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1

Ethnic Vigilantes and the State: The Oodua People's Congress in South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the example of the Oodua People's Congress (OPC) in Nigeria, this article argues that vigilante activities are embedded in a range of social relations and historical trajectories. While vigilantism transforms relationships of power within the state, it does not necessarily undermine all aspects of state authority. After the annulled presidential election of a Yoruba speaker in 1993, the

Insa Nolte

2007-01-01

2

Fate and Mobility of Copper in Soil of Cocoa Plantations in two South-Western States of Nigeria treated with Copper-Based Fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils from cocoa plantations treated with Boudreaux mixture in two south-western states of Nigeria were collected at different depths, 0–15cm and 15–30cm, and subjected to five-stage sequential extraction to obtain the speciation forms of copper: exchangeable, carbonate, manganese and iron oxides, organic and residual fractions. The Cu content in the extracts from the sequential extraction were read with an Atomic

Bamidele I. Olu-Owolabi; Foluso O. Agunbiade; Idowu O. Ogunleye; Kayode O. Adebowale

2012-01-01

3

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64+/-2.91, 150.25+/-2.91 and 60.97+/-2.27Bqkg-1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

2003-06-01

4

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

5

Psychosocial factors as predictors of mentoring among nurses in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychosocial factors that predict mentoring among nurses. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study adopted a survey research design. Questionnaires were used to collect data on self-esteem, locus of control, emotional intelligence and demographic factors from 480 nurses (males 230; females =250) from five states in southwestern Nigeria. Data analysis included regressing

Samuel O. Salami

2008-01-01

6

Productivity of an Intercropped Sweet Orange Orchard in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Ibadan southwestern Nigeria, juvenile Agege 1 sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees were intercropped with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) + maize (Zea mays L.), egusi melon (Citrullus lanatus L.) followed by soyabeans (Glycine max (L.) Meril), or chilli pepper Capsicum frutescence L.) + amaranthus (Amaranthus caudatus L.) for four consecutive years. The aim was to determine an intercropping option which

I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe

2001-01-01

7

Provenance studies of Esie sculptural soapstone from southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of soapstone statues found near the village of Esie in southwestern Nigeria is one of the largest collections of prehistoric sculpture found in sub-Saharan Africa. The statues were found at Esie by people of the Igbomina sub-grouping of the Yoruba ethnic group when they settled in the Esie area some 300 years ago. The origin of the statues

O. A. Ige; Samuel E. Swanson

2008-01-01

8

Occupational Hazards and Coping Strategies of Sex Workers in South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in Southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled “Questionnaire on Sex Work” adapted from Akinnawo (1995) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards

Bayode Isaiah Popoola

2012-01-01

9

Groundwater fluoride and dental fluorosis in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i.e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0.65 ± 0.21 and 1.20 ± 0.14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1.10 ± 0.14-1.45 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07-2.20 ± 1.41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0.6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ? 0.05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested. PMID:22539221

Gbadebo, A M

2012-04-27

10

Gender and Health Analysis of Sexual Behaviour in South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the main results of a series of interviews conducted among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. Fifty men and fifty women differing in socio-demographic backgrounds were studied. The study revealed that during their first sexual experience, Yoruba girls are at risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and of having unplanned pregnancies because of the traditional control measures and

AS Jegede; O Odumosu

2004-01-01

11

Ecology of freshwater snails in south-western Nigeria. I: Distribution and habitat preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry and rainy season investigations of diverse freshwater habitats in south-western Nigeria revealed fourteen species of snail comprised of nine pulmonates: Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss, Bulinus globosus Morelet, Bulinus rohlfsi Clessin, Lymnaea natalensis Krauss, Physa ( ˜ Aplexa) waterloti Germain, Bulinus forskali Ehrenberg, Gyraulus costulatus Krauss, Ferrissia sp, Segmentorbis sp. and five prosobranchs namely, Lanistes libycus Morelet, Lanistes ovum Peters, Pila

G. T. Ndifon; F. M. A. Ukoli

1989-01-01

12

Goat feeding practices and options for improvement in six villages in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two village surveys were carried out in six villages in southwestern Nigeria to assess goat feeding under traditional management ranging from free roaming to permanent confinement. Three of the villages are located in the lowland rainforest zone (FZ) and three in transition between FZ and the derived savannah (TZ). Cassava products (tuber and peel) and maize offal (a by-product from

H. G. Bosman; A. A. Ademosun; H. A. G. Koper-Limbourg

1996-01-01

13

Intimate Partner Violence in Southwestern Nigeria: Are there rural-urban differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the prevalence of different types and experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) among 600 women aged 15 to 49 years in selected rural and urban communities in southwestern Nigeria between October and December, 2007. . Lifetime prevalences of IPV were 64% in the rural and 70% in the urban areas. Controlling behavior was the most frequently reported

Mary O. Balogun; Eme T. Owoaje; Olufunmilayo I. Fawole

2012-01-01

14

Occupational Insecticide Exposure and Perception of Safety Measures among Cacao Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed occupational exposure hazards among cacao farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. They administered structured questionnaires, supplemented with oral interviews, to 150 farmers to obtain information on insecticide use and perception of safety measures. The farmers used lindane, diazinon, endosulfan, and propoxur for cacao mirid control. Factors promoting exposure included eating and drinking during spraying operations, failure to use protective

Mosudi B. Sosan; Amos E. Akingbohungbe

2009-01-01

15

Siliciclastic slope deposits from the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group, Dahomey (Benin) Basin, southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrops in the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group of the Dahomey (Benin) Basin in southwestern Nigeria are described. Based on detailed sedimentological logging, 13 lithofacies were delineated. They are: massive and loose sand; cross-bedded loose sand; normally graded sandstone (upward fining sandstone); laminated silt; clay; laminated sandstone; clay with sandstone injections and clasts (sandstone boulders); clayey sand with sandstone boulders; silty clay

Solomon O. Olabode

2006-01-01

16

Seismic stratigraphy and development of Avon canyon in Benin (Dahomey) basin, southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons

S. O. Olabode; J. A. Adekoya

2008-01-01

17

Environment and Subsistence of the Early Inhabitants of Coastal Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From where did the early inhabitants of the Badagry coastal area of southwestern Nigeria originate? Has the area been occupied from “ancient times,” as claimed by oral traditions? What was the nature of the environment and subsistence of these early inhabitants? Excavations at Apa, west of Badagry, provided answers to these questions. A radiocarbon date of 2670 ± 90 bp

Raphael A. Alabi

2002-01-01

18

Hill-slope agro-ecosystems and their implications on environmental systems in rural southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of continuous cultivation of hill-slopes for arable crops on the vegetation and soil components of the environment in the rural area of southwestern Nigeria. Annual rainfall in this area is 1300–1600 mm, mostly between April and October. The arable crops planted include rice, maize, vegetables, yams and cassava. The paper also discusses the probable consequences

Olusegun Ekanade

1997-01-01

19

Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was\\u000a done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water\\u000a samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following\\u000a physicochemical

Olusegun O. Odukoya; Percy C. Onianwa; Olanrewaju I. Sanusi

2010-01-01

20

Occupational hazards and coping strategies of sex workers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled "Questionnaire on Sex Work" adapted from Akinnawo ( 1995 ) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards in the industry, and coping mechanisms adopted by sex workers. It was found that the majority of sex workers joined the profession for socioeconomic reasons. Reported occupational hazards include poor health, risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), police harassment, and loss of social prestige. PMID:23311907

Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

2013-01-01

21

Analysis of some medicinal plants in South-western Nigeria using PIXE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Analysis of thirteen medicinal plants of various biological activities commonly used in South-western Nigeria was carried\\u000a out using PIXE technique. Nine of these plants are anti-cancer while four are antimicrobial. PIXE measurements were carried\\u000a out using collimated proton beams delivered by the 2. 5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di\\u000a Fisica Nucleare (INFN), (LNL)

S. O. Olabanji; O. R. Omobuwajo; D. Ceccato; M. C. Buoso; M. De Poli; G. Moschini

2006-01-01

22

Physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria, determine the degree of usage of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-based combinations and identify specific points of intervention to improve outcomes of anti- hypertensive combination therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective drug use review was conducted between June 1st and August 31st 2002 using

Kazeem B. Yusuff; Olumide Balogun

23

Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84%), oral powders (63%), use as soaps and creams (40%) in a multiple response system, were the most prevalent routes of administration of prepared herbs used in the treatment of the fevers. Boiling in water or alcohol was the most common method used in the preparation of the remedies. The four most frequently mentioned (multiple response system) plants in the Southwest ethnobotany for fevers were Azadirachta indica (87.5%), Mangifera indica (75.0%), Morinda lucida (68.8%) and Citrus medica (68.8%). PMID:12639738

Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

2003-04-01

24

Oil, Rape and State Crime in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study seeks first to explore the culpability of the state of Nigeria in regards to recent allegations of rape and\\u000a sexual torture by security forces and, secondly, to question why these rapes continue to occur despite Nigeria’s responsibility\\u000a to address them. Though exact rates of violence are impossible to ascertain, reports by the media and various non-governmental\\u000a organizations

Emily Lenning; Sara Brightman

2009-01-01

25

Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of Some Selected Medicinal Plants Used for Malaria Therapy in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose : Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of anaemia in malaria. Indeed, increase in total antioxidant status has been shown to be important in recovery from malaria. The antioxidant activities of four medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in southwestern Nigeria were determined. Methods : The ethanolic extracts of

GA Ayoola; HAB Coker; AA Adepoju-Bello; K Obaweya; EC Ezennia

26

A Spatial Temporal Analysis of Wetland Losses in the Lagos Coastal Region, Southwestern Nigeria, using Multi-date Satellite Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the temporal trend and the spatial patterns of wetland forest loss in the Lagos coastal region of southwestern Nigeria between 1978 and 2006 based on the comparative analysis of multi-date satellite imageries for 1978, 1987, 1995, 2000 and 2006. The initial number of wetland habitats was derived using an unsupervised classification algorithm. Freshwater and mangrove swamp forests

Olalekan John Taiwo; Olusegun Areola

2009-01-01

27

Catalytic mechanisms for promoting ICT investment and use in cassava value chains in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of African agriculture with modern technologies, including information and communication technology (ICT) has been proposed as the required strategy for improving agricultural and rural economies of African countries. In this direction, this study investigated the catalysts and impact of ICT investment, ownership and use in the cassava value chain in south-western Nigeria. The study used in-depth structured interviews

Mutawakilu A. Tiamiyu; Abiodun S. Bankole; Rosemary O. Agbonlahor

2012-01-01

28

Siliciclastic slope deposits from the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group, Dahomey (Benin) Basin, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outcrops in the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group of the Dahomey (Benin) Basin in southwestern Nigeria are described. Based on detailed sedimentological logging, 13 lithofacies were delineated. They are: massive and loose sand; cross-bedded loose sand; normally graded sandstone (upward fining sandstone); laminated silt; clay; laminated sandstone; clay with sandstone injections and clasts (sandstone boulders); clayey sand with sandstone boulders; silty clay with intraformational folds and breccias; highly contorted conglomerate/clayey silt; and channel infills. The association of the lithofacies and their sedimentary structures support that these lithologies were deposited by turbidity current, grain flow, debris flow, liquefied flow and fluidized flow. Since these depositional features are diagnostic of slope environments, the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group was concluded to have been deposited in slope environments.

Olabode, Solomon O.

2006-10-01

29

Pre-hospital care seeking behaviour for childhood acute respiratory infections in south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

WHO/UNICEF currently recommend that childhood malaria and pneumonia be managed together in the community; most African countries are in the process of developing this policy. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine maternal awareness of general danger signs of childhood illnesses and the prevalence, determinants and sources of pre-hospital treatment by mothers during their child's acute respiratory illness in a poor urban community in south-western Nigeria. A total of 226 mothers were interviewed. Only 4.9% of the mothers were aware of the two pneumonia symptoms: difficult breathing and fast breathing. About 75% of the children were given pre-hospital medication at home and only 16.5% of them received the drugs within 24 hour of symptom recognition. Drug shops/patent medicine vendors (PMVs; 70.6%) were the most common source of care. Wishing to try home management first (46.6%); waiting for the child to improve (14.4%) and lack of money (31.6%) delayed care-seeking. Older maternal age (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.2-4.4) and having a child with cough and difficult and/or fast breathing (aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-5.2) were positive predictors of pre-hospital treatment. Maternal education and adequately equipping PMVs could improve prompt access to integrated community-based child health services in Nigeria. PMID:24029675

Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Talabi, Ademola A; Aina, Olufemi B

2012-12-01

30

Prevalence and perception of nocturnal enuresis in children of a rural community in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nocturnal enuresis after the fifth year of life is a distressing problem. In Nigeria, there is a dearth of information about the condition. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and perception of the condition among children in Igbo-Ora, a rural community in southwestern Nigeria. Four hundred parents/guardians were interviewed and information obtained on 644 children aged 6-12 years. Overall enuresis prevalence was 17.6% (19.9% among boys and 14.9% among girls). The reported causes of nocturnal enuresis included urinary tract infection (33.5%), excessive play (27.5%) and deep sleep (25%). A majority (74.5%) of the respondents would use herbs or traditional medicine to treat enuresis, while only 6.8% of the respondents sought orthodox healthcare facilities for its management. Only 18 (25%) of the 71 parents/guardians with enuretic children had ever consulted a health worker. The misconceptions and inappropriate enuresis management methods among the parents/guardians require health education intervention. PMID:14620431

Osungbade, K O; Oshiname, F O

2003-10-01

31

State and Ethnicity in Precolonial Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite scholarly assertions to the contrary, the dramatic increase in the scale and intensity of migration in Africa, since the fifteenth century, has made the formation of ethnically constituted states the exception rather than the rule. This paper traces the origin and development of the multi-ethnic state of Katsina, which is in the area that was to become northern Nigeria.

Lamont Dehaven King

2001-01-01

32

Evaluation of drainage and tillage effect on watertable depth and maize yield in wet inland valleys in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in three wet inland valley bottoms, namely, high (MHW), medium (MMW) and low (MLW) watertable sites to evaluate the effect of drained (D) and control (Do), and mound-tillage (MT), ridge-tillage (RT) and no-tillage (NT) treatments on watertable depth and yield of maize in 1990 wet and 1990\\/1991 dry season in southwestern Nigeria. The watertable depth averaged

P. I. Ogban; O. Babalola

2002-01-01

33

Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207

Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

2013-01-01

34

Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among Health Professional Students in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South-Western Nigeria with their accompanied nursing and pharmacy students. All students in the selected schools were eligible to participate and student's participation was voluntary. The Global Health Professional Students Survey core questionnaire was used to collect data on smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control. The data were summarized using percentages and confidence interval (CI) was calculated using standard error of mean. Pearson's Chi-square and fisher's exact were employed to test the significance. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking was 17.9% (121/675) with (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-20.8). Only 5.04% (34/675) with (95% CI 3.7-7.1) of the respondents were currently smoking. Ever smokers were significantly less likely than non-smokers to indicate that tobacco sales to adolescents should be banned (P < 0.01). Fewer smokers than non-smokers agreed that there should be a complete ban on advertising of tobacco products (P < 0.001). 93.3% of them said that they were taught about danger of smoking but only 48.6% ever heard of using anti-depressant in tobacco cessation program. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence among health professional students in South-West Nigeria is relatively low; however, majority believed that health-care providers serve as role models for their patients and the public.

Awopeju, OF; Erhabor, GE; Awosusi, B; Awopeju, OA; Adewole, OO; Irabor, I

2013-01-01

35

Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the sediments of Ogun River, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sediments of the Ogun River in Southwestern Nigeria were measured using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurements were made in an effort to better understand the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and to form a database of radioactivity levels of the Ogun River. The total average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the sediment samples representing the whole Ogun River from the upper region through the middle to the lower region of the river were 499.476±59.167, 12.649±3.476 and 11.774±5.126, respectively. The range of the activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th for the Ogun River were found to be from 370.969±19.261 (at Olopade) to 608.023±24.658 (at Owere), 5.567±2.359 (at Ekerin) to 20.395±4.516 (at Sokori) and 5.037±2.244 (at Mile 12-Maidan) to 23.096±4.806 (at Sokori). The values obtained were compared with internationally accepted values. No man-made radionuclides were detected at any of the locations. PMID:21224263

Jibiri, N N; Okeyode, I C

2011-01-10

36

Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains from Cases of Childhood Diarrhea in Provincial Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In a study carried out in small-town and rural primary health care centers in southwestern Nigeria, 330 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 187 children with diarrhea and 144 apparently healthy controls were examined for virulence traits. Based on the results of colony blot hybridization, strains were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli (1.8%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), enteroinvasive E. coli (1.2%), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (0.6%), enteroaggregative E. coli (10.3%), diffusely adherent E. coli (7.9%), cell-detaching E. coli (6.9%), and cytolethal distending toxin-producing E. coli (0.9%). E. coli strains that hybridized with a Shiga toxin gene probe but lacked other characteristics usually present in enterohemorrhagic E. coli constituted 8.4% of the isolates. Ninety-seven E. coli isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells in an aggregative fashion but did not hybridize with any of the probes employed in the study. Overall the pathotypes, apart from cytolethal distending toxin-producing E. coli, were recovered both from children with diarrhea and from children without diarrhea, though to a lower extent from the healthy children. All diarrheagenic E. coli strains were associated with diarrhea (P < 0.02). Heat-stable-enterotoxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli showed significant association with diarrhea (P < 0.02), as did strains that demonstrated aggregative adherence to HEp-2 cells (P < 0.04), but not those that hybridized with the CVD432 enteroaggregative probe.

Okeke, Iruka N.; Lamikanra, Adebayo; Steinruck, Hartmut; Kaper, James B.

2000-01-01

37

The macrobenthic fauna at two point sources of pollution in estuarine Lagos lagoon of southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Benthic, water and sediment samples were collected at Okobaba, a sawmill site, and Iddo, a sewage dumpage site, in an open estuarine lagoon, in southwestern Nigeria during two periods (December 1999-May 2000 and April 2002-September 2002). Air, surface and bottom water temperatures were high (23.9-32.0 degrees C). Dissolved oxygen (DO) was between 3.4-5.3 mg/l, while biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) varied between 18.0 and 30.0 mg/l at Iddo and, 7.5 and 8.6 mg/l at Okobaba. The pH was alkaline throughout the sampling period at the two sites (7.3-8.6) while, rainfall was between 0.00 and 372.1 mm. Sediment ranged from mud, sandy mud, muddy sand to sandy type. Density and diversity of macrobenthic fauna were low and representative of Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Factors affecting the dynamics and reduction of species in the two communities were discussed. PMID:16334268

Ogunwenmo, Christiana A; Okuonghae, Omoruyi; Olofin, Imole; Chilaka, Gerald

2005-06-01

38

Exclusive breastfeeding is undermined by use of other liquids in rural southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) requires that the child be started on breastmilk on the first day of life and to continue with breastmilk alone for the next 4-6 months. EBF is compromised even when water is given to a child. This study surveyed the breastfeeding practices and opinions of 411 mothers of children aged 4-28 months in the rural community of Igbo-Ora in southwestern Nigeria. While all children were given breastmilk throughout that period, all received plain water during the first week of life. Herbal tea was given to nearly half (47 per cent) during their first week, and by the fourth month 97 per cent had taken herbs. Glucose water was commonly given during the first week (72 per cent). In-depth interviews with health workers confirmed that they gave advice to use glucose water for newborns. Only 45 (11 per cent) of women practised what could be termed predominantly breastfeeding (PBF), i.e. giving only plain water and/or herbal tea in the first 4 months. These were primarily women with some education and in skilled occupations. Mothers believed that breastmilk alone would not satisfy their children and would be physically draining on themselves because the current economic hard times did not allow them to eat as they wished. The results imply a need for health education that starts with the health workers themselves and addresses the cultural context of the mothers' fears about EBF. PMID:12022424

Nwankwo, Benjamin Osondu; Brieger, William R

2002-04-01

39

Delineation of contamination plume around oxidation sewage-ponds in Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated surface electrical resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) surveys were conducted in a hard-rock terrain of Southwestern Nigeria in the vicinity of active oxidation sewage treatment ponds. The aim was to detect soil contamination due to the spread of sewage effluent, locate possible leachate plumes and conductive lithologic layers, and access the risk of groundwater pollution in the vicinity of the sewage-ponds. Dipole-dipole resistivity profiling and very low frequency (VLF) data were acquired at 10-m intervals along five 200-m long east-west geophysical traverses. Resistivity sections obtained revealed four subsurface geologic layers comprised of lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, weathered/fractured bedrock, and competent bedrock. A distinct low resistivity zone corresponding to the contamination plume (labeled B) was delineated from all the resistivity sections. This low zone extends into the weathered bedrock and possibly suggests contamination of this layer. The filtered real component of the processed VLF data detected three distinct anomaly zones that are representative of fractured zones filled with conductive fluids and/or lithologic boundaries that possibly serve as conduits for the movement of contaminated effluents. The results obtained from the two methods suggest possible contamination of the subsurface soil layers and groundwater in the vicinity of the sewage-ponds. The existence of this contaminated plume poses a serious threat to the ecosystem and health of the people living in the vicinity of the sewage-ponds.

Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Afolabi, O.; Arubayi, J. B.

2005-10-01

40

Atopy is a risk factor for adult asthma in urban community of Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Factors affecting asthma course are not clearly elucidated in urban communities in developing countries. Furthermore, the interaction between factors such as atopy, environmental exposure, urbanization, and helminthic infections in modulating asthma have not been well investigated. Objectives: To determine factors, which affect asthma in adults being evaluated at urban tertiary health center of Southwestern part of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 24 (12 males, 12 females) consecutive asthmatics seen in the Outpatient Pulmonary Clinic of University College Hospital of Ibadan and 27 (13 males, 14 females) age and gender-matched controls underwent evaluation, which included blood tests for eosinophils, serum IgE, allergy skin tests to eight common environmental allergens, and spirometry. The modified version of the questionnaire of the International study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) Phase III used by the same study group of researchers in Nigeria was used to assess the asthma symptoms. Wilcoxon sign-rank tests were used to compare eosinophil counts, percentage eosinophils, and allergic skin test between the two groups, while paired t test was used to compare spirometry variables. Results: Asthmatics had significantly more positive skin reaction to house dust mite and mould than controls (P<0.05). Total serum IgE was also significantly higher in asthmatics than in controls (mean 210 vs 60 IU/mL; P=0.003). However, no significant differences were observed in total eosinophil counts. No significant difference in the degree of intestinal helminthes infection in the two groups, which means stool parasitism was similar. FEV1 % was significantly lower in asthmatics (P=0.02) but FEV1 was similar between the two groups (P=0.02). Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgE and positive skin reactions to some of the common environmental allergens suggests an important role of atopy in the expression of asthma in this developing country's urban setting. Intestinal parasites were seen in both, control and asthma subjects, but appear not to play any role in the course of asthma, so also is the blood group, genotype and G6PD status.

Ige, O. M.; Falade, A. G.; Arinola, O. G.

2012-01-01

41

Mutilingualism in Nigeria: The Example of Rivers State  

Microsoft Academic Search

I am grateful to the organizers of this seminar for asking me to give a talk on multilingualism in Nigeria. In what follows, I present a sketch of the linguistic situation in Nigeria, especially in Rivers State. The linguistic situation in Rivers State is particularly interesting given that no less than twenty indigenous languages are spoken in the State, and

Ethelbert E. Kari

42

Implications of Farmers' Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Downy-Mildew Resistant Maize and Improved Cowpea Varieties for Extension Education in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the implications of farmers' propensity to discontinue the adoption of agricultural technologies in southwestern Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that extension education process should be proactive in addressing farmers in order to sustain the adoption process. Empirical studies looking at diffusion processes from an…

Oladele, O. I.; Adekoya, A. E.

2006-01-01

43

Roles of personality, vocational interests, academic achievement and socio-cultural factors in educational aspirations of secondary school adolescents in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine the roles of personality, vocational interests, academic achievement and some socio-cultural factors in educational aspirations of secondary school adolescents in southwestern Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 430 (males = 220, females = 210) secondary school students. Data personality, vocational interests, academic achievement, socio-cultural factors and educational

Samuel O. Salami

2008-01-01

44

Doing Business in Nigeria, 2008. Comparing Regulation in 10 States and Abuja, FCT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doing Business in Nigeria 2010 is the second subnational report of the Doing Business series in Nigeria. In 2008, quantitative indicators on business regulations were created for 10 states and Abuja, FCT. This year, Doing Business in Nigeria 2010 expands ...

2008-01-01

45

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254

Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

2013-03-06

46

Colonialism, state and policing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Police forces in Nigeria have been variously described as corrupt, oppressive and subservient to the whims and caprices of the government of the day. This paper analyses the development of police forces in Nigeria since the era of British colonial domination in the country. Police corruption and repression in Nigeria is analyzed in the context of the wider political and

Etannibi E. O. Alemika

1993-01-01

47

Good Investment: United States and Nigeria Security Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States and Nigeria share common objectives based on security and resources. Theater security cooperation efforts between the nations ensures a stable and secure Nigeria, assists access to resources for the U.S., and facilitates U.S. presence in...

W. S. Rogers

2009-01-01

48

Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption. PMID:19626447

Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

2009-07-22

49

Trace and Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry of Oshosun Sediments of Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical data of two borehole samples that penetrated Oshosun formation in Oja-Odan area located in the western part of the Dahomey basin of SW Nigeria were studied. A total of twenty-nine elements, comprising three major, twenty trace and six rare earth elements were considered with the objective of determining the distribution pattern, source rocks and the environment of deposition of

T. R. Ajayi; A. A. Oyawale; F. Y. Islander; O. I. Asubiojo; D. E. Klein; A. I. Adediran

2006-01-01

50

Ethnic variations in health-seeking behaviours and attitudes between Fulani herders and Oruba farmers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Rural Yoruba and Fulani residents of two local governments in Oyo State, Nigeria, were surveyed to determine differences in health-seeking behaviour. Fulani residents were more likely to use private facilities during a recent illness, while Yoruba residents more commonly used government facilities: a fact reflected in the overall attitudes of those surveyed. The need for greater outreach and involvement of minority populations is recommended to enhance public service utilization. PMID:17716516

Otusanya, Sakiru A; Brieger, William R; Titiloye, Musibau; Salami, Kabiru K; Adesope, Azeez

2007-07-01

51

Prevalence and pattern of utilization of voluntary counseling and testing services and HIV infection in Ogbomoso, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, infection has been a major problem across the globe with a high socioeconomic burden. Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is a measure put in place to encourage people to know their HIV status with essential counseling support to help them cope with a positive or a negative test result. This study was carried out to determine the utilization of VCT services, prevalence of HIV among VCT attendees, and the distribution of the viral infection based on gender and age in Ogbomoso, an urban community, southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The health records of patients in Adebayo Alata Primary Health Centre, Ogbomoso South, Nigeria, between 2008 and 2011, were used. Results: A total of 1,490 patients used the VCT services during the period of study, out of which 271 (18.19%) were males and 1,219 (81.81%) were females. A consistent number of people used the VCT service throughout the period of study. HIV infection was higher in females (2.15%) than males (0.54%). The viral infection was more prevalent in people above 14 years of age (2.62%). However, none of these differences observed in gender and age were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that HIV infection has neither gender nor age bias. Efforts should be made to increase the provision of VCT services and ensure its continued utilization in an attempt to maintain a healthy social and reproductive health culture, improve maternal and child health in the context of HIV transmission, and improve global child survival.

Akhigbe, Roland E.; Bamidele, James O.

2013-01-01

52

An audit of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a tertiary health institution in South-western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study is aimed at determining the pattern of ear, nose and throat diseases and their relationship with socio-demographic factors with auditing intent in a tertiary hospital in South-western Nigeria. Methods Medical records of patients managed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Results There were 2641 (52.8%) males and 2360 (47.2%) females. Two thousand and fifty (41%) patients had age ?15years old. Sixty three percent of the patients were Christians, 37% were Muslims and less than 1% had other religions. There were more patients in lower occupational classes than those in the upper classes. The average number of patients with ear, nose and throat diseases managed per month was eighty three. Patients with ear diseases were 3136 (62.7%), the nose diseases were 1153 (23.0%), the throat diseases were 479 (9.6%) and head/neck diseases were 233 (4.7%). Conclusion This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ?15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 years and above. Although these disorders are not yet considered to be of public health importance, they contribute significantly to the existing burden of health problems in our environment. Therefore, there is a need for improved public awareness on ear, nose and throat diseases.

Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Samdi, Musa; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George

2013-01-01

53

Relative Height and Weight among Children and Adolescents of Rural Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There are few data describing the relative height and weight patterns of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, despite a prevalence of stunting of over 38% among children younger than five years. Aim To document the height and weight patterns relative to international standards among children and adolescents aged 5 to 20 years in rural Nigeria. Subjects and methods Children 5 to 20 years of age were enrolled from two rural villages. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Z-scores and centiles for height and body mass index were calculated; prevalences of low relative height (ie, > 2 standard deviations below mean for age and sex) and weight by sex and age were estimated. Results A total of 623 participants (326 male and 297 female) were enrolled. The mean height-for-age z-score for males younger than 19 years was ?2.1 and prevalence of low relative height was 50%. Among females, the mean height-for-age z-score was ?1.2 during adolescence; only 15% of adolescent females were of low relative height. Based on BMI-for-age, 37% of the adolescent males and 23% of females were underweight. No children or adolescents were overweight based on BMI-for-age. Conclusions Low relative height and underweight occur in a large proportion of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, with the lowest relative heights and weights occurring in mid-adolescence and among males.

Ayoola, Omolola; Ebersole, Kara; Omotade, Olayemi O.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Brieger, William R.; Salami, Kabiru; Dugas, Lara R.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

2010-01-01

54

77 FR 24157 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...low-altitude RNAV routes, designated T-306 and T-310, in southwestern United States...in southwestern United States. Route T-306 would extend between Los Angeles, CA...United States area navigation routes T-306, Los Angeles, CA (LAX) to El...

2012-04-23

55

Enumeration and identification of gram negative bacteria present in soil underlying urban waste-sites in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Samples of soils underlying wastes were collected from four sites representing four demographic regions of a medium sized town in southwestern Nigeria. Standard methods and reference strains of isolated bacteria were employed for identification. Evaluation of the enzymatic and biochemical reactions showed that all isolated and identified microbes were non-fermenting heterotrophic (HTB). For example, Klebsiella pnemuniae may be involved in wound infections, particularly following bowel surgery. Similarly Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce serious nosocomial infections if it gains access to the body through wounds or intravenous lines. From the 15 culure plates, 88 colonies with various characteristics were enumerated. They differed in aspect of viscosity and color. The bacterial species were identified by percent positive reactions while oxidative and sugar fermentation tests revealed various characteristics among the isolated strains. All of the isolates were negative for citrate utilization, gelatin liquefaction, nitrate reduction, methyl red and Voges Proskaur, motility and hydrogen sulphate production. The quantity of HTB present in an area serves as an index of the general sanitary conditions of that area. The presence of a large number of HTB, in an ecological area may be considered a liability as it can enhance the spread of diseases and on a larger scale may enable epidemics to arise. Therefore, there is need for control of waste sites by recovery and regular germicidal sanitation. PMID:21387915

Achudume, A C; Olawale, J T

2010-09-01

56

Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

Deji, O. F.

2005-01-01

57

Maternal Birth Outcomes: Processes and Challenges in Anambra State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The views of nurse experts and policymakers on maternal birth outcomes in Anambra State, Nigeria, were explored using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that although there are different levels of birth attendants in Anambra State, nurses attend to most deliveries; are highly favored; and are the most trusted obstetric providers among skilled personnel. Obstetric complications are extensive, leading to

Mabel C. Ezeonwu

2011-01-01

58

Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

1983-06-01

59

Functional literacy empowerment for nomadic herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy project held between April 2007 and June

Mojisola Ajibike Olateju

2010-01-01

60

The Television Viewing Behaviour of Families in Kwara State, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes study that was designed to measure the social and spatial television viewing behavior of selected families in Kwara State, Nigeria. Topics discussed include values attached to television viewing, and the social effects of television on educational planning, moral reformation, policy making, and the adoption of innovations in society.…

Talabi, Joseph K.

1989-01-01

61

Forest conversion, conservation and forestry in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new data on the rate and patterns of loss of tropical moist forest cover to agriculture in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data from sequential aerial photographs and field surveys are used to derive an estimate of forest loss of 0.6 per cent per year. This rate is relatively modest, yet current conservation and forestry policy in the

Uwem E Ite; William M Adams

1998-01-01

62

Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

2010-01-01

63

Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning.

Thea Hilhorst; Marti van Liere; Adiya V Ode; Korrie de Koning

2006-01-01

64

Agricultural Information Sources Used by Farmers in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the sources of agricultural information available to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria as well as the farmers' preferred sources. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. A stratified proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 1386 farmers across the existing 34 farm blocks and 63 farm cells in the Agricultural Development

Umunna Nnaemeka Opara

2008-01-01

65

Job satisfaction: Rural Versus Urban Primary Health Care Workers' Perception in Ogun State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one' efforts. Several factors affect job satisfaction. Objective: To compare factors influencing job satisfaction amongst rural and urban primary health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional comparative study recruited qualified health workers selected by multi stage sampling technique from rural and urban health facilities in four local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State in Southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected and analysed using Epi info V 3.5.1 Results: The response rates were 88(88%) and 91(91%) respectively in the rural and urban areas. While urban workers derived satisfaction from availability of career development opportunities, materials and equipment, in their current job, rural workers derived satisfaction from community recognition of their work and improved staff relationship. Major de-motivating factors common to both groups were lack of supportive supervision, client-provider relationship and lack of in-service training. However more rural 74(84.1%) than urban 62(68.1%) health workers would prefer to continue working in their present health facilities (p=0.04). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in job satisfaction with respect to tools availability and career development opportunities (p<0.05). Conclusion: There is dissimilarity in factors influencing job satisfaction between rural and urban healthcare workers. There is need for human resource policy to be responsive to the diverse needs of health workers particularly at the primary level. PMID:22786855

Campbell, P C; Ebuehi, O M

66

Concurrent urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthic infections in schoolchildren in Ilobu, South-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted in a schistosome-endemic rural community in Southwestern Nigeria. We assessed prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematodes and the co-occurrence with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Urine and stool samples from 419 schoolchildren were examined, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics. In total, 78.3% (328/419) were infected with at least one helminth species, with a prevalence (mean egg-count) of 55.1% (3069.2) of Ascaris lumbricoides, 41.1% (127.5) of S. haematobium, 22.7% (98.6) of hookworms, 17.9% (161.3) of Trichuris trichiura, and 10.3% (12.9) of S. mansoni. Multiple infections were significantly more common among children from households with more playmates, absence of toilet facilities and low income level (all p<0.001). Children with heavy hookworm burden were at a significantly higher chance of acquiring S. mansoni (OR=36.35; 95% Cl: 13.22-100.97; p<0.0001). The risk of S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides infections was increased in co-infections with S. haematobium. Logistic regression analysis revealed infections by hookworms and S. mansoni (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.90, 95% Cl: 2.03-7.46; p<0.0001), and by hookworms and T. trichiura (aOR=2.46, 95% Cl: 1.44-4.22; p=0.001) as significant risk factors for multiple infections. Our study shows that polyparasitism is common in the study area. Focused interventions such as mass treatment with anthelminthics and health education are needed to improve the well-being of the affected population. PMID:22440198

Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Danladi, Y K; Heukelbach, J; Ofoezie, I E

2012-03-14

67

Potential Impact of Ozone on Coniferous Forests of the Interior Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the well-documented negative impacts of ozone on the health of coniferous forests in southern California and the significant growth experienced by southwestern cities over the past several decades, the ozone\\/forest dynamic in the interior portion of the southwestern United States has been largely ignored. Primarily through a review of literature pertaining to most aspects of ozone and its impact

Jeremy Diem

2003-01-01

68

Critical levels for soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mn and maize ear-leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soils of South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sedimentary soils of South-western Nigeria, actual and expected relative yields of maize were plotted against soil physical factors, soil avalilable nutrients and ear-leaf content of maize. These were used to set critical ranges of these factors for optimum production. Regression equations were obtained for each of the soil and plant factors for predicting yield, thereby making possible yield

Gideon O Adeoye; Akinola A Agboola

1985-01-01

69

Barrier contraception among adolescents and young adults in a tertiary institution in Southwestern Nigeria: a cross-sectional descriptive study.  

PubMed

Nigeria, like most African nations, is basically conservative, but the young people are becoming more sexually liberated, and the incidence of STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and abortions among these young people is on the increase. The use of barrier contraception (BC), which is a cost-effective method of preventing STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and its attending complications, has therefore become an important issue in reproductive health. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among first year students of Osun State University, Nigeria. Four hundred respondents were studied using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were selected by balloting. Most respondents (93%) had heard about the male condom as a method of barrier contraception. Most respondents (79.1%) supported the use of barrier contraceptives, but many (62.5%) thought it would promote sexual promiscuity, 33.4% believed that the use of barrier contraception reflected a lack of trust from the partner, and 38.7% felt barrier contraception is not necessary with a stable partner. One hundred and sixty one (40.5%) had used a form of barrier contraception before, but only 130 (32.7%) are currently using BC. The male condom was the most commonly used method (88.2%), followed by female condom and diaphragm (5.6% respectively). The prevention of STI and unwanted pregnancies were the main reasons (59%) given by respondents for using BC, while religion was the main reason given by non-users. The attitudes of these students toward barrier contraception and their practice were poor. The role of sex education at homes and religious gatherings cannot be over-emphasized. PMID:21061934

Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O; Adeomi, Adeleye A

70

Lassa fever in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in 1974  

PubMed Central

Three cases of Lassa fever occurred in Onitsha, East Central State, Nigeria, in January and February 1974. The first case was a 19-year-old Nigerian; the other 2 cases were German missionary physicians at St Charles Borromeo Hospital, Onitsha, one of whom cared for the patient who was the first case. Thus, 2 of the 3 cases were hospital acquired. Investigations failed to discover a village outbreak or the source of virus for the first case. A serosurvey of 258 hospital staff members and contacts of the 3 cases showed no other persons with antibody to Lassa virus. The absence of Lassa virus antibody in a high-risk group indicates a low or nonexistent level of past Lassa virus activity in southeastern Nigeria.

Bowen, G. S.; Tomori, O.; Wulff, Herta; Casals, J.; Noonan, A.; Downs, W. G.

1975-01-01

71

Small wind power in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwestern Great Plains agricultural production in both vegetable crops and cattle, and the extraction industries in oil and natural gas recovery both feed and power a significant percentage of our nation. Energy costs that are rising faster than the rate of return on the sale of these products are contributing to a serious situation with many farms being abandoned

G. P. Tennyson

1983-01-01

72

SALMONELLA PERSISTANCE ON A SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES DAIRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cattle are reservoirs for Salmonella and mature cattle typically appear asymptomatic while shedding this pathogen into the environment. However, in specific geographic regions, Salmonella outbreaks have been reported in lactating animals resulting in lost milk production and cow mortality. Dairy cattle on a single farm (2000 hd dairy; southwestern U.S.), were identified and sampled upon entering the milking string

T. S. Edrington; C. H. Martinez; T. T. Ross; T. R. Callaway; K. J. Genovese; R. C. Anderson; D. J. Nisbet

2005-01-01

73

Clinical profile of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Current data on the pattern of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Nigerians are sparse. This database was designed to document the clinical profile of PD in Nigerians, and compare this to prior observations. Methods A database of patients presenting to the Neurology out-patients clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital was established in October 1996. Demographic and clinical data at presentation (disease stage using Hoehn and Yahr scale; 'off' state severity on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale) were documented for patients diagnosed with parkinsonism between October 1996 and December 2006. Cases were classified as Parkinson's disease or secondary parkinsonism (in the presence of criteria suggestive of a secondary aetiology). Results The hospital frequency of parkinsonism (over a 2-year period, and relative to other neurologic disorders) was 1.47% (i.e. 20/1360). Of the 124 patients with parkinsonism, 98 (79.0%) had PD, while 26 (21.0%) had secondary parkinsonism. Mean age (SD) at onset of PD (61.5 (10.0) years) was slightly higher than for secondary parkinsonism (57.5 (14.0) years) (P = 0.10). There was a male preponderance in PD (3.3 to 1) and secondary parkinsonism (2.7 to 1), while a positive family history of parkinsonism was present in only 1.02% (1/98) of PD. There was a modestly significant difference in age at onset (SD) of PD in men (60.3 (10.4)) compared to women (65.2 (7.9)) (T = 2.08; P = 0.04). The frequency of young onset PD (? 50 years) was 16.3% (16/98). The mean time interval from onset of motor symptoms to diagnosis of PD was 24.6 ± 26.1 months with majority presenting at a median 12 months from onset. On the H&Y scale, severity of PD at presentation was a median 2.0 (range 1 to 4). PD disease subtype was tremor-dominant in 31 (31.6%), mixed 54 (55.1%) and akinetic-rigid 14 (14.3%). Hypertension was present as a co-morbidity in 20 (20.4%), and diabetes in 6 (6.12%). Conclusions The clinical profile of PD in Nigerians is similar to that in other populations, but is characterized by delayed presentation as has been reported in other developing countries. Young-onset disease occurs but may be less commonly encountered, and frequency of a positive family history is lower than in western populations.

2010-01-01

74

Small wind power in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southwestern Great Plains agricultural production in both vegetable crops and cattle, and the extraction industries in oil and natural gas recovery both feed and power a significant percentage of our nation. Energy costs that are rising faster than the rate of return on the sale of these products are contributing to a serious situation with many farms being abandoned and oil wells being capped. Wind energy, which is abundant in the region, is investigated as a near term applicable alternative energy sources.

Tennyson, G. P.

1983-01-01

75

Sexual offences in a Muslim world: a socio-ethical reflection on Zamfara State (Nigeria) v. Bariya I. Mugazu  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Friday morning, 29 January 2001, Bariya Ibrahima Mugazu was given 100 lashes. Zamfara state of Nigeria tried and punished this young woman for having had sex unlawfully in the previous year. Until this case between Zamfara state of Nigeria and unmarried Bariya Mugazu, controversies surrounding the full adoption of Islamic law (Shari'ah) in northern Nigeria seemed to have remained

Olufemi O. Ilesanmi

2010-01-01

76

The State and Ethnic Autonomy in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the utility of the principle of autonomy in the management of deeply divided polities, from the perspective of the Nigerian case. It traces the origins of the principle to the attempts by the colonial authorities and subsequent regimes to accommodate the country's ethnic diversity, but argues that this essentially state-centred approach reduces the effectiveness of the principle.

Eghosa E. Osaghae

2003-01-01

77

The Status of Broadcasting Libraries in Nigeria (A Study of Bauchi and Plateau States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of broadcasting libraries in Nigeria was carried out using the social survey method. Questionnaire, observation, and interview techniques were used to generate data from a representative sample of the nation's broadcast media stations (radio and television) located in the Bauchi and Plateau States of Nigeria. A general underdevelopment of the libraries was revealed. Staffing is inadequate in number

STEPHEN A. AKINTUNDE

1995-01-01

78

Contemporary Analysis of Variability in Road Traffic Accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial and temporal pattern of road traffic accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria, and to suggest preventive and corrective safety measures for reducing road traffic accidents in the study area. Road traffic accidents exert a huge burden on Nigeria's economy and health care services and current accident prevention interventions are sporadic, uncoordinated

Augustus O. Atubi; Patience C. Onokala

2009-01-01

79

Conflicts between Native Fish and Nonnative Sport Fish Management in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitous presence of nonnative fishes, both sport and nongame, within waters of the southwestern United States is the foremost factor preventing immediate conservation and recovery of imperiled native fishes. We present evidence that the two fishery types cannot be co-managed in sympatry if natives are to persist. A dual responsibility of federal and state fish and wildlife agencies to

Robert W. Clarkson; Paul C. Marsh; Sally E. Stefferud; Jerome A. Stefferud

2005-01-01

80

Maternal mortality in Anambra State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

The maternal mortality rate (MMR) in 10 hospitals scattered all over Anambra State in a 5-year period was studied. The hospitals covered urban, semi-urban and rural areas. The MMR varied from 1.8 to 13 per thousand with a mean of 4.97 per thousand. The causes of and various factors influencing this high mortality rate are examined as well as the avoidable factors. Suggestions are made for its reduction based on accurate data collection, improved health facilities, improved socio-economic status and basic education. PMID:2904899

Chukudebelu, W O; Ozumba, B C

1988-12-01

81

Religion and Social Change in a Typical Yoruba Community of South-Western Nigeria: A Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yoruba is one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. The people are located in the North-Western zone of the country. Shao is a typical ancient Yoruba community founded toward the end of the eighteenth century by great hunters and warriors from old Oyo - the capital of the Yoruba Old Oyo Empire. It is located in the northern

Adelowo Felix Adetunji

82

Critical Thermal Maxima of Five Trout Species in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical thermal maxima (CTM) and responses to fluctuating thermal regimes indicate that adult rainbow (Salmo gairdneri), brown (Salmo trutta), and brook (Salvelinus fontinalis) trout species, introduced into the southwestern United States, are as well adapted to elevated water temperature as adult Gila (Salmo gilae) and Arizona (Salmo apache) trout, which are native to that region.

Raymond M. Lee; John N. Rinne

1980-01-01

83

Southern oscillation effects on daily precipitation in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Southern Oscillation on daily precipitation in the southwestern United States is examined by using the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) to perturb parameters of a stochastic daily precipitation model. Daily precipitation is modeled with a Markov chain-mixed exponential model and seasonal variability of model parameters is described by Fourier series. The hypothesized linkage between the SOI and

D. A. Woolhiser; T. O. Keefer; K. T. Redmond

1993-01-01

84

A study of academic advisement satisfaction of Oklahoma aviation undergraduate students at four southwestern state universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the academic advisement satisfaction of 510, Oklahoma aviation students at four southwestern state universities. Students were given the opportunity to complete a survey during class meetings or during aviation student orientation, spring 2002. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) software program was utilized to determine

Debra Denise Vaughn

2002-01-01

85

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the nat...

D. W. Anning M. E. Flynn N. J. Bauch S. J. Gerner S. N. Hamlin

2006-01-01

86

Integrated Assessment as a Step Toward Reducing Climate Vulnerability in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the effects of climate change requires new approaches to develop and deliver relevant climate information to regional and local decision makers, and to infuse that knowledge into their decision support systems. In the southwestern United States an alternative approach to integrated climate assessment is changing how both researchers and stakeholders view climate information and vulnerability. In this region, climate

R. C. Bales; D. M. Liverman; B. J. Morehouse

2004-01-01

87

Underutilization of Home Health Care in Three Southwestern States: An Exploratory Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research study was conducted during the summer of 1974 to evaluate the utilization of home health care in three southwestern States (Texas, Oklahoma, and Alabama). The study was performed to explore reasons for the underutilization of home health care i...

B. G. Williamson N. Bergstresser P. Ferguson

1975-01-01

88

Water management policies for the algal biofuel sector in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology has received increased attention as a sustainable way of producing biofuel, food, high value products and feed ingredients in the Southwestern United States (US). However, these regions already face serious freshwater supply issues. Hence, new policies and regulations for water management and use is a high priority for the sustainable development of an algal biofuel

Bobban G. Subhadra

2011-01-01

89

Seismic Structure of the Lithosphere in the Southwestern United States Using Receiver Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the seismic structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States using receiver functions calculated from teleseismic arrivals recorded in the LA RISTRA (Colorado PLAteau, Rio Grande RIft, Great Plains Seismic TRAnsect) experiment. LA RISTRA was a 950 km-long PASSCAL broadband seismic line with approximately 18 km station spacing deployed during 1999-2001 along a great circle from Lake

D. C. Wilson; R. Aster; J. Ni; S. Grand; R. Gok; W. Gao; J. Schlue; S. Baldridge; S. Semken

2002-01-01

90

Moisture variability in the southwestern United States linked to abrupt glacial climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many regions of the world experienced abrupt climate variability during the last glacial period (75-15thousand years ago). These changes probably arose from interactions between Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean, but the rapid and widespread propagation of these changes requires a large-scale atmospheric response whose details remain unclear. Here we use an oxygen isotope record from a speleothem collected from the Cave of the Bells, Arizona, USA, to reconstruct aridity in the southwestern United States during the last glacial period and deglaciation. We find that, during this period, aridity in the southwestern United States and climate in the North Atlantic region show similar patterns of variability. Periods of warmth in the North Atlantic Ocean, such as interstadials and the Bølling-Allerød warming, correspond to drier conditions in the southwestern United States. Conversely, cooler temperatures in the high latitudes are associated with increased regional moisture. We propose that interstadial warming of the North Atlantic Ocean diverted the westerly storm track northward, perhaps through weakening of the Aleutian Low, and thereby reduced moisture delivery to southwestern North America. A similar response to future warming would exacerbate aridity in this already very dry region.

Wagner, J. D. M.; Cole, J. E.; Beck, J. W.; Patchett, P. J.; Henderson, G. M.; Barnett, H. R.

2010-02-01

91

Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree-ring record indicates that this is the case. During the 20th century, tree-ring widths correlated very positively with total winter precipitation and very negatively with spring-summer maximum temperature. This indicates that Southwestern forest growth is significantly impacted by both the amount of water delivered before the growing season and temperature during the growing season. We conclude that in the absence of a significant increase in winter precipitation, continued warming should lead to a more sparsely populated Southwestern forest population, similar to the one that appears to have existed during 1000-1600 AD.

Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

2011-12-01

92

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ?2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ?7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ?18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, Constance I.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

2010-01-01

93

Impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning. These demands on time affected income and productivity, while the diversion of resources had implications for investments and savings. Coping strategies varied between households, mainly as a reflection of asset levels, which were often related to the gender of the household head. Reported coping strategies also differed between ethnic groups. First-line relatives were the most important source of support for households under pressure. Erosive coping strategies that undermined the sustainability of livelihoods were used by more vulnerable households following multiple cases of illness and death. Mourning practices, rules of inheritance and stigma tended to increase a household's vulnerability. Currently, Benue State is facing growing adult morbidity and mortality because of HIV infections. A context-specific study of its possible impact in a setting with a still relatively low number of AIDS cases is therefore important for informing local policy development and for building advocacy. PMID:17601020

Hilhorst, T; van Liere, M J; Ode, A V; de Koning, K

2006-05-01

94

Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

PROBLEM STATEMENT: In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. APPROACH: Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. RESULTS: Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

Fuller, Amy C; Harhay, Michael O

2010-06-30

95

Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico

Charles F. Fulhorst; Remi N. Charrel; Scott C. Weaver; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Robert D. Bradley; Mary L. Milazzo; Robert B. Tesh; Michael D. Bowen

96

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch

Ellis Quinn Margolis

2007-01-01

97

Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of

D. Winester; D. R. Pool; D. L. Schmerge; J. P. Hoffmann; G. R. Keller

2004-01-01

98

Dust transport model validation using satellite- and ground-based methods in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust is known to aggravate respiratory diseases. This is an issue in the desert southwestern United States, where windblown dust events are common. The Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS) project aims to address this problem by using remote-sensing products to assist in public health decision support. As part of PHAiRS, a model for simulating desert dust cycles, the

Anna-Britt Mahler; Kurt Thome; Dazhong Yin; William A. Sprigg

2006-01-01

99

Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: implications for livestock disease management and public health.  

PubMed

After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised. PMID:23905209

Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Agada, Charity A; Adetunji, Victoria O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M

2013-01-01

100

Perspectives on desertification: south-western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several climatic changes occurred in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and other parts of the south-west United States during the last 12,000 years leading to a markedly warmer and drier climate. Vegetation changed in response to this climatic shift. Generally, this transition was from coniferous woodland to grasslands and eventually to the present day desert scrub. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of this region

Ed Fredrickson; Kris. M. Havstad; Rick Estell; Paul Hyder

1998-01-01

101

Determinants of Technical Inefficiency on Farm Production: Tobit Analysis Approach to the NDE Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study estimates the determinants of technical inefficiency among the farmers that are participating in the Ondo State chapter of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) program in Nigeria. Data were collected from farmers under the NDE programme in Ondo State, Nigeria. Using a tobit analysis, it was found that extension visits and higher education were significant factors influencing technical

EBENEZER O. OGUNYINKA; IGBEKELE A. AJIBEFUN

2004-01-01

102

Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512

Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

2010-12-01

103

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management

S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau

2002-01-01

104

Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

2006-01-01

105

Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2008-01-01

106

Impact of principal leadership on Catholic high school students' academic achievement in Edo state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, students of Catholic High\\/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High\\/Senior secondary schools and the government that runs them but also

Osayamen Samson Imhangbe

2012-01-01

107

A Survey Of Health Effects Of Air Pollution On Peasant Farmers In Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the health effects due to air pollution on peasant farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The study is based on the review of epidemiological data collected from clinics and hospitals in the State. The diseases found to be prevalent in the study area include allergic asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), chronic bronchitis and visual

J. U. Ugwuanyi; F. C. Obi

2002-01-01

108

Water and People: Perception and Management Practices in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural perceptions and traditions are part of the intangible aspects of water resources management. However, little attention has been given to their impact on water management issues such as access, use, or allocation, as well as the success of state water projects. This article looks at these issues through a case study of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, drawing on interviews,

Emmanuel M. Akpabio

2011-01-01

109

Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

2012-01-01

110

TRACING THE PATH OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG STUDENTS OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on substance use and abuse among students of tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 700 students belonging to different levels of studies was taken from the various higher institutions in the State using proportional allocation. Initial descriptive statistics show that the median and modal ages of respondents are 23 years and 20 years respectively

Rasheed Kola Ojikutu; Ismaila A. Adeleke

2010-01-01

111

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

112

Factors Responsible for Career Choice among Sampled Nigerian Teenagers in Bendel State of Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,…

Odebunmi, Akin

113

Studies of the proterozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is comprised of an introductory chapter (1) and four subsequent chapters (2, 3, 4, and 5) which concentrate on the evolution of Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern United States. Chapter 2 utilizes gravity and magnetic geophysical techniques to delineate subsurface occurrences of Mesoproterozoic Unkar and Neoproterozoic Chuar Group rocks in northern Arizona and southern Utah. These rocks were delineated using gravity and aeromagnetic data, in combination with gravity profile modeling, seismic velocity analysis, geologic cross-sections, analysis of surface geologic structures, and analysis of drilling data. Delineation of Proterozoic extensional trends within this region provides insights in to Proterozoic paleogeography along the southwestern margin of Laurentia. Chapter 3 focuses on the geologic mapping and areal distribution of the Mesoproterozoic Apache Group, Troy Quartzite and diabase in central Arizona. Landsat TM imagery was used in combination with existing geologic maps of the region to define the areal distribution of these units. Results were used to construct a regional-scale photo-geologic map of exposed Middle Proterozoic rocks. Chapter 4 introduces a sequence stratigraphic model for siliciclastic rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Lanoria Formation of the Franklin Mountains, Texas, comprised of 700+ m of marine shelf and marginal marine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. It is divided into six members (L1 through L6). Four facies associations are identified: proximal, distal shelf; tidal flat; incised valley; and, estuarine/deltaic. Six stratigraphic sequences have been interpreted. Sequences LS1, LS2, LS4 and LS6 represent marine shelf deposits. Sequence LS3 comprises incised valley fill and overlying tidal flat deposits. Sequence LS5 comprises incised valley fill overlain by estuarine/deltaic sediments. Sequences, facies, and paleocurrents suggest a northward sloping platform, indicating a southern source. Tidal processes dominated on proximal portions, while storm processes dominated on distal portions. Chapter 5 of this manuscript presents a hypothesis for the Proterozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern Laurentia during the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. Recent tectonic models of Grenville-age rocks along this margin document arc-continent and continent-continent collision ca. 1150--1120 Ma. Current interpretations, however, do not take into account the prior, and coeval tectonic history of Proterozoic rocks of southwestern regions of Laurentia that currently comprise the southwestern United States.

Seeley, John Martin

114

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the mountain Southwest appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that as projected temperatures rise and precipitation declines southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century, especially at warm, lower-elevation sites. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may also increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to an extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ~2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984-2006, and ~7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997-2008. We estimate that up to ~18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to both bark beetles and wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. Map of southwestern forest and woodland mortality due to (orange) bark beetles from 1997-2008 and (red) wildfire from 1984-2006. Dark green areas are conifer and mixed forest. Light green areas are piñon/juniper woodland. Grey areas are non-forest/woodland landscapes. White lines are state boundaries. Bark-beetle induced mortality covered 18,177 km^2 and wildfire induced mortality covered 6,420 km^2.

Still, C. J.; Williams, P.; Allen, C. D.; Millar, C. I.; Swetnam, T. W.; Michaelsen, J.; Leavitt, S. W.

2010-12-01

115

Phytoplankton of Ogelube Lake, Opi, Anambra State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ogelube, a small, shallow natural lake at Opi, a township near the University of Nigeria's Nsukka campus yielded 231 algal taxa. Most belonged to the Desmidiales, dominated by Cosmarium, and to the Chlorococcales dominated by Scenedesmus, giving 73 taxa new to West Africa.

S. Biswas; N. O. Nweze

1990-01-01

116

Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy.

Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

2012-01-01

117

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

118

Ethnic Factors as Correlates of Employees' Performance in Selected Federal Bureaucracies in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the history of ethnic politics in most Nigeria's federal bureaucracies and the failure of the various governmental policies which have attempted to address it, this study was carried out to examine the effects of ethnic factors on employees' performance in some selected federal bureaucracies in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo state, Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design, using a

K. O. Kester

119

Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

Ojebode, Ayo

2005-01-01

120

Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables…

Adeyemo, D. A.; Williams, T. M.

2009-01-01

121

Doing Business in Nigeria, 2010. Comparing Regulation in 36 States, Abuja FCT and 183 Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Doing Business in Nigeria 2008 is the first subnational report on Sub-Saharan Africa in the Doing Business series. The report covers 10 states and Abuja, FCT, comparing them with each other and with 178 economies around the world. Comparisons are based on...

2010-01-01

122

Traditional Anti-fever Phytotherapies in Sagamu and Remo North Districts in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to identify the medicinal plants in Sagamu Local Government Area (LGA), and Remo North LGA of Ogun State, Nigeria, implicated in the treatment of various types of fever. The survey tools consisted of a semi-structured questionnaire and oral interviews. Seventy respondents mostly ages 31 to 50 covered in this survey were drawn from among the

Abiodun A. Adeyemi; Adebayo A. Gbolade; Jones O. Moody; Omonike O. Ogbole; Monsurat T. Fasanya

2010-01-01

123

SocioEconomic Impact Of Malaria Epidemics On Households In Nigeria: Microevidence From Kwara State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the effects of malaria on household productivity, expenditure and mortality in Kwara state, Nigeria. In recent years, there has been increase in human and financial commitments to Malaria control, nationally and internationally, partly due to the need to meet the Development targets set in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and that of the National Economic Empowerment

Usman Abdullateef; ADEBAYO. Mariam Oluwatoyin

2011-01-01

124

Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

2008-01-01

125

Anthropogenic Indices of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among Children in Delta State, Southern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and the anthropogenic risk factors of 978 randomly selected primary school children from Igbede community in Isoko South Local Government Area of Delta State Southern Nigeria were evaluated. Methods: Subjects were screened for the presence of STH using direct smear method and kato-katz techniques. This study was conducted between April and

JC Nmor; JO Onojafe; BA Omu

2009-01-01

126

Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

2012-01-01

127

Postharvest Storage Characteristics of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola Heckel.) in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) as carried out by peasant farmers cum traders in Imo State, Nigeria, was studied to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. Five storage material namely: Polyethylene Bags (PB), Cement Bag Paper (CBP), Dry Plantain Leaves (DPL), Fresh Plantain Leaves FPL) and Sawdust were utilized in a

M. O. Ofor; M. I. Nwufo; I. J. Ogoke; A. A. Ngwuta; I. I Ibeawuchi; C. I. Duruigbo

2010-01-01

128

Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

Alufohai, G. O.

2006-01-01

129

Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of

Uwem F Ekpo; Chiedu F Mafiana; Clement O Adeofun; Adewale RT Solarin; Adewumi B Idowu

2008-01-01

130

Forms and Determinants of Rural Livelihoods Diversification in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification is a norm in every economy, particularly in rural Africa, where farming alone rarely provides sufficient income. This study examines the forms and determinants of nonfarm livelihoods among 320 rural households in Ogun State, Nigeria. Results show that nonfarm livelihoods contribute 63?% of household income. The Simpson Index of Diversity shows moderate diversification (0.42) indicating a complementary role of

E. Fabusoro; A. M. Omotayo; S. O. Apantaku; P. A. Okuneye

2010-01-01

131

Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

132

Farmers' Attitude to Beneficiary Funding of Extension Services in Kwara State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beneficiary funding for agricultural extension services in many developing countries, including Nigeria is not only a reality, but also a necessity due to several factors. This study was carried out in Kwara state. Specifically, it examined the socio-economic characteristics of the contact farmers, forms of service that have been rendered by the agricultural extension service agency to the contact farmers,

I. Ogunlade; O. I. Oladele; A. O. Babatunde

133

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on soil conservation, in the fourth

B. Junge; O. Deji; R. Abaidoo; D. Chikoye; K. Stahr

2009-01-01

134

Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

Emielu, Austin

2011-01-01

135

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

136

An assessment of family care for people living with schizophrenia in Delta State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess attitudes and beliefs affecting family care for people living with schizophrenia. The research design was observational through in-depth interviews and family group discussions. The participants were sixty family members sampled from the five ethnic groups that constitute Delta State in Nigeria. Data were generated via a structured interview schedule and family discussions reflecting Expressed Emotion

Christian Ewhrudjakpor

137

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

2009-01-01

138

Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

Osagie, Roseline O.

2012-01-01

139

Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

2011-01-01

140

Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

Alufohai, G. O.

2006-01-01

141

Knowledge, attitude and use of alternative medical therapy amongst urban residents of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Alternate medicine which has a long history has been relegated to the background by the evolution of modern medicine. In recent times, however, alternative medical therapy has been growing in popularity and getting increasing attention and interest. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and use by urban dwellers of alternative medical therapies. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which used a semi-structured questionnaire to gather information from 812 randomly selected urban respondents. Majority 734 (90.4%) of the respondents were aware of an alternative way of getting treatment for their ailments apart from the orthodox medicine. The forms of alternative medical therapy (AMT) respondents were aware of include: concoction (herbal preparations) 683 (94.2%); herbalists/traditionalists 616 (85.0%); traditional bone setters therapy 434 (59.9%); among others. The main source of information was through radio 439 (70.9%). About half 403 (54.9%) of the respondents were aware of side effects from AMT and these include diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting which accounts for 69.7%; 42.2% and 40.2% respectively. About 347 (47.3%) think AMT could be injurious to health. About a third 262 (35.7%) of the respondents who were aware of AMT prefers it to orthodox medicine. Reasons given for the preference were that: AMT is cheap 56 (21.4%); accessible 43 (16.4%) and acceptable 35 (13.4%) to them. About half 367 (50.0%) also believed AMT alone could cure their illness without resort to orthodox medical therapy (OMT). Over half 401 (54.6%) of the 734 respondents that were aware of AMT had patronized or taken one form of alternative medical therapy or the other in the last 12 months prior to the study. Of these number, 323 (80.5%) had taken concoction (herbal preparations). However, there was no relationship between respondents' age, sex, educational level or religion and the patronage of AMT as all test of associations were not statistically significant p>0.05. This study has revealed that the use of alternative medical therapies is quite popular among the studied population and a high proportion of the respondents use AMT notwithstanding that they live in the urban communities where they have better access to orthodox medical care and medical practitioners. Regulations should be made concerning the advertisement of alternative medicine and practices as orthodox medicine and practices are usually not advertised. PMID:20448854

Bamidele, James Olusegun; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Oladele, Edward Adekola

2009-05-07

142

Contribution of Small Ruminants (Sheep and Goats) to Meat Supply in Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Odo, B.I., Alaku, S.O. and Omeje, S.I. 2000. Contribution of small ruminants (sheep and goats) to meat supply in Enugu state, Nigeria. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 18: 165–169.The monthly records of various livestock species (cattle, sheep, goat, pig, horse, donkey and dog) slaughtered for meat in Enugu state for a period of 8 years (1988–1995) were used to determine the

B. I. Odo; S. O. Alaku; S. I. Omeje

2000-01-01

143

In-School Adolescents And Career Choice: The Case Of Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines In-school Adolescents and Career Choice: The case of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences between parental

E. O. Osakinle

2010-01-01

144

DETERMINANTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF COCOA IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA: A MULTIVARIATE PROBIT ANALYSIS APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oluyole, K. A. and Lawal, J. O. 2008. Determinants of the Occurrence of Black Pod Disease of Cocoa in Edo State, Nigeria: A Multivariate Probit Analysis Approach. j. innov.dev.strategy 2(2): 1-4 This study was conducted at Edo state of Nigeria during July 2007 to determine factors that favor the infestation of black pod disease of cocoa in the study area.

K. A. OLUYOLE; J. O. LAWAL

2008-01-01

145

Medicinal plants useful for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal plants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, South west Nigeria. Focus group discussions and interview were held about plants often found useful for malaria therapy in the community. Fifty species (local names) including for example: Morinda lucida (Oruwo), Enantia chlorantha (Awopa), Alstonia boonei (Ahun), Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and Khaya grandifoliola (Oganwo) plants were found to be in use for malaria therapy at Okeigbo, Southwest, Nigeria . The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves or whole plants. The recipes also, could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in Okeigbo, Nigeria. PMID:20162091

Odugbemi, Tolu O; Akinsulire, Odunayo R; Aibinu, Ibukun E; Fabeku, Peter O

2006-11-13

146

Forensic medicine in the Rivers State of Nigeria: experience in four rural general hospitals.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 375 consecutive medicolegal cases seen in four peripheral general hospitals in the Rivers State of Nigeria over a five-year period (March 1984 to February 1989) was undertaken. The most common indications for forensic medical consultation were assaults (78.6%) using clubs, sticks, fists and machetes as weapons, road traffic accidents (9.1%) and sexual offences (7.7%). The proportions of accidental deaths (4.3%), homicidal deaths (2.9%), sudden natural deaths (0.5%), maternal deaths (0.5%) and suicidal deaths (0.3%) were much lower. The male-to-female ratio was 1.4 to 1. The patients' ages ranged from 10 months to 75 years, with a mean of 31.6 years. Twenty-three cases (6.1%) were children, while the remaining 352 cases (93.9%) were adults. The study showed that for those cases which do come to the pathologist's attention, forensic personnel and laboratory services are inadequate in the peripheral parts of Nigeria. The study also highlighted the possible range of medicolegal problems of which the medical practitioner should be aware, even if he is practising in the rural non-urbanized areas of Nigeria. The study shows that not all deaths are registered in Nigeria. PMID:10689865

Amakiri, C N

2000-01-01

147

Relations between climatic variability and hydrologic time series from four alluvial basins across the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic time series of groundwater levels, streamflow, precipitation, and tree-ring indices from four alluvial basins in the southwestern United States were spectrally analyzed, and then frequency components were reconstructed to isolate variability due to climatic variations on four time scales. Reconstructed components (RCs), from each time series, were compared to climatic indices like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North American

R. T. Hanson; M. D. Dettinger; M. W. Newhouse

2006-01-01

148

Small-diameter wood processing in the southwestern United States: An economic case study and decision analysis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ponderosa pine ecosystem restoration has been proposed as a method of improving ecosystem health and lowering the risk of cata- strophic wildfire in forests in the southwestern United States. There are few facilities in that region that process material removed from restoration treatments into products. At the time of this study, Alpine Trucking and Specialty Woods was an integrated small-wood

Roger D. Fight; Guy L. Pinjuv; Peter J. Daugherty

149

A Decision Tree Model for Evaluating Countermeasures to Secure Cargo at United States Southwestern Ports of Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a decision tree model for evaluating countermeasures to reduce vulnerabilities to terrorism in commercial truck crossings at United States southwestern land ports of entry. The model includes critical events in four phases of cargo movement: cargo transfer in Mexico, Mexican customs, U.S. customs, and the inland phase. Improvements in transportation security, inspections at Mexican ports, and at

Niyazi Onur Bakir

2008-01-01

150

Late Holocene Climate and Cultural Changes in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Columnar stalagmites in caves of the Guadalupe Mountains during the late Holocene record a 4000-year annually resolved climate history for the southwestern United States. Annual banding, hiatuses, and high-precision uranium-series dating show a present day-like climate from 4000 to 3000 years ago, following a drier middle Holocene. A distinctly wetter and cooler period from 3000 to 800 years ago was followed by a period of present day-like conditions, with the exception of a slightly wetter interval from 440 to 290 years before the present. The stalagmite record correlates well with the archaeological record of changes in cultural activities of indigenous people. Such climate change may help to explain evidence of dwelling abandonment and population redistribution.

Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane

2001-10-01

151

Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Whitewater Arroyo virus in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of the Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality.

Fulhorst, C. F.; Charrel, R. N.; Weaver, S. C.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Bradley, R. D.; Milazzo, M. L.; Tesh, R. B.; Bowen, M. D.

2001-01-01

152

Growth, stabilization, and reactivation of Proterozoic lithosphere in the southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Growth of Proterozoic continental lithosphere in the southwestern United States involved assembly of tectonostratigraphic terranes during several pulses of convergent tectonism ca. 1.74, 1.70, and 1.65-1.60 Ga. Prograde metamorphism accompanied orogenic assembly, and peak metamorphic conditions outlasted deformation. Regions now characterized by the highest metamorphic grades underwent slow isobaric cooling and were not uplifted until more than 200 m.y. after assembly. Regions of low metamorphic grade were not uplifted substantially after assembly. The authors suggest that (1) relatively thin lithospheric fragments were assembled into isostatically stable, normal thickness continental lithosphere; (2) assembly did not erase lithospheric-scale heterogeneities; (3) the present juxtaposition of different crustal levels reflects differential uplift related to 1.4-1.1 Ga tectonomagmatic activity; and (4) the boundaries between different lithospheric blocks were repeatedly reactivated from Precambrian through Tertiary time.

Bowring, S.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Karlstrom, K.E. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA))

1990-12-01

153

Paleotemperatures in the southwestern United States derived from noble gases in ground water.  

PubMed

A paleotemperature record based on measurements of atmospheric noble gases dissolved in ground water of the Carrizo aquifer (Texas) shows that the annual mean temperature in the southwestern United States during the last glacial maximum was about 5 degrees C lower than the present-day value. In combination with evidence for fluctuations in mountain snow lines, this cooling indicates that the glacial lapse rate was approximately the same as it is today. In contrast, measurements on deep-sea sediments indicate that surface temperatures in the ocean basins adjacent to our study area decreased by only about 2 degrees C. This difference between continental and oceanic records poses questions concerning our current understanding of paleoclimate and climate-controlling processes. PMID:17795002

Stute, M; Schlosser, P; Clark, J F; Broecker, W S

1992-05-15

154

The diffusion of maize to the southwestern United States and its impact  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the initial period of agriculture in the southwestern United States has been transformed by recent discoveries that establish the presence of maize there by 2100 cal. B.C. (calibrated calendrical years before the Christian era) and document the processes by which it was integrated into local foraging economies. Here we review archaeological, paleoecological, linguistic, and genetic data to evaluate the hypothesis that Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) farmers migrating from a homeland in Mesoamerica introduced maize agriculture to the region. We conclude that this hypothesis is untenable and that the available data indicate instead a Great Basin homeland for the PUA, the breakup of this speech community into northern and southern divisions ?6900 cal. B.C. and the dispersal of maize agriculture from Mesoamerica to the US Southwest via group-to-group diffusion across a Southern Uto-Aztecan linguistic continuum.

Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Fritz, Gayle J.; Adams, Karen R.; Roney, John R.; MacWilliams, A. C.

2009-01-01

155

Prevalences of loiasis in Ondo state, Nigeria, as evaluated by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA).  

PubMed

The rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was used to assess the prevalences of loiasis among 4800 subjects in 60 villages in Ondo state, south-western Nigeria. Coverages for community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) were assessed in the same communities, which were located in the Owo, Akure North, Ifedore, Akure South, Ondo East and Ondo West local government areas (LGA). In addition, fingerprick blood samples were collected from 80 individuals in each of six villages (i.e. one village in each LGA investigated) and checked for Loa loa microfilaraemia. Microfilaraemias were only detected in three of the villages where blood samples were collected and then only at low prevalences (1.25%-5.0%) and intensities (267-1600 microfilariae/ml). No serious adverse events were or ever had been related to the CDTI but mild or moderate adverse reactions were quite common, especially in Akure North (55.0%) and Owo (40.2%). A female subject was more likely to report an history of eye worm than a male subject (20.3%-35.7% v. 20.8%-26.5%, according to LGA). Although the subjects aged 41-50 years formed the age-group most likely to report an history of eye worm (32.7%), the highest CDTI coverage was recorded in the subjects aged 61-70 years (54.7%). The results indicated that CDTI had helped to reduce the prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia and that ivermectin can continue to be used for mass administrations in Ondo state with little risk of serious adverse events. PMID:18348776

Adeoye, G O; Akinsanya, B; Otubanjo, A O; Ibidapo, C A; Atalabi, T; Okwuzu, J; Adejai, E O; Braide, E I

2008-04-01

156

American Indian Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AIs) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwestern AI participants (N = 81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and

Alyssa A. Forcehimes; Kamilla L. Venner; Michael P. Bogenschutz; Kevin Foley; Meredith P. Davis; Jon M. Houck; Ericke L. Willie; Peter Begaye

2011-01-01

157

Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants used in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey of herbal medicine used for treatment of malaria fever in 17 communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was carried out. According to the results, 38 plant species belonging to 24 families were used in herbal antimalarial recipes. Among the plants mentioned, the most frequently used were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis (7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus latifolius

O. A. Idowu; O. Ajana; D. O. Aworinde

2010-01-01

158

Aquifer Transmissivity and Basement Structure Determination Using Resistivity Sounding at Jos Plateau State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North\\u000a Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity\\u000a for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is\\u000a undulating lying at depths

Casmir Akaolisa

2006-01-01

159

Distribution and Impact of Honeybee Pests on Colony Development in Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of bee pests on bee colony establishment in Kwara State, Nigeria and the distribution\\/spread in the various Local Government Areas were studied at the peak of production i.e., April\\/May 2006. Bee colony establishment rate were below 15% in Oyun, Asa, Irepodun and Ilorin west LGAs. In Ifelodun and Moro LGAs, 73.33% and 65.85% of the 60 and 41

A. A. OYERINDE; A. T. ANDE

160

Quality of rainwater harvesting for rural communities of Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assess the level of potability of rainwater samples harvested from catchments roofs in 6 rural communities of Delta\\u000a State, Nigeria to achieve this goal a stratified sampling technique was adopted in the establishment of 90 sterilized cans\\u000a into the 3 senatorial districts of Delta; on the basis of one can for thatch, aluminium, asbestos and corrugated iron sheets,

S. I. Efe

2006-01-01

161

The indirect cost due to pulmonary Tuberculosis in patients receiving treatment in Bauchi State--Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the time spent and income lost by patients and their households for seeking tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in Bauchi State-Nigeria. Method A cross sectional study where 242 TB patients were sampled from 27 out of 67 facilities providing TB services in a north-eastern state of Nigeria. Sampling was stratified based on facility type, patients’ HIV status and gender. Results The income lost among the hospitalized group was estimated at $156/patient and about $114 in the non-hospitalized patients group. Age, gender, facility of diagnosis, level of education and occupation were significant (p-values <0.05) associated with total (both patients and their households) income lost. However, AFB sputum-smear result and HIV status had no significant effects on the income lost. Hospitalised patients spent an average time of 924.98 hours for diagnosis and treatment whereas the non-hospitalised spent an average of 141.29 hours. The estimated US dollar valued of these hours was US517.98 and US$79.13 for hospitalised and non-hospitalised patient groups respectively. Hospitalisation and the facility of diagnosis were statistically significant (p-value <0.05) predictors of the time patients and household spent on TB. Conclusion Tuberculosis poses causes tremendous burden in terms of time and productivity lost to both patients and their households in Bauchi State Nigeria.

2012-01-01

162

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

163

Some social aspects of helminthiasis among the people of Gumau District, Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A helminthological study of faecal materials collected from 1037 people from four rural communities in Gumau District of Bauchi State, Nigeria was carried out using a standard diagnostic procedure. The study is the first parasitological survey to be carried out in this rural district. Thirty-nine percent of examined persons were infected with helminths. Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp. and hookworm were encountered. Mixed infections were very common. There did not seem to be any difference between these and results obtained half a century ago in similar areas of northern Nigeria. The findings are discussed from the point of view of the social aspects of the people which encourage host-parasite contact and their implications for public health. Suggestions are made for the control of helminth parasites in the district. PMID:2738990

Akogun, O B

1989-06-01

164

Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?  

PubMed Central

Background While freshwater sustainability is generally defined as the provisioning of water for both people and the environment, in practice it is largely focused only on supplying water to furnish human population growth. Symptomatic of this is the state of Arizona, where rapid growth outside of the metropolitan Phoenix-Tucson corridor relies on the same groundwater that supplies year-round flow in rivers. Using Arizona as a case study, we present the first study in the southwestern United States that evaluates the potential impact of future population growth and water demand on streamflow depletion across multiple watersheds. Methodology/Principal Findings We modeled population growth and water demand through 2050 and used four scenarios to explore the potential effects of alternative growth and water management strategies on river flows. Under the base population projection, we found that rivers in seven of the 18 study watersheds could be dewatered due to municipal demand. Implementing alternative growth and water management strategies, however, could prevent four of these rivers from being dewatered. Conclusions/Significance The window of opportunity to implement water management strategies is narrowing. Because impacts from groundwater extraction are cumulative and cannot be immediately reversed, proactive water management strategies should be implemented where groundwater will be used to support new municipal demand. Our approach provides a low-cost method to identify where alternative water and growth management strategies may have the most impact, and demonstrates that such strategies can maintain a continued water supply for both people and the environment.

Marshall, Robert M.; Robles, Marcos D.; Majka, Daniel R.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.

2010-01-01

165

Management Recommendations for the Northern Goshawk in the Southwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) (hereafter the goshawk) is listed as a 'sensitive species' by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service-Southwestern Region (USDA Forest Service 1991). The report describes the goshawk biology...

R. T. Reynolds R. T. Graham M. H. Reiser R. L. Bassett D. A. Boyce

1991-01-01

166

Prevalence of dermatophytic fungal infections in children: a recent study in Anambra state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973

Nweze, E I; Okafor, J I

2005-10-01

167

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer Drought Severity Index and tree-ring reconstructed ENSO, PDO and AMO phases (1905-1978 and 1700-1904). Upper elevation fires (115 fires, 84 fire years, 1623-1904) were compared with climate indices. ENSO, PDO, and AMO affected regional PDSI, but AMO and PDO teleconnections changed between periods. Fire occurrence was significantly related to inter-annual variability in PDSI, precipitation, ENSO, and phase combinations of ENSO and PDO, but not AMO (1700-1904). Reduced upper elevation fire (1785-1840) was coincident with a cool AMO phase.

Margolis, Ellis Quinn

168

A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use.Methods:Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients

Ranga Balasekaran; Marc Bulterys; M. Mazen Jamal; Patrick G. Quinn; David E. Johnston; Betty Skipper; Sanjana Chaturvedi; Sanjeev Arora

1999-01-01

169

A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use.METHODS:Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients

Ranga Balasekaran; Marc Bulterys; M. Mazen Jamal; Patrick G Quinn; David E Johnston; Betty Skipper; Sanjana Chaturvedi; Sanjeev Arora

1999-01-01

170

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the Southeastern and Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected

I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson; D. W. T. Griffith; T. J. Johnson; P. Veres; J. M. Roberts; C. Warneke; S. P. Urbanski; J. Reardon; D. R. Weise; W. M. Hao; J. de Gouw

2010-01-01

171

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected

Ian Burling; Robert J. Yokelson; David WT Griffith; Timothy J. Johnson; Patrick Veres; J. M. Roberts; Carsten Warneke; Shawn Urbanski; James Reardon; David Weise; WeiMin Hao; Joost de Gouw

2010-01-01

172

Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

Kaban, M. K.; Mooney, W. D.

2001-01-01

173

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Interior Chaparral in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amidst the growing tide of interest in global trace gas budgets and process studies, scant attention has been paid to arid and semi-arid ecosystems (<500mm of annual precipitation). This paper reports on chamber and eddy covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes made in the interior chaparral in the Central Arizona Highlands. The interior chaparral is a highly unusual ecosystem in the temperate latitudes because nitrogen fixing woody shrubs dominate the vegetation community. The bimodal nature of the annual precipitation regime leaves extended dry periods during which little denitrification can take place, thus allowing for the potential buildup of soil nitrate levels. Summer wet season precipitation could then lead to significant emissions of nitrous and nitric oxides. Measurements taken during the wet summer season of 2003 were used to quantify fluxes of nitrous oxide at a site dominated by Cercocarpus betuloides and Ceanothus greggi, both actinorhizal N-fixing plants. These measurements confirmed the presence of significant nitrous oxide fluxes. The results are used to draw some preliminary conclusions about the overall contribution to nitrous oxide emissions from chaparral in the Southwestern United States.

Herring, J. A.; Crews, T.; Muro, A.

2003-12-01

174

A study of academic advisement satisfaction of Oklahoma aviation undergraduate students at four southwestern state universities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the academic advisement satisfaction of 510, Oklahoma aviation students at four southwestern state universities. Students were given the opportunity to complete a survey during class meetings or during aviation student orientation, spring 2002. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) software program was utilized to determine the mean, median, mode, and range of data. Data is also presented in frequencies, percentages and Chi square statistical test analysis to illustrate rank order of academic advisement satisfaction between the four participating aviation undergraduate programs. Findings and conclusions. Of the 510 aviation students surveyed, 268 or 52.5% completed and returned surveys. Demographics indicated that aviation students at Programs A, C & D were predominately advised by aviation faculty, and at Program B by an advisor in an advisement center. The majority were seniors, under the age of 25, evenly split between in-state and out-of-state student residency, enrolled full-time, possessed an average GPA of 3.2, were first-generation aviation majors, and were male. Based on Chi square analysis the rank order of academic advisement satisfaction between the four aviation programs was: Program B - 99.9%, Program D - 92.0%, Program C - 87.9% and Program A - 83.9%. Rank order for academic advisement satisfaction concerning aviation career advisement was: Program B - 76.0%, Program D - 66.9%, Program A - 54.6%, and Program C - 49.3%. Rank order for academic advisement satisfaction concerning aviation student personal confidence in advisors was: Program B - 99.4%, Program D - 95.6%, Program A - 85.4%, and Program C - 84.5%. Written open responses relating to academic advisement developed into three categories of academic, personal and career, and were recorded for 194, or 72.3% of the 268 students completing the survey instrument.

Vaughn, Debra Denise

175

Intestinal parasitic infestation in rural communities: a focus for primary health care in Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study carried out in four villages in two local government areas of Oyo State in the southwestern part of Nigeria, revealed that intestinal helminthiasis is still very prevalent in Nigeria. Ascaris is the most common helminth encountered and multiple infestation is also quite common. Schoolchildren and pre-school children are the greatest sufferers of Ascaris, while students and farmers are the greatest target for hookworm. The usefulness of a community-based distribution programme of health services using trained traditional birth attendants and voluntary health workers for data collection and distribution of antihelminth drugs is discussed. PMID:2558560

Onadeko, M O; Ladipo, O A

1989-12-01

176

Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present all year round. METHOD: During a larger study

Catherine O Falade; Bidemi O Yusuf; Francis F Fadero; Olugbenga A Mokuolu; Davidson H Hamer; Lateef A Salako

2007-01-01

177

Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration

A. A. Adepelumi; B. D. Ako; T. R. Ajayi

2001-01-01

178

Non-traumatic Ocular Findings in Industrial Technical Workers in Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders in industrial technical workers in the Delta state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders among industrial technical workers in 3 factories in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria was conducted between February, 2002 and May, 2002. In addition to the demographic, the workers were studied for the presence of any non-trauma related ocular findings. Visual acuity of these workers was obtained as well as ocular examination was performed by using the Snellen's chart, pen torch, ophthalmoscope, Perkins hand-held tonometer, Ishihara plates. Patients were refracted if their visual acuity was less than normal. Results: Five hundred technical workers were screened that included 200 (40%) from the construction industry, 180 (36%) from the rubber factory and 120(24%) from the oil mill. All the workers studied were males. Ocular disorders were seen in 664 (66.4%) of the eyes. The most common ocular disorders were pingueculum 215 (21.5%), presbyopia 97 (9.7%), refractive error 94 (9.4%), pterygium 86 (8.6%) and chronic conjunctivitis 45 (4.5%). None of the workers was blind from non-traumatic causes. Only 36 (7.2%) workers wore any protective eye devices at work. Conclusion: Non-traumatic ocular disorders are common in the industrialized technical workers in the Delta state of Nigeria. The use of protective eye devices is low in these workers and suggests that measures to implement ocular safety should be undertaken in these industries.

Omoti, A. E.; Edema, O. T.; Akinsola, F. B.; Aigbotsua, P.

2009-01-01

179

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

180

Economics of Alternative Incubation Technology in the Development of Subsistence Poultry Enterprise: Evidence Involving Indigenous Knowledge in Katsina State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstracts: The study examined sound reasons, principles and techniques employed by subsistenc e farmers in the art of masterminding Nigerian native hens to incubate, hatch and brood guinea fowl chicks in Katsina State of Nigeria. Ninety subsistence poultry farmers were randomly selected without replacement from the three agricultural zones of the state. Sources of primary data were structured questionnaires,

S. O. Ugwu; A. E. Onyimonyi; Nicholas Ozor; M. Mkpado

2009-01-01

181

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

182

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

183

Developing relationships in Catholic nursery\\/primary schools in Anambra, Nigeria: Partnerships of family, community, school, church, and state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the existing relationships in four Catholic nursery\\/primary schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, this study examined how the development of Catholic nursery\\/primary school relationships can lead to the partnerships between the parents, community, Church, and State. Literature review highlights the significance of collaboration, dedication, and partnerships in promoting childhood education. The four schools recently built by

John Jude Chimezie Ugochukwu

2008-01-01

184

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 ?g kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

2011-08-02

185

An Evaluation of Septic Tank Performance in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard procedures were applied in the comparative evaluation of the performance of septic tanks receiving three types of domestic waste water in Bayelsa State: namely, (a) toilet waste waters only (arrangement 1), (b) toilet and kitchen wastewater (Arrangement 2) (c) toilet, kitchen and bathroom wastewater (arrangement 3),with a view to improving the design of septic tanks in the State. Influent

W. Burubai; A. J. Akor; M. T. Lilly; D. T. Ayawari

186

Impact of Avian Influenza in Some States of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: Cases of Avian Influenza (AI) outbreaks reported and confirmed were extracted from the records of control committees on AI in Kano and Katsina States, Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Pan-African Control of Epizootics (PACE) project office at Kaduna. Information on A l outbreaks in Jigawa State were obtained through a questionnaire. A total of 480,378

L. Saidu; A. M. Wakawa; P. A. Abdu; D. F. Adene; H. M. Kazeem; K. C. Ladan; M. Abdu; R. B. Miko; M. Y. Fatihu; J. Adamu; P. H. Mamman

2008-01-01

187

Infant mortality and mother's education in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bivariate analysis of infant mortality in the 1986\\/87 Ondo State Demographic and Health Survey data indicates that children of secondary school graduates experienced a higher rate of infant mortality than children of less educated mothers. Although this pattern has also been shown in a few other Demographic and Health Surveys, this paper explores the Ondo State data to explain

Jacob Ayo Adetunji

1995-01-01

188

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

Edited by Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

2007-01-01

189

Nigeria in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

Chizea, F. D.

190

Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

2008-01-01

191

LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

2004-12-01

192

Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

2004-12-01

193

Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P??0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?State, Nigeria.

2012-01-01

194

Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

2011-01-01

195

Hepatitis C Virus infection in apparentenly healthy individuals with family history of diabetes in Vom, Plateau State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were

Obinna O Nwankiti; James A Ndako; Atanda O Olabode; Chika I Nwosuh; Ema M Onovoh; Lilian A Okeke; Jumoke O Akinola; Boniface N Duru; Ijeoma O Nwagbo; Godwin O Agada; Anthony A Chukwuedo

2009-01-01

196

Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-managed organization sees employees as the source of quality and productivity. This study examines the perception of work motivation in relation to job satisfaction and organizational commitment of library personnel in academic and research libraries in Oyo state, Nigeria. Two hundred library personnel (41% female, 59% male) were selected through a total enumeration sampling from five research and four

Adeyinka Tella; C. O. Ayeni; S. O. Popoola

2007-01-01

197

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

198

Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

2012-01-01

199

The state, identity mobilization and conflict: A study of intra ethnic conflict in Ebira land, north central Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused mainly on changes in the traditional institutions of governance occasioned by colonial rule and the impact of such changes on the organization of social life of erstwhile republican communities in Nigeria. These changes appeared to be the most fundamental and underlying cause of incessant violent conflicts and the seeming powerlessness on the part of State authorities to

Marietu O. Tenuche

2009-01-01

200

AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF LOAN DELINQUENCY AMONG SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN ONDO STATE OF NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study offers exploratory insights into the level of loan delinquency among the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Ondo State of Nigeria, and the lending practices of the country's bankers towards the SMEs It does offer nice description of the theoretical reasoning for the restricted SMEs lending portfolio for banks. The results were based on the analysis of interview

201

Characterizing Farmer Users and Nonusers of Mass Media as Channels of Agricultural Information in Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized farmer users and nonusers of mass media as channels of agricultural information. A structured interview was used to obtain data from 316 randomly selected farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. The data were subjected to discriminant analysis and the following socioeconomic characteristics significantly differed at a 5% level of probability between users and nonusers of mass media (and

Oto J. Okwu

2011-01-01

202

Seasonal variations and the contribution of cowpea (vigna unguiculata) and other legumes to nutrient intakes in Anambra state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four?day weighed food intake study was carried out in the wet and dry seasons in northern Anambra State, Nigeria, on pre?school children and (during the wet season) on pregnant women. In both seasons the energy, calcium, riboflavin and niacin of the diet of the children were low while the diet of the pregnant women was deficient in most nutrients.

D. O. Nnanyelugo; J. King; P. O. Ngoddy

1985-01-01

203

Seismic Structure of the Lithosphere in the Southwestern United States Using Receiver Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the seismic structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States using receiver functions calculated from teleseismic arrivals recorded in the LA RISTRA (Colorado PLAteau, Rio Grande RIft, Great Plains Seismic TRAnsect) experiment. LA RISTRA was a 950 km-long PASSCAL broadband seismic line with approximately 18 km station spacing deployed during 1999-2001 along a great circle from Lake Powell, UT to Pecos, TX. The NW-SE trending network was approximately parallel to the regional Proterozoic continental accretionary gradient, and oblique to the predominantly N-S trend of faulting during Laramide compression and Cenozoic extension and rifting. We estimate Phanerozoic sedimentary layer velocities and average crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratios using both direct and reverberated P-to-S converted modes, in consort with pre-existing refraction and other data. Crust and uppermost mantle discontinuity structure along the array is imaged by migrating receiver functions to produce a P-to-S converted mode image of the subsurface. The average sedimentary layer Vp/Vs ratio along La Ristra is 2.0-2.1, with the exception of the San Juan basin which has a Vp/Vs ratio of approximately 2.3. This spatial distribution of sedimentary Vp/Vs ratios correlates with the median geologic age of the sediments (Paleozoic in the Great Plains and Colorado Plateau, and Mesozoic in the San Juan Basin). Basins generate very significant multiples that must be carefully considered along with independent shallow crustal constraints to avoid artifacts in the crust and upper mantle. Average crustal Vp/Vs ratios range from approximately 1.73 in the Great Plains, up to 1.77 in the Rio Grande Rift, and have an average value of 1.75 in the Colorado Plateau. We find that crustal thickness in the Great Plains ranges from 47 km to 54 km with thickness changes of up to 7 km over lateral distances of 100 km. Crustal thickness diminishes to a minimum of 34 km in the center of the Rio Grande Rift. Crustal thickness beneath the Colorado Plateau ranges from 46 km to 50 km with thickness changes of up to 4 km over lateral distances of 100 km. While the direct converted Moho phase beneath the Rio Grande Rift appears to be a single distinct phase, beneath the Colorado Plateau and Great Plains it appears to be more complex, suggesting either lower crustal layering or gradational Moho.

Wilson, D. C.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Grand, S.; West, M.; Gok, R.; Gao, W.; Schlue, J.; Baldridge, S.; Semken, S.

2002-12-01

204

Associating gender with neighbourhood deprivation in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examines the effect of neighborhood deprivation on gender. It shows that most residents are deprived and that though, in Lagos State, the gender differences in the level of deprivation may not be too pronounced, yet, women, because of their socio-traditional roles in the society are more at a receiving end. There is gender difference in the distance an individual has to cover to get to the place of work with men having to cover more distance than women to get to their offices. The study shows that there is no difference between men and women in terms of accessibility to electricity and water as all residents are deprived almost equally. An interesting aspect of the study is that the fear of being killed or maimed as a result of crime within the neighborhood does not depend on the gender of the individual concerned. However, in general, there is gender difference in deprivation within the neighborhood with clear difference in the level of neighborhood convenience (chi2=97.131 and p<0.05) and availability of Amenities (chi2=105.12, p<0.05.) while there is no gender difference in neighborhood Safety (chi2=35.097, p>0.05), Health (chi2=63.933, p>0.05) and Community Relationship (chi2=12.905, p>0.05). PMID:20000022

Ojikutu, Rasheed Kola

2009-08-01

205

Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in native breeds of cattle in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old calves in 20 White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali herds in Nigeria. Thirty one (16.0%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. Restriction digestion of the PCR products showed the presence of Cryptosporidium bovis (7.2%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (4.1%), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2.5%), and concurrent occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (1.5%), and C. bovis and C. andersoni (0.5%). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in Cryptosporidium infection rates by sex, herd location, management system, breed of calves, or fecal consistency. However, calves 180 days or younger had a higher infection rate of Cryptosporidium than older calves (p=0.034). Likewise, younger calves also had higher occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:21277091

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jalarth U; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Lawal, Idris A; Maikai, Victor A; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua

2011-01-11

206

Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.

Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

2013-01-01

207

A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

2009-05-01

208

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393

Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B

2002-02-01

209

Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

210

Present state and historical changes of trace metal pollution in Kaoping coastal sediments, southwestern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface and gravity-cored sediments were collected from the Kaoping coastal area off southwestern Taiwan to determine particle size, organic carbon, trace metal concentration and enrichment factor (EF), 210Pb dating, and 206Pb\\/207Pb ratio for determining present and historical metal pollution. Surface distributions of trace metals ranged from 0.02 to 0.13 mg\\/kg for Cd (EF: 0.16–1.65), from 35 to 189 mg\\/kg for

J.-J. Hung; C.-L. Hsu

2004-01-01

211

The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and mineral analyses of phragmanthera incana (klotzsch), a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts in South-Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

Ogunmefun, O T; Fasola, T R; Saba, A B; Oridupa, O A

2013-03-01

212

The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper.

Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.

2013-01-01

213

Quantitative analysis of nitrate and nitrite contents in vegetables commonly consumed in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Plasma thiocyanate has been reported to be high among cassava-eating populations such as that in Nigeria because of the cyanide content of cassava. Thiocyanate, which is secreted into the stomach contents of animals, has been demonstrated to catalyse the formation of nitrosamines (potent carcinogens) in the stomach from secondary amines and nitrite. The main source of the nitrite precursor in this environment is vegetables, primarily eaten as the chief supplier of proteins. The present study attempts to analyse the levels of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables commonly grown and consumed in Delta State, Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite contents in green vegetable (Amaranthus spp.), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) grown in different localities of the state were determined by standard analytical procedures. The results show that those vegetables grown in the industrialised urban centres of the state had higher nitrate (223 (SD 71) mg/kg dry weight; P<0.05) and nitrite (12.6 (SD 1.7) mg/kg dry weight; P>0.05) levels when compared with the same species (188 (SD 77) mg nitrate/kg dry weight and 10.9 (SD 1.1) mg nitrite/kg dry weight) cultivated in less industrialised suburbs. We conclude that frequent consumption of such vegetables whose nitrate and nitrite contents are high by cassava-eating individuals might put them at risk of developing stomach cancer and other possible results of nitrate and/or nitrite toxicity. In order to avoid an outbreak in our communities, appropriate agencies should monitor and regulate the release of chemicals into the environment. In the meantime, the cultivation and consumption of vegetables grown in industrialised areas of the state should be discouraged. PMID:17092380

Onyesom, I; Okoh, P N

2006-11-01

214

Evaluation of Paracheck-Pf(TM) rapid malaria diagnostic test for the diagnosis of malaria among HIV-positive patients in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Febrile illnesses occur frequently among HIV positive patients and these are often treated presumptively as malaria in endemic areas. Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria will eliminate unnecessary treatment, reduce drug-drug interactions and the chances for the emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium. We evaluated finger prick blood samples from 387 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and suspected of having malaria by expert microscopy and Paracheck-Pf(TM) - a histidine-rich protein-II based malaria rapid diagnostic test. The study was conducted at the PEPFAR supported AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Outcome parameters were prevalence of malaria parasitemia, sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf as well as the positive and negative predictive values for Paracheck-Pf using microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood film as gold standard. Malaria parasites were detected in 19·1% (74/387) of enrollees by microscopy and 19·3% (74/383) by Paracheck-Pf. Geometric mean parasite density was 501/?l (range 39-749 202/?l). Sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf at all parasite densities were 55·4% and 89·3% while corresponding figures at parasite densities ?200/?l were 90·9% and 90·3%. Sensitivity and specificity at parasite densities ?500/?l was 97·6% and 90·3%. Positive and negative predictive values for parasite density ?200/?l were 55·4% and 98·7%, respectively. Paracheck-Pf was found to be a useful malaria diagnostic tool at parasite densities ?200/?l facilitating appropriate clinical management. PMID:23683333

Falade, C O; Adesina-Adewole, B; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Ajayi, I O; Akinyemi, J O; Ademowo, O G; Adewole, I F; Kanki, P

2013-03-01

215

Combating cyber crime in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe cyber crime and techniques adopted for combating it in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews the state of cyber crime in Nigeria, and how it is being stemmed in the country. Findings – The types of cyber crime in Nigeria are revealed together with the efforts geared towards combating\\/preventing cyber crime in

Esharenana E. Adomi; Stella E. Igun

2008-01-01

216

Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the Southwest are particularly dependent on supplies of good-quality groundwater. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Many factors influence the quality of groundwater in the 15 case-study basins, but some common factors emerge from the basin summaries presented in this report. These factors include the chemical composition of the recharge water, consolidated rock geology and composition of aquifer materials derived from consolidated rock, and land and water use. The major water-quality issues in many of the developed case-study basins are increased concentrations of dissolved solids, nitrate, and VOCs in groundwater as a result of human activities. The information presented and the citations listed in this report serve as a resource for those interested in the groundwater-flow systems in the NAWQA case-study basins. The summaries of water-development history, hydrogeology, conceptual understanding of the groundwater system under both predevelopment and modern conditions, and effects of natural and human-related factors on groundwater quality presented in the sections on each basin also serve as a foundation for the synthesis and modeling phases of the SWPA regional study.

Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

2010-01-01

217

Anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among general practitioners in Enugu state, south east Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 ± 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy.

Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.

2013-01-01

218

Soluble atmospheric trace gases in the southwestern United States. II - Organic species HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The condensation method has been used at a variety of locations in the southwestern United States to determine the concentrations of formaldehyde, formicd acid, and the group of organic acids coeluting with acetic acid (hereafter called 'acetic acid'). Urban concentrations were typically as follows: formaldehyde, 1.4 ppb; formic acid, 3 ppb; and acetic acid, 4 ppb. In remote areas, formic and acetic acid concentrations were typically 0.9 ppb and 0.6 ppb, respectively. The data suggested that in forested and, probably, desert regions, there is a substantial natural production of organics, particularly the acids, during summer, presumably by vegetation. At least in the southwestern United States, in summer, there is a relatively weak coupling between the cycles of formaldehyde and formic acid. Near San Diego, organic acid lifetimes may be much shorter than previously expected, i.e., only several days. It was found that, at the lowest concentrations observed, partitioning of the organic acids into cloud water would give aqueous concentrations similar to those found in rain.

Dawson, G. A.; Farmer, J. Carl

1988-05-01

219

Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories.

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

2013-01-01

220

College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

221

College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

222

Economic Effects of Fascioliasis on Animal Traction Technology in Adamawa State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2001 to investigate the economic effects of Fascioliasis (Liverflukes) on drought animals in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 and 74 farmers` owners of 148 non-infested and 204 infested drought animals, respectively, through a cost-route method using structured questionnaires and supplemented with interviews. Analysis using descriptive statistics and animal traction efficiency measure showed that the non-infested drought animals were efficiently utilized than the infested drought animals. It was concluded that the non-infested drought animals were more productive. The study therefore, recommend among others, the regular deworming of drought animals in order to improve their efficiency.

Jaafar-Furo, M. R.; Mshelia, S. I.; Suleiman, A.

223

Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 20-30 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs (96%) and have developed effective and easily recognised diagnostic tools. 92% of diabetic patients were usually out-patients aged 21-60 years. Diabetes trado-specialists (80%) rarely referred their patients but usually treated referred cases (96%). Fifty multi-component herbal recipes covered in the survey were mainly liquid preparations often administered without serious side effects (92%). The principal antidiabetic plants included Vernonia amygdalina, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantiifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica charantia and Morinda lucida. Dietary recommendations also accompanied therapy. PMID:19013225

Gbolade, Adebayo A

2008-11-01

224

Tuberculosis in humans and cattle in jigawa state, Nigeria: risk factors analysis.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (P ? 0.05) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. PMID:22848868

Ibrahim, S; Cadmus, S I B; Umoh, J U; Ajogi, I; Farouk, U M; Abubakar, U B; Kudi, A C

2012-07-12

225

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology / Principal Findings In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1–9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1–9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7–19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30–3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85–3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62–7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ?15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7–12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene.

Mpyet, Caleb; Lass, Barka David; Yahaya, Hadi B.; Solomon, Anthony W.

2012-01-01

226

Magnitude and causes of blindness and low vision in Anambra State of Nigeria (Results of 1992 point prevalence survey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Anambra State of Nigeria was conducted. The aim was to provide baseline data for the planning, implementation and evaluation of both the state's and the National Programme for Prevention of Blindness.A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used. The World Health Organization\\/Prevention of Blindness (WHO\\/PBL) Eye Examination Record Form

UF Ezepue

1997-01-01

227

Geographical information system and predictive risk maps of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (5–14 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources.

Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B

2008-01-01

228

Autosomal recessive diseases among the Athabaskans of the southwestern United States: recent advances and implications for the future.  

PubMed

Genetic and linguistic data suggest that the Na-Dene, of which the Athabaskans are the largest group, are part of a later immigration into the Americas than the first Amerind immigration. Whether a second and third immigration can be separated seems unlikely but continued cross-Bering Strait exchanges may have masked what was a greater separation in the past. The movement of tribes into Siberia appears to have involved a genetic bottleneck leading to at least one disease allele shared by Eskimo/Aleuts and Navajos and a second possibly shared by the Navajo and a Siberian population, but not the same Siberian population that share deep linguistic affinities with the Navajo. A second bottleneck appears to have occurred with the migration of Athabaskans from Northwest North America to the Southwestern United States along the Rocky Mountains. This bottleneck is reflected in several rare recessive diseases shared by the Navajo and Apache. Finally, the Navajo were captured and imprisoned under conditions which led to severe population loss. This, and the "hiding away" of a small number of Navajos in what is now the Western portion of the reservation, led to a Navajo-specific bottleneck(s) resulting in an increased frequency of several rare recessive diseases among the Navajo. Prejudice against human genetic research is high among the Southwestern Athabaskans but attempts to bridge the gap are now occurring. The involvement of Navajo scientists in this process is especially encouraging. PMID:19842189

Erickson, Robert P

2009-11-01

229

American Indian methamphetamine and other drug use in the Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AIs) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwestern AI participants (N = 81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine. We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N = 100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Venner, Kamilla L; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Foley, Kevin; Davis, Meredith P; Houck, Jon M; Willie, Ericke L; Begaye, Peter

2011-10-01

230

Strategies for (Re)Building State Capacity to Manage Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite strong optimism that the enthronement of democratic rule in Nigeria in 1999 would avert or contain ethnic and religious conflicts, the country has witnessed high level ethnic and religious violence with devastating consequences. This paper examines ethnic and religious conflicts in Nigeria in terms of its causes and impacts from 1999 to date. It argues that the weakness of

M. A. Kwaja

2009-01-01

231

Diagnostic accuracy of different urine dipsticks to detect urinary schistosomiasis: a comparative study in five endemic communities in Osun and Ogun States, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The diagnostic accuracy of urine dipsticks was investigated using two different brands in five endemic communities of south-western Nigeria. The BM-5L test was used in 1992 to screen 566 subjects in two communities in Ogun State, while 1457 subjects in three other communities in Osun State were screened with the Combur-9 test in 2006. Haematuria gave a higher prevalence of infection than proteinuria irrespective of which strip brand was used (e.g. BM-5L test: 58.3 and 36.2%; Combur-9 test: 46.5 and 41.9%, respectively). Compared with egg microscopy (gold standard), haematuria identified over 90% of egg-positive samples using either the BM-5L test in 1992 or the Combur-9 test in 2006. The corresponding values for proteinuria were 58% using the BM-5L test and 82% using the Combur-9 test. Sensitivity of haematuria to infection was higher using the BM-5L test (92.4-93.5%) than Combur-9 (58.6-73.3%), while sensitivity of proteinuria to infection was higher using Combur-9 (55.5-80.4%) than BM-5L test (26.0-58.3%). However, both strip brands have comparable specificity for haematuria (BM-5L test, 88.3-99.5%; Combur-9, 88.9-100%) and proteinuria (BM-5L test, 94.4-100%; Combur-9, 98.7-100%) to infection. Based on these results we conclude that neither brand nor manufacturer has a significance effect on the performance of chemical reagent strips. However, the diagnostic value of both haematuria and proteinuria varied according to the positivity level adopted, intensity of infection and age, but was not affected by sex and village of residence. PMID:19068147

Ugbomoiko, U S; Obiezue, R N N; Ogunniyi, T A B; Ofoezie, I E

2008-12-09

232

Evaluation of Cholera and Other Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System, Niger State, Nigeria-2012  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine how the cholera and other diarrheal disease surveillance system in Niger state is meeting its surveillance objectives, to evaluate its performance and attributes and to describe its operation to make recommendations for improvement. Introduction Cholera causes frequent outbreaks in Nigeria, resulting in mortality. In 2010 and 2011, 41,936 cases (case fatality rate [CFR]-4.1%) and 23,366 cases (CFR-3.2%) were reported (1). Reported cases in Nigeria by week 26, 2012 was 309 (CFR-1.29%) involving 20 Local Government Areas in 6 States. In Nigeria, there are currently eleven (11) States including Niger state at high risk for cholera/bloodless diarrhea outbreaks. In 2011, Niger state had 2472 cholera cases (CFR-2%) and 45,111 other diarrhea diseases cases, recorded in more than half of state Purpose of surveillance system is to ensure early detection of cholera and other diarrheal cases and to monitor trends towards evidence-based decision for management, prevention and control. Methods We conducted evaluation in July, 2012. We used CDC guideline on surveillance system evaluation (2001) as guide to assess operation, performance and attributes (2). We conducted key informant/in-depth interviews with stakeholders. We examined cholera action plans for preparedness and response, conducted laboratory assessment, extracted and analyzed cholera surveillance (2005–2012) for frequencies/proportions using Microsoft Excel. Thematic analysis was done for qualitative data. We shared findings with stakeholders at all levels. Results Surveillance system was setup for early detection and monitoring towards evidence-based decision. State government funds system. Case definition used is highly sensitive and is any patient aged 5 years or more who develops acute watery diarrhea, with/without vomiting. Though simple case definition, laboratory confirmation makes surveillance complex. A passive system, active during outbreaks; has formal and informal sources of information and part of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system and flow(fig.1). It takes 24–48 hours between outbreaks onset, confirmation and response. Line list showed undefined/poorly labeled outcomes. Of 2472 cases in 2011 1320 (49%) were found in line list. 2011 monthly data completeness was 75%. So far in 2012, 5(0.02%) of all diarrhea cases were cholera. System captures only age as sociodemographics. Of 11 suspected cholera cases tested during 2011 epidemic, 7 confirmed as cholera (PPV-63%). Of 3 rumours of cholera outbreaks (January 2011-July 2012), one (PPV-33%) was true. Acceptability of system is high among all stakeholders interviewed. Timeliness of monthly reporting was 68.7% (Table 1). Laboratory can isolate Vibro cholerae isolation but has no Cary Blair transport medium and cholera rapid test kits. Conclusions Evaluation revealed that surveillance system is meeting its objectives by early detection and response to cholera outbreaks. System is simple, stable, flexible, sensitive with poor data quality, low PPV, fair laboratory capacity and moderate timeliness. We recommended electronic and internet-based reporting for timeliness and data quality improvement; and provision of laboratory consumables.

Bashorun, Adebobola T.; Ahumibe, Anthony; Olugbon, Saliman; Nguku, Patrick; Sabitu, Kabir

2013-01-01

233

Mothers knowledge on the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria in a university staff clinic in an urban setting in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This prospective study was carried out at Jaja Clinic, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study documented the knowledge of mothers of children about the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria. These were mothers of children between ages 1 month to 12 years that presented with fever at the clinic for the first time during the current illness. Data was collected with structured questionnaires administered to the mothers of the enrolled children. The children were clinically examined by clinicians and blood films for malaria parasites were taken and examined in the laboratory using Giemsa stain. The haematocrit level of each child was also determined. 60.4% of the children were 1 month-5 years (mean age 33.0 +/- 15.2 months) while 39.6% of them were over 5-12 years (mean 8.1 +/- 2.1 years). Most of the mothers (58.3%) had above secondary school education. Blood films for malaria parasites were positive in 76% of the children that presented with fever. 74.2% of the mothers knew mosquito bite as the cause of malaria while 13.2% of them were ignorant of the cause of malaria. The main protective measures practiced by the mothers against mosquito bites were netted windows (86.2%), use of aerosol insecticides (76.1%), and mosquito coil (17.0%). Most mothers were not knowledgeable about the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) which is the most recently introduced protective measure against mosquito bite. Ninety percent of the mothers knew fever as the major symptom of malaria. The degree of parasitaemia affected the PCV level. The greater the parasite count, the lower the PCV level. PMID:17876917

Omole, M K; Alabi, O M; Ayoola, O O

2007-03-01

234

Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence among American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in the Southwestern United States and in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome occurs commonly in the United States. The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among American Indian and Alaska Native people. Methods We measured the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, among four groups of American Indian and Alaska Native people aged 20 years and older. One group was from the southwestern United States (Navajo Nation), and three groups resided within Alaska. Prevalence rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. adult 2000 population and compared to rates for U.S. whites (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 1988–1994). Results Among participants from the southwestern United States, metabolic syndrome was found among 43.2% of men and 47.3% of women. Among Alaska Native people, metabolic syndrome was found among 26.5% of men and 31.2% of women. In Alaska, the prevalence rate varied by region, ranging among men from 18.9% (western Alaska) to 35.1% (southeast), and among women from 22.0% (western Alaska) to 38.4 % (southeast). Compared to U.S. whites, American Indian/Alaska Native men and women from all regions except western Alaska were more likely to have metabolic syndrome; men in western Alaska were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than U.S. whites, and the prevalence among women in western Alaska was similar to that of U.S. whites. Conclusion The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome varies widely among different American Indian and Alaska Native populations. Differences paralleled differences in the prevalence rates of diabetes.

Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Lanier, Anne P.; Slattery, Martha L.; Schraer, Cynthia D.; Raymer, Terry W.; Dillard, Denise; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Tom-Orme, Lillian

2008-01-01

235

Incidence of congenital malformation in 2 major hospitals in Rivers state of Nigeria from 1990 to 2003.  

PubMed

Although congenital malformations are believed to be on the rise in the oil production areas of Nigeria, few baseline data are available. This retrospective study documented the incidence of congenital abnormalities in 2 major hospitals in Port Harcourt, an oil-rich city in Rivers state, Nigeria. Delivery and nursery records were reviewed from January 1990 to December 2003. In the first hospital 78 congenital anomalies were recorded out of 19 572 births (4.00/1000), principally affecting the central nervous system (1.84/1000) and skeletal system (1.74/1000). In the second hospital, 47 congenital anomalies were recorded out of 20121 births (2.20/1000), with malformations of the central nervous system (0.80/1000) and skeletal system (1.14/1000) again predominating. More research is needed into long-term trends in congenital malformations and possible associations with environmental pollution in Rivers state. PMID:22259922

Ekanem, B; Bassey, I E; Mesembe, O E; Eluwa, M A; Ekong, M B

2011-09-01

236

Distribution of high field strength and rare earth elements in mantle and lower crustal xenoliths from the Southwestern United States: The role of grain-boundary phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinel lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau Provinces in the southwestern United States (SWUS) show a broad range in incompatible element distributions from depleted to enriched, both within and between sites. The most fertile xenoliths occur in the Basin and Range Province and the most refractory in the Colorado Plateau or Transition Zone. Mass

Kent C. Condie; Jessica Cox; Suzanne Y. O'Reilly; W. L. Griffin; Robert Kerrich

2004-01-01

237

Carbon Sequestration in the Southwestern United States: Using the 'String of Pearls' Model for Cost and Source-to-Sink Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an Integrated Assessment analytical model used by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to assess up to hundreds of CO 2 source and geological sink sequestration projects in the Southwestern United States. The model was first developed as a central presentation tool, later into an integrated assessment source-to-sink matching tool (based on the 'String of

Peter H. Kobos; Len A. Malczynski; David J. Borns; Brian J. McPherson

2007-01-01

238

The Combined Role of ENSO-driven Sea Surface Temperature Variation and Arctic Sea Ice Extent in Defining Climate Conditions in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicates that future reductions in Arctic sea ice could alter storm tracks and precipitation patterns in western North America and negatively impact water resources in the southwestern United States. Other research suggests that the multiple periods of increased precipitation and\\/or cooler temperatures in the desert Southwest during the Little Ice Age were due to strong El Niño events,

A. M. Chassot; J. O. Sewall

2008-01-01

239

Putting Out the Fire with Gasoline? Violence Control in “Fragile” States: A Study of Vigilantism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to

Andrea Kirschner

240

Soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school age children in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and their relationship to anthropometric indices of 1,351 school children from Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria were evaluated. 739 (54.70%) of the subjects were infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STH). The overall prevalences by species were Ascaris lumbricoides (48.41%), hookworms (29.76%), and Trichuris trichiura (17.39%). 174 (12.88%) were infected

O. ANDY; D. PALMER

2005-01-01

241

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

242

Elevated Levels of Lead in Blood of Different Groups in the Urban Population of Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty blood samples were collected from children, women, and men in urban areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show the range and % detectable values were 3.9–88.1 ?g\\/dl and 97.92%, respectively. The sample population was classified according to age groups (?12, 13–25, and >25 years), sex, occupationally

Ibeto Cynthia Nkolika; Okoye Chukwuma O. Benedict

2010-01-01

243

En echelon Miocene rifting in the southwestern United States and model for vertical-axis rotation in continental extension  

SciTech Connect

Two areas of intense early Miocene crustal extension in the southwestern United States, the Colorado River trough and the central Mojave Desert, are separated by a weakly deformed area in the eastern Mojave Desert. The authors propose that these areas form a left-stepping en echelon rift system linked by a ductile detachment at depth. The en echelon geometry explains the southward loss of displacement in the central Mojave Desert and northward loss of coeval displacement in the Colorado River trough, and it incorporates seismic reflection evidence that mid-crustal Tertiary extensional mylonites continue beneath the weakly deformed area. This geometry also explains clockwise paleomagnetic declination anomalies from lower Miocene rocks as recording thin-skinned, detached rotations; large-scale block rotations are not required. Obliquity of the northeast-trending crustal-extension vector to the east-west-trending early Miocene synextensional volcanic belt may have caused the en echelon pattern to develop.

Bartley, J.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Glazner, A.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

1991-12-01

244

Moisture flux convergence in regional and global climate models: Implications for droughts in the southwestern United States under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

Gao, Yanhong; Leung, L. Ruby; Salathé, Eric P., Jr.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2012-05-01

245

DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

Davis, Philip, A.; Berlin, Graydon, L.; Chavez, Pat, S.

1987-01-01

246

Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-05-10

247

Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

2011-07-01

248

Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Muhs, D. R.; Reynolds, R. L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

2003-01-01

249

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

250

Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident. PMID:15070492

Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

2004-04-01

251

Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3-18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10-5 mm s-1, while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10-4 to 1.36 × 10-3 mm s-1. The thick but less permeable lateritic unit which overlaid the more permeable rocks constituted a partial impermeable overburden that prevented an adequate groundwater recharge during and immediately after rainfall. Three zones were delineated as low, medium and high groundwater resource potential areas, located in the northern, central and southern part of the study area, respectively. The low groundwater resource potential around Ijebu-Ode is due to the less permeable lateritic overburden, which prevents an adequate recharge during rainfall and the rugged/undulating basement topography that controls the distribution and storage of the limited recharged water. The southern part of the study area can be developed to meet the water needs of the inhabitants.

Osinowo, Olawale O.; Idowu Olayinka, A.

2012-08-01

252

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the Southeastern and Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61±12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

2010-07-01

253

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

2010-11-01

254

Biological input to visibility-reducing aerosol particles in the remote arid southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Source contributions of contemporary biological material to remote airsheds of the arid southwestern US are described. Combined inputs of epicuticular plants waxes and airborne microorganisms range from winter minimum (11.3-26.9 ng/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of aromatic resin acids (i.e., dehydroabietic acid and 13-isopropyl-5{alpha}-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraen-16-oic acid) plus a thermally matured wood smoke marker (i.e., retene) range from 1.2 to 9.6 ng/m{sup 3}. Minimum levels of the resin acids and wood smoke marker are observed for the sparse desert vegetation site (low elevation), and maximum levels are found for the transition site of ponderosa pine and pinyon/juniper forest (high elevation). The total wood smoke mass contributions were estimated by using the ambient mass concentrations of both the aromatic resin acid and wood smoke tracers. Based on these estimates, combustion of conifer biomass (e.g., natural wildfires, camp fires, home heating) is an important component of the organic emission source inventory for this desert region.

Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States)); Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-04-01

255

Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.

2011-01-01

256

Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria.

Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing

2013-01-01

257

Elderly destitution in Ile-Ife community of Osun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Many studies have been conducted on the elderly, but none has ever paid particular attention to the increasing rate of destitution in the rural communities, where the elderly serve as agents for sustenance and transmission of culture. This study is descriptive in nature and has adopted qualitative perspective in order to identify and examine the factors that have contributed to the state of elderly in destitution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. It has also examined the feelings and reactions of the subjects of the study and has documented how their lifestyles affect their health status. Sixteen elderly people in destitution were traced and interviewed in Ile-Ife community. At each location, where an elderly in destitution was located, at least an elderly chief and a resident were located for interview. Data collected were analysed using Textbase Beta package for qualitative analysis. The study found that communal feud, violence and conflicts were factors that created unhappiness for the elderly, and the lack of adequate support from the immediate households consequently led to their homelessness. The study documented that the elderly in destitution lack good hygiene and nutrition, and equally suffer self-neglect and mental confusion. The study concludes that peaceful coexistence, communal security, and familial care and support are important factors that promote happiness and successful ageing. It also maintains that focused health education is highly essential for the households and caregivers of the elderly in rural community. PMID:17518789

Fajemilehin, Bolu R; Ayandiran, Emmanuel O; Salami, Kabiru K

2007-06-01

258

Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State, Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. T-2 toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were detected in all samples, at total AF concentrations of 28-372 ?g/kg. OTA was found in 66.7% of the samples, also at high concentrations (134-341 ?g/kg) that have to be considered as critical levels in aspects of nephrotoxicity. ZEA (53.4%), DON (23.8), FB(1) (14.3%) and FB(2) (4.8%) were also found in rice, although at relatively low levels. T-2 toxin was qualitatively detected by TLC in only one sample. Co-contamination with AFs, OTA, and ZEA was very common, and up to five mycotoxins were detected in a single sample. The high AF and OTA levels as found in rice in this study are regarded as unsafe, and multi-occurrences of mycotoxins in the rice samples with possible additive or synergistic toxic effects in consumers raise concern with respect to public health. PMID:21836766

Makun, Hussaini Anthony; Dutton, Michael Francis; Njobeh, Patrick Berka; Mwanza, Mulunda; Kabiru, Adamu Y

2011-01-12

259

Water demand and schistosomiasis among the Gumau people of Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A helminthological study of stool and urine samples from 1037 people from 4 rural communities in Gumau District of Bauchi State, Nigeria, was carried out using formol-ether concentration and direct centrifugation methods respectively. 39.0% of persons examined were infected. Ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were the most common. Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, tapeworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were also encountered. 17.9% and 10.8% of examined persons had S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections respectively. A significant relationship was found between water demand index (number of persons per well) and infection with S. haematobium (r = 0.95) and S. mansoni (r = 0.88) (P less than 0.01). Such a relationship was not found with other helminth infections. A significant association was also found between distance from a river and prevalence of S. haematobium (r = 0.94) and S. mansoni (r = 0.95) (P less than 0.01), but not with the other helminth infections. These findings suggest that the water demand index may be an important factor in the epidemiology of schistosome infections in rural communities. PMID:2128667

Akogun, O B

260

The status of human filariasis in north-western zone of Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

In a nine-months epidemiological study to assess the status of human filariasis in north-western zone of Bauchi State, Nigeria, 3.5% prevalence was recorded in 8 communities. Of the 1536 persons examined, 54 were microfilaremic for three blood-dwelling filarial parasites. 22 (1.4%) were positive for Mansonella perstans, 10 (0.7%) and 22 (1.4%) had Loa loa and Wuchereria bancrofti respectively. W. bancrofti showed low microfilaremia in females of reproductive age with high degree of heterogeneity among communities. Most infected persons (81.5%) had counts less than 11 mf/20 mm3 of peripheral blood. Pruritus appeared much earlier in life while hydrocoele, limb and scrotal elephantiasis occurred much later in the population (> or = 40 years). Except in L. loa infections, mf-rate and mean mf-density increased with advancing host age (r = 0.713, P < 0.01). Fishermen, nomads and farmers had significantly higher infection rates (P < 0.05) than other occupational categories. Suggestions on the disease intervention involving treatment, prevention and vector control are highlighted. PMID:8087153

Anosike, J C

1994-06-01

261

Reproductive, sexual and contraceptive behaviour of adolescents in Niger State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This is a multi-stage random sampling study involving 896 male and female adolescents aged 11-25 years in Niger State of Nigeria. Thirty three per cent of them had already had first sexual experience. Only 3.6% were married. Most of the Gwari and Hausa respondents acknowledged that they married at an earlier age than the Yoruba respondents. One half of those who were sexually experienced had more than one sexual partner. Majority of the respondents were informed about HIV/AIDS and STDs. More Gwari and Hausa respondents felt that HIV infection could be prevented by not having multiple sexual partners than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. A wide disparity between contraceptive knowledge and use was found. Knowledge rate was between 41.9% and 63.8%, while use rate was between 0.7% and 12.5% for the contraceptive methods studied. Condom knowledge and use rate was highest. For prevention of HIV/AIDS, more males than females thought condom was useful. Most Gwari and Hausa respondents did not use any FP method during their first sexual relationships. It is imperative for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts in improving adolescents' attitude towards sexual risk and motivate them to exhibit behaviours that limit it. PMID:12685412

Sunmola, Adegbenga M; Dipeolu, Morenike; Babalola, Sunday; Otu, Adebayo D

2002-12-01

262

Observations on mansonellosis among the Ibos of Abia and Imo States, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Between November, 1988 and April, 1991, parasitological and symptomatological methods of diagnosis were used to survey the prevalence of mansonellosis among the Ibo population in Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. 1,197 or 28.6% of the 4,183 persons examined were positive for microfilariae of Mansonella perstans. The prevalence of mansonellosis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among rural dwellers (34.6%) than among urban dwellers (22.5%), in males (30.8%) than in females (26.3%), in farmers (59.8%) and palm wine tappers (46.1%) than in civil servants (7.6%), and in persons 21 years of age and above (36.2%) than in those in the first two decades of life (9.4%). Clinical signs observed in most infected persons include body itching, joint and back pains, occasional giddiness and elephantoid scrotum. Body itching was the most commonly observed clinical sign (14.7%), followed by joint pains (12.41%) with elephantoid scrotum (3.5%) as the least. The public health implication of the findings is discussed. PMID:1456469

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O; Payne, V K; Amuta, E U; Akogun, O B; Adeiyongo, C M; Nwoke, B E

1992-11-01

263

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

264

Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

Gbolade, Adebayo

2012-09-10

265

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

266

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

267

Observations of barbers' activities in Oyo State Nigeria: implications for HIV/AIDS transmission.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most studies concerning HIV/AIDS transmission have looked at the sexual route from both epidemiological and behavioral perspectives. A few have examined the role of blood transfusion and the potential for indigenous surgical practices. None have specifically looked at the transmission of potential barbers. This study distinguished between indigenous barbers who function as surgeons and "modern" barbers who cut hair, and focused on the latter through observations of barbering practices in 77 shops in Igbo-Ora and Apete communities in Oyo State. Igbo-Ora is headquarters of a rural local government, while Apete is a peri-urban community near Ibadan, the state capital. Five barbering sessions were observed in each shop using a checklist during evening hours when shops are busiest. All barbers used clippers to cut hair, either electric or manual. On average, barbers sterilized the clippers in a commercial disinfectant, Jik, or with methylated spirits prior to 4.2 barberings. Sex and age of customer were not associated with wether the clippers were sterilized. Three shop characteristics appeared to influence sterilization behavior. Clippers were more likely to be sterilized if the shop was in Apete, if the shop owner was male, and if the shop had two or more of the following electrical appliances: fan, TV, or radio/cassette layer. There were only two observed cases of the barbers causing a cut, and in both cases the clippers had been sterilized. Overall, 63 (16.3%) of the 385 customers were barbed with non-sterilized clippers. The relatively short time gap between customers implies that the potential for disease transmission exists, though it was not within the scope of this study to study disease transmission itself. In-service training that involves the barbers themselves and addresses both gender and town differences is recommended. PMID:17695087

Salami, Kabiru K; Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A

268

Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of the study area-about 93 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers was less than one-half the standard for nitrate as N (5.0 milligrams per liter), and 50 percent was less than one-half the standard for arsenic (5.0 micrograms per liter). The predicted concentrations and the improved understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of southwestern basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment can be used by water managers as a qualitative tool to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources in the Southwest.

Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

2012-01-01

269

Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: Perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report includes three listings of research and management needs in the woodlands of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The first two provide an historical perspective to current efforts within the woodlands; the third listing represents suggestions and recommendations made by the participants at the 1992 symposium. Topics in the present listing are grouped under several broadly defined headings, such as general ecology, tree regeneration, mass production, wildlife, fire, hydrology and watershed management, social concerns, inventory and monitoring, and management.

Not Available

1992-08-01

270

Genetic Structure Analysis of Three Hispanic Populations from Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Southwestern United States Using Y-Chromosome STR Markers and mtDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred seventeen male subjects from Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Hispanic population of the southwestern United States were studied. Twelve Y-chromosome STRs and the HVSI sequence of the mtDNA were analyzed to describe their genetic structure and to compare maternal and paternal lineages. All subjects are part of two NIMH-funded studies to localize schizophrenia susceptibility genes in Hispanic populations

Rebeca Campos-Sanchez; Ramiro. Barrantes; Sandra Honorato da. Silva; Michael. Escamilla; Alfonso. Ontiveros; Humberto. Nicolini; Ricardo. Mendoza; Henriette. Raventos

2006-01-01

271

Population-based Case-Control Study of Diabetes and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women Living in US Southwestern States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus has been associated with breast cancer, although no studies appear to have adequately assessed the association in Hispanic women, a population with a high prevalence of diabetes. The authors investigated this association in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women living in the southwestern United States. Breast cancer cases diagnosed in 1999-2004 were identified through

Dana E. Rollison; Anna R. Giuliano; Thomas A. Sellers; Christine Laronga; Carol Sweeney; Betsy Risendal; Kathy B. Baumgartner; Tim Byers; Martha L. Slattery

272

New Natural Products Isolated from One-Seeded Juniperus of the Southwestern United States: Isolation and Occurrence of 2-Ethenyl-3Methyl Phenol and Its Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-examination of the leaf essential oils of the one-seeded, serrate leaf junipers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico, by GC, GC\\/MS and NMR, has yielded 2-ethenyl-3-methyl phenol (coahuilensol), 2-ethenyl-3-methyl anisole (coahuilensol, methyl ether), and 2-(1?-acetoxyethyl)-3-methyl anisole (pinchotene acetate) as new natural products. A survey of Juniperus oils revealed that these compounds were found in: three serrate leaf junipers

Robert P. Adams; Philip S. Beauchamp; Vasu Dev; Stephen M. Dutz

2007-01-01

273

RE-EXAMINATION OF THE TAXONOMY OF THE ONE SEEDED, SERRATE LEAF JUNIPERUS OF SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN MEXICO (CUPRESSACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one-seeded, serrate leaf margined junipers of Southwestern United States and northern Mexico consist of J. angosturana, J. californica, J. coahuilensis var. arizonica, J. c. var. coahuilensis, J. monosperma, J. pinchotii, J. occidentalis var. australis, J. o. var. occidentalis and J. osteosperma. Recent nrDNA and trnC-trnD sequence data were compared with RAPDs analysis and two of the taxa (J. c.

Robert P. Adams; Sanko Nguyen; Julie A. Morris; Andrea E. Schwarzbach

274

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit.

Anning, David W

2011-01-01

275

Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model  

SciTech Connect

The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

1996-09-01

276

Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities.

Jenerette, G. Darrel; Miller, Greg; Buyantuev, Alexander; Pataki, Diane E.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Pincetl, Stephanie

2013-12-01

277

Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community. Methods A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were examined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) method. Results Out of this number, 119 (39.02%) individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00%) prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71%) than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24%) than the females (35.03%). Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD) was the most prevalent (35.29%) onchocerciasis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS) had the lowest (20.17%) occurrence and blindness (0.00%) which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infection was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respondent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6%) among the respondent's knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community. Conclusion Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemotherapy.

Eyo, JE; Onyishi, GC; Ugokwe, CU

2013-01-01

278

Hyperendemicity of Onchocerciasis in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, endemicity, and symptomatic effects of the disease in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area. Methods: The prevalence of onchocerciasis was investigated in Ovia Northeast Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria, between March 2008 and June 2009 using the standard skin-snip method. A total of 2020 subjects, who had visited various primary health centres located in each community, were enlisted using randomised sampling, and the data were analysed using the Chi-squared (?2) test and logistic regression. Results: A Of the 2020 individuals examined, 1674 (83%) harboured microfilaria in their skin tissues. On the basis of the standardised scale for microfilaria prevalence—less than 10% is considered sporadic, 10%–29% is considered hypoendemic, 30%–59% is considered mesoendemic, and 60% and above is considered hyperendemic—the prevalence (83%) reported in this study led to the disease being classified as hyperendemic. Females were more frequently infected than were males, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Prevalence was also found to increase with age, and this correlation was significant (P < 0.001). The prevalence of the clinical features of the disease in the local government area was 87.5% for leopard skin, 84.16% for itching, and 75.42% for nodules. Conclusion: A prevalence of 83% was observed and considered hyperendemic. Female gender and age (50 years or more) were significant risk factors that affected the prevalence of onchocerciasis. The findings demonstrated the hyperendemicity of infection and the need for urgent attention with ivermectin treatment and other control measures.

Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis

2010-01-01

279

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN BENDEL STATE OF NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC MENTAL HEALTH POLICY AND EDUCATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This descriptive study assesses the current status of mental illness in Bendel State of Nigeria to determine its implications for mental health policy and education. It is a study of the demographic characteristics of psychiatric patients in the only two modern western psychiatric facilities in Bendel State, the various treatment modalities utilized for mental illness, and the people's choice of

KENNETH AUDU OYAREBU

1982-01-01

280

Distribution and aetiology of blindness and visual impairment in mesoendemic onchocercal communities, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Kaduna Collaboration for Research on Onchocerciasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a field trial of ivermectin in Kaduna State, 6831 people age 5 years and above, living in 34 mesoendemic onchocercal communities in Kaduna State, northern Nigeria, were examined for ocular disease. Visual function assessments included tests of visual acuity and visual fields. A total of 185 individuals (2.7%) were bilaterally blind by acuity criteria with a further 28 blind

A Abiose; I Murdoch; O Babalola; S Cousens; I Liman; J Onyema; J Evans; W Gregory; B Jones

1994-01-01

281

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

1998-04-20

282

Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. V. The distribution and prevalence of mansonellosis with special reference to clinical signs.  

PubMed

A survey on mansonellosis was carried out in Bauchi State of Nigeria between January 1990 and March 1992. Of the 5,640 inhabitants examined, 24 (0.4%) were positive for Mansonella streptocerca microfilariae. Microfilaria rate and mf density increased gradually with host age. While infection and sex are independent, mansonellosis was significantly lower in subjects within the first three decades of life than in those above 31 years (P < 0.05). Clinical signs observed include pruritus, rash, inguinal adenopathy and occasional dizziness. Skin biopsies taken from the shoulder gave the highest frequency of positive skin snip. PMID:7951395

Anosike, J C

1994-09-01

283

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

284

The Status of Broadcasting Libraries in Nigeria (A Study of Bauchi and Plateau States).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of a survey of broadcasting libraries in Nigeria that used questionnaires, observation techniques, and interviews to generate data. Inadequacies regarding staffing, development, preservation and conservation practices, collection development, bibliographic control, space, and funding are discussed, and recommendations for…

Akintunde, Stephen A.

1995-01-01

285

Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight gain in adulthood is now common in many populations, ranging from modest gains in developing countries to a substantial percentage of body weight in some Western societies. To examine the rate of change across the spectrum of low to high-income countries we compared rates of weight change in samples drawn from three countries, Nigeria, Jamaica and the United

Ramón A Durazo-Arvizu; Amy Luke; Richard S. Cooper; Guichan Cao; Lara Dugas; Adebowale Adeyemo; Michael Boyne; Terrence Forrester

2008-01-01

286

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

287

Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

2013-01-01

288

Stratigraphy and structure of the San Lucas area, Michoacan and Guerrero states, southwestern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesozoic marine rocks and Cenozoic continental red beds were mapped at 1:50,000 scale in a 900 km$\\\\sp2$ area around San Lucas, in the Balsas River basin between Ciudad Altamirano, Guerrero State, and Huetamo, Michoacan State, Mexico. Interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper images, combined with extensive field work, enabled refinement of the stratigraphy and a new interpretation of the structure of

Christopher Arthur Johnson

1990-01-01

289

Exposure of Children and Teenagers to Internet Pornography in South Western Nigeria: Concerns, Trends & Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we investigated the level of consumption of Internet pornography among children and teenagers of primary and secondary school age in Southwestern Nigeria. Two research instruments titled \\

O. B. Longe; S. C. Chiemeke; F. M. Balogun; V. U. Otti

290

Predicted Nitrate and Arsenic Concentrations in Basin-Fill Aquifers of the Southwestern United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States (Lapham and others, 2005). The Southwest Principal Aqui...

A. P. Paul D. W. Anning J. M. Huntington L. M. Bexfield T. S. McKinney

2012-01-01

291

Spanish Heritage Language Programs: A Snapshot of Current Programs in the Southwestern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…

Beaudrie, Sara M.

2011-01-01

292

Precipitation Trends and Water Consumption Related to Population in the Southwestern United States, 1930-83.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible effects of climatic fluctuations on renewable water supplies in the western United States was examined, especially as it is impacted by the growth of population and water consumption in recent decades.Precipitation fluctuations in the Colorado River Basin states have differed depending upon their location, but have tended to fluctuate with a time scale of one to two decades. Longer-term regimes may also be operative. For example, the Upper Basin states (Colorado and Utah) experienced a prolonged wet interval from about the turn of this century to around 1930; from 1930 to around 1978, drier than normal years tended to outnumber wet ones; and since 1978 the Upper Basin has been exceedingly wet. Lower Basin states also experienced the early wet period and drier conditions after the mid-1940s, but they undergo somewhat different alternations of wetness and dryness. However, from the point of view of water supply, precipitation variability in the Upper Basin, particularly in Colorado, is more critical.Reservoir capacity in the and western states is expected to gain little in additional storage capacity during the next couple of decades; in addition, withdrawal of water from the Colorado River is approaching the legal limits. The effect of a future prolonged drought on the order of those which have occurred in recent decades, or in a worse case, those which have occurred in past centuries from tree ring studies, could have far more serious consequences than any in previous experience due to the large population increases in the region. These population trends show all signs of continuing, at least in the near future. The impact of a drought, however, would depend on the level of reservoir capacity that is present at the time of drought onset as well as its intensity and longevity; reservoirs in the West are presently at or near capacity.

Diaz, Henry F.; Holle, Ronald L.; Thorn, Joe W., Jr.

1985-02-01

293

Nigeria: An Export Market Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigeria's agricultural imports have grown more rapidly since 1974 than those of most other countries. About one-quarter of these imports have come from the United States, including almost all of Nigeria's imported grains, principally corn and wheat. By 19...

C. Mabbs-Zeno

1986-01-01

294

Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhile freshwater sustainability is generally defined as the provisioning of water for both people and the environment, in practice it is largely focused only on supplying water to furnish human population growth. Symptomatic of this is the state of Arizona, where rapid growth outside of the metropolitan Phoenix-Tucson corridor relies on the same groundwater that supplies year-round flow in rivers.

Robert M. Marshall; Marcos D. Robles; Daniel R. Majka; Jeanmarie A. Haney; Brian Gratwicke

2010-01-01

295

Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

Goldberg, C. S.; Sullivan, B. K.; Malone, J. H.; Schwalbe, C. R.

2004-01-01

296

Frequency, types and severity of medication use-related problems among medical outpatients in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the frequency, types and severity of medications use-related problems among medical outpatients in a tertiary\\u000a care setting in southwestern Nigeria. Setting Medical outpatient clinics of a 900-bed Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Methods A prospective cross-sectional medication use review was conducted by ten pharmacists for 400 randomly selected medical outpatients\\u000a over a 4 week period at

Kazeem B. Yusuff; Fola Tayo

2011-01-01

297

Community based diabetes risk assessment in Ogun state, Nigeria (World Diabetes Foundation project 08-321)  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study assessed the risk of developing type 2 diabetes Mellitus in Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Finnish Medical Association diabetes risk score was administered across 25 communities facilitated by non-communicable disease clinics established under a World Diabetes Foundation project. Subjects in the high risk group had blood glucose estimated. Results: 58,567 respondents included 34,990 (59.6%) females and 23,667 (40.3%) males. Majority (61.2%) were between 25 years and 54 years. Considering waist circumference, 34,990 (38.1%) females and 23,667 (5.3%) males had values above 88 cm and 102 cm respectively. Overall, 11,266 (19.2%) were obese and 28.9% overweight using body mass index (BMI). More females had elevated BMI than males. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of all subjects were 129.54 mm Hg ± 23.5 mm Hg and 76.21 mm Hg ± 15.5 mm Hg respectively. Prevalence of hypertension (Joint National Committee VII classification) was 27.7%. More subjects had normal DBP than SBP (68.2% vs. 42.5% P < 0.05). Mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) of all subjects was 5.5 mmol/L ± 0.67 mmol/L. Using a casual blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L and/or FBG >7 mmol/L, the total yield of subjects adjudged as having diabetes was 2,956 (5.05%). Mean total risk score was 5.60 ± 3.90; this was significantly higher in females (6.34 ± 4.16 vs. 4.24 ± 3.71, P < 0.05). A total of 2,956 (5.05%) had high risk of developing DM within 10 years. Conclusion: The risk of developing DM is high in the community studied with females having a higher risk score. There is urgent need to implement diabetes prevention strategies.

Alebiosu, Olutayo C.; Familoni, Oluranti B.; Ogunsemi, Olawale O.; Raimi, T. H.; Balogun, Williams O.; Odusan, O.; Oguntona, Segun A.; Olunuga, Taiwo; Kolawole, Babatope A.; Ikem, Rosemary T.; Adeleye, Jokotade O.; Adesina, Olubiyi F.; Adewuyi, Peter A.

2013-01-01

298

Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended.

Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

2008-01-01

299

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium

Oluwatoyosi BA Owoeye

2010-01-01

300

The role of faith-based schools in the promotion of peace and justice in ethno-religious conflict-driven Taraba state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to understand how faith-based schools teach and practice the principles of peace and justice in Taraba state, Nigeria, given the conflict-driven in the community. Three principals and three teachers in three different local high schools (Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim) were interviewed individually, as were the Commissioner for Education in Taraba, a religious leader from all three religions,

Anthony I Bature

2012-01-01

301

Consumers stated and revealed preferences for community health workers and other strategies for the provision of timely and appropriate treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The African Heads of State meeting in Abuja, Nigeria on Roll Back Malaria adopted effective treatment of malaria nearer the home as one of the strategies for malaria control in Africa. A potentially effective strategy for bringing early, appropriate and low cost treatment of malaria closer to the home is through the use of community health workers (CHWs). There

Obinna Onwujekwe; Nkem Dike; Juliana Ojukwu; Benjamin Uzochukwu; Nkoli Ezumah; Elvis Shu; Paul Okonkwo

2006-01-01

302

Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

2013-01-01

303

Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Mass Media Channels: Implications for Extension Delivery Among Cassava Producers in the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effectiveness of mass media availability, accessibility and use on farmers' adoption of cassava-related innovations in the central agricultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. The influence of a specific media type was also determined. Data, collected from a random sample of 133 cassava farmers resident in nine communities in the study area, were analysed using frequency distribution,

E. A. Onemolease; T. Adisa

2007-01-01

304

Managing Muslim–Christian Conflicts in Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to identify the causes of Christian–Muslim conflicts in Northern Nigeria and suggest strategies for peaceful co-existence among the adherents of the two religions. It is based on in-depth interviews with the community and religious leaders and a survey of media coverage of the crises. The article examines the sudden upsurge of violent conflicts between Christians and

Hajiya Bilkisu Yusuf

2007-01-01

305

The effectiveness of community based distribution of injectable contraceptives using community health extension workers in Gombe State, Northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reports on findings of a pilot of community-based distribution (CBD) of injectable contraceptives in two local government areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Nigeria. From August 2009 to January 2010, the project enrolled, trained and equipped community health extension workers (CHEWs) to distribute condoms, oral and injectable contraceptives in communities. The project mobilized communities and stakeholders to promote Family Planning (FP) services in the selected communities. Using anonymised unlinked routine service data, the mean couple years of protection (CYP) achieved through CBD was compared to that achieved in FP clinics. The CBD mean CYP for injectables- depo medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enantate was higher (27.72 & 18.16 respectively) than the facility CYP (7.21 & 5.08 respectively) (p < 0.05) with no injection related complications. The CBD's mean CYP for all methods was also found to be four times higher (11.65) than that generated in health facilities (2.86) (p < 0.05). This suggests that the CBD of injectable contraceptives is feasible and effective, even in a setting like northern Nigeria that has sensitivities about FP. PMID:24069754

Abdul-Hadi, Rabiatu A; Abass, Moyosola M; Aiyenigba, Bolatito O; Oseni, Lolade O; Odafe, Solomon; Chabikuli, Otto N; Ibrahim, Mohammed D; Hamelmann, Christoph; Ladipo, Oladapo A

2013-06-01

306

HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

307

Taxonomic status of certain clapper rails of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of 58 Clapper Rail specimens taken in the breeding season from the Colorado Valley and the west coast of mainland Mexico verifies the distinctness of the races Rallus longirostris yomanensis, R. 1. rhizophorae, and R. 1. nayaritensis. Rallus 1. yumanensis is a relatively pale brown, pointed-winged, summer resident of freshwater marshes along the valley and delta of the Colorado River. Late winter specimens of yumanensis have been taken in freshwater and saltwater habitats in the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Puebla. Both R. 1. rhizophorae, a pale grayish bird, and R. 1. nayaritensis, a darker grayish form, are presumed year-round residents of the western Mexican mangrove swamps. Both have more rounded wings than yumanensis. The range of rhizophorae extends south along the coast from central Sonora to central Sinaloa, and that of nayaritensis from central Sinaloa to the vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit. Features of the range and characters of birds where the range of these two races approach each other are unclear.

Banks, R.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.

1974-01-01

308

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+,Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain decreased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

2013-04-01

309

Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be

Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo

2010-01-01

310

The immunological response to polyvalent meningococcal vaccine in Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The post-vaccination antibody response to both Group A and Group C meningococcal polysaccharide antigen was studied in 397 male and 359 female vaccinated persons aged between 4 and 40 years from Bauchi Town and neighbouring villages in Nigeria. No difference in response was observed between the sexes. Highest antibody levels occurred in those aged between 13 and 28 years. Haemoglobin genotype did not affect response. Malnourished children had significantly lower mean IgG, IgA and IgM levels and the response to meningovaccine was also lower than in normal children. PMID:6810520

Mohammed, I; Damisah, M M

1982-01-01

311

Estimating the Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants: A Case Study of the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

We estimate the capacity value of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants without thermal energy storage in the southwestern U.S. Our results show that CSP plants have capacity values that are between 45% and 95% of maximum capacity, depending on their location and configuration. We also examine the sensitivity of the capacity value of CSP to a number of factors and show that capacity factor-based methods can provide reasonable approximations of reliability-based estimates.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2012-05-01

312

Growth status and menarcheal age among adolescent school girls in Wannune, Benue State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Menarcheal age is a sensitive indicator of environmental conditions during childhood. The aim of study is to determine the age at menarche and growth status in adolescents in a rural area of Tarka, Wannune, Nigeria. Methods Data on 722 female students (aged 12-18 years) were collected in February 2009. Height and weight were measured. Body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) was used as an index of relative weight. Results Mean and median menarcheal age calculated by probit analysis were 13.02 (SD 3.0) (95% CI: 13.02-13.07), and age 13.00 (SD 2.8) (95% CI: 12.98-13.04), respectively. Girls who reach menarche are significantly heavier and taller with higher BMIs than those of their pre-menarcheal peers. Conclusion The age of menarche is probably still declining in Nigeria. Although BMI is an important factor in the onset of menstruation, some other unmeasured environmental variables may be implicated in this population.

2010-01-01

313

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

De Nie, Michael W.

314

NigeriaWorld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.

315

Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337

Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

2012-08-07

316

The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569

Omorodion, F I

1993-10-01

317

Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

2012-12-21

318

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by lagos state athletes at the 16th national sports festival (kada games 2009) in nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and

O B A Owoeye

2011-01-01

319

Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2331 males and 2469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0-52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. PMID:19419072

Otubanjo, O A; Adeoye, G O; Ibidapo, C A; Akinsanya, B; Okeke, P; Atalabi, T; Adejai, E T; Braide, E

2008-12-01

320

A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Results: Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Conclusion: Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

Osazuwa, Favour; Ayo, Oguntade Michael; Imade, Paul

2011-01-01

321

Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

322

Cultural perceptions of diarrhea and illness management choices among yoruba mothers in oyo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Home management of childhood illness is a norm throughout most of the world. Decisions about treatment are influenced by cultural perceptions of the illness, and diarrheal illnesses are no exception. A group of 473 mothers and their pre-school age children in rural communities outside Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria were followed over a two-month period. Data were collected on actual diarrhea illness episodes: mothers' names for these illnesses were recorded, and reported treatment actions were noted. Six major ethno-medical diarrheal illnesses were identified and were grouped broadly into watery diarrheas and dysentery-like diarrheas. Although few (40%) women used home-made sugar-salt solution (SSS) in case management, those who labeled their child's illness as a watery diarrhea were more likely to use SSS. Modern and herbal medicines were commonly and equally applied to both groups of diarrheal illnesses. While very few mothers reported decreased fluid intake by their children, many said the child had reduced appetite, especially if the child had a watery diarrhea. The findings indicate that twelve years after the national Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) Program was launched, few mothers practice the recommended actions of giving SSS, increasing food intake and avoiding drugs. Lack of attention to studies that describe the cultural basis for mothers' decisions could be part of the reason why the ORT has not been more successful. PMID:20841070

Okunribido, O O; Brieger, W R; Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A

1997-01-01

323

Assessment of Tannery Industrial Effluents from Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.

Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.

324

Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Southwestern United States Climate During the Past Millennium: New Evidence from a Well-calibrated, High-resolution Stalagmite delta18O Record from the Sierra Nevada Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proxy data from tree rings and lake sediments indicate that past droughts in the Southwestern United States (SW US) were of greater magnitude and longer duration than the 20th century droughts. To determine the natural range and mechanisms of past hydrologic variability in the SW US, we are using speleothems from Crystal Cave in Sequoia National Park, California, on the

S. E. McCabe-Glynn; K. R. Johnson; M. B. Berkelhammer; A. Sinha; H. Cheng; L. Edwards

2010-01-01

325

Introducing Nigeria at fifty: the nation in narration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria, Africa's most populous democracy, celebrates her 50th year as an independent nation in October 2010. As the cliché states, ‘As Nigeria goes, so goes Africa’. This volume frames the socio-historical and political trajectory of Nigeria while examining the many dimensions of the critical choices that she has made as an independent nation. How does the social composition of interest

Wale Adebanwi; Ebenezer Obadare

2010-01-01

326

Human Rights and Sharia'h Justice in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the human rights provisions in the 1999 Constitution

M. Ozonnia Ojielo

2010-01-01

327

Simulium (Psilopelmia) virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium (Psilopelmia) in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region. PMID:22310543

Hamada, Neusa; Silva, Nayra Gomes da; Pereira, Eleny da Silva

2012-02-01

328

Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

1997-10-01

329

Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and is required for remediating salinity problems.

Scanlon, B. R.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Leaney, F. W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R. G.

2009-01-01

330

Nigeria's youth at risk.  

PubMed

Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

Igwe, S A

1992-05-01

331

Household feeding patterns and feeding habits: effects on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Food is one of the basic needs of man, and has a strong positive relationship with health. This article examines the impact of food consumption patterns and habits on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Employing a stratified random sampling framework, the study administered 368 questionnaires to respondents from both low-income and high-income households on equal proportion, and was complimented with four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Results indicate that the majority of households consumed foods classified under condiments/spices, stem/roots, vegetables, fat/oil, seafood, and poultry/meat on daily basis. Foods such as cereals, fruits, and bulbs were not common in their daily menu. Some respondents, especially from the low-income households, had to skip and/or forego meals for the benefit of the younger ones. The Linear Estimation System (LES) revealed deficiency in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and blamed this on income poverty and lack of knowledge on the nutritional values of food. To obtain good health, there are prescribed food items that must be eaten in a scientifically required mix. The study therefore recommends nutritional and health education and the creation of awareness on the nutritional values of locally produced food items that would enhance nutritional and health status of the citizenry and food security. PMID:21576067

Ikoh, Moses Udo; Emmanuel, Agness Unwana; Charles, Arit O; Charles, J O

332

Hepatitis C Virus infection in apparentenly healthy individuals with family history of diabetes in Vom, Plateau State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were screened after they filled a structured questionnaire to determine some of their demographic data, social habits and possible risk factors. 5 ml of blood was collected from each subject and sera separated out. Biotech's third generation ELISA Kit for HCV antibodies was used for the screening. Liver enzyme analysis was carried out on positive samples to determine their disease status. A prevalence of 14.36% was recorded with the highest seropositive group being those in the age bracket of 18 – 37 years. 13(13.40%) of males and 14(15.38%) of females were sero-positive. Liver enzyme analysis of sero-positive subjects showed increased levels which may imply early onset of liver damage. These result showed that these individuals could later suffer diabetes which may be triggered by their HCV infection if not treated. This is not over-looking the economic significance of their ill health, assuming they progress to cirrhotic HCV or develop hepatocelluar carcinoma due to HCV chronicity.

Nwankiti, Obinna O; Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest ON; Olabode, Atanda O; Nwosuh, Chika I; Onovoh, Ema M; Okeke, Lilian A; Akinola, Jumoke O; Duru, Boniface N; Nwagbo, Ijeoma O; Agada, Godwin O; Chukwuedo, Anthony A

2009-01-01

333

The prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. The prevalence of onchocerciasis was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among males than females, in subjects 21 years of age and above than in those in the first two decades of life, in nomads, farmers, hunters and fishermen than smiths and traders. Intensity of infection was light, not exceeding a geometric mean of 5.3 microfilaria per 2 mm skin bite. Preponderance of positive cases below 20 years presented no chronic signs. Conversely, persons above 20 years had higher microfilaria counts which coincides with the period when most clinical signs manifest. Microfilarial-rate and -density in relation to age were closely associated (r = 0.75, P < 0.001). The need for a sustained mass distribution of Mectizan in these communities is highlighted. PMID:11556150

Anosike, J C; Celestine; Onwuliri, O E; Onwuliri, V A

2001-07-01

334

Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. 1. Endemicity of human onchocerciasis in Ningi Local Government Area.  

PubMed

The endemicity of human onchocerciasis was assessed in eight rural, at-risk communities in Ningi Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Nigeria, between July 1990 and March 1991. Of the 1536 subjects skin-snipped, 334 (21.7%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae. Surprisingly, there was a significant inverse relationship between prevalence and mean microfilarial load (r = -0.608; P < 0.05). Males were more likely to be infected than females (P < 0.01) and cattle rearers (71.0% infected), farmers (49.8%) and fishermen (40.0%) had significantly higher prevalences than students/schoolchildren, housewives or traders (P < 0.001). Pruritus and itchy eyes were recorded in all age groups and appeared in much younger subjects than any other manifestations of the infection. Prevalence and onchocercal blindness were linearly related to intensity of infection. The epidemiological significance of these findings, in terms of a future community-wide programme of long-term chemoprophylaxis with Mectizan, is highlighted. PMID:7741592

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

1995-02-01

335

Studies on filariasis in Bauchi State, Nigeria. II. The prevalence of human filariasis in Darazo Local Government area.  

PubMed

In an eleven months study of eleven communities of Darazo Local Government Area of Bauchi state, northern Nigeria, 293 (21.7) of 1,349 persons examined harboured various filarial parasites. Of the sampled population, 18%, 1.9%, 1.6%, 0.5% and 0.2% had microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Loa loa respectively. Of the 637 females examined, 90 (14.1%) were infected, while 203 (23.5%) of 712 males sampled had filarial infections. The high rate in males was significant (P < 0.001). O. volvulus mf-rate increased gradually from the first decade to the seventh decade of life but declined thereafter. Prevalence of bancroftian filariasis was consistently lower in females of reproductive age, while the distribution of various filarial parasites varied significantly among age groups and communities (P < 0.05). Fishermen (42.9%), farmers (42.4%) and cattle rearers (40.9%) were the most affected occupational categories. Control strategies are highlighted. PMID:7812311

Anosike, J C; Onwuliri, C O

1994-11-01

336

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs.

Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

1997-01-01

337

Blood lead, calcium, and phosphorus in women with preeclampsia in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729

Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka

2012-01-01

338

Southwestern Historical Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwestern Historical Quarterly started publication in 1897 and remains one of the preeminent journals about the history of Texas and the Southwest. The Texas State Historical Association has undertaken a vast effort to digitize the first 100 years of this publication, and the fruits of their labors are available here. Visitors can search through each of the issues as they wish, or just browse through the table of contents for articles of interest. The issues from 1972 and 1973 are both great places to start, as they contain pieces like "Internal Improvements in Texas in the Early 1850s" and "Pioneer Evaluation of Vegetation in Frontier Texas." Users can view the table of contents for issues after 1997, but they will not have access to the full text of the articles without a subscription. As a whole, this magisterial collection is a tremendous resource for anyone with an interest in the history of the region.

2012-08-24

339

Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ?5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

2012-01-01

340

Regulating child-related advertising in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the Nigerian advertising environment with children as the target audience in relation to its regulatory system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive review of the extant relevant literature was conducted to provide the needed framework for exploring the state of ethics in advertising to children in Nigeria. Findings – While it is shown that Nigeria

Ayantunji Gbadamosi

2010-01-01

341

Pollination of the southwestern Opuntias  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of pollination systems inOpuntia sens. lat. in the southwestern United States. The floral syndrome of large, colorful, bowl-shaped, diurnal flowers is present in all of the prickly-pear species and most of the cholla (Cylindropuntia) species in this area. Pollination by medium-sized and large bees is established for some of the species with this floral syndrome

Verne Grant; Paul D. Hurd

1979-01-01

342

Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.

Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

2006-01-01

343

Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p?=?0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p?

2013-01-01

344

Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707

Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

2011-01-01

345

Museum of Southwestern Biology: Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mammal Collection at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB) "contains over 118,000 specimens, mostly from the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America, but there are also large holdings from other portions on North America, Japan, Africa, and Eurasia." MSB offers a searchable database of the Mammal Collection with search fields for Order, Family, Species, Continent/Ocean, Country, Sex, Season, and more. MSB specimen loans are available to "researchers at established, scientifically recognized institutions." Site visitors will appreciate the extensive list of mammal-related publications from 1994-2004, with many of the papers from recent years available in downloadable format. MSB staff contact information, and related links are provided as well.

346

Compulsory acquisition of oil exploration fields in Delta State, Nigeria : The compensation problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the problems of compensation for compulsory acquisition of oil exploration fields in Delta State with particular reference to the oil field acquired by Agip Oil Company for gas pipeline way leave in Irri and Okpai towns of Delta State. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted in which questionnaires were

P. S. Ogedengbe

2007-01-01

347

Evaluation of the Noah Land-surface Model for Semi-arid Sites in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous experiments have been carried out to facilitate the development and evaluation of land-surface models. Most of these comparison studies have been undertaken by the Project for the Intercomparison of Land-surface Processes (PILPS) under the sponsorship of the GEWEX Global Land-Atmosphere System Study (GLASS). However, few of these model evaluations have used long-term data sets (greater than one or two years) or have been carried out in semi-arid regions. Understanding the interaction of land surface processes with climate and its impact on the water cycle is crucial for predicting the availability of water resources in semi-arid regions. A recently proposed PILPS SanPedro-Sevilleta experiment is being undertaken in the southwestern U.S. using five semi-arid vegetation sites (including two from this study). A systematic analysis is undertaken based on the framework proposed for the PILPS experiment, testing some of the hypotheses for the calibration and cross-validation of land-surface schemes. This specific study analyzes the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Noah land-surface model, one of several "community" or "multi-group" models that are evolving in land-surface studies. The MOCOM algorithm (a general purpose multi-criteria optimization algorithm that provides an estimate of the Pareto solution space) is linked with the Noah model to estimate parameters for two semi-arid biomes, a desert shrub and grassland, which have continuous meteorological and flux measurements over a four-year period. The model shows improved performance with calibrations (over default) and the model also does fairly well for sensible heat and ground temperature over the longer term. However, the increase in latent heat during short-term climatic events (the year-to-year monsoon and winter-time El Ni¤o events) is not captured well in model simulations. The application of site-specific parameters at the two field sites does improve performance, but in the absence of calibration data, a proxy-basin set of parameters can be applied with only a slight decline in performance. Results from this analysis also show that several of the vegetation and soil parameters vary dependent on the length and period of calibration. Inadequate representation of these processes may result in large uncertainty in parameter estimates for semi-arid regions. The performance of models for long-term climate change scenarios is difficult to assess; however, the goal is that calibration and evaluation studies such as this and the PILPS SanPedro-Sevilleta experiment will lead to improved parameter estimates for use in regional and global long-term climate studies.

Hogue, T. S.; Bastidas, L.; Gupta, H.; Sorooshian, S.

2003-12-01

348

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers.

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

349

Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (I = 89.8 +/- 6.42 microg/L). However, total water values for Se, Zn, and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. The mean urinary iodine concentration of 170.65 +/- 27.17 microg/L in school children from Oba was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of 156.12 +/- 16.48 microg/L found in school children from Nanka. However, the mean urinary iodine concentration of all the women (pregnant and non-pregnant) were not significantly different in the two communities but they are below the recommended daily intake. The results show that people living in Nanka and Oba, could be at risk of IDD. PMID:17970305

Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

2007-09-01

350

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers.

2013-01-01

351

Administering Marine Spaces: The Problem of Coastal Erosion in Nigeria, a Case Study of Forcados South Point, Delta State  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Coastal erosion is a global problem facing both developing and developed Countries. In Nigeria, Coastal erosion is experienced in almost all the sections of the country's coastal zone, thus the quest for a lasting solution. The social and economic consequences of coastal erosion can be substantial in many cases. It may cause displacement of a whole community, including the

Angela Kesiena ETUONOVBE

352

Assessment of the Quality of Guidance and Counselling Services to Students' Adjustment in Secondary Schools in Edo State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the realities and assessment of the quality of guidance and counselling services on students' adjustment in Nigeria. It was hypothesized that qualification of guidance and counselling personnel, availability of guidance and counselling facilities, quality of guidance and counselling services will not significantly predict students' adjustment. The study was limited to only sixteen secondary schools: thirteen government

E. O. Egbochuku

353

Effects of Youth Empowerment Strategies on Conflict Resolutions in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Evidence from Cross River State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been ridden by youth restiveness and yet several intervention program have not yielded positive results. The study, therefore, evaluates the impact of youth empowerment strategies on conflict resolution using an ordered probit regression model. The study reveals that youth educational programs, provision of infrastructures and credit facilities showed significant effects as tools for

N. I. OFEM; A. R. AJAYI

2008-01-01

354

HIV/aids related home based care practices among primary health care workers in Ogun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background HIV/AIDS is fast becoming a chronic disease with the advent of antiretroviral drugs, therefore making home based care key in the management of chronically ill HIV/AIDS patient. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and practice of health care workers on HIV/AIDS related home based care in the health facilities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to obtain a representative sample of the primary health care workers in Ogun state. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers to elicit the required information. Result A total of 350 health care workers were interviewed, 70% of the respondents could adequately describe the components of home based care. Only 38.7% were aware of the National guideline on home based care practices and 17.1% believe that home based care will not significantly improve the prognosis of PLWAs. Few 19.1% had ever been trained or ever involved 16.6% in home based care practices. Only 20 [5.7%] are involved on a weekly basis, 16 [4.6%] monthly and 22 [6.3%] quarterly. Reasons given for non implementation of home based care are inadequate number of healthcare workers 45%, lack of political will 24.4%, lack of implementation by facility managers 14% and inadequate funds 16.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with the practice of home based care were perception of its relevance in improving prognosis [OR?=?54.21, C.I?=?23.22-129.52] and presence of a support group in the facility [OR?=?4.80, C.I?=?2.40-9.57]. There was however no statistically significant relationship between adequate knowledge of home based care [OR?=?0.78, C.I?=?0.39-1.54] and previous training on home based care (OR?=?1.43, C.I?=?0.66-3.06]. Conclusion The practice of home based care for HIV/AIDS among the study population is low and it is greatly influenced by perception of its effectiveness and relevance. The study recommends that the health care workers should be adequately educated on the importance of home based care in the management of chronic illnesses in order to enhance its practice.

2012-01-01

355

Distribution of high field strength and rare earth elements in mantle and lower crustal xenoliths from the Southwestern United States: The role of grain-boundary phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinel lherzolite and harzburgite xenoliths from the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau Provinces in the southwestern United States (SWUS) show a broad range in incompatible element distributions from depleted to enriched, both within and between sites. The most fertile xenoliths occur in the Basin and Range Province and the most refractory in the Colorado Plateau or Transition Zone. Mass balance calculations indicate that up to 80% of the high field strength (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, Ti) and rare earth elements (50% for Yb) in these xenoliths occur in phases along grain boundaries (or in microfractures). In lower crustal and eclogite xenoliths, up to 90% of these elements occur in grain-boundary phases. Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, La/Sm and Nb/Th ratios and Nb-Ta anomalies in both types of xenoliths are also controlled by grain-boundary phases. To interpret these ratios in whole-rock analyses, it is critical to understand the timing and origin of the grain-boundary components in the xenoliths. Most of the enriched mantle xenoliths appear to have been enriched by metasomatic fluids related to silicate magmas and not to carbonatite magmas. Because of a complex multi-event history that affected the composition of the xenoliths, there is no simple geochemical relationship between magmatic or metamorphic history of the lower crust and upper mantle in the SWUS as reflected by the xenolith populations.

Condie, Kent C.; Cox, Jessica; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Kerrich, Robert

2004-10-01

356

Patterns of association with host and habitat: antibody reactive with Sin Nombre virus in small mammals in the major biotic communities of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The distribution and prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre virus were determined in mammals in biotic communities of the southwestern United States. Small mammals (n = 3,069) of 69 species were trapped in nine communities from lower Sonoran desert to alpine tundra. Antibody was found in rodents from all communities (overall prevalence = 6.3%); prevalence was lowest at the altitudinal and climatic extremes (0.4% in desert and 2.0% in alpine tundra). Antibody occurred in 11% of 928 deer mice, 20% of 355 brush mice, 23% of 35 western harvest mice, and 12% of 24 Mexican voles. No infected deer mice were found in desert habitat; prevalence varied from 4% in chaparral to 17% in pinyon-juniper. Brush mice were frequently infected in chaparral and montane forest (25%). Seropositivity was higher in males and in heavier animals, suggesting horizontal transmission among adult males. Decreasing prevalence with age among the youngest deer mice suggests that infected dams confer passive immunity to pups. PMID:9129529

Mills, J N; Ksiazek, T G; Ellis, B A; Rollin, P E; Nichol, S T; Yates, T L; Gannon, W L; Levy, C E; Engelthaler, D M; Davis, T; Tanda, D T; Frampton, J W; Nichols, C R; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

1997-03-01

357

Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

2006-01-01

358

COMMUNICATION FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATION AT THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates communication factors affecting the adoption of innovation at the grassroots level in Ogun State. Two hundred farmers and twenty-five extension agents were selected using a multi - stage sampling technique, and were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that the majority of

A. S. Onasanya; S. F. Adedoyin; O. A. Onasanya

359

Between elite protectionism and popular resistance: The political economy of Nigeria's fractured state since juridical independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This piece attempts a new reading of the political economy of the Nigerian state within the context of the epoch-making British colonialism, the spin-off effects of structural imperialism and the stranglehold of an increasingly desperate transnational capital. The principal argument is that whilst these structures do not explain everything – to the extent that the Nigerian ruling elite has played

Adekunle Amuwo

2010-01-01

360

Traditional cocoa-based agroforestry and forest species conservation in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa agroforests are a common farming system in the humid zone of West and Central Africa, in which forest trees provide shade and other environmental services as well as marketable products. To determine the extent of these benefits, data were collected in nine cocoa farms located in three major cocoa producing local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo State. Reserved natural

D. O. Oke; K. A. Odebiyi

2007-01-01

361

Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

2012-01-01

362

Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas…

Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

2006-01-01

363

Vertical Integration and Profitability in Poultry Industry in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non- integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully integrated poultry

Olasunkanmi M. Bamiro; S. Momoh; D. O. A. Phillip

364

Vertical Integration and Technical Efficiency in Poultry (Egg) Industry in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at analyzing economics of vertical integration in poultry industry in Ogun and Oyo States. The study examines the production systems and analyses costs and returns to non-integrated and vertically integrated poultry farms. Primary data were generated using structured questionnaires in a field survey of 100 non-integrated poultry farms, 70 partially integrated poultry farms and 40 fully poultry

2006-01-01

365

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

366

Benefits of using magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for eclampsia management and maternal mortality reduction: lessons from Kano State in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance.

2012-01-01

367

Assessment of Quality in Early Childhood Education in Ekiti-State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early child-hood Education is the bedrock upon which excellent basic and sound education is built. This study examined the concept of quality in early childhood education in Ekiti State. It is a descriptiv e research design of the survey type, which aimed at assessing the quality of early-child-hood education in 12 randomly selected private nursery schools in Ado-Ekiti Local Government

O. Olaleye; O. Florence; K. A. Omotayo

2009-01-01

368

Monitoring of external background radiation level in Asa Dam Industrial area of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An external background ionizing radiation study has been carried out within the Asa Dam Industrial Layout of Ilorin in Kwara State. The study was carried out in 5 stations within the industrial area using two Digilert Nuclear Radiation Monitors. The study has revealed that the external background ionizing radiation is averagely 0.0134 mR\\/hr with a deviation of about 22% which

2005-01-01

369

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea.

2011-01-01

370

Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18?yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18?years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8?years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7?years (SD?±?3.67). Only one presented within 24?hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n?=?8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n?=?4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n?=?5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7?days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3?months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5?days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play and application of appropriate measures that is necessary for reducing the incidence and severity of trauma is emphasized.

2012-01-01

371

Political, economic and cultural ratonales forstate creation in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the rationales underlying state creation in Nigeria. Specifically, the study addresses significant political, economic, and socio-cultural issues considered to be the rationales behind the creation of states in Nigeria. Dependency theory was applied to determine whether state creation is: (a) a viable public policy tool to promote much needed good governance in a country whose ethnic groupings

Kentu Ezeji-Okoye

2009-01-01

372

Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary`s Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE`s policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action.

Not Available

1993-03-01

373

Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action.

Not Available

1993-03-01

374

HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041

Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

375

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

376

Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization of the Orisha Religion in Africa and the New World (Nigeria, Cuba and the United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the relationship of religion to space, ethnicity and political domination, through the case of the Orisha religion in Africa and the Americas. This religion originated in the south-east of present-day Nigeria and was first re-implanted in the Americas as a result of the deportation of thousands of Yoruba slaves, especially to Cuba. Today, it is experiencing

Erwan Dianteill

2002-01-01

377

GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF THE MEXICAN DUCK, ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS DlAZl RIDGWAY, FROM NORTH CENTRAL MEXICO AND SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species in- cluded: Echinoparyphium recuruatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, No- tocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echino- cotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp.

Jaime D. Farias

378

Spatial interpolation of precipitation in a dense gauge network for monsoon storm events in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inaccuracy in spatially distributed precipitation fields can contribute significantly to the uncertainty of hydrological states and fluxes estimated from land surface models. This paper examines the results of selected interpolation methods for both convective and mixed\\/stratiform events that occurred during the North American monsoon season over a dense gauge network at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut

Matthew Garcia; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; David C. Goodrich

2008-01-01

379

Feeding behavior of triatomines from the southwestern United States: An update on potential risk for transmission of Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease is an emerging infectious disease in North America due to the immigration of individuals from endemic areas. The parasite has been transmitted to patients in non-endemic areas by blood transfusion and organ donation. Only six autochthonous cases have been described in humans in the United States yet the parasite is widespread among native mammals and resident triatomines are

Stephen A. Klotz; Patricia L. Dorn; John H. Klotz; Jacob L. Pinnas; Christiane Weirauch; Jonathan R. Kurtz; Justin Schmidt

2009-01-01

380

Political and legal implications of water scarcity in Southwestern United States and alternatives of its proper utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of this study has been to give an overall view of the use of water in the arid western United States and to evaluate the key geographical, political, and legal factors that affect the water resource development in the region. This study includes the availability of water resources; usage of water, especially for irrigation, industry, urban, and household

B. L. Sukhwal

1987-01-01

381

Modeling wind-blown desert dust in the southwestern United States for public health warning: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for simulating desert dust cycle was adapted and applied for a dust storm case in the southwest United States (US). This is an initial test of the model's capability as part of a future public health early warning system. The modeled meteorological fields, which drive a dust storm, were evaluated against surface and upper-air measurement data. The modeled

Dazhong Yin; Slobodan Nickovic; Brian Barbaris; Beena Chandy; William A. Sprigg

2005-01-01

382

Consociationalism: Its relevance for Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies by political scientists and theorists have identified ethnicity and ethnonationalism as potential obstacles to democracy and political stability in multiethnic states. Nigeria as a pluralistic polity shares in this category of countries where fierce competition for power among its various ethnic groups has made governing a difficult task. In this study, the objective was to find what relevance consociationalism

Raphael Chijioke Njoku

1999-01-01

383

Community knowledge and attitude to pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Edo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: A high level of community awareness and positive perception toward pulmonary TB (PTB) and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice as regard to TB and its treatment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study involving 193 persons was carried out in a rural community in Ward 5 of Etsako-West local government area of Edo state, selected through a multi-stage sampling process. Results: About 86% of respondents had heard of PTB, with a greater proportion being females (55.7%). Mean knowledge score (16.26±5.8) showed that a greater proportion (55.1%) had poor knowledge (range 0-35), with males having better (though not significant) knowledge than females (mean score 17.28±5.9 and 16.94±5.0, respectively, P=0.68). Although attitude toward TB did not influence caring for sick relatives or friends, it impeded social interactions and marriage prospects with infected persons within the community. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude toward PTB was generally poor in this rural community. Efforts should be intensified by health authorities in the local government to raise awareness and knowledge of the disease, so as to improve social perception and early recognition of infection. PMID:24005586

Tobin, Ekaete Alice; Okojie, Paul-West; Isah, Essy Clementina

384

Prevalence, patterns and correlates of domestic violence in selected Igbo communities of Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever been battered by their male counterparts, out of which 58.9% reported battery during pregnancy, while 21.3% reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. The study further revealed that the practice of female circumcision is still common among this Igbo population, and 52.6% were of the view that it should be continued. Multivariate logistic regression identified the correlates of these forms of violence such as age, place of residence, age at first marriage, type of marital union, level of income of women, and level of education of husband against women in Imo State. While wife battery is more pronounced in the urban area, forced sexual relationship and female genital mutilation are more pronounced in the rural areas. We recommend education of women and integration of services in reproductive health care service delivery as appropriate measures to eradicate these practice. PMID:12476722

Okemgbo, Christian Ndugasa; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kebinde; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

2002-08-01

385

Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.  

PubMed

Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

2012-09-25

386

Urine heme dipsticks are useful in monitoring the impact of Praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium in sentinel communities of Delta State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.

Emukah, Emmanuel; Gutman, Julie; Eguagie, John; Miri, Emmanuel S; Yinkore, Paul; Okocha, Ndudi; Jibunor, Victoria; Obiageli, Nebe; Ikenna, Nwoye Augustine; Richards, Frank O.

2012-01-01

387

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-06-28

388

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

389

Dual positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody and associated factors among apparently healthy patients of Ekiti State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

There are few studies on health-facility based prevalence rates for dual hepatitis B virus-hepatitis C virus (HBV-HCV) infection on a state-wide scale in Nigeria. In this study we determined the state-wide prevalence rate of dual positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HCV antibody among hospital patients of Ekiti State, Nigeria, and identified associated factors. Consenting apparently-healthy patients visiting health centers in all local government area (LGA) headquarters of Ekiti State were consecutively selected to a total of 2000 individuals. Patient demographic data pertinent to HBV and HCV transmission were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Subsequently, serum samples prepared from the aseptically collected blood was tested for the presence of both HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody using DiaSpot test strips. The results were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Dual positivity of 7.40% was recorded among the study participants, with 9.80% and 12.80%, respectively, testing positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody. The study patients were, however, most likely to be anti-HCV antibody positive. Nine of the 10 factors studied were independently associated with dual positivity. Five of these, in descending order of odds ratio, were: illiteracy (15.76, p=0.001); having ?4 sexual partners (9.46, p=0.001); age range of 35-44?y (8.46,p=0.001); farming (7.33, p=0.001); and "not at all" to use of condoms during sexual intercourse (4.39, p=0.001). The dual positivity rate was relatively high, with unprotected sexual intercourse as the most probable mode of acquisition of HBV and HCV by the seropositive study participants. PMID:23171358

Oje, Opeyemi James; Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Famurewa, Diran

2012-11-21

390

Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

Webb, R. H.; Leake, S. A.

2006-01-01

391

The Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Cost of Dyspepsia and Helicobater pylori Gastritis: A Case-Control Analysis in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Background Dyspepsia is among the most common complaints evaluated by gastroenterologists, but there are few studies examining its current epidemiology, evaluation, and costs. We examined these issues in a large managed care system in the Southwestern United States. Methods We conducted a retrospective case–control analysis of adults with incident dyspepsia or a Helicobacter pylori-related condition in years 2006 through 2010 using utilization data. Medical record abstraction of 400 cases was conducted to obtain additional clinical information. Results A total of 6989 cases met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Women had a substantially higher risk of dyspepsia than men (14 per 1000 per year vs 10 per 1000; p < .001), and the incidence of dyspepsia increased with age such that persons in their seventh decade had almost twice the risk of those aged 18–29. Hispanic persons had a significantly higher risk of dyspepsia and positive H. pylori testing. Dyspepsia cases had a higher prevalence of other chronic comorbidities than their matched controls. Dyspepsia patients had healthcare costs 54% higher than controls even before the diagnosis was made, and costs in the initial diagnostic period were $483 greater per person, but subsequent costs were not greatly affected. Among those aged 55 and younger, the “test and treat” approach was used in 53% and another 18% had an initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy, as compared to 47 and 27%, respectively, among those over the age of 55. Conclusions Women and older adults have a higher incidence of dyspepsia than previously appreciated, and Hispanics in this region also have a higher risk. Current guidelines for dyspepsia evaluation are only loosely followed.

Mapel, Douglas; Roberts, Melissa; Overhiser, Andrew; Mason, Andrew

2013-01-01

392

The Epicenter of a Southwestern Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guides students to use the measured difference in P and S wave velocities to locate the epicenter of a minor earthquake in the Southwestern United States. Click here to view the full activity on the Kéyah Math Project website.

Semken, Steven; Perkins, Tracy

393

Block kinematics of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS, seismological, and geologic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active deformation of the southwestern United States (30°-41°N) is represented by a finite number of rotating, elastic-plastic spherical caps. GPS-derived horizontal velocities, geologic fault slip rates, transform fault azimuths, and earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths are inverted for block angular velocities, creep on block-bounding faults, permanent strain rates within the blocks, and the rotations of 11 published GPS velocity fields into to a common North American reference frame. GPS velocities are considered to be a combination of rigid block rotations, recoverable elastic strain rates resulting from friction on block-bounding faults, and nonrecoverable strain rates resulting from slip on faults within the blocks. The resulting Pacific-North America angular velocity is similar to some published estimates and satisfies transform azimuths and one spreading rate in the Gulf of California, earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California and Alaska, and GPS velocities along coastal California and within the Pacific Basin. Published fault slip rates are satisfied except in the southern Mojave Desert where the motion of the Mohave block relative to North America is faster than can be explained by mapped faults. The largest blocks, the Sierra Nevada-Great Valley and the eastern Basin and Range, show permanent strain rates, after removing elastic strain, of only a few nanostrain per year, demonstrating approximately rigid behavior. Observed horizontal strain rates correlate strongly with predicted strain rates from known faults suggesting that the short-term strains evident in GPS velocities are largely elastic. In only about 20% of the region is distributed deformation needed to match the data, indicating that a plate tectonic style description of the deformation of the western United States is plausible. Most blocks rotate about vertical axes at approximately the same rate as the Pacific (relative to North America), suggesting that locally, spin rates are communicated from block to block, arguing against both floating block and ball-bearing mechanisms of block rotation. The similarities of the blocks' spin rates to that of the Pacific suggests that the Pacific strongly influences their motions through edge tractions. However, it is shown that the blocks cannot rotate about the Pacific-North America pole without spinning counter to the sense of Pacific-North America shear. Unlike some other broad plate boundaries, in the western United States, vertical axis rotations take up very little of the slip rate budget across the region.

McCaffrey, Robert

2005-07-01

394

Oil Minorities and the Politics of Resource Control in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the contentious nature of resource control and distribution in Nigeria. It avers that resource control has been a big problem confronting the Nigerian state from inception. This fact has not been helped by the heterogene- ous nature of Nigeria, the weak capacity of the Nigerian state, the politics of resource allocation and the primordial bend of leadership.

Edlyne E. Anugwom

2005-01-01

395

Immigration and expulsion of ECOWAS aliens in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. PMID:12281050

Afolayan, A A

1988-01-01

396

Inter-household and intra-household patterns of fish and meat consumption in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Fish is generally regarded as a primary source of protein for many poor African fishing communities. The present study compared the relative importance of fish as a high-quality dietary protein source with meat in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Fifty fishing households in which active fishing was the primary activity and fifty non-fishing households (agriculture being stated as primary activity) in traditional fishing communities were randomly selected in the coastal state of Lagos and the inland state of Niger. A simple weighing balance was designed and given to each household to measure fish or meat entering the household for consumption. A comparison of consumption using this method against the 24h recall method revealed that the recall method accounted for only one third of actual fish consumed. Overall, the price of fish was higher and consumption lower in Lagos compared with Niger State. At the household level in both states, the consumption of fish in fishing households was twice that of non-fishing households, whereas meat consumption was similar. A total of thirty-nine different fish species were consumed, with Tilapia contributing 24% by weight of the fish consumed. In both states, beef was the most frequently consumed meat, followed by goat meat. The study revealed a high preference for fresh fish. The highest fish consumption occurred in March, corresponding to the period of lowest meat consumption. On a unit weight basis, heads of households consumed 59% more fish than their wives or children. PMID:17217570

Gomna, Ahmed; Rana, Krishen

2007-01-01

397

Gastrointestinal helminths of the Mexican duck, Anas platyrhynchos diazi Ridgway, from north central Mexico and southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species included: Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp. 1, Hymenolepis sp. 2, Sobolevicanthus gracilis. Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus, Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria sp., Epomidiostomum crami, Hystrichis varispinosus, Rusguniella arctica, and Tetrameres sp. Fimbriarioides sp. occurred predominantly in ducks from south-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The distributions for the other 24 species of the helminths were not significantly different among the four collecting areas. The helminth fauna for the 32 complete specimens and 97 intestinal tracts was distributed relatively evenly among the hosts with a calculated mean evenness of 0.77 +/- 0.15 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 respectively. The parasite fauna was more similar to those of the black duck Anas rubripes Brewster of eastern North America (53%), the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (L.) (49%), and the mottled duck, Anas fulvigula Ridgway, from Florida (45%), than to the green-winged teal, Anas crecca (L.) (36%), the gadwall, Anas strepera (L.) (30%), and the American wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin (26%), collected in the Southwest. PMID:3951061

Farias, J D; Canaris, A G

1986-01-01

398

Determining the Spatial Influence of Imported and Local Water Sources to Municipal Tap Water Systems in the Southwestern United States Using Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid and semi-arid parts of the southwestern USA, imported waters derived from large canal systems like the Colorado River Aqueduct, Los Angeles Aqueduct, and the California Aqueduct service a significant component of the regional water needs. These waters are sourced primarily from high altitude snowmelt runoff and have relatively low annually averaged stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen

J. C. Stalker; C. D. Kennedy; G. J. Bowen

2010-01-01

399

LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE SAND FLY, LUTZOMYIA (HELEOCYRTOMYIA) APACHE (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE), IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Landscape associations of the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, Young and Perkins in the southwestern U.S. were investigated by light/suction trap sampling and the development of a GIS-generated distribution map. In the mid-Rio Grande River Valley, N.M., female and male L. apache were captured in up-draf...

400

Perception of and attitudes toward the Nigerian federal population policy, family planning program and family planning in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710

Avong, H N

2000-04-01

401

Fostered children's perception of their health care and illness treatment in Ekiti Yoruba households, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings from both quantitative and qualitative fieldwork conducted in six Ekiti Yoruba communities of southwestern Nigeria on the treatment of child illness within households. Relying heavily on data from focus group discussions, it shows how fostered children use local proverbs and day-to-day common sayings to describe their perception of the responses to and treatment of their

Jacob Bamidele Oni

402

Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: source water for the arid Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits. PMID:22684090

Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

2012-06-08

403

Parental Monitoring, Religious Involvement and Drug Use Among Latino and Non-Latino Youth in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this study was to examine parental monitoring practices and religious involvement (protective factors) and substance use among Mexican American and Non-Latino adolescents in the Southwest of the United States. Framework We also relied on social control theories to guide our investigation of why adolescents may choose not to use drugs. Participants The sample was N=1087 adolescents, the age ranged from 13 to 15 years, and the gender distribution was approximately equal. There were 71% Mexican Americans and 29% non-Latinos in the sample. Methods a number of measures were used including recent substance use, religiosity, religious affiliation, parental monitoring, parental permissiveness, parental norms, and acculturation. Linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between the variables of interest and the outcomes. Results Although the effect sizes of the significant relationships were modest, the findings are of interest because they reinforce the importance of the role of parents in the lives of their adolescents and supports previous studies that find that parents have great influence on children’s behaviors including substance use. The results suggest that acculturating adolescents benefit from having clear rules from their parents concerning substance use, and from believing that there is some kind of consequence attached to their behavior. Parental monitoring, by itself, did not explain lower levels of drug use among these adolescents; but it was a predictor of adolescent strong anti-drug personal norms. This study is useful to social workers and other professionals working with parents and adolescents as it provides concrete evidence of possible parents pathway of influence on their children’s health status.

Parsai, Monica; Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

2009-01-01

404

THE TRAVAILS OF FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotimi T. Suberu is lecturer in political science at the University of lbadan, Nigeria, and a 1993-94 Peace Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace in Washington, D.C. He has published several articles on the Nigerian federal system and is currently preparing a book-length study of federalism, democracy, and ethnic-conflict management in Nigeria. The need to establish a stable

Rotimi T. Suberu

1993-01-01

405

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Fuels commonly managed by prescribed burning were collected from five Department of Defense (DoD) bases in the southeast and southwest U.S. and burned under controlled conditions at the USFS Firelab in Missoula, MT. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation. A key instrument used in the measurement of the gas-phase species in smoke was an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer. The OP FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires - CO2, CO, H2O, NO2, NO, HONO, NH3, HCl, SO2, CH4, CH3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, C2H2, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCN, C3H6 and C4H4O. Of particular interest, gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factor ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg 1 and was higher for the southeast fuels. Similarly, the fire-integrated molar emission ratios (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values observed for the southeast fuels. HONO is an important precursor in the production of OH, the primary oxidizing species in the atmosphere but there exists little previous data documenting HONO emissions from either wild or prescribed fires. The detected non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions were dominated by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with total identified molar OVOC emissions ranging from 39 to 79% of the total identified molar non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). Emitted NMOC can undergo further oxidation and photolysis in the case of OVOC and thus involved in secondary aerosol formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected in the smoke, with the amounts varying depending on location and vegetation type. Emission factors for HCl were typically much higher for the southwest fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, J.; Warneke, Carsten; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Weise, David; Hao, WeiMin; Gouw, Joost de

2010-11-25

406

Astronomy in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is no record so far known of Nigeria's participation in old time astronomy. However, she started a gradual entry into modern day astronomy in 1962. In this report, I present a review of the steps taken so far by Nigeria to realize her dreams in astronomy, and examine the prospects awaiting astronomers from Nigeria.

Sigalo, Friday Barikpe

2004-08-01

407

Adherence to anti-diabetic drug therapy and self management practices among type-2 diabetics in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the pattern of anti-diabetic drug prescribing; ascertain the level of glycemic control, adherence with prescribed\\u000a anti-diabetic medications, and diabetes self management practices among patients with type-2 diabetes in a tertiary care setting\\u000a in Nigeria. Setting University College Hospital (UCH); a 900 bed teaching hospital with medical residents located in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria.\\u000a Method The study consisted of

Kazeem B. Yusuff; Olubunmi Obe; Bonatson Y. Joseph

2008-01-01

408

Tickborne Encephalitis, Southwestern France  

PubMed Central

We report an autochthonous human case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in the Bordeaux area, southwestern France. The patient was a farmer who had severe encephalomyelitis. ELISA and neutralization assay of serum and cerebrospinal fluid established the diagnosis. This potential new endemic focus for TBE virus should be further investigated.

Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Pillot, Jerome; Malvy, Denis; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Bui, Nam; Vargas, Frederic; Gruson, Didier; Zeller, Herve; Lafon, Marie E.; Fleury, Herve; Hilbert, Gilles

2007-01-01

409

ESR1 , AR , body size, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women living in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen and androgen are thought to influence breast cancer risk. The actions of estrogens and androgens are mediated through\\u000a the respective receptors. In this study we examine the association of the Xb1 polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and the CAG repeat of the androgen receptor (AR) gene with risk of breast cancer in women living in the Southwestern United

Martha L. Slattery; Carol Sweeney; Jennifer Herrick; Roger Wolff; Kathy Baumgartner; Anna Giuliano; Tim Byers

2007-01-01

410

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...

J. B. Mathison

1986-01-01

411

Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

2007-01-01

412

Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Poultry Egg Production in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Poultry egg production in Nigeria using the stochastic frontier production function analysis. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from two hundred poultry egg farmers who were selected using multi stage sampling techniques, from five Local Government Areas (LGA) of Osun state, Nigeria. Results showed that poultry egg

2003-01-01

413

An African Case Study of Political Islam: Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early nineteenth century, when Uthman b. Fudi established an Islamic state in northern Nigeria, there has been a close symbiosis between religion and political power. Since indepen dence in 1960, the issue of regional or ethnic power sharing in Nigeria has shifted to a contest between Muslims and Christians, with the part-Muslim, part-Christian Yoruba of the southwest helping

John Hunwick

1992-01-01

414

Paleogeography of the Southwestern US  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show presents images which show the paleogeography of the southwestern United States from 1.8 billion years ago to 10 million years ago. The slide show was originally presented at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in 1997. Beginning in the Precambrian, it traces the paleogeographic evolution of the region through the Tertiary. Emphasis is on the Mesozoic where two or more images of each period are shown. Two different interpretations are presented for some of the periods. One shows a tectonic interpretation in which most elements of the western U.S. were derived from North America; the second shows a tectonic interpretation in which some elements originated far from North America (exotic elements). A written narrative is also provided.

Blakey, Ronald

415

Correlation between aflatoxin M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (p<0.05) across the state but did not exceed the EU limit of 2 ?g/kg. The occurrence level of AF B1 was however high (93.75-94.45%) and was more pronounced in Ogun East Senatorial district (94.45%). Eighty-two percent of the breast milk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105

Adejumo, Oloyede; Atanda, Olusegun; Raiola, Assunta; Somorin, Yinka; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Ritieni, Alberto

2013-02-24

416

ABSTRACT FOR 3rd GLOBAL CONFERENCE PLURALISM, INCLUSION AND CITIZENSHIP TOPIC ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A NATIONISTIC STATE: THE CRISIS OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The socio-linguistic picture of Nigeria, as a developing nation with so much economic, political, human resources and potentials is handicapped by her geo-linguistic landscape with regard to national integration. It is known that this country has over 450 different registered languages within this geo-polity. Nigeria is therefore a politico-geogr aphical linguistic lump begging for unity and the good will of

Ifeoma Obauasi

417

Behavioural aspects and their possible uses in the control of dracontiasis (guinea-worm) in Igwun river basin area of Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Individuals suffering from dracontiasis from Igwun river basin area of Imo State Nigeria were randomly chosen, examined and interviewed between December 1988 and March 1989 with a view to ascertain some of the behavioural aspects that could be of help in the control/eradication of this disease as well as to ascertain whether local medication was of any chemotherapeutic significance. Of 100 guinea-worm patients males were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in number (63.0%). In the age-related distribution, children less than 10 years old and the members of the villages more than 60 years old accounted for only 5.0% of the patients whilst those in their productive years (10-60 year old) accounted for 95.0%. Only 10.5% of the respondents associated guinea-worm infection with the drinking of "polluted" water while most believed it was a familial trait (36.8%) or implicated their enemies (35.1%). As a result medications against the disease were mainly directed towards consulting the oracle and herbalists, and appeasing the gods. Most (98.0%) of them kept their dressing dry by refraining from immersing them in water. The concomitant behavioural aspects of these results are discussed in relation to their uses in the control/eradication of guinea-worm. PMID:1456464

Nwoke, B E

1992-11-01

418

Gender issues in the prevention and control of STIs and HIV/AIDS: lessons from Awka and Agulu, Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examined perceptions, practices and norms underlying sexuality and gender relations that constrain the prevention and control of STIs and HIV/AIDS. It was carried out among the Igbo of Awka and Agulu in Anambra State of Nigeria. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection. Findings indicate that cultural practices that encourage the establishment of sexual networks by men persist in the study communities. Some married women who are not able to achieve pregnancy with their husbands get involved in such networks to have children. Some parents who do not have male children encourage their unmarried daughters to have children out of wedlock so as to perpetuate the lineage. Inequality in gender relations and fear of repercussions constrain women from negotiating safe sex. Sexuality education is, therefore, necessary to improve the knowledge base, perceptions and sexual behaviours of the study communities. Women should be empowered to make informed decisions about sexuality and childbearing. Male responsibility in reproductive health should also be encouraged. PMID:14677303

Ezumah, Nkoli N

2003-08-01

419

Household cost of antenatal care and delivery services in a rural community of Kaduna state, northwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC) reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum). Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17). Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar) and N316 ($2), respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5) and N139 ($0.9) respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6). On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22). There was a statistically significant association between husband's income and ANC attendance (X2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.

Sambo, Mohd Nasiq; Abdulrazaq, Gobir A.; Shamang, Anthony F.; Ibrahim, Ahmad A.

2013-01-01

420

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

421

Changes in vegetation and drainage density as controlling factors in the episodicity of Quaternary sediment flux: southwestern United States and Bolivian Eastern Cordillera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedmont geomorphic surfaces in the southwestern U.S. primarily represent cut-and-fill cycles resulting from variations in sediment supply from adjacent mountain catchments. Although sparse, precise age control supports the hypothesis that sediment supply in the southwestern U.S. can increase by an order of magnitude during Quaternary humid-to-arid transitions recognized in high-resolution paleoclimatic proxies. As an example, this episodicity is quantified with a time series of sediment flux for the central Gila Mountains, southwestern Arizona, where paleosurfaces outcrop in the modern channel bank, permitting an estimate of deposit volume in conjunction with high-resolution photogrammetric DEMs. Age control is provided by a new method of surface exposure dating based on 3D hillslope diffusion adjacent to gullies penetrating the surface. We propose that episodes of piedmont alluviation result from an increase in drainage density resulting from climatically-induced vegetative successions from mature woodland vegetation to desert shrubs that excavate large amounts of hillslope colluvium stored during the previous humid interval. Analogous vegetative shifts occur in the Bolivian Eastern Cordillera (EC). Field observations and analyses of topographic maps and LANDSAT images suggest that the longitudinal profiles of the major rivers of the EC are dominated by an order-of-magnitude increase in Plio-Quaternary hillslope erosion in the elevation zone between approximately 2.5 and 3.5 kilometers above sea level corresponding to glacial-interglacial vegetational successions from Andean forest (glacial) to Paramo grasslands (interglacial). These vegetation changes resulted in rapid fluctuations in drainage density responsible for a large increase in transport rates that alluviated major valleys and enhanced bedrock incision rates downstream. Areas above and below this elevation have perennial grassland and forest, respectively, whose long-term vegetational stability has resulted in low erosion rates compared with the intermediate elevation zone. These studies suggest that fluctuations in drainage density driven by vegetative shifts between glacial and interglacial times may be the dominant mechanism of Quaternary sediment production in unglaciated terrain.

Barnes, J.; Pelletier, J. D.

2001-12-01

422

Nigeria: Civil Society Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigeria has earned a well-deserved reputation for having one of the most diverse and complex polities on the African continent. Not surprisingly, its vast civil society reflects this complexity, presenting a daunting challenge to USAID/Nigeria and other d...

2004-01-01

423

The WWW in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,…

Olorunsola, R.; Adeoti-Adekeye, A.

1997-01-01

424

CYBERCRIME IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of

Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola

425

Nigeria: Completing Obasanjo's Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time and again, observers of Nigeria's politics have predicted—so far incorrectly—the nation's ineluctable demise. Recently, this multiethnic country has been coping with intense political strains, including vexa- tious issues of presidential tenure and entitlement to that office. In Nigeria, presidential elections are the main events of extended electoral exercises that involve voting to fill the bicameral national assembly, the 36

Richard L. Sklar; Ebere Onwudiwe; Darren Kew

2006-01-01

426

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

427

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

428

Country Profile: Nigeria, August 2001. Drug Intelligence Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nigeria continues to be the major hub in Africa for the transshipment of Southeast Asian (SEA) and, to a limited degree, Southwest Asian (SWA) heroin to Europe and the United States. Nigerian drug trafficking organizations are among the largest traffickin...

2001-01-01

429

The High Cost of Free Tuberculosis Services: Patient and Household Costs Associated with Tuberculosis Care in Ebonyi State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective Poverty is both a cause and consequence of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to quantify patient/household costs for an episode of tuberculosis (TB), its relationships with household impoverishment, and the strategies used to cope with the costs by TB patients in a resource-limited high TB/HIV setting. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Consecutive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB were interviewed to determine the costs each incurred in their care-seeking pathway using a standardised questionnaire. We defined direct costs as out-of-pocket payments, and indirect costs as lost income. Results Of 452 patients enrolled, majority were male 55% (249), and rural residents 79% (356), with a mean age of 34 (±11.6) years. Median direct pre-diagnosis/diagnosis cost was $49 per patient. Median direct treatment cost was $36 per patient. Indirect pre-diagnostic and treatment costs were $416, or 79% of total patient costs, $528. The median total cost of TB care per household was $592; corresponding to 37% of median annual household income pre-TB. Most patients reported having to borrow money 212(47%), sell assets 42(9%), or both 144(32%) to cope with the cost of care. Following an episode of TB, household income reduced increasing the proportion of households classified as poor from 54% to 79%. Before TB illness, independent predictors of household poverty were; rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.8), HIV-positive status (aOR 4.8), and care-seeking at a private facility (aOR 5.1). After TB care, independent determinants of household poverty were; younger age (?35 years; aOR 2.4), male gender (aOR 2.1), and HIV-positive status (aOR 2.5). Conclusion Patient and household costs for TB care are potentially catastrophic even where services are provided free-of-charge. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for TB care that are affordable for the poor.

Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Alobu, Isaac; lgwenyi, Chika; Hopewell, Philip C.

2013-01-01

430

Compilation and adoption of ethno-veterinary medicine, traditional and other management practices by small ruminant farmers in Edo State Nigeria.  

PubMed

An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741

Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J

2009-05-03

431

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

432

The Study of Ethnicity in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article it is argued that, although the study of ethnicity in Nigeria bears the imprint of almost all the different perspectives that have been deployed towards the study of ethnicity; perspectives that privilege the role of the state and critical élites in ethnic mobilization have dominated the literature. Apart from the tenuous explanation of false consciousness, a lot

Ukoha Ukiwo

2005-01-01

433

Contagious ecthyma in exotic sheep in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From earlier and recent reports it would appear that contagious ecthyma is endemic in Nigeria although the virus was only recently isolated from indigenous breeds of sheep and goats from a natural outbreak (Obi and Gibbs, 1978). Many exotic breeds of sheep have been introduced into state farms for up-grading of indigenous breeds but a search through the literature revealed

A. E. J. Okoh

1980-01-01

434

Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

435

SOUTHWESTERN CORN BORER DAMAGE AND AFLATOXIN ACCUMULATION IN CONVENTIONAL AND TRANSGENIC CORN HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays, L., in the southern United States. In addition to the direct yield losses caused by southwestern corn borer, larval feeding on developing ears provides a site for fungi to enter the ear. Aspergillus flavus infe...

436

On plate tectonics and the geologic evolution of southwestern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very rapid subduction of the Farallon plate under southwestern North America between 60 and 40 K was accompanied by a relatively low volume of magmatism throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Between 40 and 20 Ma, when subduction slowed significantly and in one area may have even stopped, magmatism became widespread and voluminous from Nevada and Utah to

Peter L. Ward

1991-01-01

437

The levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in individuals occupationally exposed to municipal solid waste in Ogun State, South West Nigeria.  

PubMed

Airway inflammation and related respiratory complaints are common symptoms among waste management workers (WMWs). This study investigated the relationship between exposure to municipal solid waste (MSW) and the levels of inflammatory markers and oxidative stress among WMW of Ogun State, South West Nigeria. A total of 280 subjects consisting of 180 WMW and 100 controls were recruited. Ten millilitres of blood were collected from antecubital vein of the subjects for analysis. Results reveal that exposure to MSW is associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Significant (p < 0.001) elevation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) and C-reactive protein was associated with marked decreases in superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.001), and glutathione (p < 0.05) and significant (p < 0.001) increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and uric acid when compared with control. Haematological disorders include significant (p < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume and significant (p < 0.01) increase in total leucocyte count. Apart from decreased albumin (p < 0.05) and elevated aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05) activity observed in WMW, other markers of hepatic (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol and triglycerides) and renal (urea and creatinine) functions did not change significantly (p > 0.05) when compared with the control. A positive correlation between leucocytes (r = 0.195, p < 0.01), Cp (r = 0.210, p < 0.01) and job duration and between Cp and MDA (r = 0.200, p < 0.01) and Cp and leucocytes (r = 0.260, p < 0.001) were observed in WMW. Overall, exposure to MSW predisposes to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and Cp may be a useful biomarker for monitoring health status of Nigerian WMWs. PMID:22577128

Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ebesunu, Maria O; Ekor, Martins

2012-05-10

438

Bacteriological quality of foods and water sold by vendors and in restaurants in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria: a comparative study of three microbiological methods.  

PubMed

Bacterial count in prepared food or water is a key factor in assessing the quality and safety of food. It also reveals the level of hygiene adopted by food handlers in the course of preparation of such foods. This comparative study evaluated the bacteriological quality of food and water consumed in Nsukka, Enugu state, Nigeria, using three bacteria enumeration methods. Data obtained are assumed to reflect the level of personal and environmental hygiene in the study population. Ten types of foods--beans, yam, abacha, okpa, moimoi, pear, cassava foofoo, rice, agidi, and garri--and 10 water samples were evaluated for bacteriological quality, precisely determining the level of coliform contamination, using the most probable number (MPN), lactose fermentation count (LFC), and Escherichia coli count (ECC) methods. Bacterial counts differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the various food samples. However, this did not differ significantly in the three methods used for the enumeration of coliforms, suggesting that any of the three methods could be validly used for such studies with confidence. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the two major coliforms identified among 98 coliform isolates obtained from the various food samples, of which 78 (79.6%) were assumed to be of human origin on account of their ability to grow at 44 degrees C. The level of coliform contamination in the food samples from vendors and restaurants (geometric mean count 7.64-9.21; MPN > or = 50) were above the accepted 10(4) colony-forming unit/g or MPN < or = 10 limits. The results of the study, therefore, call for stringent supervision and implementation of food-safety practices and regular education on food and personal hygiene among food vendors. PMID:22283029

Nkere, Chukwuemeka K; Ibe, Nnenne I; Iroegbu, Christian U

2011-12-01

439

Determining the Spatial Influence of Imported and Local Water Sources to Municipal Tap Water Systems in the Southwestern United States Using Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid and semi-arid parts of the southwestern USA, imported waters derived from large canal systems like the Colorado River Aqueduct, Los Angeles Aqueduct, and the California Aqueduct service a significant component of the regional water needs. These waters are sourced primarily from high altitude snowmelt runoff and have relatively low annually averaged stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen (?D, ?18O) (-99 to -127‰, -10 to -13‰,) when compared to water derived from local rainfall and surface river sources (-35 t