civil Rights movement – are displayed on the region's landscape. This paper examines the most contentious of these debates, the conflict over government sanction for

Jonathan I. Leib; Gerald R. Webster; Roberta H. Webster

2001-01-01

290

Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub

M. S. Devall; B. R. Parresol

1994-01-01

291

Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México  

PubMed Central

Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

2012-01-01

292

A fourth chemotype of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Jaibas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) is a species complex of Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis (Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli) and at least three other as yet undefined siblings. Isozyme and mitochondrial studies of allopatric populations across Central and South America have suggested the presence of four "clades" that have been hypothesized to have arisen mainly because of geographical isolation mechanisms. Parallel studies of sexual behavior as well as cross-mating and genetic analysis, of both allopatric and sympatric populations, suggest at least four sibling species that do not seem to correspond to the defined four "clades." In an effort to understand this apparent discrepancy, sympatric populations of L. longipalpis from a single South American country, Brazil, are being studied. In Brazil, three putative species can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-a-himachalene, and a cembrene. We report here that analysis by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry shows that L. longipalpis from Jaibas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, occurs as two sympatric sex pheromone chemotypes. One chemotype is the cembrene type previously recorded in a L. longipalpis population from Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil, and the other is a new cembrene isomer not previously observed in L. longipalpis. The finding of this new chemotype strongly suggests that the L. longipalpis species complex in Brazil consists of four members rather than the three previously recognized and confirms previous analysis of genetic variation that had suggested the presence of a complex in Brazil. PMID:15605640

Hamilton, J G C; Brazil, R P; Maingon, R

2004-11-01

293

Single- and Dual-Aperture Interferometry at Southern Connecticut State University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instruments for astronomical interferometry built at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) are discussed. The first is the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI), which is a speckle camera built in 2008 and currently in operation at the WIYN 3.5-m Telescope at Kitt Peak. It is a two-channel speckle imaging system that utilizes electron-multiplying CCD cameras to capture speckle images in two colors simultaneously. The simultaneous information in two colors gives leverage on residual atmospheric dispersion that may be present in an observation. This allows reliable differential astrometry of binaries to be obtained on systems with separations smaller than one-quarter of the diffraction limit of the telescope, or under 10 mas at WIYN. A summary of the current observational projects being pursued with this system is given, including a survey of spectroscopic binaries from the Geneva-Copenhagen Catalogue. The second instrument, still being assembled and tested in the laboratory at SCSU, is a new two-station intensity interferometer that utilizes a Picoquant Picoharp timing module for real-time correlation of the photon signals received. The instrument and plans for observing with it are described.

Horch, E. P.

2014-09-01

294

Marketing of meat sheep with intensive finishing in southern state of Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to quantify the marketing margins of cold sheep carcass and barbacoa meat in the southern state of Mexico. Data were obtained from the production chain links (production, industrialization, and marketing) where the marketing margins were calculated along with the benefit/cost (B/C) ratio. In the absolute marketing margin of the final consumer price per kilogram of carcass meat, the producer obtained US$2.7/kg (47 %) of the utilities, while the intermediaries obtained US$3.1/kg (53 %). Considering the final cooked product in barbacoa (typical dish), the margin was US$6.3/kg (29 %) for the producer and US$15.2/kg (71 %) for the intermediaries. The B/C ratio was 1.0, 1.1, 2, and 1.3 for the producer, stocker, butcher, and barbacoa seller, respectively. It is concluded that the best marketing channel for the producer was the producer-stocker-processor (butcher and barbacoa seller). The highest marketing margin was for the intermediaries followed by the producer. The order of importance of the B/C kilogram ratio of meat was for the butcher first, then barbacoa seller, and lastly stocker and producer. PMID:25187024

Mondragón-Ancelmo, Jaime; Hernández-Martínez, Juvencio; Rebollar-Rebollar, Samuel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Rojo-Rubio, Rolando; Domínguez-Vara, Ignacio Arturo; García-Martínez, Anastacio

2014-12-01

295

Comparison of flavonoid composition of red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) grown in the southern United States.  

PubMed

Raspberry flavonoid compounds have significant antioxidant activities, and regular consumption may help prevent and/or moderate chronic diseases. Targeted metabolite profiling is useful to identify compounds contributing to these antioxidant properties and health benefits and for tailored breeding for functional foods. In this study, metabolomic variation was determined among three fall-fruiting red raspberry cultivars ('Autumn Britten', 'Caroline', 'Nantahala') grown at three North Carolina locations differing in elevation and average day/night temperatures. 'Nantahala' was specifically bred for the mountainous regions of the southern United States. Ten flavonoid compounds were detected by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Of those, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sambubioside, and quercetin-3-glucoside were quantified against external standards. Variation in flavonoid composition was primarily attributed to genotype and associated with night temperature and hours exposed to temperatures over 29 °C. 'Nantahala' had particularly high levels of cyanidin-3-sambubioside, indicative of its purple raspberry lineage. Quercetin-3-glucoside levels increased the most with elevated temperatures. PMID:22128912

Bradish, Christine M; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Fernandez, Gina E; Xie, Guoxiang; Jia, Wei

2012-06-13

296

Relating TRMM precipitation radar land surface backscatter response to soil moisture in the Southern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummarySoil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle and plays a vital role in agronomy, meteorology, and hydrology. It regulates the exchange of water and heat between land surface and atmosphere and thus plays an important role in the development of weather patterns. It is difficult to obtain a comprehensive spatio-temporal map of soil moisture because of expensive installation of soil moisture measuring instruments. In this paper, a model to estimate soil moisture ( m s) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR) backscatter ( ?°) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is developed for the Southern United States. Soil moisture data from Soil and Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations is used to calibrate and validate the model. The estimated values of m s compare well with the ground measurements of soil moisture. The model works well for various landcovers but works best for low density vegetated areas (closed shrubland). All the soil moisture estimates in this landcover have an absolute error of less than 8%. The model performance deteriorates with increase in vegetation density (crops and forest). Overall, the model performance is satisfactory for all landcover types with RMSE less than 6.3% and absolute error of 10% or less for 90% of the estimates. Estimation of soil moisture over a large area with low error provides another use of TRMMPR data.

Puri, Sumit; Stephen, Haroon; Ahmad, Sajjad

2011-05-01

297

Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under ‘verification required’ category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under ‘verification required’ category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored. PMID:24718406

Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Raju, H.K.; Vanamail, P.; Pradhan, M.M.; Jambulingam, P.

2014-01-01

298

Nutritional needs assessment of rural agricultural migrants of southern Brazil: designing, implementing and evaluating a nutrition education program.  

PubMed

A nutritional needs assessment was conducted among rural agricultural migrant women (target group) and children (less than 5 years). The study was conducted in Vila Diogo, a slum located on the periphery of Nuporanga, a village in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. A nutrition education program was designed on the basis of evidence obtained from demographic/socioeconomic information of the study population and a nutritional needs assessment of women (target group) and children less than 5 years of age. The nutritional needs assessment consisted of anthropometry, dietary assessment, and nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaires. Formative and summative evaluation of the nutrition education program, using appropriately selected criteria and comparisons of nutrition knowledge scores before and after the program, were used to determine program effectiveness. Major findings of the study were: Diets of Vila Diogo residents were generally simplistic, consisting primarily of rice, beans, and coffee with sugar. Vila Diogo women appeared to be at a relatively high risk for vitamin A, iron, calcium, ascorbic, and riboflavin deficiencies, based on comparisons of 24-hour dietary intake data with FAO recommendations. Children (2-5 years) appeared at high risk for vitamin A, iron, and ascorbic acid deficiencies, based on comparisons of 24-hour dietary intake data with FAO recommendations. All children less than 5 years of age had been breast-fed at birth, but more than one half of children had been weaned by the third month. Infant feeding practices during fever and diarrhea were nutritionally detrimental. Women generally recognized a relationship between dietary intake during pregnancy and fetal nourishment. Using weight-for-height index, a significant number of women were probably undernourished; a small percentage of women, however, were overweight or obese. Although children less than 5 years of age did not generally appear malnourished, a relatively large number were stunted in growth. Although Vila Diogo women reported many food taboos during various physiological states (menstruation, pregnancy, immediately post partum, lactation), relatively few food taboos had potentially negative nutritional consequences. For women who participated in the nutrition education program, nutrition knowledge scores after the program showed improvement which was statistically significant at alpha = 0.05, using Wilcoxon signed rank test. PMID:2408256

Desai, I D; Doell, A M; Officiati, S A; Bianco, A M; Van Severen, Y; Desai, M I; Jansen, E; de Oliveira, J E

1990-01-01

299

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 ?W/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 ?W/cm(2). PMID:21741680

Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

2011-09-01

300

Genetic Services and Research in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Minas Gerais in Brazil has a surface of 586,528 km2, and 18 million inhabitants. Infant mortality rate is 20\\/1,000, and congenital anomalies are its second cause. There are 11 medical schools where basic genetics, but not clinical genetics, is taught. Genetic services in the state include: newborn screening for hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease and cystic fibrosis;

Marcos José Burle Aguiar

2004-01-01

301

Trophic state and water turn-over time in six choked coastal lagoons in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a concentration, nutrient loading, and water turn-over time in six shallow choked lagoons along the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, established that water turn-over time is related to the trophic state of the lagoons with additional anthropogenic nutrient loading affecting this relationship. Turnover time was calculated as a flushing half-life from

Bastiaan Knoppers; Björn Kjerfve; Jean-Pierre Carmouze

1991-01-01

302

A new Tatia (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Tatia is described from the lower rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The new species is distinguishable from congeners by having large, irregular pale blotches over dark brown base coloration, absent longitudinal stripe, caudal fin with round to striate dark brown spots over light base in adults or entirely dark in juveniles, and by having a

Carla Simone Pavanelli; Alessandro Gasparetto Bifi

2009-01-01

303

The United States, Brazil, and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though virtually ignored in the historiography, Brazil played an intriguing role in the politics and diplomacy of the Cuban missile crisis and in U.S. Cuban relations during the Kennedy administration. In the years after Fidel Castro took power, successive Brazilian governments tried secretly to mediate between the United States and Cuba as the two countries' mutual confrontation intensified. Newly available

James G. Hershberg

2004-01-01

304

Prevalence of canine filariasis by Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and Dipetalonema reconditum was conducted in 1,519 dogs from Maceió and two coastal areas in the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil, from 1995 to 1999, by testing for microfilariae in blood. All blood samples were from ex- clusively domiciled dogs with a known history, showing that the infections were autochthonous, confirming transmission

Praça Afrânio Jorge; Ana Cristina Brito; Márcio Cavalcante Vila-Nova; Lidiana Gomes; Wendell Alexandre; Pinheiro de Almeida; Luciana da Silva Viana; Ricardo Ramalho Lopes Jr; Eliana Maria Maurício da Rocha

305

Psychology and the Workers’ Health Movement in the State of São Paulo (Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the ways in which psychology has contributed to a new range of public health services concerned with the health of working people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. It begins by discussing the political, institutional and theoretical bases from which the Workers’ Health Movement emerged in the early 1980s as a replacement for previous approaches to

Leny Sato; Francisco Antonio De Castro Lacaz; Mírcia Hespanhol Bernardo

2004-01-01

306

The Cultural Context of Educational Policy: Brazil and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…

Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.

307

Toxoplasma gondii diagnosis in ovine aborted fetuses and stillborns in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to study the contribution of Toxoplasma gondii to reproductive failure using nested PCR and histopathological examination of fetuses, stillborns and placentas. We examined 245 organs of fetuses and 28 placentas from 35 abortions and stillborns from naturally occurring miscarriages in sheep in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. At necropsy, fragments of brain, cerebellum, medulla,

Érica Paes Barreto Xavier de Moraes; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa; Antônio Flávio Medeiros Dantas; Jean Carlos Ramos da Silva; Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

308

Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from

Marcus Stumpf; Thomas A Ternes; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Silvana Vianna Rodrigues; Wolfram Baumann

1999-01-01

309

Parent-Professional Partnerships in Young Children's Care and Education in the United States and Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that the most promising practices in intervening with young children at risk for adverse developmental outcomes include respectful partnerships between professionals and children's families. Often referred to as the family-centered system of care, this approach has been incorporated into policy both in the United States and Brazil. This paper focuses on outlining historical changes in young

Terri L. Shelton

2005-01-01

310

Spatial analysis of the distribution of leprosy in the State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe spatial patterns of the distribution of leprosy and to investigate spatial clustering of incidence rates in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. The average incidence rate of leprosy for the period of 1991 to 1999 was calculated for each municipality of Ceará. Maps were used to describe the spatial distribution of the

Ana Cláudia Dorta Montenegro; Guilherme Loureiro Werneck; Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes; Maurício Lima Barreto; Hermann Feldmeier

2004-01-01

311

Focal mechanisms and the state of stress on the San Andreas fault in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal mechanisms have been determined from P wave first motion polarities for 138 small to moderate (2.6<=M<=4.3) earthquakes that occurred within 10 km of the surface trace of the San Andreas fault in southern California between 1978 and 1985. On the basis of these mechanisms the southern San Andreas fault has been divided into five segments with different stress regimes.

Lucile M. Jones

1988-01-01

312

Decrease in the summer rainfall of the southern United States coast and the Caribbean due to climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCAPP) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) AM2.1 timeslice experiment, for current climate (1971-2000) and future climate (2041-2070), were compared and contrasted to assess how May through October accumulated rainfall is responding to climate change along the southern United States coast and in the Caribbean under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Roque Vinicio Céspedes

313

Attraction of Southern Pine Engravers and Associated Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, and Lanierone in Southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eich- hoff); eastern Þvespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones ()-ipsenol, ()-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the southeastern United States. Catches ofI.avulsus andI.grandicollis to baited multiple-funnel traps were increased by ()-ipsenol and ()-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,

D. R. Miller; C. Asaro; C. W. Berisford

2005-01-01

314

Underplanting Cherrybark Oak ( Quercus pagoda Raf.) Seedlings on a Bottomland Site in the Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We initiated a study on a bottomland site in the southern United States to examine the effects of Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunberg) control and seedlings of two root classes on survival and growth of underplanted cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings. Three honeysuckle control treatments were assigned to nine 0.5-ha plots in a stand harvested to 30% residual\\u000a stocking.

Emile S. Gardiner; Jimmie L. Yeiser

2006-01-01

315

Attenuation of high-frequency shear waves in the crust: Measurements from New York State, South Africa, and Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the attenuation of high-frequency (3-30 Hz) shear waves for crystal paths in New York State, South Africa, and southern California over source-Receiver distances of about 10-400 km. The data consist of digital recordings of S waves (Delta=5-100 km) and Lg waves (Delta=100-400) produced by earthquakes. We use a coda normalization method to remove the effects of site amplification

Arthur Frankel; Art McGarr; John Bicknell; Jim Mori; Leonardo Seeber; Edward Cranswick

1990-01-01

316

A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students who were enrolled in average science classes.

Barco-Southall, Crystal

317

Prevalence of livestock diseases and their impact on livelihoods in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.  

PubMed

A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted in Kajo Keji and Yei Counties, Central Equatoria State, southern Sudan to assess the impact of livestock diseases on livelihoods. A serological survey of tick-borne diseases was conducted to supplement the PE study. PE data collection tools consisted primarily of focus group interviews and key informant interviews supplemented by observation. Information was collected on the social context, history and species of livestock kept. Constraints in livestock keeping were explored through description and probing. Proportional piling on the importance of different diseases and relative incidence scoring were also conducted. 243 sera were collected from cattle and tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis, Theileria mutans and T. parva by ELISA. Additionally, 173 blood samples were collected for a PCR assay of T. parva. Livestock diseases were ranked as the most important constraint to livestock keeping. While East Coast fever was ranked as the most important disease in Kajo Keji, diarrhoea in small ruminants was reported as the most important disease in Yei. Serological analyses of the sera indicated that A. marginale, B. bigemina, T. mutans and T. parva were most prevalent. Prevalence of B. bovis was found to be low (4.0% and 7.4% in Kajo Keji and Yei, respectively). 35% of the samples screened with the T. parva p104 gene nested PCR assay were positive. The study concludes that while ECF is the most important disease in Kajo Keji, it was not the case in Yei. Additional epidemiological studies are proposed before control strategies are recommended. PMID:22244519

Malak, A K; Mpoke, L; Banak, J; Muriuki, S; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D; Sunter, J; Kiara, H

2012-05-01

318

Convective activity in Mato Grosso state (Brazil) from microwave satellite observations: Comparisons between AMSU and TRMM data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a characterization of convective activity at sub-regional scale from two sets of satellite-based microwave observations: the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the combined Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager and precipitation radar data, for the period 2001 to 2011. We focus on the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, located at the southern edge of the so-called "Legal Amazon" which has undergone intense land cover transformation in the last 4 decades. The annual cycle of mean convective activity described by AMSU and TRMM are in good agreement, with a correlation close to 0.80. The mean amplitude of convective activity is maximal early in the rainy season, except for AMSU deep convective area, which presents a maximum in January. The diurnal cycle of convection was examined for the period 2003 to 2007, and it was found that convection is maximal near 1500 local time (LT) and minimal around 0700 LT. Unlike the amplitude, the phase shows little intraseasonal and interannual variability. A slight decrease in convective activity in the studied period was found, possibly indicating an extension of the dry season. Comparisons of convective activity between deforested and forested areas showed no significant differences in the phase of the diurnal cycle, but our analysis shows a tendency for increase (decrease) in convection in deforested (forested) areas for the period considered. A longer time series is however necessary in order to strengthen the robustness of our results.

Funatsu, Beatriz M.; Dubreuil, Vincent; Claud, Chantal; Arvor, Damien; Gan, Manoel A.

2012-08-01

319

[Socio-ecological super-determination of health in rural areas in Humaitá, State of Amazonas, Brazil].  

PubMed

The scope of this article is to apply a trans-disciplinary socio-ecological approach to discuss the super-determination of health in rural areas of the southern Amazon region from a case study developed in Humaitá in the State of Amazonas in Brazil. Field data were collected using ethnographic techniques applied during three expeditions in Humaitá's rural area between 2012 and 2014. Based on the 'socio-ecological metabolism' analytical category, a descriptive and theoretical analysis of four crucial components in the process of super-determination of local health are presented: (1) the composition of the local rural population; (2) fixed and changing territorial aspects; (3) construction of socio-ecological identities; (4) ethnic conflict between Indians and non-Indians. The conclusion reached is that the incorporation of a socio-ecological approach in territorial-based health research provides input for analyses of the local health situation through the systematization of information related to the process of super-determination of health. It also helps in the construction of trans-disciplinarity, which is a necessary epistemological condition for addressing the complex reality at the interfaces of social production, the environment and health. PMID:25272114

Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Marcia Gomide da Silva; Carvalho, Marcia Aparecida Ribeiro de; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

2014-10-01

320

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).  

PubMed

Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

2013-06-01

321

Seroprevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goats in the Cariri region, Paraiba state, Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in the Cariri Region of Paraíba State, Brazil, was determined in 60 goat herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The overall seroprevalence was 8.2%, with seropositivity in 21/60 (35%) herds and 13/15 (86.6%) municipalities. Bucks had a significantly higher frequency of infection (28.3%) than does (5.9%), and bucks that originated in other states had a significantly higher frequency of infection (76.5%) than those from Paraíba State (9.3%). PMID:18675568

Bandeira, Dimas Assis; de Castro, Roberto Soares; Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Souza Seixas Melo, Luiza; de Melo, Cristiano Barros

2009-06-01

322

Sexual maturity of the deep sea royal crab Chaceon ramosae Manning, Tavares & Albuquerque, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae) in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The royal crab Chaceon ramosae is one of the three species of deep-sea crabs currently ex- ploited in Brazil. The royal crab fishery started in 2001 with foreign vessels that were extensively monitored by observers and tracked by satellite. Tha management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on biomass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at

Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto; Rodrigo Sant’Ana

2009-01-01

323

Effect of sugarcane residue management (mulching versus burning) on organic matter in a clayey Oxisol from southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in residue management may help sustain land productivity, and may have noticeable consequences in the global carbon budget when large areas are involved. The effects of sugarcane residue management on topsoil carbon were assessed in a clayey Oxisol of Brazil, largest world's producer of sugarcane. The carbon concentration of the whole soil and particle-size fractions were determined in a

Tantely Razafimbelo; Bernard Barthès; Marie-Christine Larré-Larrouy; Edgar F. De Luca; Jean-Yves Laurent; Carlos C. Cerri; Christian Feller

2006-01-01

324

Ethnobotany and ecological perspectives on the management and use of plant species for a traditional fishing trap, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

The cerco-fixo is an artisanal fishing trap widely used by traditional communities in the estuarine region of the southern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The primary goal of the study was to investigate, through ethnobotanical and ecological approaches, the use of plant species by traditional fishermen to build the cerco-fixo at Cardoso Island State Park and Cananéia Island. Ethnobotanical data were collected through interviews, direct observation, plant collection and identification, and document analysis. An ecological evaluation was also done comparing five 20 × 20 m plots in a managed area to five 20 × 20 m plots in an unmanaged area, both within arboreal sandy soil vegetation called restinga arbórea, found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. This study involved 34 fishermen living at Cardoso and Cananéia Islands. The fishermen know more than 90 Atlantic Forest plant species that can be used to build the cerco-fixo. Tree species from the family Myrtaceae were the most quoted in the interviews. With respect to the ecological evaluation, the cluster analyses showed greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition (i.e. greater floristic dissimilarity) within the plots of the managed area. The analyses of diversity showed a slightly higher species richness and slightly lower values for Shannon, Simpson, Hurlbert's PIE and Evenness indices in the managed area (59 species; H' = 3.28; 1/D = 10.77; E = 0.80; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.91) compared to the unmanaged area (54 species; H' = 3.39; 1/D = 20.21; E = 0.85; Hurlbert's PIE = 0.95). The Hutcheson's t test showed no significant difference between both areas' Shannon diversity indices (t: -1.04; p: 0.30). These results are attributed to the greater dominance of the palm species Euterpe edulis Mart. in the managed area (28.2% of the trees sampled at this area; n = 118), which equals twice the percentage of individuals of the same species found for the unmanaged area (14.6% of the sampled trees; n = 48). We discuss the impact of the fishermen's harvesting practices in the managed area with an emphasis on three main points: (1) the harvesting practices are likely not contributing to a decrease in diversity in the managed area; (2) the greater heterogeneity in terms of floristic composition found for the managed area may reflect a mosaic pattern created by the opening of small tree-gaps distributed across this area over the course of more than 50 years; (3) the disturbance promoted by the fishermen's harvesting practices can be compared to natural disturbances of low impact that create mosaic patterns in tropical forests. This study emphasizes the prominence of the human dimension in ecological processes and the importance of considering the perspectives of local people when discussing the conservation of the natural environments in which these people live. PMID:21396767

de Oliveira, Flavia C; Hanazaki, Natalia

2011-07-01

325

Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about 16,300 million acre-ft), Mississippi embayment and Texas coastal uplands (about 12,000 million acre-ft), and Great Plains (about 8,170 million acre-ft) aquifer systems. Of the 22 aquifers evaluated in this report, the Maha aquifer in the Great Plains aquifer system contains both the largest total volume of saline water (about 6,280 million acre-ft) and the largest volume of slightly to moderately saline water (about 5,150 million acre-ft).

Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

2013-01-01

326

Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution--Goias State, Brazil, 2003.  

PubMed

Barium-containing contrast solutions are commonly used in radiologic studies. On May 22, 2003, three patients at radiology clinics in Goias State, Brazil, were hospitalized after ingesting such solutions; two persons died within 24 hours of hospitalization. Exposure occurred during radiologic examination of the upper or lower gastrointestinal tract. An investigation was conducted by municipal and state public health authorities with assistance from the Ministry of Health's National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) and Brazil's Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP), known locally as EPISUS. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 44 persons had suspected barium toxicity, nine of whom died. Eight of the nine deaths were linked to a single lot of brand A contrast solution. A national recall was announced on May 23, and the manufacturing facility was inspected and closed. Clinicians should be alert for signs of barium toxicity in patients in the hours after administration of contrast solutions during radiologic studies. PMID:14586298

2003-10-31

327

Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.  

PubMed

This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors. PMID:21125724

Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

2010-01-01

328

Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata Paleontological District, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution is given a preliminary up-to-date annotated list of all fossil vertebrates from the Turonian–Santonian Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group where it occurs in the Prata Paleontological District which is located 45 km to the west of Prata in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Adamantina Formation is reddish sandstone in the Triângulo Mineiro region. These fluviolacustrine sediments were deposited in

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Adriano R. Santos; Thomas H. Rich; Thiago S. Marinho; Emerson C. Oliveira

329

Vertebrate fossils from the Adamantina Formation (Late Cretaceous), Prata paleontological district, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution is given a preliminary up-to-date annotated list of all fossil vertebrates from the Turonian–Santonian Adamantina Formation, Bauru Group where it occurs in the Prata paleontological district which is located 45 km to the west of Prata in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Adamantina Formation is a reddish sandstone in the Triângulo Mineiro region. These fluviolacustrine sediments were deposited

Carlos Roberto A. Candeiro; Adriano R. Santos; Thomas H. Rich; Thiago S. Marinho; Emerson C. Oliveira

2006-01-01

330

Mercury fractionation in stream sediments from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold mining region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iron Quadrangle (IQ) region, located in the state of Minas Gerais, has been the most important gold producing area in\\u000a Brazil since the end of seventeenth century. The use of mercury for gold amalgamation in small scale mines has been responsible\\u000a for large release of Hg to aquatic and terrestrial environments during 300 years of mining. The present work sought

Eduardo V. V. Varejão; Carlos R. Bellato; Maurício P. F. Fontes

2009-01-01

331

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (< 5%). Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (?) diversities were 0.5570 ± 0.0697 and 0.0021 ± 0.0016, respectively. Exact tests of differentiation and AMOVA ?ST pairwise values between the study area and eight other Atlantic foraging grounds revealed significant differences in most areas, except Ubatuba and Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

2009-01-01

332

Global climate change and biodiversity in forests of the southern United States  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the effects of projected future climate change scenarios on biodiversity in forests of the southern US. Global climate change will probably influence biodiversity of southern forests as it was affected during periods in the past, with added problems caused by high human population density, development, air pollution, and rising sea levels. Although the increased level of CO[sub 2] could have beneficial effects on plants, climate change could cause serious changes to many ecological systems, for example inducing plants to bloom before their pollinators are available, and could precipitate modifications that few scientists have considered. Certainly many ecological systems will be seriously altered by climate change. Large northward shifts in species' ranges are expected, causing communities and ecosystems to change in composition. Loss of or movement of a dominant tree species may influence many other plant and animal species in the southern forest, bringing about large increases in the numbers of threatened and endangered species, as well as extinctions. Predictions about the effects of global climate change to southern forests and suggestions for detecting and preparing for them are included.

Devall, M.S.; Parresol, B.R. (Forest Service, New Orleans, LA (United States). Inst. for Quantitative Studies)

1994-09-01

333

Annual Progress Report, January 1, 1974-December 31, 1974. [Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) first annual report documents its organizational structure and provides a point by point summary of accomplishments relative to the following goals: (1) Develop, plan, and inventory existing rural development research knowledge; (2) Inventory rural development research needs and priorities; (3)…

Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

334

Attenuation in the upper mantle beneath Southern California: Physical state of the lithosphere and asthenosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

We invert phase and amplitude data of Rayleigh waves for attenuation (Q -1) and shear wave velocities beneath southern California using teleseismic sources recorded by the TriNet\\/USArray network. Fundamental mode surface wave studies from 25 to 143 s period allow us to constrain the vertical variation of shear quality factor Q mu in the upper mantle. We use 2-D sensitivity

Yingjie Yang; Donald W. Forsyth

2008-01-01

335

Lightning from a storm system extending from Argentina to southern Brazil on the evening of April 23, 2003. (Photograph from the International Space Station, NASA Image Exchange, image number ISS006-E-48196.)  

E-print Network

1 Lightning from a storm system extending from Argentina to southern Brazil on the evening of April ·Volcanoes ·Forest Fires #12;6 · Predict the onset of tornadoes, hail, microbursts, flash floods; · Track, improving the efficiency of emergency management; · NWP/Data Assimilation; · Locate lightning strikes known

Kuligowski, Bob

336

Effect of no-till cropping systems on soil organic matter in a sandy clay loam Acrisol from Southern Brazil monitored by electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In weathered tropical and subtropical soils organic matter is crucial for soil productivity and its quantity depends heavily on soil management systems. This study evaluated the effect of no-till cropping systems on organic matter content and quality in a sandy clay loam Acrisol soil (Paleudult in US taxonomy) from Southern Brazil. Ten cropping systems with varying additions of C and

Cimélio Bayer; Ladislau Martin-Neto; João Mielniczuk; Carlos Alberto Ceretta

2000-01-01

337

Polyphase Archean evolution in the Campo Belo metamorphic complex, Southern São Francisco Craton, Brazil: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconnaissance SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology on three zircon populations from a migmatite of the Campo Belo Complex reveals a polyphase Archean history. Group 1 zircons (three grains) yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 3,205±17 Ma, interpreted to be a relict age component within the migmatite. This age compares well with most of the T DM ages available for the Archean metamorphic complexes in the Southern São Francisco Craton and indicates the first emergence of continental crust. Group 2 zircons (three grains) yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 3,047±25 Ma, interpreted to be a second tectonic event in the area. This event is compatible with the formation of medium to high-grade gneisses with ?Nd (t) parameters close to zero and mantle-like single stage Pb signature ( 238U/ 204Pb=8.18). Group 3 zircons (three grains) yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2,839±17 Ma, which is considered to be the crystallization age of the neosome—the third tectonic event in the CBC. The fact that the migmatite sample contains three generations of melts is coherent with the observed variation of the ?Nd(2.84 Ga) values of the CBC gneissic rocks between +0.9 and -3.0. This indicates that reworking processes have had an important role during the crustal evolution. The Neoarchean final evolution of the area is associated tectonically with the Rio das Velhas orogeny (2,780-2,700 Ma), during which migmatitic rocks were formed 2,690±56 Ma ago, in the southern edge of the Campo Belo Complex. In this region, mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced at ca. 2.75 and 2.66 Ga ago are associated with major distensional phases of this orogeny. Finally, a low-temperature episode took place at ca. 2,650 Ma ago within the Complex, as evidenced by resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb whole rock isotopic systematics of granitoid rocks long after their primary crystallization.

Teixeira, W.; Cordani, U. G.; Nutman, A. P.; Sato, K.

1998-05-01

338

Predicting geographic and ecological distributions of triatomine species in the southern Mexican state of Puebla using ecological niche modeling.  

PubMed

We analyzed the geographic distribution using ecological niche modeling of three species of triatomines distributed in the Mexican state of Puebla. Punctual records were gathered for a period of 5 yr of fieldwork sampling. We used the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) to achieve the potential distribution of the ecological niche of triatomines. The models showed that Triatoma barberi and Meccus pallidipennis are sympatric and widely distributed in the central-southern part of the state, whereas T. dimidata is restricted to the northern mountains of the state with no overlapping among other species, M. bassolsae was not modeled because of the scarce number of locality records. We highlighted the warm and dry conditions in southern Puebla as important potential areas for triatomine presence. Finally, we correlated the species potential presence with the human population at risk of acquiring Chagas disease by vector-borne transmission; it is showed that M. pallidipennis presents the highest values of both ecological and poverty risk scenarios representing the main potential vector in the state. PMID:18533450

Sandoval-Ruiz, C A; Zumaquero-Rios, J L; Rojas-Soto, O R

2008-05-01

339

Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding system may be a source of NDV. These data can be used to establish appropriate biosecurity and husbandry measures for this type of breeding system to prevent NDV spread in Brazil. PMID:24958456

Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

2014-09-01

340

Why States Change the Governance of Education: An Historical Comparison of Brazil and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the histories of Brazilian and U.S. federal government policies toward educational governance. Argues that current policies that apparently support decentralization and privatization actually ensure the continued hegemony of the state while relieving it of financial and social responsibilities related to efficiency and equity. Contains 47…

McGinn, Noel; Pereira, Luzete

1992-01-01

341

Establishing a sediment budget for a small agricultural catchment in southern Brazil, to support the development of effective sediment management strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid expansion of agriculture in Brazil has increased erosion rates and sediment yields, causing many negative environmental and economic impacts, both on- and off-site. However, to date, very few catchment-scale sediment budget investigations have been carried out in Brazil. Given the need to reduce the negative off-site impacts of increasing agricultural activity, there is an important need for such investigations in order to inform the development of effective sediment management strategies. Against this background, 137Cs measurements have been combined with measurements of sediment yield and fingerprinting the source of the fine sediment output, to establish a provisional sediment budget for a small (1.19 km2) agricultural catchment in southern Brazil. The catchment is located in an area of steep highly erodible basaltic terrain, which has been intensively cultivated with tobacco. An ongoing monitoring programme provided information on the sediment yield from the catchment and existing suspended sediment source fingerprinting investigations provided information on the main sediment sources contributing to the sediment load at the catchment outlet. 137Cs measurements have been used to estimate medium-term erosion and deposition rates along 17 transects across the cultivated slopes and to quantify sedimentation rates within valley floor sediment sinks. These data have been used to estimate sediment redistribution rates within the cultivated areas of the study catchment and sediment accumulation in the valley floor sinks. The information provided by the three primary data sources has been integrated to establish the sediment budget for the catchment over the past 57 years. The individual terms of the budget necessarily involve much uncertainty, but its closure adds confidence to the final result. The budget calculations indicate that the study catchment has a sediment delivery ratio of ?15%. The implications of the key features of the budget for developing effective sediment management strategies are discussed.

Minella, Jean P. G.; Walling, Desmond E.; Merten, Gustavo H.

2014-11-01

342

Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil.  

PubMed

Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n=29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. PMID:23895781

da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

2014-01-01

343

Northern?=?smart and Southern?=?nice: the development of accent attitudes in the United States.  

PubMed

Adults evaluate others based on their speech, yet little is known of the developmental trajectory by which accent attitudes are acquired. Here we investigate the development of American children's attitudes about Northern- and Southern-accented American English. Children in Illinois (the "North") and Tennessee (the "South") evaluated the social desirability, personality characteristics, and geographic origins of Northern- and Southern-accented individuals. Five- to 6-year-old children in Illinois preferred the Northern-accented speakers as potential friends, yet did not demonstrate knowledge of any stereotypes about the different groups; 5-6-year-old children in Tennessee did not show a preference towards either type of speaker. Nine- to 10-year-old children in both Illinois and Tennessee evaluated the Northern-accented individuals as sounding "smarter" and "in charge", and the Southern-accented individuals as sounding "nicer." Thus, older children endorse similar stereotypes to those observed in adulthood. These accent attitudes develop in parallel across children in different regions and reflect both positive and negative assessments of a child's own group. PMID:23153362

Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

2013-06-01

344

Brucella canis infection in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from patos, Paraba?BA state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

To determine the frequency of anti-Brucella canis antibodies in dogs attended in veterinary clinics from Patos, Paraíba State, Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors and to isolate and identify the agent, 193 dogs were used. Agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) was used to detect B. canis antibodies in sera. Isolation of B. canis was carried out in blood and bone marrow from seropositive animals. Six animals tested seropositive in AGID, resulting in a frequency of 3.11%. B. canis was isolated from bone marrow of one seropositive animal, with confirmation by PCR. Lack of cleaning of the dog’s environment was identified as risk factor (odds ratio = 7.91). This is the first report of isolation of B. canis in dogs from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031770

Fernandes, Annielle Regina Fonseca; de Azevedo, Sergio Santos; Pinheiro, Eliana Scarcelli; Genovez, Margareth Elide; de Azevedo, Adilio Santos; de Sousa Americo Batista, Carolina; Alves, Clebert Jose

2011-01-01

345

[Primary health care and urban dynamics in large cities in São Paulo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The Baseline Studies on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy created primary health care indicators and models for the 62 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in São Paulo State, Brazil, and identified varying patterns for these indicators and models in relation to different urban dynamics in the State. The studies showed the need to reflect on health in relation to urban land use. The main objective was to gain a better understanding of how urban dynamics influence the health system's profile, organization, and operation, based on which it was possible to extract some hypotheses and discussions regarding how urbanization in São Paulo State creates challenges for the expansion and consolidation of primary health care and the Family Health Program in these municipalities. PMID:18660916

d'Avila Viana, Ana Luiza; Rocha, Juan S Yazlle; Elias, Paulo Eduardo; Ibañez, Nelson; Bousquat, Aylene

2008-01-01

346

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Results Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%). Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%–69.3%). In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those reporting dyspeptic symptoms presented a higher prevalence of the infection even after allowing for current and past socio-economic conditions, ethnicity, age, and sex. Conclusion Hp infection is as common among adults in southern Brazil as it is in other developing countries. Socio-economic conditions in childhood besides ethnicity and presence of dyspeptic symptoms were the factors significantly associated with the infection. PMID:16283940

Santos, Ina S; Boccio, Jose; Santos, Ari S; Valle, Neiva CJ; Halal, Camila S; Bachilli, Marta Colvara; Lopes, Ricardo D

2005-01-01

347

Physiological energetics of the brown mussel Perna perna (L.) transplanted in the Itajaí-Açu river mouth, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Groups of the mussel Perna perna were transplanted to two points and at three different depths in the coastal region close to the Itajaí-Açu River mouth, an impacted river in the south of Brazil. With the objective of evaluating the physiology changes in the organisms in relation to the control area (origin of the organisms), the clearance, respiration and excretion rates, absorption efficiency and growth were estimated. The levels of metals in the organism tissue were determined in an attempt to explain the physiological changes occurring in the study area. Organisms from Point 2 placed near the bottom showed physiological changes in comparison to the control and the transplanted organisms from Point 1. Point 2 showed greater sediment resuspension and availability of trace metals to the organisms closer to the bed. The increase in Cr concentration in the tissues of the organisms (up to 0.21 mg kg(-1) ww) was not sufficient to explain the decrease in the inhibition of clearance (28.8%) and in the absorption efficiency (15.7%), or the increased excretion rate (282.5%), which led to the organisms having a reduced scope for growth (48.6%). This indicates the possible presence of other contaminants, which were not measured, and which probably had synergistic action with the trace metals investigated. PMID:19795207

Resgalla, C; Radetski, C M; Schettini, C A F

2010-02-01

348

Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI—a case study in Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recognising that modifications to the physical attributes of urban space are able to promote improved thermal outdoor conditions and thus positively influence the use of open spaces, a survey to define optimal thermal comfort ranges for passers-by in pedestrian streets was conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. We applied general additive models to study the impact of temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as long-wave and short-wave radiant heat fluxes as summarised by the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) on the choice of clothing insulation by fitting LOESS smoothers to observations from 944 males and 710 females aged from 13 to 91 years. We further analysed votes of thermal sensation compared to predictions of UTCI. The results showed that females chose less insulating clothing in warm conditions compared to males and that observed values of clothing insulation depended on temperature, but also on season and potentially on solar radiation. The overall pattern of clothing choice was well reflected by UTCI, which also provided for good predictions of thermal sensation votes depending on the meteorological conditions. Analysing subgroups indicated that the goodness-of-fit of the UTCI was independent of gender and age, and with only limited influence of season and body composition as assessed by body mass index. This suggests that UTCI can serve as a suitable planning tool for urban thermal comfort in sub-tropical regions.

Bröde, Peter; Krüger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A.; Fiala, Dusan

2012-05-01

349

Spatial and temporal distribution of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in streams in a mountainous region in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The spatial and temporal structure of non-biting midge (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae assemblages and some environmental factors that affect their distribution were analyzed in a montane river and its tributaries in a temperate climate region of southernmost Brazil. In total, 69 taxa were recorded after four seasonal samplings (winter, spring, summer, and autumn). The dominant taxa were Rheotanytarsus sp. 1, Rheotanytarsus sp. 2, Cricotopus sp. 2, and Polypedilum (Polypedilum) sp., although dominance varied among the four sampling sites. The variations in dominance, abundance, and richness among the different sites were affected by environmental characteristics, such as the presence of marginal vegetation and a heterogeneous substratum, and also by human activities. Strictly environmental factors, such as altitude, and factors related to annual weather patterns, such as mean temperature and precipitation, influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of certain taxa and the structure of faunal assemblages. The influence of the riparian vegetation and riverbed heterogeneity on the composition, richness, and abundance of the chironomid larvae assemblages indicates that human activities, such as deforestation and the construction of dams, constitute a serious threat to the conservation of these insects and to the fauna that depends on them for food. PMID:24784953

Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Secretti, Elisangela; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Marcia Regina; Pires, Mateus Marques

2013-01-01

350

SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4%) dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ? one year (p = 0.0051). Ten/16 (62.5%) and 8/16 (50%) horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5%) humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98%) on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15%) on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species. PMID:24037288

Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thallitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Nascimento, Denise do Amaral Gomes; Martins, Thiago F.; Krawczak, Felipe S.; Labruna, Marcelo B.; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon

2013-01-01

351

Isolation and genotyping of free-living environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba spp. from bromeliads in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Species of Acanthamoeba are frequently isolated from distinct environmental sources such as water, soil, dust and air. They are responsible to cause infections and disease in humans and animals. In addition, Acanthamoeba sp. are considered an important reservoir of bacteria, virus and fungi, which act as "Trojan horses" to protect these microorganisms of harsh environmental conditions. In this study, nine Acanthamoeba isolates from bromeliads phylloplane were identified based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms. The genotype level was accessed by the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene. Genotypic characterization grouped five isolates in the genotype T2/T6, three in the T4 genotype and one in the genotype T16. The results obtained indicate that the genotype T2/T6 is common on phylloplane. To predict the pathogenic potential of the Acanthamoeba isolates, thermo and osmotolerance assays were employed, although all isolates were capable of surviving at temperatures of 37°C, other tests will be conducted in the future to determine the potential pathogenic of the isolates. Altogether, our results revealed the importance of the presence of Acanthamoeba associated with bromeliads in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the necessity for further studies to determine the environmental distribution and the role of these species. PMID:23562883

Landell, Melissa Fontes; Salton, Juliana; Caumo, Karin; Broetto, Leonardo; Rott, Marilise B

2013-07-01

352

Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

2013-09-01

353

UBVRI CCD photometric study of southern open star clusters observed at Pico dos Dias Observatory (LNA/Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open clusters have long been recognized as important objects to investigate aspects of Galactic structure such as the location of spiral arms, Galactic dynamics or even the chemical-abundance gradients in the Galactic disk. Great effort has been dedicated to studies of these objects throughout the past few years to determine parameters like age, distance, reddening, metallicity as well as kinematic information in a systematic and consistent manner. In this work, we present results on several open clusters selected from the DAML02 catalog that have been observed and investigated for the first time. CCD UBVRI (Johnsons-Cousins system) observations were carried out in 2009 using the 60 cm telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (LNA/Brazil). The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams were analyzed for each cluster with the help of a program written by our group, which allows handling photometric and astrometric data simultaneously. We determined the fundamental parameters (reddening, distance and age) using the main-sequence fitting method, taking into account kinematic information of individual stars in the clusters. The mean proper motion and radial velocity were estimated using a set of stars selected photometrically.

Caetano, Thiago Costa; Dias, Wilton S.

2010-01-01

354

Dictyoceratida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic (Northeastern Brazil, Sergipe State) and the description of three new species.  

PubMed

Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil.  PMID:25081789

Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

355

Fire history, related to climate and land use in three southern Appalachian landscapes in the eastern United States.  

PubMed

Fire-maintained ecosystems and associated species are becoming increasingly rare in the southern Appalachian Mountains because of fire suppression policies implemented in the early 20th century. Restoration of these communities through prescribed fire has been hindered by a lack of information on historical fire regimes. To characterize past fire regimes, we collected and absolutely dated the tree rings on cross sections from 242 fire-scarred trees at three different sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the historical frequency of fire in southern Appalachian mixed pine-oak forests, (2) assess the impact of interannual climatic variability on the historical occurrence of fire, and (3) determine whether changes in human culture and land use altered the frequency of fire. Results demonstrate that fires burned frequently at all three sites for at least two centuries prior to the implementation of fire suppression and prevention in the early to mid 20th century. Composite mean fire return intervals were 2-4 yr, and point mean fire return intervals were 9-13 yr. Area-wide fires that burned across multiple stands occurred at 6-13-yr intervals. The majority of fires were recorded during the dormant season. Fire occurrence exhibited little relationship with reconstructed annual drought conditions. Also, fire activity did not change markedly during the transition from Native American to Euro-American settlement or during the period of industrial logging at the start of the 20th century. Fire activity declined significantly, however, during the fire suppression period, with a nearly complete absence of fire during recent decades. The characterization of past fire regimes should provide managers with specific targets for restoration of fire-associated communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The fire chronologies reported here are among the longest tree-ring reconstructions of fire history compiled for the eastern United States and support the hypothesis that frequent burning has played a long and important role in the development of forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. PMID:24147399

Flatley, William T; Lafon, Charles W; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; LaForest, Lisa B

2013-09-01

356

Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.  

PubMed

The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

2013-01-01

357

[Mortality by firearms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatial analysis].  

PubMed

Mortality caused by firearms has been increasing at an alarming rate in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study analyzes the gradual evolution of firearm mortality rates in this Brazilian state from 1979 to 1992, according to sex, age, and area of residence (capital city, metropolitan area, or the state's interior), and uses spatial statistical techniques to describe the propagation of this firearm mortality epidemic in time and space. During the period analyzed, mortality due to firearms showed the greatest increase among 15- to 19-year-old male adolescents, with yearly rates ranging from 13 to 16%, according to area of residence. For children 10 to 14 years of age, mortality caused by firearms increased by 10% annually in the same period. The highest annual increase occurred in the state's interior. At the beginning of the period studied, dissemination of firearm mortality was observed to follow a definite direction parallel to the federal road that runs along the east coast of the state. Between 1990 and 1992, however, the increase in deaths by firearms spread out in practically every direction. Empirical confirmation of a general expansion of firearm wound mortality contradicts the usual claim that violence is concentrated in areas of extreme poverty within Brazil's largest cities. Programs for prevention and control of this epidemic should focus on its various aspects and take into consideration both collective issues (such as proliferation of firearms among persons involved with international firearm smuggling, increases in criminal activity, expansion of drug trafficking, and exclusion from social opportunities) and personal issues (relationships and interaction of young people with their families, schools, and social environment). PMID:9796388

Szwarcwald, C L; de Castilho, E A

1998-09-01

358

The perception of students on the use of animals in higher education at the Federal University of Paraná, Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The use of animals in education and research is a controversial issue that involves ethical considerations. In Brazil, Act 11,794, which was approved in 2008, established the National Council on the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) and a database of institutions that use animals for research and education (CIUCA). This legislation also set out the regulations for the use of animals. In this study, we have evaluated the ethical issues involved in the use of animals for educational purposes at the Federal University of Paraná, through a qualitative-quantitative analysis that relied on written questionnaires. Our objective was to find out the opinions of students and staff from different academic fields, and at different stages in their professional development, on the use of animals for educational purposes. The study involved 101 students and 20 lecturers (i.e. tenure-track professors and all those who teach the students) in Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Approximately half of the students (45.5%) did not know the legislation that regulates the use of animals in education, and most of the lecturers believed that learning goals could not be achieved with alternative methods. Only 38.9% of the lecturers and 31.9% of the students trusted the usefulness of alternative methods. Furthermore, recent graduates were as unaware of the legislation, as were students in the first two years of their university courses. These results suggest that it is necessary to considerably expand the discussion on alternatives to animal use in the academic environment. PMID:22762192

Deguchi, Bernardo G F; Molento, Carla F M; de Souza, Carlos E P

2012-05-01

359

A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices. PMID:23102960

Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

2013-01-01

360

Trypanosoma cruzi Circulating in the Southern Region of the State of Mexico (Zumpahuacan) Are Pathogenic: A Dog Model  

PubMed Central

Here we describe clinical and pathologic evidence of Chagas disease caused in dogs by circulating Trypanosoma cruzi from a newly recognized endemic area in Mexico. We show that the Zumpahuacan isolate, although less virulent than the Sylvio-X10 reference strain that caused acute myocarditis and death, was pathogenic in dogs. Dogs infected with the Zumpahuacan isolate exhibited electrocardiographic alterations, left- and right-ventricle dilation, and hydropericardium. Histologically, diffused perimysial and endomysial lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and amastigote nests were noted in Zumpahuacan-infected dogs. These findings suggest that the risk of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease is present in the State of Mexico, and further research is needed to identify the T. cruzi bio-types circulating in southern State of Mexico. PMID:19706902

Barbabosa-Pliego, Alberto; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Aparicio-Burgos, Esteban; Lopez-Heydeck, Sandra M.; Velasquez-Ordonez, Valente; Fajardo-Munoz, Raul C.; Diaz-Gonzalez, Sandra; De Oca-Jimenez, Roberto Montes; Barbosa-Mireles, Marco; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Garg, Nisha Jain; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.

2009-01-01

361

Diagnostic survey of bovine abortion with special reference to Neospora caninum infection: importance, repeated abortion and concurrent infection in aborted fetuses in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The protozoa Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion world-wide. The objective of this survey was to determine the distribution pattern of infectious abortion in Southern Brazil with special reference to N. caninum infection. A total of 161 bovine aborted fetuses from 149 farms were analysed during a 1.5 year period. The cause of abortion was identified in 51.5% of cases. Overall, 23% (37/161) of the fetuses were considered to be infected with N. caninum. Bacterial infection accounted for 17.4% (28/161) of cases, fungal infection for 3.1% (5/161) of cases and viral aetiology for 1.8% (3/161). Six fetuses had concurrent infection with N. caninum and Leptospira spp. Data from 111 fetuses and the respective aborted cows were analysed to investigate the association between previous abortion and current N. caninum infection. The prevalence of N. caninum-infected fetuses from cows with and without a history of previous abortion was 44% (11/25) and 24.4% (21/86), respectively. Cows aborting a N. caninum-infected fetuses were 2.4 times more likely to have aborted previously than cows aborting for other reasons (95% CI of odds ratio=0.9-6.8, P=0.06). PMID:16772136

Corbellini, Luis G; Pescador, Caroline A; Frantz, Fernanda; Wunder, Elsio; Steffen, David; Smith, David R; Driemeier, David

2006-07-01

362

Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.  

PubMed

We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness. PMID:18278312

Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

2007-11-01

363

Human adenovirus (HAdV), human enterovirus (hEV), and genogroup A rotavirus (GARV) in tap water in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The effects of viral gastroenteritis are more devastating in children than in any other age category. Thus, children exposed to the consumption of low quality water are at an increased risk of infection, especially in regions where sanitation is inadequate. The present study aimed to provide a survey of the occurrence of representative enteric viruses: human adenovirus (HAdV), human enteroviruses (hEV), and genogroup A rotavirus (GARV) in tap water samples collected in public schools located at six municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Seventy-three schools were included in the study and tap water samples were analyzed by conventional PCR for the presence of HAdV, hEV, and GARV genomes. hEV showed the highest detection rate (27.4%), followed by HAdV (23.3%), and GARV (16.4%). New approaches to water monitoring should be considered to promote a better water quality and reduce the risk of waterborne diseases, especially considering drinking water to be served to vulnerable individuals. PMID:25252356

Kluge, M; Fleck, J D; Soliman, M C; Luz, R B; Fabres, R B; Comerlato, J; Silva, J V S; Staggemeier, R; Vecchia, A D; Capalonga, R; Oliveira, A B; Henzel, A; Rigotto, C; Spilki, F R

2014-09-01

364

Diversity of flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae) in organic citrus orchards in the vale do Rio Caí, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in the Counties of Montenegro and Pareci Novo located in the region of the Vale do Rio Cai, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, aiming to determine the fruit fly species of Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae that occur in organic orchards of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] cultivar Céu, and Murcott tangor (Citrus reticulata Blanco x C. sinensis), during the fruit ripening stages in 2003 and 2004. Eight McPhail traps baited with integral grape juice diluted to 25% were installed in four orchards, two in each citrus species. The traps were checked weekly, when the baits were changed, the flies separated and preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. Fruits were also sampled from the orchards, placed in containers with damp soil and closed with a mesh. The tephritid flies represented 86.2% of all captured flies in the four orchards during both years. Five Tephritidae species were captured from traps: Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastrepha grandis (Macquart), Anastrepha pseudoparallela (Loew), Anastrepha dissimilis Stone and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The captured species of Lonchaeidae were: Neosilba zadolicha McAlpine & Steyskal, Neosilba n.sp.3, Neosilba sp. and Lonchaea sp. Anastrepha fraterculus was found in 99% of the fruit samples, both in 'Céu' orange and 'Murcott' tangor, and Neosilba n.sp.3 were only obtained from 'Murcott' tangor fruits. PMID:17144140

da Silva, Fernando F; Meirelles, Rafael N; Redaelli, Luiza R; Soglio, Fábio K Dal

2006-01-01

365

Inter-species hybridization among Neotropical cats of the genus Leopardus, and evidence for an introgressive hybrid zone between L. geoffroyi and L. tigrinus in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Natural hybrid zones between distinct species have been reported for many taxa, but so far, few examples involve carnivores or Neotropical mammals in general. In this study, we employed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and nine microsatellite loci to identify and characterize a hybrid zone between two Neotropical felids, Leopardus geoffroyi and L. tigrinus, both of which are well-established species having diverged from each other c. 1 million years ago. These two felids are mostly allopatric throughout their ranges in South America, with a narrow contact zone that includes southern Brazil. We present strong evidence for the occurrence of hybridization between these species and identify at least 14 individuals (most of them originating from the geographical contact zone) exhibiting signs of interspecific genomic introgression. The genetic structure of Brazilian L. tigrinus populations seems to be affected by this introgression process, showing a gradient of differentiation from L. geoffroyi correlated with distance from the contact zone. We also corroborate and extend previous findings of hybridization between L. tigrinus and a third related felid, L. colocolo, leading to an unusual situation for a mammal, in which the former species contains introgressed mtDNA lineages from two distinct taxa in addition to its own. PMID:18785898

Trigo, T C; Freitas, T R O; Kunzler, G; Cardoso, L; Silva, J C R; Johnson, W E; O'Brien, S J; Bonatto, S L; Eizirik, E

2008-10-01

366

The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the climate impacts of aerosol in California.

Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

2012-11-21

367

Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that affects homeothermic animals, including humans. Felines are considered the definitive host of this parasite, while other animals act as intermediate hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Serum samples (n = 427) from animals in 13 municipalities of the coastal forest/plantation region of the state were analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). The overall results revealed a prevalence rate of 16.63% (27/427). High percentages of positivity were found among animals aged 25 to 36 months (28.57%; 30/42) and in males (22.22%; 2/9). The present findings suggest that bovine toxoplasmosis is endemic in the area under study. PMID:25271467

Guerra, Neurisvan Ramos; Alves, Bruno Henrique Leal E Silva; Farias, Márcia Paula Oliveira; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Alves, Leucio Câmara

2014-09-01

368

[Cancer mortality trends in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 1980-2006].  

PubMed

Time trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the Western Amazon remain unknown. This study explored age-standardized cancer mortality rates according to anatomical site in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, by constructing linear regression time trend models. Cancer mortality showed an increasing but inconstant trend in men and stability in women. At the end of the time series, the highest cancer rates among women were for the cervix, lung, liver and intrahepatic biliary tract, stomach, and breast. Among men, the highest rates were for cancer of the lung, prostate, liver and intra-hepatic biliary tract, stomach, and esophagus. The study showed an increasing mortality time trend for cancer of the prostate, breast, and lung and declining mortality rates for cervical cancer in women, lung cancer in men, and stomach cancer in both sexes. The high mortality rate from liver cancer merits attention, considering the high hepatitis B and C infection rates in the State of Acre. PMID:21710013

Nakashima, Juliano de Pádua; Koifman, Sérgio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

2011-06-01

369

Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from herbivores and bats in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

Rabies is enzootic in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Every year, cattle and horses die from rabies that is transmitted by the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. This paper describes the spread of the rabies virus by the continuous diffusion model using relaxed random walks with BEAST software. Forty-one (41) sequences of gene G from the rabies virus that was isolated from bats and domestic herbivores from several areas of the state between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree showed three main clusters as well as two sub-clusters under cluster 2. A spatial analysis showed that three strains of the rabies virus spread independently. In general, central Espírito Santo, which is mountainous, was the area where separation of the virus strains occurred. This physical barrier, however, was overcome at some point in time, as samples from different lineages were found in the same microarea. PMID:23264105

Vieira, Luiz Fernando Pereira; Pereira, Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves; Carnieli, Pedro; Tavares, Luiz Carlos Barbosa; Kotait, Ivanete

2013-04-01

370

Male Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Association With Condom Use in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States  

PubMed Central

Background.?Reported associations of condom use and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been inconsistent. We investigated self-reported frequency of condom use and detection of genital HPV among men. Methods.?A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in men aged 18–70 years from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Men completed questionnaires on sexual history, condom use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among 2621 men reporting recent vaginal sex, prevalence of any HPV, any oncogenic type, and nononcogenic types only was estimated by frequency of condom use (“always” or “not always”). Multivariable models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for HPV according to frequency of condom use. Results.?The prevalence of any HPV was 70.5%; any oncogenic type, 34%, and nononcogenic types only, 22.2%. The adjusted PR for always vs not always using condoms was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77–.97) for all countries combined. The association was stronger in the United States (PR, 0.70; CI, .55–.90) than in Brazil (PR, 0.84; CI, .71–1.01) or Mexico (PR, 1.05; CI, .89–1.25) (P for interaction = .025). Conclusions.?HPV prevalence was high even among those who reported always using condoms, and its associations with always using condoms varied among countries. PMID:22396601

Repp, Kimberly K.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Fu, Rongwei; Schafer, Sean; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.

2012-01-01

371

First occurrence of Amblyomma ovale in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aims to report the occurrence of parasitism by Amblyomma ovale (Koch, 1844) in dogs in the municipality of Apodi, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Specimens were identified as being one female and two males of A. ovale, besides; the animal was infested by five females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and seven females and three males of R. sanguineus. The finding of A. ovale confirms results in the literature that these ticks, reported in several species of wild carnivores, can also infect dogs in Brazil. The distribution of this tick species in several Brazilian states has already been confirmed, but this is the first report in the State of Rio Grande do Norte. This finding highlights the risk of the carrying of emerging and re-emerging pathogens to peridomestic hosts are as, either because of the frequency of these ticks in wild environments or the presence of infected wild animals near peridomestic environments, exposing domestic dogs to parasitism by A. ovale ticks and, therefore, to agents potentially carried by this ectoparasite. PMID:24252966

Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Bezerra, Ana Carla Diógenes Suassuna; Carvalho, Otávio Valério de; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria de; Mafra, Claudio

2013-01-01

372

GEORGIA SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE OUT-OF-STATE FEE WAIVER  

E-print Network

-of-State Fee Waiver. Relocation to the state must be for reasons other than enrolling in an institution of Georgia. 4) A copy of your birth certificate, marriage certificate (if spouse of the employed) and/or your

Hutcheon, James M.

373

Genetic diversity analysis of isolates of the fungal bean pathogen Pseudocercospora griseola from central and southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Planting resistant varieties is the most effective control measure against the angular leaf spot of dry beans, a fungal disease caused by Pseudocercospora griseola. However, dry bean varieties with durable resistance are not easily obtained. Knowledge about the genetic variability of the pathogen population is key for the success of dry bean breeding programs aimed at developing resistant materials, but finding suitable operationally simple and genetically accurate markers is not an easy task. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the ISSR-PCR technique to quantify the genetic variability of P. griseola isolates. Total DNA of 27 P. griseola isolates from Goiás, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Paraná States was extracted and amplified using specific primers for ISSR. Using cluster analysis, 27 genotypes were identified. The ISSR-PCR technique was suitable for assessing intraspecific variability of P. griseola. The ISSR-PCR marker was found to be highly sensitive to genetic variation and can aid in elucidating the genetic structure of the population of this plant pathogen as a support tool for the dry bean breeding programs. PMID:22614356

Abadio, A K R; Lima, S S; Santana, M F; Salomão, T M F; Sartorato, A; Mizubuti, E S G; Araújo, E F; de Queiroz, M V

2012-01-01

374

A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks. PMID:24676160

Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

2014-03-01

375

A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

Gondim, Anne I; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L P; Manso, Cynthia L C; Christoffersen, Martin L

2013-01-01

376

Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to <1400 m a.s.l.) that are locally recognized as remnants of planed surfaces (S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and ?C-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime was sufficiently humid to develop hydromorphic horizons in the valley bottoms of the entire drainage network to the valley heads; d) regional change toward a drier hydric regime occurred in MIS 2, when erosion of the paleosols predominated; and e) in MIS 1 (current Holocene interglacial), burial of the paleosols and relief inversion occurred, which resulted in fossilization of the valleys.

Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

2014-10-01

377

Spatial modeling of the schistosomiasis mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil using spatial regression.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a transmissible parasitic disease caused by the etiologic agent Schistosoma mansoni, whose intermediate hosts are snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State in Brazil using spatial disease information derived from the state transportation network of roads and rivers. The spatial information was incorporated in two ways: by introducing new variables that carry spatial neighborhood information and by using spatial regression models. Climate, socioeconomic and environmental variables were also used as co-variables to build models and use them to estimate a risk map for the whole state of Minas Gerais. The results show that the models constructed from the spatial regression produced a better fit, providing smaller root mean square error (RMSE) values. When no spatial information was used, the RMSE for the whole state of Minas Gerais reached 9.5%; with spatial regression, the RMSE reaches 8.8% (when the new variables are added to the model) and 8.5% (with the use of spatial regression). Variables representing vegetation, temperature, precipitation, topography, sanitation and human development indexes were important in explaining the spread of disease and identified certain conditions that are favorable for disease development. The use of spatial regression for the network of roads and rivers produced meaningful results for health management procedures and directing activities, enabling better detection of disease risk areas. PMID:24521991

Fonseca, F; Freitas, C; Dutra, L; Guimarães, R; Carvalho, O

2014-05-01

378

SEROLOGIC SURVEY ON HANTAVIRUS IN BLOOD DONORS FROM THE STATE OF SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections. PMID:25076425

de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

2014-01-01

379

New evidence of a magmatic arc in the southern Brasília Belt, Brazil: The Serra da Água Limpa batholith (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed description of the Neoproterozoic Serra da Água Limpa batholith (SALB) and the interpretation of its genesis. The batholith, located along the border of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, was involved in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, a tectonic unit that integrates the southern Brasília Belt. The tectonic evolution of this nappe is related to the convergence and subsequent collision between the Paranapanema paleocontinent, representing the upper plate, with the São Francisco paleocontinent, resulting in the construction of the southern Brasília Belt. The active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent developed during the pre-collisional stage a magmatic arc composed of batholithic igneous bodies. The Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe represents this active margin and SALB is one of those bodies. U-Pb dating (Laser Ablation, LA-ICP-MS) in zircon was performed in five samples of SALB. The results are as follows: sample RDTM 62, 667 ± 10 Ma; RDPA 44, 645 ± 5 Ma; RDPA 46, 630 ± 12 Ma; VAC 10, 631 ± 7 Ma and RDIT 41, 635 ± 8 Ma. These ages indicate that the body crystallized between 670 and 630 Ma, with predominance of ages in the interval 645-630 Ma, demonstrating that the magmatic event that formed the arc lasted at least 40 myr. Younger ages, measured in rims of zircon grains, mainly in the range 625-600 Ma were interpreted as metamorphic ages. The lithogeochemical analyses indicate that the I-type rocks of the Serra da Água Limpa batholith belong to the high K calc-alkaline series, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Tectonic environment diagrams also indicate that the batholith was produced in a volcanic arc setting which is confirmed by negative anomalies of elements of high ionic potential (HFS) in multi-element diagrams. Whole rock Sm-Nd isotope analyses show highly negative ?Nd values (-12 to -7), indicating significant crustal contamination or origin of the magma by melting of enriched lower crust.

Vinagre, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Duffles, Patrícia; Peternel, Rodrigo; Matos, Gabriel

2014-10-01

380

Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists. PMID:21845934

Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

2011-07-01

381

North Atlantic Deep Water collapse triggered by a Southern Ocean meltwater pulse in a glacial climate state  

E-print Network

North Atlantic Deep Water collapse triggered by a Southern Ocean meltwater pulse in a glacial anomalies in the Southern Ocean drive increases in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation via a bipolar the Southern Ocean. Citation: Trevena, J., W. P. Sijp, and M. H. England (2008), North Atlantic Deep Water

Sijp, Willem

382

Determination of Nazca slab geometry and state of stress beneath the southern Peru and northern Bolivia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subduction of the Nazca plate in the north central Andes beneath southern Peru and northern Bolivia is of prime importance because of the role it plays in the evolution of topographic features since the late Eocene (~40 Ma). Previous studies based on slab event locations constrained only with teleseismic data defined a broad area of flat slab subduction in central and southern Peru, which transitions to a normally dipping slab beneath the northernmost Altiplano Plateau. We present earthquake locations and focal mechanisms using data from two temporary arrays: the network of 50 broadband seismic stations that were part of the NSF-Continental Dynamics-funded project 'CAUGHT' (Central Andean Uplift and the Geodynamics of High Topography) and the 40 station NSF- Geophysics funded 'PULSE' array (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment). Our earthquake locations provide new information about the geometry of subducting Nazca slab between 13°S to 18°S. A significant clustering of intermediate depth earthquakes at ~15.5°S and 18°S suggests strong and localized release of tectonic stress in the slab perhaps due to bending and unbending. There are not enough intra-slab events at depth greater than 100 km to constrain the flat slab width north of 14°S. Our analyses indicate that the flat slab is at least 10 to 12 km shallower than the previous estimates (e.g. Cahill and Isacks, 1992; Ramos, 2009). Focal mechanisms and stress axis orientation of slab events at ~15.5°S indicate down-dip extension, where the dip changes from subhorizontal to steeply dipping slab. The continuity in the trend of stress suggests that the slab is deformed but not torn where it transitions from flat to steeply dipping. Data from local slab events will eventually be incorporated into a local tomographic body wave inversion to better constrain the velocity structure of the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere below the Altiplano. This in turn will provide the valuable information on the process involved in plateau development.

Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Young, B. E.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.; Minaya, E.

2013-12-01

383

Balantidium sp. in ostriches (Struthio camelus L., 1758) in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was report for the first time the occurrence of Balantidium sp. in ostriches reared in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Feces samples from 82 ostriches were examined by the Ziehl-Neelsen technique and morphometric analyses were made of the cysts. The data were compared by a simple linear regression analysis. The cysts found ranged in size from 60.39 by 34.62 mm and 59.13 by 33.92 m in diameters. The spherical shape was confirmed by observing the shape index of 1.05 and r = 0.9630, which suggested there were cysts of different sizes with similar shapes. In spite of polymorphism, cysts measurements were uniform in their distribution, evidencing the possibility of a single species (R2 = 0.9274). The cysts were morphologically indistinguishable from the Balantidium sp. cysts already reported in ostrich feces or B. coli. This is the first report of parasitism by Balantidium sp. in ostriches in Brazil. In spite of the high Balantidium sp. frequency, no clinical sign was observed. PMID:20059871

Oliveira, Nicole B Ederli Francisco Carlos R

2008-09-01

384

[Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

2008-04-01

385

[Use of health services by quilombo communities in southwest Bahia State, Brazil].  

PubMed

Use of health services is increasing in Brazil as a whole, but geographic and social inequalities persist, especially among minority groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of health services by members of quilombos (slavedescendant African-Brazilian communities) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil. This cross-sectional health survey in 2011 focused on 797 adults (? 18 years old) belonging to quilombos. The magnitude of the associations between explanatory variables and use of services was estimated by the prevalence ratio obtained from Poisson regression with 95% confidence interval. Of the total sample, 455 (57.1%) reported having used health services in the 12 months prior to the interview. Higher rates of health services utilization were associated with female gender, non-single conjugal status, fair, poor, or very poor self-rated health, enrolment in the Family Health Program, and referral to a health facility for regular or on-going care. The results showed underutilization of health services by members of quilombos, thus demonstrating the need to improve health services provision for this population group. PMID:24068228

Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Reis, Edna Afonso; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal

2013-09-01

386

A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort)  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer (BC) is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population. Methods and design Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year), despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors. Discussion This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the evaluation of risk factors in a population with a different ethnic background from that studied in developed countries. If our model is proven effective, it may be replicated in other parts of the globe where BC is also a major public health problem. PMID:19284670

Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo A; Filho, Dakir L Duarte; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Bedin, Ademar J; Skonieski, Giovana P; Zignani, Juliana M; Giacomazzi, Juliana; Franco, Luciane R; Graudenz, Marcia; Pohlmann, Paula; Fernandes, Jefferson G; Kivitz, Philip; Weber, Bernardete

2009-01-01

387

Molecular analysis of multiresistant porcine Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bredeney isolates from Southern Brazil: identification of resistance genes, integrons and a group II intron.  

PubMed

The relationships of 83 porcine Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Bredeney isolates obtained at two slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil were analysed by XbaI and BlnI macrorestriction analysis, plasmid profiling and determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns. Twenty-nine XbaI and 30 BlnI macrorestriction patterns were identified. The 72 plasmid-bearing isolates exhibited 20 different plasmid profiles. Multiresistance was detected in 49 isolates (59%), of which 39 isolates showed at least resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and/or ampicillin. A representative subset of 12 isolates was chosen for identification of resistance genes, their localisation and transferability. The sulfonamide resistance genes sul1, sul2 and sul3, the tetracycline resistance genes tet(A) and tet(B), the phenicol resistance genes catA1 and floR, the streptomycin resistance gene strA, the kanamycin resistance gene aphA1 and the ampicillin resistance gene bla(TEM) were detected and found to be located most frequently on plasmids. In addition, class 1 and 2 integrons with the cassette arrangements dfrA21/bla OXA-129/aadA1 and dfrA1/sat1/aadA1, respectively, were detected. A group II intron was found to be inserted into the 59-base element of an aadA1 gene cassette in a class 1 integron. This study revealed a wide genomic variety among the S. Bredeney isolates, and the high number of multiresistant isolates may point towards the risks that these S. Bredeney isolates can represent to human health. PMID:18571903

Michael, Geovana Brenner; Cardoso, Marisa; Schwarz, Stefan

2008-08-01

388

[Cardiovascular risk and associated factors in schoolchildren in Belém, Pará State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study aimed to identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a stratified cluster sample of 557 schoolchildren (6-19 years) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. Potential risk factors were obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, and atherogenic diet. Socio-demographic and lifestyle variables were tested in a binary logistic regression model. The most prevalent risk factors were overweight (20.4%), dyslipidemia (48.1%), and physical inactivity (66.2%). Children below ten years of age and those from higher-income families and with higher maternal schooling showed greater odds of developing overweight; meanwhile, those with overweight were more prone to developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The findings point to the need to implement strategies to prevent overweight in early childhood, through balanced nutrition and regular physical activity, in order to effectively reduce the prevalence of risk factors in schoolchildren. PMID:24714947

Ribas, Simone Augusta; Silva, Luiz Carlos Santana da

2014-03-01

389

Space-time cluster analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A space-time analysis of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in humans in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil was carried out based on 239 cases diagnosed between June 2003 and October 2008. Spatial analysis of the disease showed that cases occurred especially in the city's urban areas. AVL annual incidence rates were calculated, demonstrating that the highest rate occurred in 2006 (19.55/100,000 inhabitants). This finding was confirmed by the time series analysis, which also showed a positive tendency over the period analyzed. The present study allows us to conclude that the disease was clustered in the Southwest side of the city in 2006, suggesting that this area may require special attention with regard to control and prevention measures. PMID:23090174

Souza, Vanessa Aparecida Feijó de; Cortez, Luiz Ricardo Paes de Barros; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Amaku, Marcos; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Kuroda, Rosely Bianca dos Santos; Ferreira, Fernando

2012-10-01

390

Human infection by Phagicola sp. (Trematoda, Heterophyidae) in the municipality of Registro, São Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed

In 1988, nine cases of human parasitism by Phagicola sp. were diagnosed in the municipality of Registro (São Paulo State, Brazil) by stool examinations, in patients who ate raw mullet (Mugil sp.). Six (66%) of the nine patients suffered from flatulence and four (44%) had diarrhoeal episodes; six (66%) showed slight eosinophilia. On the same occasion, 61 dogs and 11 cats from Registro were also submitted to stool examination. Only one dog (1.6%) showed Phagicola eggs in the stool. All patients were treated with a single dose of praziquantel (50 mg kg-1 body weight) and control stool tests performed on the 15th, 30th and 60th days post-treatment showed no trematode eggs. PMID:1404559

Chieffi, P P; Gorla, M C; Torres, D M; Dias, R M; Mangini, A C; Monteiro, A V; Woiciechovski, E

1992-10-01

391

[Effectiveness of community participation in Municipal Health Councils in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This article presents a model for the evaluation of community participation in municipal (county) health systems. The theoretical basis for this evaluative study was the existing Brazilian legislation on community participation in drafting health strategies and overseeing health policy implementation. The indicators and measures were validated using the expert consensus technique. The proposed model has 26 indicators divided into five evaluative dimensions that reflect the legislation's adequacy for the structure, organization, representativeness, health planning participation, and autonomy of the Municipal Health Councils. Its applicability was tested in 24 municipalities in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The data analysis indicated the best results for the dimension "planning system in the Unified National Health System" and the worst for "structure" and "autonomy". Only two municipalities showed good results for the final summary indicator. The study demonstrated the feasibility and adequacy of the proposed evaluation model. PMID:22218575

Vieira, Mauro; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

2011-12-01

392

[Female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2009-2010: a descriptive study].  

PubMed

This study investigated the epidemiological profile of female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. An observational descriptive and prospective study included all homicides from March 2009 to February 2010 with female victims from Recife, 10 to 49 years of age. A questionnaire was used to record socioeconomic, demographic, and biological risk factors. Relatives of the victims were interviewed, and data were collected from death certificates. We identified 60 homicides during the study period. Most victims were adult women with brown skin color and low schooling and low income. Other characteristics included smoking in 39.7%, alcohol and illicit drugs in 48.3% and 24.1%, respectively, and physical and/or sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the murder in 29.3%. Firearms were used in 69% of these homicides. PMID:23459824

Silva, Maria Arleide da; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois

2013-02-01

393

[Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%), with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%), single (80%), in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment, population density, residential instability, and social inequality, exposing residents to social strife, crime, and violence. PMID:21986600

Silva, Leonildo Severino da; Menezes, Maria Lúcia Neto de; Lopes, Cyntia Lins de Almeida; Corrêa, Maria Suely Medeiros

2011-09-01

394

[Self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements, Pernambuco State, Brazil].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of negative self-rated oral health and associated factors among adults in rural settlements. The probabilistic sample consisted of 557 adults 20 to 59 years of age in rural settlements in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The dependent variable was self-rated oral health, with the following independent variables: demographic characteristics, predisposition and availability of resources, oral health-related behavior, objective oral health conditions, and subjective oral health conditions. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using a Poisson regression model. Prevalence of negative self-rated oral health was 70.5%. Negative self-rated oral health was associated with younger age, lower schooling, female gender, and black or brown skin color. Predictors of negative self-rated oral health included skin color, self-defined need for dental care, and the impact of oral health problems on quality of life. PMID:24714950

Moura, Cristiano; Gusmão, Estela Santos; Santillo, Patrícia Morgana Hordonho; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Cimões, Renata

2014-03-01

395

Wild birds as pets in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil: an ethnozoological approach.  

PubMed

Birds are one of the animals most widely used by humans and are highly valued as pets. The present work reports the use of wild birds as pets in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State (PB), Brazil. The owners' choice and perceptions of the species ecology was assessed as well. The methodology employed included unstructured and semi-structured interviews, guided tours and direct observations. A total of 26 bird species distributed among ten families and four orders were identified. The most frequently encountered order was Passeriformes (76.9%), with a predominance of the family Emberizidae (34.6%). The specimens kept as pets were principally obtained in public markets or between the breeders themselves. The popularity of birds as pets, compounded by the inefficiency of official controls over the commerce of wild animals has stimulated the illegal capture and breeding of wild birds in Campina Grande. PMID:23538958

Licarião, Morgana R; Bezerra, Dandara M M; Alves, Rômulo R N

2013-03-01

396

Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.  

PubMed

A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America. PMID:15575989

Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

2004-12-01

397

Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quaternary (2-0 Ma) extrusion rates change significantly along the Cascade Range volcanic arc. The extrusion rate north of Mount Rainier is about 0.21 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; the rate in southern Washington and northern Oregon south to Mount Hood is about 1.6 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; in central Oregon the rate is 3-6 km3 km-1 m.y.-1; and in northern California, the rate is 3.2 km3 km-1 m.y.-1. Eruption style also changes along the arc but at latitudes different from rate changes. At the ends of the arc, volcanism is focused at isolated intermediate to silicic composite volcanoes. The composite volcanoes represent ~30% of the total volume of the arc. Mafic volcanic fields partly ring some composite volcanoes, especially in the south. In contrast, volcanism is diffused in the middle of the arc, where numerous overlapping mafic shields and a few composite volcanoes have built a broad ridge. Contrasting eruption style may signify diffuse versus focused heat sources or may reflect changes in permeability to ascending magma along the arc. -Authors

Sherrod, D. R.; Smith, J. G.

1990-01-01

398

76 FR 60390 - Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thailand (litchis, longans, mangoes, mangosteens, pineapples, and rambutans), and Vietnam (dragon fruits), and the...declaration stating that the longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, or rambutan were treated with irradiation as described...

2011-09-29

399

Water Law in the United States and Brazil - Climate Change and Two Approaches to Emerging Water Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines two of the major water legal regimes in theAmericas—that of Brazil and the United States. Both countries haveextensive wet and dry regions and both hydro-regimes face a significantthreat from global warming. Brazil, for instance, is home to betweeneight and fifteen percent of the world’s fresh water, and its fast-growingeconomy and population present major challenges in management andallocation.

David N. Cassuto; Rômulo S. R. Sampaio

2011-01-01

400

DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (? = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

Pontes, Zelia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araujo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

2013-01-01

401

[Social representations of homeopathy: a revision of studies produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study attempts to survey the investigations about the representations of homeopathy on the State of Espírito Santo scene. The point of departure was an analysis of six studies of the kind, in which the subjects were professionals acting in the area of health and community members. One of the six studies surveyed society as a whole and a second one focused on users of homeopathic medicaments. Yet both groups of respondents represented homeopathy as natural or phytotherapic treatment, essentially directed to controlling or curing allergy and other diseases which were classified as minor. As to the health professionals, all studies but one referred to the alopaths. Among the alopaths, the ideas expressed by the subjects, pharmacists apart, were identical to those expressed by the community members. Viewed as a specialized discipline, homeopathy is a social phenomenon that provokes representations which undergo changes as they circulate in society. Our study holds that all misinterpretations about the nature and role of homeopathy detected in the community's responses as well as in the scientific domain, in the State of Espírito Santo, are historical reminiscences which go back to the time when homeopathy was introduced in Brazil and, even today, the contents of homeopathy are still absent in most health courses. PMID:21503448

de Figueiredo, Túlio Alberto Martins; Machado, Vera Lúcia Taqueti

2011-01-01

402

American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376), being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were seve