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1

Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.007–0.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities. PMID:23641157

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA

2013-01-01

2

Eocene ostracoda from Oshosun formation Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A biostratigraphic study of the phosphate-bearing Oshosun Formation in southwestern Nigeria (eastern Dahomey Embayment) gave ostracos which are diagnostic for the Eocene. The ostracod assemblage contains the early to middle Eocene zonal index Costa dahomeyi. The majority of the species are common to the phosphatic sequence in the western Dahomey Embayment. This paleontologic evidence, and the association of clay and shale with the phosphate occurrences in different parts of the basin, suggest that the phosphatic beds were deposited in the Dahomey Embayment under similar paleoenvironmental conditions. Phosphatic sedimentation in southwestern Nigeria is inferred to have occurred during an early to early middle Eocene minor marine transgression.

Okosun, E. A.

3

Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. PMID:23518235

Christiana, Okonofua; Olajumoke, Morenikeji; Oyetunde, Salawu

2014-01-01

4

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64±2.91, 150.25±2.91 and 60.97±2.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

2003-06-01

5

Radioactivity in drilled and dug well drinking water of Ogun state Southwestern Nigeria and consequent dose estimates.  

PubMed

Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U were measured in 11 dug and 9 drilled well water samples from 3 large cities in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria, consumed by the population living in the cities. The measurement was done using co-axial type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (Canberra Industries Inc.). The measured activity concentrations in the water samples ranged from 1.74 +/- 1.83 to 4.69 +/- 0.17 Bq l(-1); 2.89 +/- 0.62 to 7.79 +/- 7.22 Bq l(-1); 0.35 +/- 0.07 to 1.17 +/- 0.40 Bq l(-1) and 0.18 +/- 0.05 to 4.77 +/- 0.34 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U, respectively. Total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides in the untreated wells were estimated using measured activity concentrations in the radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factors. Estimated annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.04 to 6.82; 0.01 to 1.36 and 0.01 to 1.49 mSv y(-1) for age groups <1, 2-7 and > or =17 y, respectively. Committed dose for age group > or =17 y ranged from 8.8 x 10(-4) to 8.9 x 10(-2) Sv. The calculated annual effective dose values due to the ingestion of (226)Ra in the Awujale, Ake, Saboab, Alagbon, Alapora and Totoro samples exceeded International Commission on Radiological Protection limit of 1.0 mSv y(-1) for individual public exposure. These wells are recommended for treatment that would remove radium from their waters. PMID:19482882

Ajayi, O S; Achuka, J

2009-07-01

6

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among nurses in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to find out how much this group of nurses from south-western Nigeria knew about the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was distributed to two population convenient samples of nurses; one group at a university teaching hospital, and the other at a post-basic institution of higher learning. The respondents stated that many of them knew quite a bit about HIV/AIDS, but only a few affirmed that they were taught informal classroom setting. Many of the nurses were able to identify the HIV as the culprit in causing the infection that leads to AIDS. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS vary. The nurses attributed the spread of HIV/AIDS to promiscuous teenage girls predominantly, as well as older men due to infidelity. Many of the nurses stated that sex education should be given to children as young as five years old, and as old as over sixteen years of age. It is recommended that curricular infusion should be done to incorporate HIV/AIDS education in the nursing schools in south-western Nigeria. PMID:17252879

Adepoju, Joseph A

2006-01-01

7

Surgeon-Patient Information Disclosure Practices in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the practice of information disclosure to patients by surgeons in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A 55-item self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was sent to 150 surgeons in southwestern Nigeria in 2004–2005. The data obtained from the completed questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 150 surgeons, 102 completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 68.0%.

T. O. Ogundiran; C. A. Adebamowo

2012-01-01

8

Prevalence and transmission dynamics of Schistosoma haematobium infection in a rural community of southwestern Ebonyi State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A twelve-month epidemio-ecological study on the prevalence, infection intensity, water contact and vector aspects of urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in a rural community of south-west Ebonyi State, Nigeria, using standard procedures, and involving 894 individuals (527, 58.9% males; and 367, 41.1% females). An overall community prevalence (15.3%) was established with more males (20.7%) than females (7.6%) being significantly positive for both micro-and macro-haematuria (?² = 0.806; df = 1, p < 0.05). Intensity of infection was generally of the light category (< 100 eggs/10 ml urine) with more infected males (n = 95, 87.2%) than infected females (n = 15, 53.6%). Correlation analysis showed no linear relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection. Individuals aged 16-20 years dominated interschool/intervillage infection profile (range 13.2-50%) while participants in 6-10 years age bracket recorded the lowest infection rates (range 2.8-5.0%). Age-related difference in prevalence was not significant (?² = 1.80; df = 2, p > 0.05). A total of 2877 ova of Schistosoma haematobium were recovered providing an overall mean egg burden of 21 ± 7 eggs/10 ml urine per infected person. Age-related infection intensity was similarly of the light category involving 80.3% of infected persons. Bulinus globosus (n = 308) was identified as the vector of the parasite with 20.1% snails found to be shedding cercariae. Monthly and seasonal infection rates in snails were season-dependent and peaking in May (35.5%). Participants aged 13-15 years accounted for 25.1% of total water contacts (n = 9938) whereas individuals aged 6-9 years accounted for only 9.6% contacts. The most performed water contact activity was bathing (33.3%), followed by washing of clothes (25.7%). Correlation analysis indicated that village of residence, age and cumulative water contacts were significant correlates of possible S. haematobium infection. PMID:24862047

Ivoke, N; Ivoke, O N; Nwani, C D; Ekeh, F N; Asogwa, C N; Atama, C I; Eyo, J E

2014-03-01

9

A Study of the Sexual Behaviour of University Undergraduate Students in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sexual behaviour of the university undergraduate students in Southwestern Nigeria. It investigated the influence of demograhic variables such as age, gender, religion and family background on the student sexual behaviour. The study is a survey. The population comprised the undergraduate students of three purposively selected universities in Southwestern Nigeria. From this a sample of 2106 students

Bonke Adepeju Omoteso

2006-01-01

10

` Printed in Nigeria HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS MIGRATION AND BRAIN DRAIN PHENOMENON: PERCEPTION OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN LAGOS STATE IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA 1  

E-print Network

Introduction: As the movement of trained health care personnel out of developing countries in search of greener pastures continues, an end is not yet in view to the weak health systems created by imbalances and costs associated with brain drain in affected countries. The objective of this study is to determine knowledge and attitude of health care workers in Lagos State towards brain drain Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study of causes, implications and solutions to the phenomenon of

Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan; Owolade Oladepo Adeniran; Adebimpe Mujidat Adebukola; Olowu Adekunle

11

Potential for rock-polishing enterprises in southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the basement complex in much of southwestern Nigeria. They are composed of felsic to mafic constitutions, and textural characteristics are wide ranging. Based on petrographic and physical parameters, these rocks hold promise to be utilized for polished items. However, industrial exploitation may be constrained by a number of factors, in some cases by huge financial outlay, environmental pollution and insincerity from government agencies. A sustainable, viable project in ornament stones would demand further geological appraisals, technical facilities, adequate capital and relevant manpower. As in most developing countries, in Nigeria deposits of stones or high-grade geomaterials are commonly blasted indiscriminately, and especially in the southwest, thus there needs to be an awareness and concern for their conservation and environmental protection. Mining of rocks commonly results in environmental degradation; consequently, there is a need to design adequate monitoring and conservation strategies for effective exploitation.

Aigbedion, I.

2007-04-01

12

Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in Idiopopo at Okitipupa area, South-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration. Apparent resistivity value obtained ranged from (135.7 ± 0.05)

R. K. Odunaike; J. A. Laoye; G. C. Ijeoma; L. P. Akinyemi

13

Transboundary aquifers: Southwestern states assess  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 14 Southwestern states assess Researchers from three universities in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona and from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering on a new project to evaluate aquifers that span the United States... and Mexico borders. The federally funded project, known as United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment, will provide a scientific foundation for state and local officials to address pressing water resources challenges in the United States...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

14

Relationship between Problem-Solving Ability and Study Behaviour among School-Going Adolescents in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between problem-solving ability and study behavior of secondary school students in Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 430 SS 3 students randomly selected from fifteen secondary schools in Southwestern Nigeria participated in the study. A Problem-Solving Inventory and a Study Behaviour Inventory were employed in…

Salami, Samuel O.; Aremu, A. Oyesoji

2006-01-01

15

Physicochemical properties of earthworm casts and uningested parent soil from selected sites in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms modify both the physical and chemical properties of soils. In a study on the possible modification of soil properties by earthworms, earthworm casts and uningested A and B soil horizons from three sites in southwestern Nigeria were analysed for selected physical and chemical properties. The casts were derived from the earthworm species Hyperiodrilus africanus. Results were analysed by a

D. J. Oyedele; P. Schjønning; A. A. Amusan

2006-01-01

16

Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

2011-01-01

17

Goat feeding practices and options for improvement in six villages in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two village surveys were carried out in six villages in southwestern Nigeria to assess goat feeding under traditional management ranging from free roaming to permanent confinement. Three of the villages are located in the lowland rainforest zone (FZ) and three in transition between FZ and the derived savannah (TZ). Cassava products (tuber and peel) and maize offal (a by-product from

H. G. Bosman; A. A. Ademosun; H. A. G. Koper-Limbourg

1996-01-01

18

ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPING THE DAIRY INDUSTRY IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, there have been efforts made to develop the dairy industry in Nigeria, especially in the southwestern area, without any obvious success. This study examined the experiences and identified the strengths and weaknesses of the efforts so far, and suggested strategies for ensuring success in the future.This study surveyed the producers in the industry, government officials, and consumers to

F. E. OGBIMI; A. A. OYEWALE

2000-01-01

19

Community attitudes to pregnancy, anaemia, iron and folate supplementation in urban and rural Lagos, south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to identify community perspectives and attitudes to pregnancy, anaemia, iron and folate supplements during pregnancy in Lagos, south-western Nigeria.Design: qualitative using focus group discussions, observational data and in-depth interviews.Setting: Amukoko, a peri-urban slum area and Ibese a rural coastal area in Lagos, south-western Nigeria.Participants: 23 pregnant women and two health-care providers.Findings: maternal anaemia is not perceived as a priority

Oluwatoyin O. Ejidokun

2000-01-01

20

Occupational hazards and coping strategies of sex workers in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled "Questionnaire on Sex Work" adapted from Akinnawo ( 1995 ) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards in the industry, and coping mechanisms adopted by sex workers. It was found that the majority of sex workers joined the profession for socioeconomic reasons. Reported occupational hazards include poor health, risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), police harassment, and loss of social prestige. PMID:23311907

Popoola, Bayode Isaiah

2013-01-01

21

Physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate physicians' prescribing of anti-hypertensive drug combinations in a tertiary care setting in southwestern Nigeria, determine the degree of usage of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-based combinations and identify specific points of intervention to improve outcomes of anti- hypertensive combination therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective drug use review was conducted between June 1st and August 31st 2002 using

Kazeem B. Yusuff; Olumide Balogun

22

Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen/oil shows associated with the study area. The results also point to the southern and south-western part of the basin as the appropriate direction to focus at for meaningful hydrocarbon potential development.

Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

2014-11-01

23

Effects of land clearing methods on the properties and productivity of an Alfisol in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impact of manual and mechanical land clearing methods on the soils and the yield of maize in a part of the rainforest belt of south-western Nigeria. The results of the study revealed that the mean values of such soil properties as the organic matter, bulk-density, total porosity, soil moisture and to some extent the exchangeable actions

Adeniyi Gbadegesin; B. B. Olusesi

1994-01-01

24

Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents information on Nigeria for use in the elementary classroom. A basic theme of the text is change. Nigeria is currently in a state of change, as are most developing countries. North American children often have an idea of African people as poor and backward. In this text, Nigerian people are presented as a people with a rich…

Gage, Susan

25

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban

A. O. Eludoyin; O. M. Akinbode; E. O. Archibong

2007-01-01

26

Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall <10 mSv (6.4 and 6.5 mSv y(-1) n living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), which is the upper range of action levels recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average excess lung cancer risk was estimated 24.8 and 25.2 per million person-years in both living rooms and bedrooms. It is believed that the high radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area. PMID:21515612

Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

2012-03-01

27

Annual effective dose due to natural radionuclides in building blocks in eight cities of Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The specific absorbed dose rates due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in building blocks have been determined for a model dwelling dimension of 3.6 x 3.6 x 3.0 m(3), wall thickness 10 cm and density of 1.73 x 10(3) kg m(-3) in eight cities across Southwestern Nigeria. The Mustonen method of calculating gamma-ray annual exposure rate from the radioactivity concentrations (Bq kg(-1)) of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the blocks have been adopted with modifications to suit the Nigerian situation. The specific absorbed dose rates obtained were as follows: 11.36, 14.94 and 0.92 microGy y(-1) per Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. These dose rates were used to calculate the annual effective dose in the model dwelling. The annual effective dose obtained varied between 209.20 (Osogbo) and 400.36 microSv y(-1) (Abeokuta). The values are in the range of values obtained for the German Democratic Republic (309 microSv y(-1)) and Jordan (470 microSv y(-1)). PMID:15899908

Ademola, J A; Farai, I P

2005-01-01

28

Seismic stratigraphy and development of Avon canyon in Benin (Dahomey) basin, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons and a newly formed submarine canyon have been identified. Seismic reflection parameters of the ancient canyons are characterized by transparent to slightly transparent, continuous to slightly discontinuous, high to moderate amplitude and parallel to sub-parallel reflections. Locally, high amplitude and chaotic reflections were observed. The reflection configurations consist of regular oblique, chaotic oblique, progradational and parallel to sub-parallel types. These seismic reflection characteristics are probably due to variable sedimentation processes within the canyons, which were affected by mass wasting. Canyon morphological features include step-wise and spoon-shaped wall development, deep valley incision, a V-shaped valley, similar orientation in the southeast direction, and simple to complex erosion features in the axial floor. The canyons have a composite origin, caused partly by lowering of the sea level probably associated with the formation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet about 30 Ma ago and partly by complex sedimentary processes. Regional correlation with geological ages using the reflectors show that the canyons cut through the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments while the sedimentary infill of the canyon is predominantly Miocene and younger. Gravity-driven depositional processes, downward excavation by down slope sediment flows, mass wasting from the canyon walls and variation in terrigenous sediment supply have played significant roles in maintaining the canyons. These canyons were probably conduits for sediment transport to deep-waters in the Gulf of Guinea during their period of formation.

Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

2008-03-01

29

Microwave anomalous propagation (AP) measurement over Akure South-Western Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous propagation (Anaprop) of microwave radiation is known to be caused by several meteorological conditions. In this study, radio refractive index and modified refractivity gradient were computed using the results of measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity made in Akure (7.15°N, 5.12°E), South Western Nigeria using Davis 6162 Wireless Vantage Pro2 weather stations (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) positioned at five different height levels beginning from the ground surface and at intervals of 50 m from the ground to a height of 200 m on a tower/mast owned by the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) located at Iju in Akure north local government area of Ondo state but which is no longer being used. The study utilized one year of data measured between January and December 2008. From the results, the modified refractivity was calculated and found to increase with increasing altitude. The values were observed to be generally high during the rainy periods and generally low during the dry periods. The study also revealed that for microwave propagation in this geographic zone, the propagation condition is mostly super-refractive.

Adediji, A. T.; Ajewole, M. O.

2010-04-01

30

Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at DOTS Centre in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria: A 4-Year Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Information. Monitoring outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ogbomoso town, Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology. Medical records of all tuberculosis patients registered from January 2008 to December 2011 in 5 Local Government areas, Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria, were reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control guideline. Bivariate analysis was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results. Out of the 965 total TB patients (579 males and 386 females) with mean age 42.4 ± 1.9 years, 866 (89.74%) were categorized as pulmonary tuberculosis and 109 (11.30%) as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment outcome among total 914 subjects was as follows: 304 (33.26%) patients got cured, 477 (52.19%) completed treatment, 87 (9.52%) died, 9 (0.98%) defaulted, and 1 (0.11%) failed treatment while 36 (3.94%) were transferred out. Higher treatment success rate was associated with those on Category 1 treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was high (85.45%) compared to national target. However, certain proportion of patients died (9.52%) and defaulted (0.98%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:25328702

Sunday, Olarewaju; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Ebenezer, Folorunso; Akintunde, Babatunde; Abiola, Temitayo-Oboh; Saliu, Abdulsalam; Abiodun, Oluwatoyin

2014-01-01

31

Taboo as a Means of Plant and Animal Conservation in South-Western Nigeria: A Case Study of Ogbe River and its Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study dealt with taboo as a means of plant and animal conservation in South-western Nigeria. It was carried out to explore taboo as a means of animal and plant conservation, to determine the medicinal values of fish species and tree species in the reserved area, to identify other wildlife species in the reserved areas and to examine the biological\\/agricultural

A. D. Banjo; G. A. Otufale; O. L. Abatan; E. A. Banjo

32

Tetanus in a rural setting of South-Western Nigeria: a ten-year retrospective study.  

PubMed

We review the records of 79 tetanus patients in two hospitals (one tertiary and one secondary level) in Owo, Ondo state, Nigeria from 1997 to 2006. The male: female ratio was 3:1. Ages were 14-70 years (mean 33.25 years, SD ±16.76). The overall case fatality rate (CFR), 32.91%, did was not significantly different in the two hospitals. CFR for men was 32.10% and for women 35.29%. The main factor indicative of bad prognosis was a short hospitalization period. It was observed that 30.38% of our patients were discharged against medical advice (DAMA), that financial constraint was the underlying problem in 50% of cases, and that the trend of DAMA occurred at the two study sites. This DAMA phenomenon could pose a great danger to the eradication of this vaccine preventable disease in rural areas. PMID:21483514

Adekanle, O; Ayodeji, Oo; Olatunde, Lo

2009-01-01

33

Lagos, Koolhaas and partisan politics in Nigeria1 Laurent Fourchard, Fondation nationale des sciences politiques,  

E-print Network

2007, in Ikeja in the northern suburb of Lagos, Bola Tinubu, outgoing governor of Lagos state and its was the only state in Southwestern Nigeria in the hands of the opposition. Governor Bola Tinubu warmly thanked

Boyer, Edmond

34

Nigeria  

... smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color views acquired by ... - Smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa. project:  MISR category:  ...

2013-04-15

35

Rate of timber production in a tropical rainforest ecosystem of Southwestern Nigeria and its implications on sustainable forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber harvesting data are very essential for sustainable management of forest resources. These data are very scarce in developing\\u000a countries. Therefore, we collected and analyzed data on the rate of timber production of the free areas and the forest reserves\\u000a in Ondo State, Nigeria. The data collected from the State Department of Forestry’s official records, annual reports and files\\u000a were

V. A. J. Adekunle; A. O. Olagoke; L. F. Ogundare

2010-01-01

36

Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Fawcett, P. J.; Werne, J. P.; Anderson, R. S.; Heikoop, J. M.; Brown, E. T.; Berke, M. A.; Smith, S. J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J. S. S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J. W.; Allen, C. D.

2011-01-01

37

Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.  

PubMed

The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ?2?°C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6?°C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483

Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

2011-02-24

38

An audit of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a tertiary health institution in South-western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study is aimed at determining the pattern of ear, nose and throat diseases and their relationship with socio-demographic factors with auditing intent in a tertiary hospital in South-western Nigeria. Methods Medical records of patients managed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Results There were 2641 (52.8%) males and 2360 (47.2%) females. Two thousand and fifty (41%) patients had age ?15years old. Sixty three percent of the patients were Christians, 37% were Muslims and less than 1% had other religions. There were more patients in lower occupational classes than those in the upper classes. The average number of patients with ear, nose and throat diseases managed per month was eighty three. Patients with ear diseases were 3136 (62.7%), the nose diseases were 1153 (23.0%), the throat diseases were 479 (9.6%) and head/neck diseases were 233 (4.7%). Conclusion This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ?15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 years and above. Although these disorders are not yet considered to be of public health importance, they contribute significantly to the existing burden of health problems in our environment. Therefore, there is a need for improved public awareness on ear, nose and throat diseases. PMID:23503692

Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Samdi, Musa; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George

2013-01-01

39

Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them were also less likely to be sexually experienced than those to whom it was acceptable (AOR =0.043, 95% CI =0.016–0.122). Predictors of having multiple sexual partners include the sex of the respondent and the frequency of Internet use, with females (AOR =0.308, 95% CI =0.113–0.843) and those who rarely use the Internet less likely to have multiple sexual partners. Conclusion We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet could negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths. PMID:24729737

Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

2014-01-01

40

Western United States and Southwestern Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

41

Spatial analysis and socio-economic burden of road crashes in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic accidents are a major health problem in Nigeria. Death and injuries resulting from road crashes in the country have been on the increase over the years. For instance, fatality rate rose from 5.3 in 1970 to 5.8 in 2005. The purpose of the paper is to assess the pattern and socio-economic burden of road crashes on road accident

Olusiyi Ipingbemi

2008-01-01

42

Tillage and poultry manure effects on soil fertility and sorghum yield in southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data on tillage methods, mulching and manuring are needed to identify strategies for sustainable management of soils and for improving agronomic productivity. Hence, three field experiments were carried out at two locations in late-season 2004, early 2005 and late-season 2006, respectively, on Alfisol (Oxic Tropuldalf) at Owo in the forest-savanna transition zone of southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects

T. M. Agbede; S. O. Ojeniyi

2009-01-01

43

Relative Height and Weight among Children and Adolescents of Rural Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There are few data describing the relative height and weight patterns of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, despite a prevalence of stunting of over 38% among children younger than five years. Aim To document the height and weight patterns relative to international standards among children and adolescents aged 5 to 20 years in rural Nigeria. Subjects and methods Children 5 to 20 years of age were enrolled from two rural villages. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Z-scores and centiles for height and body mass index were calculated; prevalences of low relative height (ie, > 2 standard deviations below mean for age and sex) and weight by sex and age were estimated. Results A total of 623 participants (326 male and 297 female) were enrolled. The mean height-for-age z-score for males younger than 19 years was ?2.1 and prevalence of low relative height was 50%. Among females, the mean height-for-age z-score was ?1.2 during adolescence; only 15% of adolescent females were of low relative height. Based on BMI-for-age, 37% of the adolescent males and 23% of females were underweight. No children or adolescents were overweight based on BMI-for-age. Conclusions Low relative height and underweight occur in a large proportion of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, with the lowest relative heights and weights occurring in mid-adolescence and among males. PMID:19449276

Ayoola, Omolola; Ebersole, Kara; Omotade, Olayemi O.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Brieger, William R.; Salami, Kabiru; Dugas, Lara R.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

2010-01-01

44

Maternal Birth Outcomes: Processes and Challenges in Anambra State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The views of nurse experts and policymakers on maternal birth outcomes in Anambra State, Nigeria, were explored using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that although there are different levels of birth attendants in Anambra State, nurses attend to most deliveries; are highly favored; and are the most trusted obstetric providers among skilled personnel. Obstetric complications are extensive, leading to

Mabel C. Ezeonwu

2011-01-01

45

Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

2009-01-01

46

CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the management of conflicts in the administration of secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. It also identifies, discusses and analyses the causes as well as the various ways conflicts manifested in the administration of secondary schools in the state. The effects of conflicts on school administration are equally examined. Quantitative and qualitative data were generated from both

OLU OKOTONI; ABOSEDE OKOTONI

2003-01-01

47

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Risk Perception among Pregnant Women in a Teaching Hospital, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022

Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.

2011-01-01

48

Forest conversion, conservation and forestry in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new data on the rate and patterns of loss of tropical moist forest cover to agriculture in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data from sequential aerial photographs and field surveys are used to derive an estimate of forest loss of 0.6 per cent per year. This rate is relatively modest, yet current conservation and forestry policy in the

Uwem E Ite; William M Adams

1998-01-01

49

Treatment for juveniles who sexually offend in a Southwestern state.  

PubMed

A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average success rate of 87%. The most commonly used approach was cognitive behavioral therapy with relapse prevention. The most common sexual offense was indecency with a child involving sexual contact, contrary to studies that found that in the Probation Commission data, aggravated sexual offense was the most common. These results have ramifications for state policies on treatment for juvenile sex offenders. PMID:20183420

Ikomi, Philip A; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H Elaine

2009-11-01

50

Sociocultural factors and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in rural Yoruba communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child survival strategies include prolonged and intensive breastfeeding, together with its early initiation, and breastmilk only for the first six months of life. This paper reports on local knowledge and attitudes of breastfeeding and the sociocultural factors that shape its practice in poor rural Yoruba communities of Southwestern Nigeria. The study has conducted 10 focus group discussions among homogeneous groups

Anita A. Davies-Adetugbo

1997-01-01

51

Joint application of ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity measurements for characterization of subsurface stratigraphy in Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequent building collapses in Nigeria have been attributed to a lack of pre-construction investigations, which assist engineers in obtaining in situ geotechnical information. Further, the structural subsurface settings are often ignored or investigation is haphazardly carried out. To address this issue and demonstrate the importance of such a survey, a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired in a part of Southwestern Nigeria. A 200 MHz antenna was used for the data acquisition along four traverses. The data were subjected to standard GPR processing techniques, and attribute analysis such as instantaneous frequency, amplitude and phase. Also, for comparative and engineering characterization purposes, longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy were computed from the VES results and used for determining the competency of the bedrocks. From the GPR results, it was observed that the mapped subsurface is characterized as erosional truncated at a low angle, which is southerly dipping and includes tangential reflections. Further, stratified rocks dipping at an angle of 32° occur between 1.0 and 4.5 m depth in all of the GPR sections; these strata were truncated by topsoil at shallow depths. Also, some of the sections depict ancient channel structures that have a dimension of 70 m × 40 m. The resistivity data suggest that the study area is characterized by four distinct geoelectric sequences. These comprise topsoil which is composed of clay-like sand to lateritic clay whose thickness ranges between 0.25 and 8.12 m, weathered bedrock with a thickness between 3.84 and 12.61 m, stratified bedrock with a thickness between 0.33 and 7.51 m, and fresh bedrock. These results reveal a complex subsurface geology and this characterizes the study area. The area has low to moderate longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy values, which suggest that incompetent to semi-competent bedrock exists beneath the subsurface. A good correlation between the GPR and resistivity derived thicknesses was established.

Adepelumi, A. A.; Fayemi, O.

2012-08-01

52

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of traceability among livestock traders in south-western Nigeria: implications for sustainable livestock industry.  

PubMed

Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p?=?0.000; 0.014) and education (p?=?0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p?=?0.000) and length of years in the trade (p?=?0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels. PMID:24030103

Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E

2014-01-01

53

Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

2001-10-01

54

DETERMINANTS OF GOOD ORAL HYGIENE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN IBADAN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in a south-western Nigerian locality. Methodology: Four hundred and five pregnant Nigerian women were assessed for their oral hygiene status using the Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified. Demographic and pregnancy statistics were also obtained and the relationships between these and oral hygiene status were determined. Results: The mean age was 25.35 ± 5.02 years. Most of the women (96.0%) had never visited a dentist or any other oral health care provider and only 12.5% of those who had been attended by dental care givers have ever had professional dental cleaning. The oral hygiene status appeared to worsen as parity increased (p=0.047) while the use of the toothbrush and paste was associated with good oral hygiene (p=0.007). Higher education was associated with use of the tooth brush and paste (p=0.046) and good oral hygiene (p= 0.001). Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. PMID:25161475

Ifesanya, Joy U.; Ifesanya, Adeleke O.; Asuzu, Michael C.; Oke, Gbemisola A.

2010-01-01

55

Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The majority of subjects were aged ?40 years (41.6%) and were female (61.9%). Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05). A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%), cefotaxime (77.7%), and cefuroxime (75.7%) was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 ?g/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of stx1 were in the 0–10-year-old age group, 3.5% of stx2 were aged ?40 and above, and 1.0% of the hlyA isolates were in the 0–10-year-old age group. Conclusion The prevalence of virulent STEC is a public health concern. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay should aid quick detection of this virulent serotype and help curb the severe epidemic of human diseases associated with STEC infections. PMID:25342913

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Aboderin, Bukola W; Idris, Olayinka O; Mabayoje, Victor O; Opaleye, Oluyinka O; Adekunle, O Catherine; Olowe, Rita Ayanbolade; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola

2014-01-01

56

Critical levels for soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mn and maize ear-leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soils of South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sedimentary soils of South-western Nigeria, actual and expected relative yields of maize were plotted against soil physical factors, soil avalilable nutrients and ear-leaf content of maize. These were used to set critical ranges of these factors for optimum production. Regression equations were obtained for each of the soil and plant factors for predicting yield, thereby making possible yield

Gideon O Adeoye; Akinola A Agboola

1985-01-01

57

Constraints to Improved Cotton Production in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims at providing insight into the constraints inhibiting technology adoption behavior of cotton farmers in Katsina state, Nigeria. The samples comprise of 250 farmers selected from Malumfashi, Funtua and Daudawa in Katsina state Nigeria. Data collected from the respondents were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that the major constraints facing farmers as identified by about 80% are lack of fertilizer, frequency of spray, market opportunities. Others are inadequate knowledge of the production packages and non availability of these technologies. Given the result, it was concluded that cotton production in the study area is affected by lots of constraints. It was suggested that drastic improvement on the conditions of farmers be made through efforts on the constraints identified.

Adeniji, O. B.

58

GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona. hemionus eremicus). Both species are sympatric in many areas of the southwestern United States. Hybrid

59

Farm Land Market Situation in the Southwestern States, 1946-54.  

E-print Network

, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS PREFACE This background report on the farm land situation in the Southwestern States, including Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Texas, is issued by the South- western Land Tenure Research Committee in its regional..., COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS PREFACE This background report on the farm land situation in the Southwestern States, including Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma and Texas, is issued by the South- western Land Tenure Research Committee in its regional...

Southern, John H. (John Hoyle)

1955-01-01

60

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

61

Effect of nine years of animal waste deposition on profile distribution of heavy metals in Abeokuta, south-western Nigeria and its implication for environmental quality.  

PubMed

Uncontrolled deposition of waste from animal farms is a common practice in south-western Nigeria, and the presence of heavy metals in soil constitutes environmental and health hazards by polluting the soil, ground water, adjoining streams and rivers. The study investigated the profile distribution of Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cr in some tropical Alfisols in south-western Nigeria after nine years disposal of animal wastes. The amount of these metals in the soil horizons was high enough to cause health and phytotoxic risks. All the metals except Zn and Cr increased down the profile, while Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni accumulated at 80-120 cm depth. The increment of these metals at this depth over the top soil were 26%, 143%, 72%, 47%, 328% for Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni, respectively. It thus, shows their mobility and the possibility of polluting ground water. The Mn content at the poultry and cattle waste sites increased by 127% and 25%, respectively over the control, while that of cattle and swine dump site for Cd content were 9.82 and 15.63 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead content also increased by 8.52 and 5.25 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was the accumulation of Zn and Cu at the swine dump site while the cattle dump site had the highest amounts of nickel and chromium. The least amount of Fe was recorded at the swine waste dump site. The reduction in organic matter with depths together with the reduced pH might have favored the mobility of the metals. The ranking of pollution among the sites was poultry>swine>cattle>sheep and could be due to the type of ration fed, the vaccination programmes, sanitation programmes and other management practices. PMID:19525105

Azeez, J O; Adekunle, I O; Atiku, O O; Akande, K B; Jamiu-Azeez, S O

2009-09-01

62

Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR  

E-print Network

Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR Mark Keywords: Earth Observing System Forest Structure Biomass Carbon Disturbance Multi-angle BRDF Modeling Land State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, United States d USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research

Kurapov, Alexander

63

THE ECONOMY OF THE BOARDING SYSTEM IN POST - PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN BENDEL STATE OF NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the benefits and costs of the boarding schools in Bendel State of Nigeria. The paper starts with a background story of the hoarding system in Nigeria, with emphasis on the original objectives. This is folio-wed by the social, academic mid political benefits as seen by parents, students principals and Ministry of officials.

J. A. AGHENTA

64

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. I. Epidemiological observations.  

PubMed

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Lee, V H; Stroh, G; Kuteyi, K; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

65

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

66

The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming. PMID:12283104

Talabi, J K

1989-01-01

67

Economics of Poultry Manure Utilization in Land Quality Improvement Among Integrated Poultry-Maize-Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of Nigeria's poultry industry has made it more advantageous in terms of providing the essential raw material for alternative soil fertility and land quality enhancement than other livestock. This paper centres on the use and non-use of poultry manure as a land improvement technique for sustainable food production. This is achieved by comparing the economic benefits accruable

A. S. Bamire; B. J. Amujoyegbe

2004-01-01

68

Adoption of Improved Cotton Production Technologies in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research broadly aims at providing information on the technology adoption behaviour of cotton farmers in Katsina State of Nigeria., The study was conducted in 2001 farming season in the Sudan savanna ecological zone where Samcot 8, 9, 10 and other production packages have been introduced to farmers. The sample consisted of 250 farmers selected from Funtua, Daudawa and Malumfashi, in Katsina State. The results indicated a high rate of awareness in the zone. The main sources of information were extension agents and the use of radio. The rate of adoption of improved practice was 78%. The results showed that most sampled farmers were not aware of the complete set of technologies studied. Among the technologies, farmer`s awareness of herbicides was least (15%) while the use of fertilizer recorded (85%). The major reasons for non adoption of improved technologies were inadequate knowledge and non-availability of these technologies.

Adeniji, O. B.; Voh, J. P.; Atala, T. K.; Ogungbile, A. O.

69

Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Secondary calcium carbonate of diverse origins, 'caliche' of many authors, is widespread in the southwestern United States. 'Caliche' includes various carbonates such as calcic soils and products of groundwater cementation. The term 'caliche' is generally avoided in this report in favor of such terms as calcrete, calcic soils, and pervasively cemented deposits. Criteria for the recognition of various types of calcrete of diverse origins include field relations and laboratory data. Calcic soils provide a comprehensive set of characteristics that aid in their recognition in the field. These characteristics include a distinctive morphology that is zoned horizontally and can frequently be traced over tens to hundreds of square kilometers. The major process in the formation of pedogenic calcrete and calic soils is the leaching of calcium carbonate from upper soil horizons by downward percolating soil solutions and reprecipitation of the carbonate in alluvial horizons near the base of the soil profile. The formation of pedogenic calcrete involves many factors including climate, source of carbonate, and tectonic stability of the geomorphic surface on which the calcrete is deposited. Most of the carbonate in pedogenic calcrete is probably derived from windblown sand, dust, and rain. Calcic soils and pedogenic calcretes follow a six-stage sequence morphologic development and is based on a classification devised by Gile, Peterson and Grossman in 1966. The .six morphologic stages of carbonate deposition in soils are related to the relative age of the soil and are as follows: I. The first or youngest stage includes filamentous or faint coatings of carbonate on detrital grains. II. The second stage includes pebble coatings which are continuous; firm carbonate nodules are few to common. III. The third stage includes coalesced nodules which occur in a friable or disseminated carbonate matrix. IV. The fourth stage includes platy, firmly cemented matrix which engulfs nodules; horizon is plugged to downward moving solutions. V. The fifth stage includes soils which are platy to tabular, dense, strongly cemented. A well-developed laminar layer occurs on the upper surface. VI. The sixth and most advanced stage is massive, multilaminar, and strongly cemented calcrete with abundant pisoliths, the upper surface of which may be brecciated. Pisoliths may indicate many generations of brecciation and reformation. In general calcic soils include stages I through III and are friable to moderately indurated; whereas pedogenic calcretes include stages IV through VI and are dense and strongly indurated. In a single pedon the morphologic stage of carbonate deposition decreases downward in the profile. The stage of development may be used in local regions for correlation and determination of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces. Some structures observed in pedogenic calcretes may be present in other types of calcrete but the horizontal zonation typical of deposits of soil processes is absent. Laminar structure in particular is not restricted to pedogenic deposits and is common in many varieties of calcrete. Very little chemical change occurs in the noncalcareous nonclayey fractions of calcretes with age; but clay minerals within calcretes undergo a complex history of authigenesis. There is a depletion of magnesium in the calcareous portion and an enrichment of magnesium in the clayey portion of a calcrete with age. In keeping with this relationship, montmorillonite, or mixed layer montmorillonite-illite, is common in younger calcretes; whereas the high magnesium-silicate clays, sepiolite and palygorskite, are common in older calcretes. This indicates that the magnesium depleted from the carbonate is redistributed authigenically in clay minerals. The mobility of carbonate introduces many problems in attempts to date calcretes directly. Although the relative ages of soils within a province may be determined by quant

Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.

1977-01-01

70

77 FR 35836 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mexico due to the scheduled decommissioning of the Cochise, AZ, VHF...action due to the scheduled decommissioning of the Cochise, AZ, VORTAC...southwestern United States. Environmental Review The FAA has determined...exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act in...

2012-06-15

71

Why Veteran Teachers in a Southwestern Border State Choose to Stay in the Education Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological qualitative study provided a venue for veteran teachers in a southwestern border state to voice their thinking of what they believed had made them stay in the education profession. The "maestros veterans" in this study had a minimum of 10 years in the education profession and were currently teaching within the "Mexica"…

Lopez, J. Blanca O.

2009-01-01

72

Mansonella ozzardi infections in Indians of the Southwestern part of the state of Bolivar, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Mansonella ozzardi infections were found in 80/139 (58%) of Indians living in the forest of the upper Caura River Basin located in the southwestern part of Bolivar State, Venezuela. In four (3%) of the blood samples a second type of microfilaria which could not be identified was also found. PMID:6992608

Godoy, G A; Volcan, G; Medrano, C; Teixeira, A; Matheus, L

1980-05-01

73

Artemisia tridentata (basin sagebrush) in the Southwestern United States of America: medicinal uses and pharmacologic implications.  

PubMed

Artemisia tridentata (basin sagebrush) is discussed as a medicinal plant in the southwestern United States of America. Active constituents present in A. tridentata are listed, the pharmacologic implications of their presence are reviewed, and medicinal applications are tabulated. Further research to determine the status of A. tridentata as a medicinal plant is encouraged. PMID:1563890

Kelley, B D; Appelt, J M; Appelt, G D

1992-03-01

74

The source hydrology of severe sustained drought in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the risk of drought and develops drought scenarios for use in the study of severe sustained drought in the southwestern United States. The focus is on the Colorado River basin and regions to which Colorado River water is exported, especially southern California, which depends on water from the Colorado River as well as the four major rivers

David G. Tarboton

1994-01-01

75

Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree-ring record indicates that this is the case. During the 20th century, tree-ring widths correlated very positively with total winter precipitation and very negatively with spring-summer maximum temperature. This indicates that Southwestern forest growth is significantly impacted by both the amount of water delivered before the growing season and temperature during the growing season. We conclude that in the absence of a significant increase in winter precipitation, continued warming should lead to a more sparsely populated Southwestern forest population, similar to the one that appears to have existed during 1000-1600 AD.

Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

2011-12-01

76

Traumatic death from rival gang violence in Rivers State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A prospective autopsy study in Rivers State, Nigeria, was undertaken to evaluate the patterns of death as a result of rival gang clashes and to highlight the menace of rival gang violence. Between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2003 medico-legally autopsied bodies in Rivers State, where death was the result of gang violence, were studied after being served with the coroner's form. In all cases, standard autopsy procedures were adopted and reports were issued. A total of 58 bodies were autopsied for the study. Three (5.2%) were females and 55 (94.8%) were males, giving a female to male ratio of 1:18.3. The age group of 10-29 years recorded the highest frequency of death (65.6%) with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.7%). Gang violence and politically motivated mob action were the most common precipitating factors (60.3% and 20.7% respectively). Firearms (41.4%) was the most common method applied for the killing. Death was more common in the rural areas of Rivers State. Gang clashes, volatile political rallies, illegal drug peddling and illegal oil bunkering should be banned and stringent laws be passed. Such laws should also cover gun handling and should be enforced. PMID:16302380

Seleye-Fubara, D; Bob-Yellowe, E

2005-10-01

77

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

2007-07-01

78

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ? 2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ? 7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ? 18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

Williams, A Park; Allen, Craig D; Millar, Constance I; Swetnam, Thomas W; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J; Leavitt, Steven W

2010-12-14

79

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ?2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ?7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ?18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, Constance I.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

2010-01-01

80

77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA66 Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United...Register proposing to amend various Air Traffic Service Routes in the Southwestern...NPRM for the proposed amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern...

2012-05-23

81

Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

Tijani, M.'n.

1994-11-01

82

LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV,

M. J. Evans; M. Fayek; L. Riciputi; L. Anovitz; S. Hull; F. J. Mathien; H. Milford

2004-01-01

83

Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Whitewater Arroyo Virus in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico

Charles F. Fulhorst; Remi N. Charrel; Scott C. Weaver; Thomas G. Ksiazek; Robert D. Bradley; Mary L. Milazzo; Robert B. Tesh; Michael D. Bowen

84

Atmospheric concentrations of carbonyl sulfide in the Southwestern and Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric concentrations of OCS were measured in the Southwestern and Eastern United States. The average concentrations were 435+\\/-54, 454+\\/-31 and 511+\\/-36 parts-per-trillion by volume at Philadelphia, Pa., Wallops Island, Va. and Lawton, Okla., respectively. The data suggest that the lifetime of OCS is much longer than common atmospheric sulfur gases such as H2S and SO2, and that the OCS sources

P. J. Maroulis; A. L. Torres; Alan R. Bandy

1977-01-01

85

The Application of High Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey for Basement Topography Mapping of a Complex Geologic Transition Terrain around Ijebu-Ode, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ijebu-Ode and its environs in southwestern Nigeria is located within a geological transition zone from the Precambrian migmatite gneiss rocks and Cretaceous sedimentary rock units of Abeokuta Group. Unique geological structures, complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between the basement and sedimentary rocks typifies tectonic events that accompany crustal thinning and downwarping at the basement/sedimentary-basin edge. This has posed serious geological decision challenges especially since it is difficult to characterize the area either as sedimentary or crystalline terrain. High Resolution Aeromagnetic (HRAM) data were collected, the data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages and subsequently employed to generate model of the subsurface basement topography. The magnetic intensity distribution in the field ranged from -120 to +80 nT and was found to depend on the size, depth of burial and the thickness of low susceptibility superficial material overlying the magnetite rich crystalline rocks. High magnetic intensity characterized the crystalline basement rocks while lower values distinguished the sedimentary terrain. The average radial power analysis delineated shallow and relatively deep sources as the two distinct types of magnetic anomalies. The radial signal analysis defined four crystalline rock exposures and a sediment filled basin. Euler deconvolution indicated depth range from -80 to +30 m for sources located below and above the reference datum, respectively. Euler result also showed that the depth to magnetic sources is heterogeneous and highly erratic around the transition zone, ranging between -25 and +12 m. This study identified rugged and undulating basement topography around the contact zone; it also identified outliers of crystalline rocks within the sedimentary terrain as well as delineated the lateral and basal contacts between the two coexisting rock types. High resolution aeromagnetic mapping of basement sedimentary transition zone around Ijebu-Ode has proved very efficient in revealing the nature of the basement topography which provides vital information for geological decisions necessary before drilling and some engineering constructions.;

Osinowo, O.; Olayinka, A. I.

2012-12-01

86

Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.

Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

87

Hydrogeochemical characterization of a shallow groundwater system in the weathered basement aquifer of Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeochemical characterization of a weathered basement aquifer in Ilesha area, southwest Nigeria, was carried out with respect to geogenic and anthropogenic influences on the shallow groundwater system. Physico-chemical parameters revealed a pH of 6.4-8.4 and EC of 22-825 ?s/cm in the urban areas compared to a pH of 7.3-10.5 and relatively higher EC of 126-1027 ?s/cm in the peri-urban area. The concentrations of major cations (Ca, Na, K, Mg) in the urban areas revealed relatively lower average concentrations of 28.4, 16.7, 8.4 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively, compared to 82.5, 33.4, 19.3 and 12.4 mg/L, respectively, for the peri-urban areas. The low concentrations of major cations in the urban areas can be attributed to low mineral dissolution of quartzite and muscovite quartz-schist bedrocks compared to the weathered granitic, amphibolite and biotite schist in the peri-urban areas. Hydrochemical characterization revealed two main water types; namely Ca-Mg-(Na)-HCO3 mostly in the urban areas suggesting CO2-charged infiltrating recharge rainwater, and Ca-Na-(K)-SO4-Cl type in the peri-urban areas as products of water-rock interactions.

Tijani, M. N.; Oke, S. A.; Olowookere, A. T.

2014-09-01

88

Perceptions, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis, which is one of the commonest forms of the parasitic disease is a major debilitating disease characterized by blood in urine. The main objective of the study reported here was to assess the knowledge, attitude/perception and practices of the people in Oshimili South and Ndokwa Northeast Local Government Areas of Delta State in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of 400 randomly selected persons aged > or =15 years was undertaken using a uniform set of structured interview schedule administered by trained field assistants. This was supported with some qualitative data collected from in-depth interview with community leaders and school teachers as well as focus group discussions with community members. One-third of the people interviewed were aware of the schistosomiasis. For a majority however, the perceived causes of the disease included witchcraft and sexual or body contact with infected persons. For some of the respondents, the disease is not serious since it does not harm or prevent the victim from eating. In many cases the disease was not treated because of the belief that there is no effective cure for it and that it reoccurs after treatment. But perhaps more importantly, the infection is not treated because it is considered a normal growing up process, which the infected person outgrows. A very high proportion of people depended on the schistosomiasis-infected river for all the domestic needs even where there are alternative sources of water. People argued that the river/ stream give them purer water than the hand dug wells. Furthermore, swimming is a popular activity in the river during all seasons, irrespective of sex and age. In conclusion, the study has identified gaps in the knowledge of the cause and means of transmission, poor perception and management practices, which calls for systematic health education on schistosomiasis in the communities PMID:24409637

Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Yinkore, Paul; Egwuage, John; Emukah, Emmanuel

2010-10-01

89

Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

Musa, Alice K.J.

2013-01-01

90

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

91

Economic Efficiency Of Fadama Telfairia Production In Imo State Nigeria: A Translog Profit Function Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study delved into economic efficiency analysis of Fadama Telfairia farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it identified the production systems; estimated the economic efficiency and their determinants. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of 40 Fadama Telfairia farmers from each of the three agricultural zones of the State. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain

Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu; Christian Ejike ONYENWEAKU

2007-01-01

92

Indigenous knowledge system for treatment of trypanosomiasis in Kaduna state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management

S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau

2002-01-01

93

Principals' Management of Conflicts in Public Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: A Critical Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

94

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.  

PubMed

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

2014-01-01

95

Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

2014-01-01

96

The problem of uveitis in Bendel State of Nigeria: experience in Benin City.  

PubMed Central

A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria. PMID:563237

Ayanru, J. O.

1977-01-01

97

Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10-76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

Oyedeji, Adebayo T; Akintunde, Adeseye A; Owojori, Olukolade O; Peter, Johnson O

2014-01-01

98

Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10–76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Peter, Johnson O.

2014-01-01

99

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States - Executive Summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a regional study in the Southwestern United States to characterize dissolved-solids conditions in major water supplies, including important rivers and aquifers. High concentrations of dissolved solids can degrade a water supply's suitability for important uses, such as drinking water or crop irrigation. In an effort to ensure the continued availability of clean surface and groundwater, USGS scientists identified areas where there have been both increasing and decreasing trends in dissolved-solids concentrations.

Anning, David W.

2008-01-01

100

Sex stereotypes and school adolescents' sexual behaviour in Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three urban towns in Osun State, Nigeria. A survey questionnaire consisting of items

Bayode Isaiah Popoola

2011-01-01

101

Food Security and Marketing Problems in Nigeria: the Case of Maize Marketing in Kwara State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines problems of food marketing and security in Nigeria, using maize marketing in Kwara State as a case study. This is against the background of persistent food crisis being experienced for sometimes now in the country. Primary data were collected during the 1997\\/98 farming season from two hundred food marketers consisting of eighty wholesalers and one hundred and

Raphael Babatunde; Eniola Oyatoye

102

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

2007-01-01

103

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

104

Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

Emielu, Austin

2011-01-01

105

Orientation on Library Use for New Students, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a core library instruction and orientation program for new students entering Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. Design methodology\\/approach – How to communicate with new students who have a variety of backgrounds when they enter the campus about navigating their way around the University Library. A course design is described that is content intensive about core library

Stella E. Igun; Oghenevwogaga Benson Adogbeji

2006-01-01

106

Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

Arubayi, D. O.

2009-01-01

107

Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

Osa, Osayimwense

1983-01-01

108

Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

2013-01-01

109

Serological detection of yam viruses in farmers' fields in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted in eight local government areas (LGA) of Ogun state, Nigeria to assess the incidence of viral diseases of yams in the areas. Leaf samples were collected from 90 yam plants which were either symptomatic or asymptomatic. These were bulked into 45 during serological tests and the viruses indexed include yam mosaic virus (YMV); Dioscorea alata

Olusola O. Odedara; Emily I. Ayo-John; Moyosore M. Gbuyiro; Felicia O. Falade; Sunday E. Agbebi

2011-01-01

110

Serological detection of yam viruses in farmers' fields in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey was conducted in eight local government areas (LGA) of Ogun state, Nigeria to assess the incidence of viral diseases of yams in the areas. Leaf samples were collected from 90 yam plants which were either symptomatic or asymptomatic. These were bulked into 45 during serological tests and the viruses indexed include yam mosaic virus (YMV); Dioscorea alata

Olusola O. Odedara; Emily I. Ayo-John; Moyosore M. Gbuyiro; Felicia O. Falade; Sunday E. Agbebi

2012-01-01

111

Determinants of Condom Use among Monogamous Men in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the factors that influence condom use among monogamous men in Ondo State, Nigeria. Such information can help improve the design of male-involvement interventions in reproductive health and campaigns to reduce the spread of HIV among the general population. Overall, analysis was restricted to 394 men who were in their first union and reported a monogamous marriage at

Kolawole Azeez Oyediran

2003-01-01

112

Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with standardized instruments. The results

D. A. Adeyemo; T. M. Williams

2010-01-01

113

Determinants of Technical Efficiency of Urban Farming in Uyo Metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the determinants of technical efficiency of urban farming in Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria using a stochastic frontier production function. Structured questionnaires were used to collect cost-route data from 75 respondents randomly selected from four designated locations in the project area. The findings revealed that the co-efficient of farm size, capital, manures and planting materials

V. O. EBONG; E. O. EFFIONG; Obio Akpa

2009-01-01

114

Integrated Science Teachers' Instructional Competencies: An Empirical Survey in Rivers State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The competencies of a sample of teachers of integrated science (ISC) in the induction of future scientists were investigated. Thirty teachers of integrated science in the junior secondary schools in Rivers State of Nigeria were observed by five science teacher educationists. The teachers were in general only fair in their demonstrated ISC teaching…

Green, Rosemund Dienye; Osah-Ogulu, Dele Joshua

2003-01-01

115

Pityriasis versicolor in school children in Cross River State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Out of 2,353 primary school children aged 4-16 years in Cross River State of Nigeria examined, 88 (3.7%) showed lesions mycologically proven to be pityriasis versicolor. Incidence was highest (6.3%) in children aged 12-16. Lesions were much more common on the face than on other sites. PMID:2103592

Akpata, L E; Gugnani, H C; Utsalo, S J

1990-01-01

116

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

117

Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary School Principals in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The…

Olayiwola, Shina

2008-01-01

118

The distribution of ringworm infections among primary school children in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out on the distribution of ringworm infections among school children in four primary schools in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. Out of a total population of 6 987, 237 (3.4%) were found to be infected by this disease. There was a high incidence of both scalp and foot ringworms among the infected children. Fourteen species of

C. I. C. Ogbonna; R. O. Robinson; J. M. Abubakar

1985-01-01

119

Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

Osagie, Roseline O.

2012-01-01

120

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

121

Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.  

SciTech Connect

As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

2013-07-01

122

Automatic detection of vegetation changes in the southwestern United States using remotely sensed images  

SciTech Connect

The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using same-date Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) data for comparison with the MSS results. The change-detection procedure includes multitemporal image calibration using a hybrid method that we developed for the project; the hybrid calibration allows a radiometric calibration to be applied to historical data by using field-radiance information rather than a modeling procedure. The results indicate that a calibrated visible band is more sensitive than the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting vegetation changes in the arid and semi-arid environments of the southwestern United States. Changes were detected in the desert environment, where the vegetation density is relatively low, with both Landsat MSS and GOES VISSR images. Some changes detected by the automatic procedure were confirmed in the field during two of the Landsat overpasses. The changes corresponded mostly to the blooming of ephemeral or annual vegetation.

Chavez, P.S.; Mackinnon, D.J. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1994-05-01

123

Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total suspended particulates were estimated using automatic air monitors. The noise levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels obtained for the air pollution indicators in Lagos were CO- 232 ppm at Idumota; SO2- 2.9 ppm at Idumota; NO2- 1.5 ppm at Iyana-Ipaja bus stop; total suspended particulates- 852 cpm at Oshodi bus stop. At Ibadan, the CO and SO2 levels at 271 and 1.4 ppm were, respectively highest at Mokola round about while NO2 at 1.0 ppm was highest at Bere round about. In Ado-Ekiti, the highest levels obtained were CO- 317 ppm at Oke Isha, NO2- 0.6 ppm at Ijigbo junction and SO2- 0.8 ppm at Old garage junction. The recorded noise levels were 112.8 dB at Oshodi bus stop in Lagos, 120 dB at Iwo road in Ibadan and 115 dB at Old Garage junction, Ado-Ekiti. The Federal Ministry of Environment National Standards for these air pollutant indicators are CO, 10-20 ppm; SO2, 0.01-0.1 ppm; NO2, 0.04-0.6 ppm and total suspended particulates, 250 mg dm-3. The noise level is restricted to 90 db. The blood samples of people at these high trafficked locations such as the commercial drivers, conductors, street traders and road traffic wardens were also analysed for Lead content with a resultant high Pb concentration. Responses to interviews indicate that these people suffer from air pollution related diseases such as headaches, loss of vision, anaemia, forgetfulness and fatigue than those from the control locations.

Osuntogun, B. A.; Koku, C. A.

124

Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur

B. A. Osuntogun; C. A. Koku

2007-01-01

125

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

126

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

2011-01-01

127

Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

2013-01-01

128

Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.

2013-01-01

129

THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF LATE TRIASSIC-EARLY JURASSIC FRESHWATER FISH FAUNAS OF THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from a biostratigraphic and geographic overview of known freshwater fish species from the Upper Triassic Chinle and Dockum formations (Carnian to Rhaetian) and the Lower Jurassic Moenave and Kayenta formations (Hettangian to Pliensbachian?) in the southwestern United States are compared with known land-vertebrate faunachrons (LVF). Five fish-bearing intervals are recognized in the Upper Triassic of the Ameri- can Southwest,

ANDREW R. C. MILNER; JAMES I. KIRKLAND; TYLOR A. BIRTHISEL

2006-01-01

130

Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: importance of the Colorado River and local sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized

Daniel R. Muhs; Richard L. Reynolds; Josh Been; Gary Skipp

2003-01-01

131

CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation on the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah  

E-print Network

,Tucson, AZ 85712 ROBERT H. WEBB and DIANE E. BOYER U.S. Geological Survey, 1675 W. Anklam Road,Tucson, AZ, 1911, causing severe damage; however, the discharge for this flood has only been roughly estimatedCHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation

132

The diffusion of maize to the southwestern United States and its impact  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the initial period of agriculture in the southwestern United States has been transformed by recent discoveries that establish the presence of maize there by 2100 cal. B.C. (calibrated calendrical years before the Christian era) and document the processes by which it was integrated into local foraging economies. Here we review archaeological, paleoecological, linguistic, and genetic data to evaluate the hypothesis that Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) farmers migrating from a homeland in Mesoamerica introduced maize agriculture to the region. We conclude that this hypothesis is untenable and that the available data indicate instead a Great Basin homeland for the PUA, the breakup of this speech community into northern and southern divisions ?6900 cal. B.C. and the dispersal of maize agriculture from Mesoamerica to the US Southwest via group-to-group diffusion across a Southern Uto-Aztecan linguistic continuum. PMID:19995985

Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Fritz, Gayle J.; Adams, Karen R.; Roney, John R.; MacWilliams, A. C.

2009-01-01

133

Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Whitewater Arroyo virus in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of the Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality. PMID:11384516

Fulhorst, C. F.; Charrel, R. N.; Weaver, S. C.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Bradley, R. D.; Milazzo, M. L.; Tesh, R. B.; Bowen, M. D.

2001-01-01

134

Analysis of watershed topography effects on summer precipitation variability in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With climate change, precipitation variability is projected to increase. The present study investigates the potential interactions between watershed characteristics and precipitation variability. The watershed is considered as a functional unit that may impact seasonal precipitation. The study uses historical precipitation data from 370 meteorological stations over the last five decades, and digital elevation data from regional watersheds in the southwestern United States. This domain is part of the North American Monsoon region, and the summer period (June-July-August, JJA) was considered. Based on an initial analysis for 1895-2011, the JJA precipitation accounts, on average, for 22-43% of the total annual precipitation, with higher percentages in the arid part of the region. The unique contribution of this research is that entropy theory is used to address precipitation variability in time and space. An entropy-based disorder index was computed for each station's precipitation record. The JJA total precipitation and number of precipitation events were considered in the analysis. The precipitation variability potentially induced by watershed topography was investigated using spatial regionalization combining principal component and cluster analysis. It was found that the disorder in precipitation total and number of events tended to be higher in arid regions. The spatial pattern showed that the entropy-based variability in precipitation amount and number of events gradually increased from east to west in the southwestern United States. Regarding the watershed topography influence on summer precipitation patterns, hilly relief has a stabilizing effect on seasonal precipitation variability in time and space. The results show the necessity to include watershed topography in global and regional climate model parameterizations.

Sohoulande Djebou, Dagbegnon C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.

2014-04-01

135

Thermal gradient in the vicinity of Kwale\\/Okpai gas plant, Delta state, Nigeria: Preliminary observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental Pollution now persist in Nigeria especially the oil-rich regions of Delta State. One of these problems is due\\u000a to gas flaring. Thermal gradient resulting from the gas flared at Kwale\\/Okpai gas plant is hereby reported. Surface temperature\\u000a variations with distance from the flare point were investigated for the four cardinal directions. The results show a surface\\u000a temperature elevation of

Julius Otutu Oseji

2007-01-01

136

Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State,\\u000a Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively. T-2\\u000a toxin was determined using TLC only. AFs were

Hussaini Anthony Makun; Michael Francis Dutton; Patrick Berka Njobeh; Mulunda Mwanza; Adamu Y. Kabiru

2011-01-01

137

Timber Resource Status Of Ehor Forest Reserve In Uhunmwode Local Government Area Of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five sample plots of 30m 30m were laid out in each of three selected compartments (81, 95 and 112) of 1.6 square kilometer within the Ehor Forest Reserve of Edo State, Nigeria. Fifty-four timber species were identified with compartment 81 having the highest number of species of thirty-four (34) and compartment 112 the least with thirty (30) species. Compartment 95

Jane Ihenyen; Okoegwale E. E; Mensah J. K

2009-01-01

138

Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

139

Community-based surveillance of paediatric deaths in Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918

Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U

1994-01-01

140

© IDOSI Publications, 2009 Adoption of Improved Maize Seeds and Production Efficiency in Rivers State, Nigeria  

E-print Network

Abstract: Maize is an important staple food in Nigeria. Declining yields of maize as a result of several environmental and biological factors have necessitated technological innovations focusing on maturity time, disease resistance and palatability of the crop. This study therefore assesses the adoption of improved seeds and efficiency levels of farmers in River state, Nigeria. The data were obtained from 150 farmers that were randomly selected using two-stage sampling procedures. The Probit model and production function analysis were the analytical methods. Results show that education, farming experience, mono-cropping, minimum tillage and use of fertilizer significantly influence adoption (p<0.1). Also, use of hybrid seeds significantly reduces inefficiency (p<0.1) along with other factors like age, experience, crop rotation, minimum tillage, fertilization. It was recommended that efforts to increase adoption of improved maize seeds for enhanced farm efficiency should focus on farmers ’ education, farming experience and access to fertilizers.

A. S. Oyekale; E. Idjesa

141

Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

142

Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level  

PubMed Central

Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of ?6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of ?50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

2014-01-01

143

Cropping System and Biomass Burning Effects on Yield Variability Six and Seven Years After Deforestation on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on deforestation and arable land development were established in 1978-79 at the research farm of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. The felled biomass in mechanized land clearing watersheds was collected in windrows constructed across the slope. These windrows were about 10 m wide and along the entire width of the watershed. W~ndrows were burnt in

Rattan Lal

1994-01-01

144

Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for plantation-grown Nauclea diderrichii (de wild) in the humid tropical rainforest zone of south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate management of forest plantation requires estimation of growth and biomass yield and consequently, the fitting of functions for estimating biomass. Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for estimating biomass of Nauclea diderrichii plantations in Omo forest reserve, Nigeria are described. Data were obtained from 30 temporary sample plots selected from stands that are 5–30 years old. A total of

Jonathan C. Onyekwelu

2007-01-01

145

Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was reported as common practice. The resources available for these activities and which constitute potential resources for the CDI process include community volunteers, CBOs and NGOs. Others are landlords; professional, women and youth associations; social clubs, religious organisations and the available health facilities. Conclusion This study’s findings support the feasibility of using the CDI process in delivering health interventions in urban poor communities and show that potential resources for the strategy abound in the communities. PMID:24156481

2013-01-01

146

The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a case study of Abia state Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different PMID:24244791

Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson

2013-01-01

147

Impact of PermaNet 3.0 on entomological indices in an area of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in south-western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background PermaNet® 3.0 is an insecticide synergist-combination long-lasting insecticidal net designed to have increased efficacy against malaria vectors with metabolic resistance, even when combined with kdr. The current study reports on the impact of this improved tool on entomological indices in an area with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Nigeria. Methods Baseline entomological indices across eight villages in Remo North LGA of Ogun State provided the basis for selection of three villages (Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa) for comparing the efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 (PN3.0), PermaNet® 2.0 (PN2.0) and untreated polyester nets as a control (UTC). In each case, nets were distributed to cover all sleeping spaces and were evaluated for insecticidal activity on a 3-monthly basis. Collection of mosquitoes was conducted monthly via window traps and indoor resting catches. The arithmetic means of mosquito catches per house, entomological inoculation rates before and during the intervention were compared as well as three other outcome parameters: the mean mosquito blood feeding rate, mean mortality and mean parity rates. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main malaria vector in the three villages, accounting for >98% of the Anopheles population and found in appreciable numbers for 6–7 months. Deltamethrin, permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin resistance were confirmed at Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa. The kdr mutation was the sole resistance mechanism at Ilara, whereas kdr plus P450-based metabolic mechanisms were detected at Irolu and Ijesa. Bioassays repeated on domestically used PN 2.0 and PN 3.0 showed persistent optimal (100%) bio-efficacy for both net types after the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month following net distribution. The use of PN 3.0 significantly reduced mosquito densities with a ‘mass killing’ effect inside houses. Households with PN 3.0 also showed reduced blood feeding as well as lower mosquito parity and sporozoite rates compared to the PN 2.0 and the UTC villages. A significant reduction in the entomological inoculation rate was detected in both the PN 2.0 village (75%) and PN 3.0 village (97%) post LLIN-distribution and not in the UTC village. Conclusion The study confirms the efficacy of PN 3.0 in reducing malaria transmission compared to pyrethroid-only LLINs in the presence of malaria vectors with P450-based metabolic- resistance mechanisms. PMID:24886399

2014-01-01

148

Influence of assimilating rainfall derived from WSR-88D radar on the rainstorm forecasts over the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the impact of rainfall assimilation on the forecasts of convective rainfall over the mountainous areas in the southwestern United States is investigated. The rainfall is derived from the U.S. Weather Surveillance Radar–1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar network, and the fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) Four-Dimensional Variational (4DVAR) system is employed in the study. We evaluate the rainfall assimilation skill

Jianjun Xu; Qingnong Xiao; X. Gao; S. Sorooshian

2006-01-01

149

A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use.METHODS:Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients

Ranga Balasekaran; Marc Bulterys; M. Mazen Jamal; Patrick G Quinn; David E Johnston; Betty Skipper; Sanjana Chaturvedi; Sanjeev Arora

1999-01-01

150

A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use.Methods:Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients

Ranga Balasekaran; Marc Bulterys; M. Mazen Jamal; Patrick G. Quinn; David E. Johnston; Betty Skipper; Sanjana Chaturvedi; Sanjeev Arora

1999-01-01

151

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis.  

PubMed Central

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans. PMID:10081681

Mills, J. N.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Peters, C. J.; Childs, J. E.

1999-01-01

152

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Interior Chaparral in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amidst the growing tide of interest in global trace gas budgets and process studies, scant attention has been paid to arid and semi-arid ecosystems (<500mm of annual precipitation). This paper reports on chamber and eddy covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes made in the interior chaparral in the Central Arizona Highlands. The interior chaparral is a highly unusual ecosystem in the temperate latitudes because nitrogen fixing woody shrubs dominate the vegetation community. The bimodal nature of the annual precipitation regime leaves extended dry periods during which little denitrification can take place, thus allowing for the potential buildup of soil nitrate levels. Summer wet season precipitation could then lead to significant emissions of nitrous and nitric oxides. Measurements taken during the wet summer season of 2003 were used to quantify fluxes of nitrous oxide at a site dominated by Cercocarpus betuloides and Ceanothus greggi, both actinorhizal N-fixing plants. These measurements confirmed the presence of significant nitrous oxide fluxes. The results are used to draw some preliminary conclusions about the overall contribution to nitrous oxide emissions from chaparral in the Southwestern United States.

Herring, J. A.; Crews, T.; Muro, A.

2003-12-01

153

Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

A deep-seated melt or fluid layer on top of the 410-km-deep seismic discontinuity in Earth's upper mantle, as proposed in the transition-zone 'water filter' hypothesis, may have significant bearing on mantle dynamics and chemical differentiation. The geophysical detection of such a layer has, however, proved difficult. Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding are geophysical methods sensitive to mantle melt. Here we use these methods to search for a distinct structure near 410-km depth. We calculate one-dimensional forward models of the response of electrical conductivity depth profiles, based on mineral physics studies of the effect of incorporating hydrogen in upper-mantle and transition-zone minerals. These models indicate that a melt layer at 410-km depth is consistent with regional magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding data from the southwestern United States (Tucson). The 410-km-deep melt layer in this model has a conductance of 3.0 x 10(4) S and an estimated thickness of 5-30 km. This is the only regional data set that we have examined for which such a melt layer structure was found, consistent with regional seismic studies. We infer that the hypothesized transition-zone water filter occurs regionally, but that such a layer is unlikely to be a global feature. PMID:17581582

Toffelmier, Daniel A; Tyburczy, James A

2007-06-21

154

Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

Kaban, M.K.; Mooney, W.D.

2001-01-01

155

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

156

Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

2013-01-01

157

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

158

Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

2012-01-01

159

Nigeria in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

Chizea, F. D.

160

Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

van Riper, Charles, III; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

2014-01-01

161

Making a difference in the lives of prostitutes in the midst of a Muslim Sharia State: a voyage of discovery by a female librarian in Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For over fifty years a community of women whose lives have been violated physically mentally or financially have been settling down as prostitutes in a local village outside the predominantly Muslim state of Kano in Northern Nigeria. The community started with four prostitutes in 1957 but has now grown to be the largest community of prostitutes in Nigeria with 1831

Ghaji Badawi

162

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and

H. G. Balla; A. S. Tahir; C. Haskainu

2008-01-01

163

Technical efficiency of small scale farmers: An application of the stochastic frontier production function to rural and urban farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to estimate empirically the technical efficiency of rural and urban small-scale farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria, using the stochastic frontier production function. With the rapid urbanization being currently experienced in Nigeria, the socio-economic and the farming environment in both the rural and urban centres are undergoing transformation. This study involved collection and analysis

Igbekele A. Ajibefun; Adebiyi G. Daramola; Abiodun O. Falusi

2006-01-01

164

Evidence of Light Alkane Transport From the Southwestern United States During INTEX-NA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the transport and photochemical processing of light (C2-C5) alkane pollution originating from oil producing regions of the Southwestern United States using selected data from 2900 whole air samples collected during the airborne Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-NA) field campaign (July - August 2004). These data are compared to ground samples collected in Oklahoma, Texas and Kansas during May 2002. INTEX-NA airmasses with backward trajectories from the Southwest exhibited enhancements in ethane, propane, n-butane, i-butane, n-pentane and i-pentane, and were observed on flights as far east as the Atlantic Coast and as far north as the U.S. - Canadian border. For those airborne samples containing fresh (<1 day) emissions from the Southwest, the ratios of ethane to the other light alkanes were in good agreement with our ground-based data. The ratio of ethane/propane was a particularly robust marker for "Southwest" air pollution. Ratios for freshly influenced airborne samples (average ethane/propane 1.6 ± 0.4 pptv/pptv) were very similar to those for the ground samples (1.6 ± 0.5 pptv/pptv), but significantly lower than those of INTEX-NA samples without Southwest influence (ethane/propane ratios typically in excess of 8 pptv/pptv). We also propose employing ethane/propane ratios as a tool for investigating the photochemical processing of these airmasses. As Southwest airmasses age the ethane/propane ratio increases for 8 -10 days, until reaching a value indistinguishable from other INTEX-NA samples. We also investigated the production rates of alkyl nitrate from their parent alkanes to further elucidate airmass processing. Methane mixing ratios were somewhat enhanced in the Southwest samples, though the relationship between methane and the C2-C5 alkanes was variable. We attribute this variability to the small enhancements in methane relative to other natural sources and to high background levels.

Baker, A.; Blake, N.; Beyersdorf, A.; Katzenstein, A.; Doezema, L.; Meinardi, S.; Fuelberg, H.; Blake, D.; Rowland, F.

2005-12-01

165

LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

2004-12-01

166

Chemical dynamics of enriched mantle in the southwestern United States: Thorium isotope evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As probes of mantle below continents, geographically dependent isotope signatures in basalts suggest preservation of old and chemically enriched lithospheric domains. In this paper, we show that Th isotope compositions of basalts from the southwestern United States further delimit possible models for the origin and consequences of this enrichment. The data presented are for a compositionally diverse suite of largely mafic lavas from the central Basin and Range (CBR). The range of initial Th isotope signatures ( ( 230Th) /( 232Th) = 0.65-1.10 ) in these continental basalts overlaps and extends that of ocean island basalts. Pairing Th isotope variations with those of Nd provides a potent means of discriminating between various models for generation of enriched chemical signatures in continental basalts and precludes the possibility that the CBR basalts acquired their enriched chemical and isotopic signatures during ascent through the lithosphere. CBR basalts exhibit a negative co-variation between Nd and Th isotope ratios that is difficult to reconcile with assimilation because Nd concentrations in appropriate lower crustal lithologies are too low to decrease significantly the Nd isotope signatures from those of depleted mantle basalts. Nd/Th? Th/U systematics and a lack of Th/U fractionation similarly offer little support for contamination of asthenospheric melts by small volume melts generated in the mantle lithosphere. Most CBR lavas have ( 230Th) /( 238U) < 1.1 . These modest Th enrichments reflect the probable contribution of metasomatic phases to alkaline lavas and the higher melt fractions of subalkaline lavas. Enriched mantle sampled by CBR basalts has higher Pb/Nd as well as time-integrated and present-day Th/U than most of the sub-oceanic mantle, confirming the critical role that long-term isolation of continental lithosphere has on the development of chemical signatures distinct from those of convecting upper mantle. Coupled Pb?Th isotope characteristics in CBR basalts are consistent with progressive isolation of increasingly U-enriched mantle.

Reid, Mary R.; Ramos, Frank C.

1996-02-01

167

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Anning, D.W.

2011-01-01

168

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

Anning, David W

2011-10-01

169

Climate change and the rising cost of living for forests in the southwestern United States and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As climate changes, drought may reduce tree productivity and survival across many forest ecosystems; however, the relative influence of specific climate parameters on forest decline is poorly understood. We derive a forest drought-stress index (FDSI) for the southwestern United States using a comprehensive tree-ring dataset representing CE 1000-2007. FDSI is approximately equally influenced by warm-season atmospheric moisture demand (largely controlled by temperature) and cold-season precipitation, together explaining 82% of FDSI variability. Correspondence between FDSI and measures of forest productivity, mortality, bark-beetle outbreak, and wildfire validate FDSI as a holistic indicator of forest vigor throughout the region. In fact, the exceptionally large burned areas in 2002, 2011, and 2012 were all predictable based upon FDSI. If atmospheric moisture demand continues increasing as projected by climate models, average forest drought stress levels by the 2050s will exceed those of the worst megadroughts in at least 1000 years. Collectively, these results foreshadow 21st century changes in southwestern forest structures and compositions, with a transition of southwestern forests, and perhaps water-limited forests globally, toward distributions unfamiliar to modern civilization.

Williams, P.; Allen, C. D.; Macalady, A. K.; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Meko, D. M.; Swetnam, T. W.; Rauscher, S.; Seager, R.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; Dean, J.; Cook, E.; Gangodagamage, C.; Cai, M.; McDowell, N. G.

2012-12-01

170

Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for plantation-grown Nauclea diderrichii (de wild) in the humid tropical rainforest zone of south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Adequate management of forest plantation requires estimation of growth and biomass yield and consequently, the fitting of functions for estimating biomass. Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for estimating biomass of Nauclea diderrichii plantations in Omo forest reserve, Nigeria are described. Data were obtained from 30 temporary sample plots selected from stands that are 5-30 years old. A total of 81 trees were harvested for biomass estimation. Mean tree diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and stand bole volume ranged from 9.6 to 29.3 cm; 9.0 to 23.6m and 23.27 to 535.52 m(3)ha(-1), respectively while Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) varied from 32.5 t ha(-1) to 287.5 t ha(-1) between 5 and 30 years. Biomass allocations to stem, branch and foliage were 84.5%, 13.5% and 3%, respectively. All biomass components could be described precisely by dbh alone (R(adj)(2)>0.97), with very low standard errors of estimates. Little improvement in the precision of the functions was achieved by including total height. In addition, the residuals of regression functions with only dbh were generally more constrained than those that included total height. Consequently, the functions with dbh alone and its derivative as independent variables were recommended for estimating biomass of opepe in Nigeria. PMID:17097288

Onyekwelu, Jonathan C

2007-10-01

171

Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sky islands of the southwestern U.S. offer a unique opportunity to study the coevolution of landscape processes in areas of similar rock type and tectonic history but a wide range of climates. In this study we compile high-resolution, spatially-distributed data for the available energy to drive rock weathering and other landscape processes, i.e. the Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT) variable of Rasmussen and Tabor (2005), together with data for LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass, soil thickness, water storage potential, hillslope relief, and valley density in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno Mountains, two predominantly granitic ranges in southern Arizona. Strong correlations exist among these variables such that warm, dry, low elevation portions of these areas are characterized by low biomass, thin soils, low water-storage potential, steep slopes, and high valley densities. Cooler, wetter, higher-elevation portions have systematically higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water-storage potential, gentler slopes, and lower valley densities. Moreover, all of these variables have a nonlinear dependence on climate/elevation. Slope gradient and aspect also exert an important control on these variables, with steep, south-facing hillslopes characterized by drier-than-average conditions for a given elevation and north-facing slopes associated with wetter-than-average conditions. We hypothesize that these correlations partly reflect coevolutionary positive-feedback mechanisms among these processes that amplify differences in rates set by climate, tectonics, and rock type. For example, thicker soils with higher water storage potential that form at higher elevations/north-facing slopes tend to have greater biomass, causing lower runoff ratios, lower rates of slopewash and fluvial erosion, and increased rates of colluvial transport, thereby promoting thicker soils, lower-gradient slopes, and lower valley densities. Thicker soils and higher water storage potentials, in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

2010-12-01

172

Prevalence and Management Issues Associated with Poultry Coccidiosis in Abak Agricultural Zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of six farms each randomly selected from each of five local government areas of Abak agricultural zone of Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria, was conducted to assess on-farm prevalence and management of poultry coccidiosis. The study, which involved scrutiny of farm and clinical records, distribution of structured and pre-tested questionnaires to elicit relevant data, showed that in the

2004-01-01

173

Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

2008-01-01

174

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

175

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

176

A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

2012-01-01

177

Ethnobotanical Study of Economic Trees: Uses of Trees as Timbers and Fuelwoods in Ilorin Emirate of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the five local government areas that make up Ilorin Emirate in Kwara State, Nigeria, revealed extensive use of economic trees as timber woods and fuel woods. The forest resources are indiscriminately exploited by the poor inhabitants who solely depend on the forest to earn their livelihood. Tree species such as Pterocarpus erinaceus, Parkia biglobosa, Prosobis africana, Trichilia

A. A. Abdulrahaman; O. J. Fajemiroye; F. A. Oladele

2006-01-01

178

Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

2011-01-01

179

Potassium Distribution in the Sand, Silt and Clay Separates of Soils Developed over Talc at Ejiba, Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potassium status of soils developed over talc at Ejiba in the Southern Guinea Savanna Zone of Kogi State, Nigeria was evaluated by the exchangeable, acid extractable, total and residual K values in the sand, silt and clay fractions of the soils. Soil samples collected from genetic horizons of profile pits dug in si x delineated mapping units were separated

G. A. Ajiboye; J. A. Ogunwale

180

Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

2013-10-15

181

Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

2013-01-01

182

A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

2009-05-01

183

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-01-01

184

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

185

The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and mineral analyses of phragmanthera incana (klotzsch), a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts in South-Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

Ogunmefun, O T; Fasola, T R; Saba, A B; Oridupa, O A

2013-03-01

186

The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.

2013-01-01

187

Evaluation of Paracheck-Pf(TM) rapid malaria diagnostic test for the diagnosis of malaria among HIV-positive patients in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Febrile illnesses occur frequently among HIV positive patients and these are often treated presumptively as malaria in endemic areas. Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria will eliminate unnecessary treatment, reduce drug-drug interactions and the chances for the emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium. We evaluated finger prick blood samples from 387 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and suspected of having malaria by expert microscopy and Paracheck-Pf(TM) - a histidine-rich protein-II based malaria rapid diagnostic test. The study was conducted at the PEPFAR supported AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Outcome parameters were prevalence of malaria parasitemia, sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf as well as the positive and negative predictive values for Paracheck-Pf using microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood film as gold standard. Malaria parasites were detected in 19·1% (74/387) of enrollees by microscopy and 19·3% (74/383) by Paracheck-Pf. Geometric mean parasite density was 501/?l (range 39-749 202/?l). Sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf at all parasite densities were 55·4% and 89·3% while corresponding figures at parasite densities ?200/?l were 90·9% and 90·3%. Sensitivity and specificity at parasite densities ?500/?l was 97·6% and 90·3%. Positive and negative predictive values for parasite density ?200/?l were 55·4% and 98·7%, respectively. Paracheck-Pf was found to be a useful malaria diagnostic tool at parasite densities ?200/?l facilitating appropriate clinical management. PMID:23683333

Falade, C O; Adesina-Adewole, B; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Ajayi, I O; Akinyemi, J O; Ademowo, O G; Adewole, I F; Kanki, P

2013-03-01

188

Late Pleistocene C 4Plant Dominance and Summer Rainfall in the Southwestern United States from Isotopic Study of Herbivore Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of climate and C4plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel ?13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C4plant consumption forMammuthusspp.,Bisonspp.,Equusspp., andCamelopsspp. The ?13C values were greatest inBisonspp. (?6.9 to +1.7‰) andMammuthusspp. (?9.0 to +0.3‰), and in some locales indicated C4-dominated grazing. The ?13C values

Sean L. Connin; Julio Betancourt; Jay Quade

1998-01-01

189

Assessing the strength of the monsoon during the late Pleistocene in southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved predictions of drought require an understanding of natural and human-induced climate variability. Long-term records across glacial-interglacial cycles provide the natural component of variability, however few such records exist for the southwestern United States (US) and quantitative or semi-quantitative records of precipitation are absent. Here we use the hydrogen isotope (?D) value of C28n-alkanoic acid in lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene age to reconstruct ?D values of precipitation in northern New Mexico over two glacial-interglacial cycles (?550,000-360,000 years before present) and obtain a record of monsoon strength. Overall, reconstructed ?D values range from -53.8‰ to -94.4‰, with a mean value of -77.5 ± 8‰. Remarkably, this variation falls within the measured present-day summer monsoonal and winter weighted means (-50.3 ± 3‰ and -106.4 ± 20‰ respectively), suggesting that processes similar to those of present time also controlled precipitation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13 to 10. Using the ?D summer monsoonal and winter mean values as end-members, we interpret our reconstructed ?D record of precipitation as a direct, and semi-quantitative, indicator of monsoon strength during MIS 13 to 10. Interglacial periods were characterized by greater monsoon strength but also greater variability compared to glacial periods. Pronounced cycles in the strength of the monsoon occurred during interglacial periods and in general were positively correlated with maximum mean annual temperatures. Our estimates of monsoon strength are supported by independent proxies of ecosystem productivity, namely, TOC, ?13C of TOC and Si/Ti ratio and warm pollen taxa Juniperus and Quercus. Interglacial variability in the strength of the monsoon resembles a response to the land-sea surface temperature contrast (LSTC) except for the early part of MIS 11. During this period, LSTC would have remained relatively strong while monsoonal strength decreased to a minimum. This minimum occurred following the warmest interval of MIS 11, suggesting a more complex driving of monsoon strength during warm periods. In addition, this period of monsoon minimum coincided with a core section of mud-cracked sediments that suggest low monsoonal precipitation was an important factor in the onset of drought. Our estimates of monsoon strength represent a record of natural variability in the region that is relevant to present time, in particular the variability during interglacial MIS 11, which is considered an analog for the current interglacial. Our results suggest that natural variability can cause significant reductions in monsoonal precipitation with the implication of a potentially adverse effect from sustained warming.

Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M.; Huang, Yongsong; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Fawcett, Peter J.; Fessenden, Julianna; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, Philip A.; Larson, Toti; Perkins, George; Toney, Jaime; Werne, Josef P.; Goff, Fraser; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Berke, Melissa A.

2014-11-01

190

Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.  

PubMed

As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4?:?1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6?:?1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2?±?11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

2014-01-01

191

Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ekiti State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories. PMID:23990730

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry

2013-01-01

192

Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity. PMID:24906223

Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

2014-10-01

193

An outbreak of dracunculiasis in a peri-urban community of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An outbreak of dracunculiasis was investigated at Egbejila, a peri-urban community near the city of Ilorin, the capital of Kwara State, Nigeria. Of 589 persons examined in June 1983, 265 (45.0%) had active ulcers with protruding guinea worms. The infection rates among males (42.1%) and females (47.8%) were not statistically different (p greater than 0.1) but children below 10 years of age were significantly less infected than the older subjects (p less than 0.001). Altogether, 67.2% of the infected subjects had more than one guinea worm lesion while 54.7% were incapacitated by the infection. The peculiar circumstances which led to the spontaneous outbreak of dracunculiasis and contributed to its severity in this community after the construction of the Asa Dam to solve the problem of acute water scarcity in the Ilorin municipality, were identified and discussed. PMID:6147987

Edungbola, L D; Watts, S

1984-06-01

194

Inventory of antidiabetic plants in selected districts of Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 20-30 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs (96%) and have developed effective and easily recognised diagnostic tools. 92% of diabetic patients were usually out-patients aged 21-60 years. Diabetes trado-specialists (80%) rarely referred their patients but usually treated referred cases (96%). Fifty multi-component herbal recipes covered in the survey were mainly liquid preparations often administered without serious side effects (92%). The principal antidiabetic plants included Vernonia amygdalina, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, Citrus aurantiifolia, Ocimum gratissimum, Momordica charantia and Morinda lucida. Dietary recommendations also accompanied therapy. PMID:19013225

Gbolade, Adebayo A

2009-01-12

195

Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association (P ? 0.05) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. PMID:22848868

Ibrahim, S.; Cadmus, S. I. B.; Umoh, J. U.; Ajogi, I.; Farouk, U. M.; Abubakar, U. B.; Kudi, A. C.

2012-01-01

196

Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the Southwest are particularly dependent on supplies of good-quality groundwater. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Many factors influence the quality of groundwater in the 15 case-study basins, but some common factors emerge from the basin summaries presented in this report. These factors include the chemical composition of the recharge water, consolidated rock geology and composition of aquifer materials derived from consolidated rock, and land and water use. The major water-quality issues in many of the developed case-study basins are increased concentrations of dissolved solids, nitrate, and VOCs in groundwater as a result of human activities. The information presented and the citations listed in this report serve as a resource for those interested in the groundwater-flow systems in the NAWQA case-study basins. The summaries of water-development history, hydrogeology, conceptual understanding of the groundwater system under both predevelopment and modern conditions, and effects of natural and human-related factors on groundwater quality presented in the sections on each basin also serve as a foundation for the synthesis and modeling phases of the SWPA regional study.

Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

2010-01-01

197

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In northern Nigeria, trachoma is an important public health problem, but there are currently few population-based data on prevalence of disease and no formal trachoma control programs. Methodology / Principal Findings In Kano state, Nigeria, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling, combining examination for clinical signs of trachoma and application of questionnaires assessing potential household-level risk factors. A total of 4491 people were examined in 40 clusters, of whom 1572 were aged 1–9 years, and 2407 (53.6%) were female. In 1–9 year-olds, the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) was 17.5% (95% CI: 15.7–19.5%). In a multivariate model, independent risk factors for active trachoma were the presence of flies on the face (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30–3.02); a dirty face (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.85–3.25) and presence of animal dung within the compound of residence (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.62–7.41). The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in persons aged ?15years was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.7–12.2%). Trichiasis was significantly more common in adult females than in adult males. Conclusion/Significance There is an urgent need for a trachoma control program in Kano state, with emphasis given to provision of good quality trichiasis surgery. Particular effort will need to be made to identify women with trichiasis and engage them with appropriate services while also taking steps to secure azithromycin for mass treatment and ensuring personal and environmental hygiene. PMID:22792311

Mpyet, Caleb; Lass, Barka David; Yahaya, Hadi B.; Solomon, Anthony W.

2012-01-01

198

Epilepsy prevalence, potential causes and social beliefs in Ebonyi State and Benue State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (?(2)-test, p<0.0001). In both communities most people with epilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. PMID:24300028

Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya

2014-02-01

199

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease. PMID:10081676

Mills, J. N.; Yates, T. L.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Peters, C. J.; Childs, J. E.

1999-01-01

200

Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.  

PubMed

Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy. PMID:15977443

Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

2004-12-01

201

Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu-Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Leveille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

2014-08-01

202

Hafnium isotope evidence for the origin of Cenozoic basaltic lavas from the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hafnium isotope Hafnium analyses of 52 Cenozoic basalts from the southwestern United States document the differences and similarities of the mantle beneath the continents, as compared to the suboceanic mantle. One of the major conclusions of this work is documentation of a widespread Nd-Hf isotope array that is oblique to that of the oceanic island basalt (OIB) array, indicating that the subcontinental mantle forms an important component to the Nd-Hf isotope balance of the Earth. Basalts from the Basin and Range province have Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope compositions that overlap those of OIB, and have been interpreted by many workers to have been derived from an OIB-like mantle plume [e.g., Fitton et al, 1991; Kempton et al., 1991]. However, the Hf isotope compositions of Basin and Range basalts do not overlap those of OIB, and are instead more similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle. Recognition of a MORB source for high-?Nd Basin and Range lavas is possible only with addition of Hf isotope data. The Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope compositions and trace element contents of Basin and Range basalts can be matched by mixing melts that were derived from small degrees of partial melting of a depleted MORB mantle, with partial melts of incompatible element enriched pyroxenite veins. In order to match the low Lu/Hf ratios measured in these basalts, one of these components (pyroxenite veins or depleted peridotite) must have been garnet bearing. Moreover, to match the positive ?Nd and ?Hf values of Basin and Range basalts, these lithophile element-enriched pyroxenite veins must be relatively young; we suggest they reflect mantle veining during earlier widespread Mesozoic or Cenozoic magmatism. Basalts from the Rocky Mountains and western Great Basin have similar trace element contents, high lithophile element contents and high large-ion lithophile element (LILE) to high-field-strength element (HFSE) ratios. The Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope compositions of most western Great Basin samples plot along the enriched mantle (EM) II array of Zindler and Hart [1986], but basalts from the Rocky Mountains plot along the EM I array. The Hf isotope compositions of western Great Basin and Rocky Mountain samples overlap. However, these Hf isotope compositions are anomalous relative to the OIB array; most samples have higher 8nf values at a given ?Nd value as compared to OIB. The lead isotope compositions of both the Rocky Mountain and western Great Basin samples plot significantly above the northern hemisphere reference line in terms of 207Pb/204Pb ratios, supporting models for input of crustal material into the mantle. Crustal recycling into the mantle can produce a mantle source region that has high LILE/HFSE ratios, which are a characteristic of the source of basalts from the western Great Basin and Rocky Mountains. To produce the negative ?Nd and ?Hf values, but high ?Hf values at a given ?Nd value (as compared to the OIB mantle), the crustal material input into the mantle must be a blend of pelagic and turbidite sediments. Ancient subduction and storage of pelagic sediments in the mantle will produce a source region with negative ?Nd values but positive ?Hf values. In contrast, subduction of turbidite sediments will produce a mantle that has negative ?Hf and ?Nd values, but low ?Hf values at a given ?Nd value as compared to the OIB mantle. A mixture of pelagic to turbidite sediments that has a ratio greater than 1:1.2 can produce the negative ?Hf and ?Nd values, and high ?Hf values at a given ?Nd value (relative to OIB).

Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

1997-01-01

203

Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés à une profondeur de 5,0 m dans 20 puits tests et analysés pour la qualité. Les concentrations en Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn et Cu sont légèrement au-dessus des valeurs recommandées par l'OMS. Des panaches d'eau contaminée provenant de bassins d'eaux usées ont été délimités. Les profils géoélectriques mettent en évidence quatre couches, qui sont successivement en profondeurs croissantes une argile latéritique, un sable ou un sable argileux, le substratum altéré, puis fissuré, et enfin le substratum non altéré. Les niveaux 3 et 4 les plus profonds constituent l'aquifère principal, de 3,1-67,1 m d'épaisseur. La distribution des éléments dans les effluents d'égouts confirme l'existence d'une communication hydrologique entre les bassins d'épandage et la nappe. Les eaux souterraines sont contaminées, comme le prouvent les résultats des prélèvements et de la géophysique. Par conséquent, les résultats démontrent la fiabilité de la méthode géophysique de résistivité électrique pour la détection et la cartographie de panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle cristallin. Resumen. Se ha efectuado un estudio hidrogeológico ambiental en el punto de vertido de las aguas residuales del Campus Universitario de Obafemi Awolowo, en Ile-Ife (Nigeria). El objetivo era determinar la validez del método de la resistividad eléctrica para delimitar penachos de contaminación en un medio rocoso. Se utilizó 50 estaciones con un Terrameter ABEM SAS 300C, utilizando la matriz de Wenner. Se interpretó los resultados por medio de una técnica iterativa automática. Se recogieron muestras de agua a una profundidad de 5 m en 20 pozos de ensayo, las cuales fueron posteriormente analizadas en laboratorio. Las concentraciones de cromo, cadmio, plomo, cinc y cobre son ligeramente superiores a los valores guía de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se delineó el penacho de agua contaminada procedente de las balsas de aguas residuales. Las secciones geoeléctricas revelan la existencia de cuatro capas, que están

Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

2001-11-01

204

Autosomal recessive diseases among the Athabaskans of the southwestern United States: recent advances and implications for the future.  

PubMed

Genetic and linguistic data suggest that the Na-Dene, of which the Athabaskans are the largest group, are part of a later immigration into the Americas than the first Amerind immigration. Whether a second and third immigration can be separated seems unlikely but continued cross-Bering Strait exchanges may have masked what was a greater separation in the past. The movement of tribes into Siberia appears to have involved a genetic bottleneck leading to at least one disease allele shared by Eskimo/Aleuts and Navajos and a second possibly shared by the Navajo and a Siberian population, but not the same Siberian population that share deep linguistic affinities with the Navajo. A second bottleneck appears to have occurred with the migration of Athabaskans from Northwest North America to the Southwestern United States along the Rocky Mountains. This bottleneck is reflected in several rare recessive diseases shared by the Navajo and Apache. Finally, the Navajo were captured and imprisoned under conditions which led to severe population loss. This, and the "hiding away" of a small number of Navajos in what is now the Western portion of the reservation, led to a Navajo-specific bottleneck(s) resulting in an increased frequency of several rare recessive diseases among the Navajo. Prejudice against human genetic research is high among the Southwestern Athabaskans but attempts to bridge the gap are now occurring. The involvement of Navajo scientists in this process is especially encouraging. PMID:19842189

Erickson, Robert P

2009-11-01

205

American Indian methamphetamine and other drug use in the Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AIs) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwestern AI participants (N = 81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine. We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N = 100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Venner, Kamilla L; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Foley, Kevin; Davis, Meredith P; Houck, Jon M; Willie, Ericke L; Begaye, Peter

2011-10-01

206

Putting Out the Fire with Gasoline? Violence Control in “Fragile” States: A Study of Vigilantism in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to

Andrea Kirschner

207

A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,

Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa

2011-01-01

208

Assessment of SocioEconomic Characteristics and Quality of Life Expectations of Rural Communities in Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the social, infrastructural and economic conditions prevalent in some rural communities of Enugu State,\\u000a Nigeria, where recent oil and gas prospecting activities have generated concerns for the environment and quality of rural\\u000a life. Mixed but complimentary methods of data collection employed include consultations with key stakeholders, focus group\\u000a discussions, questionnaire survey, field observations, key-informant interviews and secondary

Thaddeus Chidi Nzeadibe; Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu Ajaero

2010-01-01

209

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

210

An incursion of dust in the southwestern United States from April 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intrusion of volcanic dust occurred over the northern Mojave Desert, one month before the explosive eruption of 18 May 1980. Visibility was reduced to 15 to 30 miles during meteorological conditions that should have yielded a visibility in excess of 100 miles. This intrusion was documented by particle size distributions, scanning electron microscope analysis of Nuclepore filter samples, insolation measurements, observations by Navy and NASA aircraft, and meteorological data. No further incidents have been observed to date because of a lack of simultaneous volcanic activity with the particular wind patterns that existed in April. Therefore, under certain meteorological conditions, the desert of the southwestern United States could be significantly affected by volcanic ash from an eruption of Mount St. Helens.

Mathews, L. A.; Roquemore, G. R.; St.amand, P.; Gibson, J. P.

1982-01-01

211

Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-05-10

212

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the area of these three basin-fill aquifer systems had dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 1,000 milligrams per liter. Dissolved solids in streams were described on the basis of median daily concentration, median annual load, and median annual yield data for 420 surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The time period with dissolved-solids data for individual sites varied but was at least 10 or more years between 1974 and 2003. Median daily dissolved-solids concentrations vary substantially among the sites in the Southwest, ranging between 22 and 13,800 milligrams per liter, and also vary between different sites on the same stream. Median daily concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction for sites on the Rio Grande, Colorado River, Yampa River, White River, Green River, San Juan River, Gila River, Bear River, and Sevier River. Median annual dissolved-solids loads ranged from 60 tons per year for a site on Elk Creek, a headwater tributary to the Colorado River, to 7.86 million tons per year at Colorado River below Hoover Dam, Arizona-Nevada. Typically, streams with the highest flows have the highest dissolved-solids loads. Median annual loads for sites on these rivers generally increased in the downstream direction, except where streamflow decreased substantially due to diversions and (or) streambed infiltration, typically in the downstream part of the river system. Median annual yields ranged from 0.69 to 7,510 tons per year per square mile, and the mean for all 420 sites was 125 tons per year per square mile. Most (104 of 112) sites with median annual yields greater than 100 tons per year per square mile were in the Colorado River basin upstream from Lees Ferry and in the Bear and Great Salt Lake hydrologic subregions. A conceptual model was developed for the effects of natural and human factors on dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers and streams. Factors affecting concentrations in streamflow of upland mountain

Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

2007-01-01

213

Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

2009-12-01

214

Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Muhs, D.R.; Reynolds, R.L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

2003-01-01

215

Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

2011-07-01

216

Cataract Blindness, Surgical Coverage, Outcome, and Barriers to Uptake of Cataract Services in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of blindness due to cataract, assess visual outcomes of cataract surgery, and determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and barriers to uptake of services among individuals aged 50 years or older in Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4200 adults 50 years or older was performed. Multistage stratified random sampling, with probability proportional to size was used to select a representative sample. The Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services protocol was used. Statistical significance was indicated by (P < 0.05). Results: The cohort comprised 4115 subjects (coverage: 98%). The prevalence of bilateral blindness due to cataract was 2.1%, [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.7-2.5%] in the entire cohort, 2.4% in females (95% CI: 1.8-3.8%); and 1.8% in males (95% CI: 1.2-2.4%) (?2 = 0.85, P > 0.05). The prevalence of monocular blindness due to cataract was 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.6%). The cataract surgical coverage for subjects with visual acuity (VA) less 3/60 was 53.8% in the entire cohort; 60.5% for males and 48% for females (?2 = 2.49, P > 0.05). The couching coverage for subjects who were blind was 12%. A total of 180 eyes underwent surgical intervention (surgery or couching) for cataract, of which, 48 (26.7%) eyes underwent couching. The prevalence of bilateral (pseudo) aphakia was 1.5%, (95% CI: 1.2-1.9%) and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2-3.2%) for unilateral (pseudo) aphakia. Visual outcomes of the 180 eyes that underwent surgical intervention were good (VA ? 6/18) in 46 (25.6%) eyes and poor (VA < 6/60) in 105 (58.3%) eyes. Uncorrected aphakia was the most common cause of poor outcome (65.1%). Most subjects who underwent cataract surgery were not using spectacles 74 (71.2%). Cost and lack of awareness were the main barriers to uptake of cataract surgery services. Conclusion: Couching remains a significant challenge in Nigeria. The outcomes of cataract surgery are poor with the lack of aphakic correction being the main cause of the poor outcomes. PMID:22837620

Odugbo, Ojo P.; Mpyet, Caleb D.; Chiroma, Muhammad R.; Aboje, Aboje O.

2012-01-01

217

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Veronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

218

Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

2014-01-01

219

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

220

Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

Gbolade, Adebayo

2012-10-31

221

Biological input to visibility-reducing aerosol particles in the remote arid southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Source contributions of contemporary biological material to remote airsheds of the arid southwestern US are described. Combined inputs of epicuticular plants waxes and airborne microorganisms range from winter minimum (11.3-26.9 ng/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of aromatic resin acids (i.e., dehydroabietic acid and 13-isopropyl-5{alpha}-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraen-16-oic acid) plus a thermally matured wood smoke marker (i.e., retene) range from 1.2 to 9.6 ng/m{sup 3}. Minimum levels of the resin acids and wood smoke marker are observed for the sparse desert vegetation site (low elevation), and maximum levels are found for the transition site of ponderosa pine and pinyon/juniper forest (high elevation). The total wood smoke mass contributions were estimated by using the ambient mass concentrations of both the aromatic resin acid and wood smoke tracers. Based on these estimates, combustion of conifer biomass (e.g., natural wildfires, camp fires, home heating) is an important component of the organic emission source inventory for this desert region.

Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States)); Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-04-01

222

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

223

Monitoring of Mass Distribution Interventions for Trachoma in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9–73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA. PMID:23326617

Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; King, Jonathan D.; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N.; Patterson, Amy E.; Mosher, Aryc W.; Evans, Darin S.; Emerson, Paul M.

2013-01-01

224

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

225

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

Nwokoma, M. [Chevron Nigeria Ltd., Lekki (Nigeria)

1998-04-20

226

Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

2014-01-01

227

Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352

Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua

2012-08-01

228

Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

2013-02-01

229

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

230

Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

2000-01-01

231

FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase. PMID:24553609

Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.

2014-01-01

232

Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

2014-01-01

233

Playing politics with the mobile phone in Nigeria: civil society, big business & the state  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 19 September 2003, mobile phone subscribers in Nigeria took the unprecedented step of switching off their handsets en masse. The subscribers took this symbolic step in protest against perceived exploitation by the existing mobile phone companies. Among other things, they were angered by allegedly exorbitant tariffs, poor reception, frequent and unfavourable changes in contract terms, and arbitrary reduction of

Ebenezer Obadare

2006-01-01

234

Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

2013-01-01

235

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

236

Distribution of freshwater snails in the man-made Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing patterns of snail distribution in Oyan Reservoir, a typically medium sized man-made reservoir in southwest Nigeria, were investigated once a month, for 28 months (August 1990-November 1992). During each monthly visit, seven stations were sampled for relative snail density, vegetation cover and physical and chemical properties of the lake water. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the

Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

1999-01-01

237

Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Most respondents showed a reasonable belief over the cause of their children’s condition rather than the erroneous traditional belief that paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by spirit forces. Conclusions It is of great concern that the good knowledge, positive attitude and reasonable belief by parents/primary caregivers about paralytic poliomyelitis observed in this study did not play a prominent role in preventing susceptibility of children in north-west Nigeria to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is imperative that Nigerian policy makers should device more strategic measures toward the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis in this sub region. PMID:23083466

2012-01-01

238

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

239

Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of the study area-about 93 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers was less than one-half the standard for nitrate as N (5.0 milligrams per liter), and 50 percent was less than one-half the standard for arsenic (5.0 micrograms per liter). The predicted concentrations and the improved understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of southwestern basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment can be used by water managers as a qualitative tool to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources in the Southwest.

Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

2012-01-01

240

Genetic Structure Analysis of Three Hispanic Populations from Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Southwestern United States Using Y-Chromosome STR Markers and mtDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred seventeen male subjects from Costa Rica, Mexico, and the Hispanic population of the southwestern United States were studied. Twelve Y-chromosome STRs and the HVSI sequence of the mtDNA were analyzed to describe their genetic structure and to compare maternal and paternal lineages. All subjects are part of two NIMH-funded studies to localize schizophrenia susceptibility genes in Hispanic populations

Rebeca Campos-Sanchez; Ramiro. Barrantes; Sandra Honorato da. Silva; Michael. Escamilla; Alfonso. Ontiveros; Humberto. Nicolini; Ricardo. Mendoza; Henriette. Raventos

2006-01-01

241

Block kinematics of the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS, seismological, and geologic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active deformation of the southwestern United States (30°–41°N) is represented by a finite number of rotating, elastic-plastic spherical caps. GPS-derived horizontal velocities, geologic fault slip rates, transform fault azimuths, and earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths are inverted for block angular velocities, creep on block-bounding faults, permanent strain rates within the blocks, and the rotations of 11 published GPS velocity

Robert McCaffrey

2005-01-01

242

RE-EXAMINATION OF THE TAXONOMY OF THE ONE SEEDED, SERRATE LEAF JUNIPERUS OF SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES AND NORTHERN MEXICO (CUPRESSACEAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one-seeded, serrate leaf margined junipers of Southwestern United States and northern Mexico consist of J. angosturana, J. californica, J. coahuilensis var. arizonica, J. c. var. coahuilensis, J. monosperma, J. pinchotii, J. occidentalis var. australis, J. o. var. occidentalis and J. osteosperma. Recent nrDNA and trnC-trnD sequence data were compared with RAPDs analysis and two of the taxa (J. c.

Robert P. Adams; Sanko Nguyen; Julie A. Morris; Andrea E. Schwarzbach

243

Height growth and vertical development of an old-growth Pseudotsuga - Tsuga forest in southwestern Washington State, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of diameter-height relationships was applied to an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii - Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest in southwestern Washington State, U.S.A., to pre- dict future development of vertical stratification among tree species. Differences among species in relative abundance and size structure resulted in diameter-height regressions of varying certainty and stability. Damage and shading

Hiroaki Ishii; Joel H. Reynolds; E. David Ford; David C. Shaw

2000-01-01

244

Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perchlorate (ClO4?) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4? appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4? indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4? (?18O, ?17O, ?37Cl) and associated NO3? (?18O, ?17O, ?15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3?-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4? in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4? from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4?. ClO4? in Death Valley caliche has a range of high ?17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley ?37Cl values (?3.1 to ?0.8 ‰) and ?18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4?. In contrast, ClO4? from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower ?17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high ?37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and ?18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4? was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High ?17O values in ClO4? (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high ?17O values in NO3?, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low ?17O values in less arid settings. Although ?17O variations in terrestrial NO3? can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high ?17O) and biogenic (low ?17O) NO3?, variations in ?17O of terrestrial ClO4? are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO4? in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO4? formation mechanisms and(or) ClO4? isotopic exchange in biologically active environments.

Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, Neil C.

2010-01-01

245

Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Health: Voices and Images of Latina Immigrant Survivors in Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

Moya, Eva M.; Chavez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

2014-01-01

246

Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 ?g/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 ?g/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 ?g/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%). PMID:21247209

Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth

2011-02-15

247

Continuous Holocene Record of Diatom Stratigraphy, Paleohydrology, and Anthropogenic Activity in a Spring-Mound in Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the first continuous record of fossil diatoms taken from an open spring-mound in southwestern United States. Diatoms were analyzed from a radiocarbon-dated core taken from Montezuma Well, a near thermally constant spring in northcentral Arizona. Fluctuations in total diatom density, oscillations in the relative abundance of Anomoeoneis sphaerophora, and intermittent deposition of calcite suggest that water levels in Montezuma Well underwent dramatic fluctuations to the degree of being intermittently dry, or at least very shallow, during the middle Holocene (˜8000-5000 yr B.P.). The fluctuations in water level probably correspond to oscillations in regional temperature and precipitation, which regulate hydrologic input and evaporation rates. The dramatic fluctuations in water level during the middle Holocene suggest that the endemic biota of Montezuma Well underwent relatively rapid speciation within the past ˜5000 yr. The appearance of endemic species ( Gomphonema montezumense and Cyclotella pseudostelligera f. parva ) at ˜5000-3000 yr B.P. supports this hypothesis. Diatom indicators for organic enrichment ( Aulacoseira granulata and A. islandica) closely coincide with the prehistoric native occupation of Montezuma Well.

Blinn, Dean W.; Hevly, Richard H.; Davis, Owen K.

1994-09-01

248

Intimate partner violence and sexual health: voices and images of latina immigrant survivors in southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

Moya, Eva M; Chávez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

2014-11-01

249

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This

B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya

2011-01-01

250

Southwestern Archaeology (SWA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite, created by Brian Kenny and Matthias Gessler, contains a very large number of links relating to archaeology in the American Southwest. Archaeologists and students will find links for health and safety issues, job opportunities, professional contacts, and conference announcements. Those interested in Southwestern archaeology, history, or culture will appreciate the eclectic collection of links, organized by state. Additional resources include annotated bibliographies and links to "Anti-Archaeology" sites.

Giessler, Matthias.; Kenny, Brian.

1998-01-01

251

RURAL AGE DISTRIBUTION AND FARM LABOUR SUPPLY IN FOOD CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA (DISTRIBUCIÓN DE EDAD Y TRABAJO RURAL EN SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE GRANO EN EL ESTADO DE ABIA, NIGERIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Rural age distribution and its interrelationships with household level socio-economic variables, were analysed in relation to farm labour supply. The data suggested an ageing farm labour force in the study area, Abia State. This result could be applied to the entire southeastern Nigeria, since the rural life and agricultural characteristics are largely homogeneous. Certain household-level socio-economic factors including migration,

R. N. Echebiri; J. A. Mbanasor; Michael Okpara

2003-01-01

252

Spatial interpolation of precipitation in a dense gauge network for monsoon storm events in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inaccuracy in spatially distributed precipitation fields can contribute significantly to the uncertainty of hydrological states and fluxes estimated from land surface models. This paper examines the results of selected interpolation methods for both convective and mixed/stratiform events that occurred during the North American monsoon season over a dense gauge network at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the southwestern United States. The spatial coefficient of variation for the precipitation field is employed as an indicator of event morphology, and a gauge clustering factor CF is formulated as a new, scale-independent measure of network organization. We consider that CF < 0 (a more distributed gauge network) will produce interpolation errors by reduced resolution of the precipitation field and that CF > 0 (clustering in the gauge network) will produce errors because of reduced areal representation of the precipitation field. Spatial interpolation is performed using both inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) and multiquadric-biharmonic (MQB) methods. We employ ensembles of randomly selected network subsets for the statistical evaluation of interpolation errors in comparison with the observed precipitation. The magnitude of interpolation errors and differences in accuracy between interpolation methods depend on both the density and the geometrical organization of the gauge network. Generally, MQB methods outperform IDW methods in terms of interpolation accuracy under all conditions, but it is found that the order of the IDW method is important to the results and may, under some conditions, be just as accurate as the MQB method. In almost all results it is demonstrated that the inverse-distance-squared method for spatial interpolation, commonly employed in operational analyses and for engineering assessments, is inferior to the ID-cubed method, which is also more computationally efficient than the MQB method in studies of large networks.

Garcia, Matthew; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Goodrich, David C.

2008-05-01

253

Medical Rehabilitation of Leprosy Patients Discharged Home in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the extent to which medical coverage is available to discharged leprosy patients in communities. Evidence has shown that after care services, follow-up visits and national disease prevention programs are important components of medical rehabilitation to leprosy patients discharged home after treatment. Denying them accessibility to these services could expose them to multiple disabilities as well as several disease conditions including HIV/AIDS. These adverse health conditions could be averted if health workers extend healthcare services to discharged leprosy patients. This study was conducted to examine the extent to which discharged leprosy patients have access to healthcare services in the communities. Methods All 33 leprosy patients who were fully treated with multi-drug therapy (MDT) and discharged home in the two leprosy settlements in Abia and Ebonyi States of Nigeria were included in this study. The list of discharged leprosy patients studied and their addresses were provided by the leprosy settlements where they were treated. Also, snowball-sampling method was used to identify some of the leprosy patients whose addresses were difficult to locate in the communities. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire, interview guide and checklist. These were administered because respondents were essentially those with no formal education. Analysis of data was done quantitatively and qualitatively. Results Findings showed that 20 (60.6%) of discharged patients did not receive health programs like HIV/AIDS prevention or family planning. Also, follow-up visits and after-care services were poor. About 14 (42.4%) of the patients live in dirty and overcrowded houses. On the whole, discharged patients were poorly medically rehabilitated (mean score: 4.7±1.1 out of total score of 7). Conclusion Denying discharged leprosy patients opportunity of accessing health care services could increase prevalence of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS among them. There is need to extend national prevention programs, follow-up visits, after-care services and free treatment to discharged patients in the communities. PMID:22253946

Enwereji, Ezinne Ezinna; Ahuizi, Eke Reginald; Iheanocho, Okereke Chukwunenye; Enwereji, Kelechi Okechukwu

2011-01-01

254

Helminthiasis and Hygiene Conditions of Schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended. PMID:18357338

Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi

2008-01-01

255

Awareness of and Attitude towards Glaucoma among an Adult Rural Population of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 ± 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said ‘I don't know’ and 24.4% of participants who responded ‘curse-from-God’. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded ‘I don't know how it can be treated’ and 10/41 (36.6%) said ‘medically’. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because ‘it cannot cure or reverse the disease’ while (26.7%) would refuse out of ‘fear’. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma. PMID:24791109

Isawumi, Michaeline A.; Hassan, Mustapha B.; Akinwusi, Patience O.; Adebimpe, Olalekan W.; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O.; Christopher, Alebiosu C.; Adewole, Taiwo A.

2014-01-01

256

Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: Prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20%) by microscopy and estimated 25%, by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of

E. F. O. Enato; P. F. Mens; A. O. Okhamafe; E. E. Okpere; E. Pogoson; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2009-01-01

257

Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

2009-01-01

258

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by Lagos state athletes at the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA games 2009) in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009). It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. METHODS: The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium

Oluwatoyosi BA Owoeye

2010-01-01

259

Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

260

Diversity and Population of Timber Tree Species Producing Valuable Non-Timber Products in Two Tropical Rainforests in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tropical rainforest reserves, namely Afi River and Oban West forest reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, were assessed for the diversity and population density of timber tree species producing economically valuable non-timber products. Species similarity index of the two forest reserves was determined using Sorensen's similarity function. Totals of 12 and 11 tree species were encountered in Afi River

OPEYEMI OLAJIDE; ENEFIOK S. UDO

261

A Critical Study of In-Service Teacher Education for Primary School Teachers in Rivers State Nigeria. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-chapter study presents the results of an examination of inservice teacher education needs for primary school teachers in Rivers State, Nigeria. Chapter 1 presents an overview and analysis of the needs, and highlights the introduction of universal primary education in 1970, school enrollment increases, the short supply and inadequate…

Ajie, Victor Elemchuku Nawaji

262

Managing Muslim–Christian Conflicts in Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to identify the causes of Christian–Muslim conflicts in Northern Nigeria and suggest strategies for peaceful co-existence among the adherents of the two religions. It is based on in-depth interviews with the community and religious leaders and a survey of media coverage of the crises. The article examines the sudden upsurge of violent conflicts between Christians and

Hajiya Bilkisu Yusuf

2007-01-01

263

New host and locality records of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from rodents in the southwestern and western United States.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven murid and heteromyid rodents were collected from various sites in the southwestern and western United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah) and Baja California Norte, Mexico, and their feces were examined for coccidial parasites. Of these, 53 (36%) were infected with at least 1 coccidian; 45 of 53 (85%) of the infected rodents harbored only 1 species of coccidian. Infected rodents included: 10 of 22 (45%) Neotoma albigula, 3 of 11 (27%) Neotoma floridana, 2 of 14 (14%) Neotoma lepida, 15 of 29 (52%) Neotoma micropus, 5 of 8 (63%) Peromyscus crinitis, 6 of 6 (100%) Peromyscus difficilis, 1 of 2 (50%) Peromyscus eremicus, 9 of 34 (26%) Sigmodon hispidis, and 2 of 3 (67%) Sigmodon ochrognathus; 4 Neotoma cinerea, 3 Neotoma devia, 3 Neotoma mexicana, 1 Peromyscus maniculatus, 1 Onychomys leucogaster, 1 Onychomys torridus, 3 Chaetodipus fallax, and 2 Chaetodipus penicillatus were negative. Although no new species was found, the following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria albigulae from N. albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, Eimeria antonellii from N. albigula and N. micropus, Eimeria ladronensis from N. albigula, N. floridana, N. lepida, and N. micropus, Eimeria arizonensis and Eimeria lachrymalis from P. crinitis and P. difficilis, Eimeria lachrymalis from P. eremicus, Eimeria tuskeegensis from S. ochrognathus, and Eimeria roperi, Eimeria sigmodontis, Eimeria tuskeegensis, Eimeria webbae, and an unidentified species of Eimeria from S. hispidis. This report documents 12 new host and several distributional records for Eimeria species from murid rodents in Arizona, Texas, and Utah. PMID:1779282

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Planz, J V; DeWalt, T S

1991-12-01

264

A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Hanson, R. T.; Newhouse, M. W.; Dettinger, M. D.

2004-01-01

265

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

Anning, David W

2011-01-01

266

Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

2003-01-01

267

Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be

Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo

2010-01-01

268

A test of a climatic index of dune mobility using measurements from the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.

2000-01-01

269

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District Benue Plateau State, Nigeria. 2. Immunity survey to determine geographic limits and origins of the epidemic.  

PubMed

Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Stroh, G; Lee, V H; Smith, E A

1973-01-01

270

Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources. About 46.6 million people live in the SWPA study area, mostly in urban areas, but also in rural, agricultural communities that cultivate about 14.4 million acres of cropland. Other rural areas contain small communities with mining, retirement, or tourism/recreational-based economies. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the region are particularly dependent on good-quality groundwater supplies. In the year 2000, about 33.7 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of surface water was diverted from streams, and about 23.0 million acre-ft of groundwater was withdrawn from basin-fill aquifers in the SWPA study area. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area for 2000 were about 18.0 million acre-ft and 4.1 million acre-ft, respectively, and together account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Although irrigation and public supply are the primary uses of basin-fill aquifer withdrawals in the study area, water use varies locally by basin, and withdrawals for industrial, mining, and electric power generation also are substantial in some areas.

Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

2012-01-01

271

Taxonomic status of certain clapper rails of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of 58 Clapper Rail specimens taken in the breeding season from the Colorado Valley and the west coast of mainland Mexico verifies the distinctness of the races Rallus longirostris yomanensis, R. 1. rhizophorae, and R. 1. nayaritensis. Rallus 1. yumanensis is a relatively pale brown, pointed-winged, summer resident of freshwater marshes along the valley and delta of the Colorado River. Late winter specimens of yumanensis have been taken in freshwater and saltwater habitats in the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Puebla. Both R. 1. rhizophorae, a pale grayish bird, and R. 1. nayaritensis, a darker grayish form, are presumed year-round residents of the western Mexican mangrove swamps. Both have more rounded wings than yumanensis. The range of rhizophorae extends south along the coast from central Sonora to central Sinaloa, and that of nayaritensis from central Sinaloa to the vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit. Features of the range and characters of birds where the range of these two races approach each other are unclear.

Banks, R.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.

1974-01-01

272

The social meaning of infertility in Southwest Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been very little documentation of the social meaning given to infertility in many developing countries, including Nigeria, where the prevalence of infertility is known to be high. We have conducted a number of qualitative studies aimed at exploring socio-cultural issues associated with infertility in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty-five focus-group discussions were held with knowledgeable persons in the rural

Friday E. Okonofua; Rachel C. Snow; Boston M

273

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42?, NO3?, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42? show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42? unlike snow SO42?, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42? (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42?-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3? : SO42? ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3? : SO42? ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3? : SO42? ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42? precursors. PMID:24432030

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

2013-01-01

274

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+,Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain decreased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

2013-04-01

275

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

2013-08-01

276

Numerical simulation of precipitation over the Southwestern United States during the 1994-1995 winter season  

SciTech Connect

Accurate assessments of precipitation and surface snow budget during winter seasons are crucial for managing water resources in the western United States. This region receives most of its annual precipitation during winter months and relies on water stored in snowpack and reservoirs for water supply during dry summer seasons. Rainfall directly affects water inflow into reservoirs while snowmelt determines it during spring and summer. Precipitation and snow budget result from interactions among large-scale forcing, mesoscale processes, and surface energy balance. Interaction among these elements is highly nonlinear and includes various processes such as large-scale water vapor and temperature advection, precipitation physics, orographic forcing, turbulence, solar and terrestrial radiative transfer, and snow-albedo feedback. Hence, one need to take these processes into consideration in order to obtain accurate assessments of regional water resources over time scales longer than a season. A regional model that interactively couples atmospheric and land surface processes is a cost-effective tool for an assessment of precipitation and surface hydrology over large areas at a relatively fine resolution. Such models can include complex physical and dynamical processes involved in the interaction between the atmosphere and land surfaces. Another advantage of coupled atmosphere-land surface modeling is that simulations, when verified against local observations, can provide area-integrated values. Area-integrated values are useful for computing overall budgets, but they are somewhat difficult to obtain directly from local observations. Hence, a coupled atmosphere-surface model is especially useful for computing area-weighted values for areas of interest.

Kim, J.

1995-09-28

277

The Economic Burden of Malaria on Households and the Health System in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex

2013-01-01

278

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

De Nie, Michael W.

279

Geodetic Constraints on Strain Transfer Between the Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic measurements of crustal deformation in the western United States have provided unprecedented constraints on the kinematics of deformation of the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone. In particular, it is now well established that deformation in the northern Basin and Range Province is mostly taking place along its western and eastern margins with very little internal strain in the middle part of the Province. Westward motion of the bulk of the Province of 2-3 mm/yr relative to North America/Colorado Plateau is being accommodated along a roughly 100-km wide deformation zone centered near the Wasatch fault. We present a new model of how these 2-3 mm/yr of relative motion are being accommodated further south using velocities of continuous GPS sites in the area, mainly those belonging to the BARGEN and EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory networks. The velocity field allows for an interpretation in which the relatively narrow deformation zone across the Wasatch broadens southward to about 700-km wide in the southern Basin Range at the latitude of southern Arizona. If true, the idea of an autonomous, rigid, and independently moving Colorado Plateau needs to be reassessed. Alternatively we find that subsets of the GPS velocities on the Plateau can be interpreted as having rigid-body rotation, but the Euler pole of the rotation is highly dependent on which subset of stations is being considered. Consequently, the inferred motion along the Plateau's margins vary considerably between models and can only be tested by acquiring more geodetic data or by considering independent kinematic indicators such as earthquake slip vectors. Relative to sites on the southwestern Plateau we observe 1.7 and 1.2 mm/yr of westward motion of sites on the Nevada Test Site and Spring Mountains (southern Nevada), respectively, while we observe no extension directly across the Hurricane-Toroweap fault system (the Plateau's western physiographic boundary at this latitude). These results suggest a westward jump of the eastern perimeter of active deformation of the northern Basin and Range. We also observe 2 mm/yr of sinistral motion across the eastern part of the ENE-SSW striking Pahranagat shear zone. This shear zone is seismically very active, with consistent strike-slip earthquake mechanisms, and exhibits evidence of long-term sinistral offset. This result suggests that the Pahranagat shear zone acts as key component in the transfer of extension from the Wasatch in the east to the Eastern California Shear Zone in the west.

Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Bennett, R. A.

2008-12-01

280

A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by environmental factors operating on the entire drainage basin, classification of channels can provide land managers and users with an understanding of what areas are likely to be most susceptible to erosion or the effects of high sedimentation rates and under what conditions they are most likely to occur.

Parker, John T.C.

2000-01-01

281

NigeriaWorld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.

282

The “coprolites” that aren't: The straight poop on specimens from the Miocene of southwestern Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolite?like siderite masses from paludal deposits of the Miocene?Pliocene(?) Wilkes Formation near Toledo, southwestern Washington, have been studied since 1939. Over the years, numerous fossil supply houses have also sold them as vertebrate coprolites. The origin of these curious objects has been attributed to formation as speleo?thems, pseudomorphs of bryozoa, and as feces of vertebrates, including reptiles, fish, and mammals.

Patrick K. Spencer

1993-01-01

283

Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fact bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8) Conclusion The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for. PMID:25328626

Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

2014-01-01

284

Malarial Infection among Antenatal and Maternity Clinics Attendees at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the level of malarial infection in relation to some epidemiological factors, gravidity and pregnancy period of antenatal clinic attendees of the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. We also assessed malarial infection in placental blood in relation to gravidity of pregnant women at delivery in the maternity clinic of the same hospital. Thin and thick blood films were prepared for microscopic examination. A questionnaire was administered to each pregnant woman at the antenatal clinic to collect data on educational level, occupation, gravidity, pregnancy period, malaria preventive measures and malaria symptoms. Of the 163 pregnant women examined at the antenatal clinic, 68.3% (111/163) were infected with malaria. Pregnant women that are illiterates (?2=15.44, P=0.100) and those that are farmers (?2=9.20, P=0.270) had the highest infection rate with no significant difference respectively. Malarial infection was significantly higher in the multigravidae, 57.6% (34/59) (?2=5.16, P=0.007) and non-significant in the pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy, 60.9% (53/89) (?2=4.45, P=0.108). Placental malaria was significantly higher in the primigravidae among pregnant women at delivery (?2=9.33, P=0.000). A significant difference (?2=33.52, P=0.000) was observed between pregnant women that did not use any malaria preventive methods, 91.2% (31/34) and those that used single, 64.3% (65/101) and combined, 46.4% (13/28) methods of prevention. Malaria remains highly prevalent among antenatal clinics attendees in Makurdi, Nigeria. Combined method of prevention (insecticides treated nets and insecticide spray) yielded good results and its use is advocated in preventing malaria among the pregnant women. PMID:24757507

Amuta, Elizabeth; Houmsou, Robert; Wama, Emmanuel; Ameh, Mary

2014-01-01

285

Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.  

PubMed

In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

2013-09-01

286

Analysis of women's reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Niger State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study examined the reproductive health situation in Bida Emirate of Nigeria, with a view to advancing frontiers in communication support for reproductive health education. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select 1,200 women respondents that participated in the study. Data was obtained on reproductive health and rights, reproductive health history, and personal and social characteristics of respondents. Data analyses showed that majority (68.1%) of respondents were aware of existing methods of birth control, while 31.9% were not. On the use of methods, abstinence, breastfeeding and use of condoms recorded 42.8%, 22% and 40.3% respectively. Respondents rarely used traditional methods of birth control. Forty five per cent blamed their husbands for not using family planning methods. Surprisingly, 84.8% of respondents had no idea of what HIV/AIDS is all about; only 13% and 3.1% could describe gonorrhoea and AIDS respectively. Results further revealed that there is no significant relationship between personal and social characteristics of respondents (religion, marital status and position, etc) and their attitude towards family planning. However, rural and urban women significantly differed in their health status (t = 0.2729; p < 0.001). Similar trend was observed for attitude towards family decision-making (t = 40; p < 0.001), sexuality and STD prevention (t = 90; p < 0.001), and maternity/childcare (t = 0.001; p < 0.001). In conclusion, the study reveals that there is a wide gap between social expectations of women's reproductive health and cultural realities in Nupeland of Nigeria. The study thus recommends, among others, the need for sustainable safe motherhood campaign in culture bound societies. PMID:12476729

Yahaya, Mohammed Kuta

2002-04-01

287

Effect of processing and storage on the ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content of some pineapple varieties grown in the Rivers State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid contents of the juice of four different pineapples species grown in the Rivers State of Nigeria were determined before and after storage of whole pineapple and processing and storage of the juice for two months. Ascorbic acid of the fresh juice ranged from 22.5 mg to 33.5 mg\\/100 g sample. After storage at room temperature (30–32 °C) of

S. C. Achinewhu; A. D. Hart

1994-01-01

288

Pattern and management of sports injuries presented by lagos state athletes at the 16th national sports festival (kada games 2009) in nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria.ObjectiveThe study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival and providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes.DesignProspective descriptive study.SettingThe study was carried out at the Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and

O B A Owoeye

2011-01-01

289

Effect of water supply and sanitation on the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides among pre-school-age children in Ajebandele and Ifewara, Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Ascaris lumbricoides infection and provisions for safe water supply and excreta disposal was investigated in Ajebandele and Ifewara, 2 peri-urban communities near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, from September 1998 to December 1999. Although there were more facilities for safe water supply (pipe-borne and shallow wells) and sanitation (flush toilets and pit latrines) in Ajebandele than in Ifewara,

S. O. Asaolu; I. E. Ofoezie; P. A. Odumuyiwa; O. A. Sowemimo; T. A. B. Ogunniyi

2002-01-01

290

Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n?=?2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n?=?4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ?10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n?=?1,305) or Plateau (n?=?1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

2014-01-01

291

Coping Strategies for Living in Student Residential Facilities in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines coping strategies used by students in high-density living. It uses the questionnaire survey method in 20 university halls-of-residence in southwestern Nigeria. The study focused on students' cognitive responses to the bedroom, the coping strategies that they used, gender differences in coping styles, and the influence of…

Amole, Dolapo

2005-01-01

292

Human Rights and Sharia'h Justice in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the introduction of Sharia'h law in northern Nigeria, both in regard to the fundamental legal provisions of the Nigeria constitution and also as to the international rights conventions to which Nigeria is a signatory. The relationship between the new Sharia'h laws enacted in all 19 northern Nigerian states and the human rights provisions in the 1999 Constitution

M. Ozonnia Ojielo

2010-01-01

293

POVERTY AND FERTILITY DYNAMICS IN NIGERIA: A MICRO EVIDENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of poverty in Nigeria's fertility transition using household survey data from Nigeria - Kaduna and Lagos states - of which 2425 respondents were sampled. In Nigeria, much attention has not been paid to the link between poverty and fertility preferences. This paper is aimed at filling this research gap. It uses univariate and bivariate analyses

A. F. ODUSOLA

294

Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

Andriot, Karen; And Others

295

Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755

Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

296

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

297

Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

298

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

299

Studies into the prevalence of Mycoplasma species in small ruminants in Benue State, North-central Nigeria.  

PubMed

The indicative prevalence of respiratory Mycoplasma species in small ruminants (SR) was determined in North-central Nigeria. Nasal swabs from 172 sheep and 336 goats from the Northeast, Northwest and South Senatorial Districts of Benue State were examined. Initial Mycoplasma isolation used Mycoplasma culture techniques followed by digitonin sensitivity testing. Species identification was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, Mycoplasma organisms were isolated from 131 (25.8 %) of the 508 SR examined. Prevalence rates of 18.1 and 29.8 % were recorded for sheep and goats, respectively. A total of 135 isolates of Mycoplasma belonging to three different species were identified: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (127), Mycoplasma arginini (7) and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (1). More than one Mycoplasma species were detected in four (3.1 %) of the 131 confirmed Mycoplasma positive cultures. Mycoplasma was isolated from 16.2 and 29.1 % of animals with and without respiratory signs, respectively. The high isolation rate of mycoplasmas in apparently healthy and clinically sick sheep and goats in this study indicates a carrier status in these SR which may constitute a serious problem in disease control. PMID:24828562

Akwuobu, Chinedu A; Ayling, Roger D; Chah, Kennedy Foinkfu; Oboegbulem, Stephen I

2014-08-01

300

Water level regulation and control of schistosomiasis transmission: a case study in Oyan Reservoir, Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776

Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.

1997-01-01

301

Awareness of IFSERar's pasteurized milk, perception and willingness to pay in Odeda local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Milk is a source of protein but contains some micro-organisms which could be harmful if consumed raw. Pasteurization helps in making it safe for consumption without substantial depletion of its nutrient composition. This study examined the level of awareness of pasteurized milk, amount willing to pay per liter and factors influencing willingness to pay in Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used. Data were analyzed with descriptive and Probit regression methods. The results revealed that mean amount households were willing to pay was Nigerian Naira 138.44 per liter. The level of awareness of IFSERAR's milk was very low (21.20%). The factors that influenced willingness to pay were age, sex, household size, knowledge of the benefits of pasteurized milk, price, its flavour, and shelf life. It was recommended that in order to increase consumption, there is the need for awareness creation about the product, addition of flavour to give it better odour and tastes and improvement of shelf life of pasteurized milk. PMID:24498681

Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi; Ayegbokiki, Adedayo Oladipo; Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

2013-11-01

302

Hepatitis C Virus infection in apparentenly healthy individuals with family history of diabetes in Vom, Plateau State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst people with possible genetic predisposition to diabetes mellitus living in and around Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria. 188 subjects were screened after they filled a structured questionnaire to determine some of their demographic data, social habits and possible risk factors. 5 ml of blood was collected from each subject and sera separated out. Biotech's third generation ELISA Kit for HCV antibodies was used for the screening. Liver enzyme analysis was carried out on positive samples to determine their disease status. A prevalence of 14.36% was recorded with the highest seropositive group being those in the age bracket of 18 – 37 years. 13(13.40%) of males and 14(15.38%) of females were sero-positive. Liver enzyme analysis of sero-positive subjects showed increased levels which may imply early onset of liver damage. These result showed that these individuals could later suffer diabetes which may be triggered by their HCV infection if not treated. This is not over-looking the economic significance of their ill health, assuming they progress to cirrhotic HCV or develop hepatocelluar carcinoma due to HCV chronicity. PMID:19619316

Nwankiti, Obinna O; Ndako, James A; Echeonwu, Georgebest ON; Olabode, Atanda O; Nwosuh, Chika I; Onovoh, Ema M; Okeke, Lilian A; Akinola, Jumoke O; Duru, Boniface N; Nwagbo, Ijeoma O; Agada, Godwin O; Chukwuedo, Anthony A

2009-01-01

303

Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

2012-09-01

304

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

305

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

2014-09-30

306

Determinants of insecticide treated nets use among youth corp members in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Africa Malaria Report shows that many countries are quite far from reaching the universal coverage targets of 80% coverage by 2010 and maintain it at this level. This paper examines ITN use and the factors associated with its adoption among the youths in Nigeria. This information will help in the design of effective methods of providing and distributing the nets in order to enhance its adoption and maximize the public health benefits of ITNs. Methods This cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2006 among university leavers serving compulsory national service (youth corpers) using total sampling technique. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Results A total of 656 youth corp members were interviewed. Only 23.8% of these youths ever use ITN while 4.3% currently use ITN before reporting in camp. A significant proportion of the youths acquired information on ITN from Mass Media (p = 0.0001). Other statistically significant factors that encourage the use of ITN include inexpensive market price of ITN (p = 0.0001), frequency of Malaria infestation (p = 0.019) and perceived malaria preventive action of ITN ( p = 0.000). Following logistic regression analysis, perceived effective malaria preventive action of ITN [OR = 29.3, C.I = 17.17-50.0] and high frequency of Malaria infestation [OR = 1.55, C.I = 0.97-2.47] were predictors of ITN use. Conclusion The study shows that the use of ITN for the prevention of Malaria is low among these Nigerian youths. The major factors determining the adoption of ITN among the youths were perceived effective Malaria prevention action of ITN and high frequency of Malaria attack. These factors should be considered in the design of sustainable and effective locally relevant strategies for scale-up adoption of ITNs among a youthful African population. PMID:21943107

2011-01-01

307

Aging Field Collected Aedes aegypti to Determine Their Capacity for Dengue Transmission in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, is well established throughout urban areas of the Southwestern US, including Tucson, AZ. Local transmission of the dengue virus, however, has not been reported in this area. Although many factors influence the distribution of the dengue virus, we hypothesize that one contributing factor is that the lifespan of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the Southwestern US is too short for the virus to complete development and be transmitted to a new host. To test this we utilized two age grading techniques. First, we determined parity by analyzing ovarian tracheation and found that only 40% of Ae. aegypti females collected in Tucson, AZ were parous. The second technique determined transcript levels of an age-associated gene, Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein 1 (SCP-1). SCP-1 expression decreased in a predictable manner as the age of mosquitoes increased regardless of rearing conditions and reproductive status. We developed statistical models based on parity and SCP-1 expression to determine the age of individual, field collected mosquitoes within three age brackets: nonvectors (0–5 days post-emergence), unlikely vectors (6–14 days post-emergence), and potential vectors (15+ days post-emergence). The statistical models allowed us to accurately group individual wild mosquitoes into the three age brackets with high confidence. SCP-1 expression levels of individual, field collected mosquitoes were analyzed in conjunction with parity status. Based on SCP-1 transcript levels and parity data, 9% of collected mosquitoes survived more than 15 days post emergence. PMID:23077536

Joy, Teresa K.; Jeffrey Gutierrez, Eileen H.; Ernst, Kacey; Walker, Kathleen R.; Carriere, Yves; Torabi, Mohammad; Riehle, Michael A.

2012-01-01

308

Metazoan parasites of lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes (Charadriiformes) from southwestern United States and Alaska with a checklist of parasites reported from this host.  

PubMed

In total, 30 lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes (Charadriiformes), 24 from southwestern United States and 6 from Alaska, were examined for metazoan parasites. Ten species of helminths (4 cestodes, 4 trematodes, and 2 nematodes), and 5 species of ectoparasites were collected. Cestodes were the most prevalent and abundant taxon. The dominant cestode was an undescribed species of Choanotaenia. The cestode Kowalewskiella totani was the only helminth recovered from Alaskan hosts, and it was also present in birds from the southwest. It appears to be a specialist in lesser yellowlegs. The mallophagans Quadraceps falcigerus and Actornithophilus totani and the nasal mite Colinoptes cubanensis were common to birds from both geographic regions. Characteristics of the helminth community from the southwest and ectoparasite communities of this region and Alaska were low mean species richness, low mean abundance, medium diversity, and uneven distribution of parasites. PMID:18564761

Enz, John J; Canaris, A G

2008-04-01

309

Simulium (Psilopelmia) virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium (Psilopelmia) in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region. PMID:22310543

Hamada, Neusa; Silva, Nayra Gomes da; Pereira, Eleny da Silva

2012-02-01

310

Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

1997-10-01

311

Armillifer armillatus in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria (a village study in Ayogwiri Village, near Auchi, 120 kilometres from Benin City) phase I.  

PubMed

Armillifer armillatus (Porocephalosis or tongue worm Disease) in Ayogwiri Village (near Auchi) 120 kilometres from Benin City in Bendel State (Midwest) Nigeria, first detected by us in 1975, was studied. It was first detected incidentally by X-ray which is usual. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by the radiologist at Benin City Hospital. The focus of this infection was studied by "contact tracing" of the household of the subject. Initially the diagnosis was Miliary Tuberculosis and subsequently multiple calcified nymphs of Armillifer armillatus. Phase one of this study consisted of X-ray of the chest, abdomen and thighs, as well as a history and examination of all ten members of the household. Forty per cent had evidence of calcified nymphs, a finding hitherto regarded as incidental by radiologists. Unlike Paragonomiasis in Eastern Nigeria, the above disease is endemic, largely symptomless, and occurs in snake eating rather than in crab eating communities. There was no increase in snake consumption. Porocephalosis in this part of Nigeria is being reported for the first time. No case of Paragonomiasis has yet been found by us in this area despite a constant search for it since 1972 by sputum examination of all cases of haemoptysis as well as Radiologically in a hospital with a large Pulmonary TB Department where both diseases may occur. PMID:566329

Azinge, N O; Ogidi-Gbegbaje, E G; Osunde, J A; Oduah, D

1978-05-01

312

Regulating child-related advertising in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the Nigerian advertising environment with children as the target audience in relation to its regulatory system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive review of the extant relevant literature was conducted to provide the needed framework for exploring the state of ethics in advertising to children in Nigeria. Findings – While it is shown that Nigeria

Ayantunji Gbadamosi

2010-01-01

313

Territorial conflicts and urbanization in Yenagoa, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines why Yenagoa, the major town and headquarter of Bayelsa State in Nigeria, is experiencing territorial problems, including boundary disputes, which do not exist in larger, fast growing urban areas in Nigeria (such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Kano and Ibadan). For the purpose of data collection, Yenagoa is divided into 14 zones. A questionnaire survey sought to discover

Innocent Miebaka Aprioku

2004-01-01

314

Magnitude and causes of blindness and low vision in Anambra State of Nigeria (results of 1992 point prevalence survey).  

PubMed

A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Anambra State of Nigeria was conducted. The aim was to provide baseline data for the planning, implementation and evaluation of both the state's and the National Programme for Prevention of Blindness. A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used. The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) Eye Examination Record Form was used. The WHOs definitions of blindness and low vision were adopted for the analysis. The prevalence of blindness in the state is estimated to be 0.33% +/- 0.27%. Visual acuity of from 3/60 to less than 6/60 has a prevalence of 0.41% +/- 0.30% while visual acuity of from 6/60 to less than 6/18 has a prevalence of 0.67% +/- 0.39. There are equal numbers of blind males as females, although the prevalence among males is 0.44% +/- 0.26% while among females it is 0.24% +/- 0.15%. Most of the blind are above 50 y of age with prevalence of blindness in this age group being 2.62% +/- 1.31% (3.27% +/- 2.1% for males and 2.02% +/- 1.58% for females). Cataract caused most of the blindness (70.59%), followed by glaucoma (17.65%). Macular degeneration is becoming important (5.88%) while obvious infective causes are rare. Errors of refraction are important public eye health care problems. Methods of tackling the cataract problem (both backlog and incident), and other eye health needs within the primary eye/health care are recommended. The need to extend refraction services to the rural areas is emphasized. PMID:9308379

Ezepue, U F

1997-09-01

315

Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and is required for remediating salinity problems.

Scanlon, B. R.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Leaney, F. W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R. G.

2009-01-01

316

Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007  

SciTech Connect

“Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy was generated from the 24 Federal hydroelectric projects in our marketing region, producing annual revenues of $161 million. In this time of rising energy costs, the Nation’s need for renewable energy has never been greater. Hydropower – and the people of Southwestern – stand ready to help meet that need.

none,

2008-01-01

317

University of Texas Southwestern  

Cancer.gov

The Southwestern Small Animal Imaging Resource (SW-SAIR) seeks to promote and facilitate small animal imaging research related to cancer at UT Southwestern. It combines facilities, expertise, and resources of the Department of Radiology, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the Advanced Imaging Research Center. Major recent investment in imaging has provided a new building and substantial infrastructure (instruments, space, and personnel) based on a trinity of collaboration between UT Southwestern Medical Center, UT Dallas and UT Arlington.

318

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits. PMID:24971212

Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

2014-01-01

319

Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

2006-01-01

320

The prevalence of insulin resistance and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy elderly southwestern nigerians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors including insulin resistance in 500 (205 males, 295 females) healthy elderly (age >55 years) indigenous, low socioeconomic group Yorubas residents in either an urban slum (n=240) or a rural town (n=260) in southwestern Nigeria. Anthropometric indices, blood pressure and fasting plasma levels of glucose, lipids, insulin and insulin resistance

Chidum E Ezenwaka; Abayomi O Akanji; Bola O Akanji; Nigel C Unwin; Christopher A Adejuwon

1997-01-01

321

Printed in Nigeria doi:10.5707/cjnsci.2012.4.1.52.56 NURSING SHORTAGE PARADIGM: THE BAYELSA STATE SITUATION 1  

E-print Network

This paper attempted to educate the reader about the shortage of nursing staff and how it affects Bayelsa State’s health sector. Bayelsa State like any other state in Nigeria has enormous health challenges associated with manpower shortage. Bayelsa’s situation is unique because of its terrain. Some factors such as cost of river transport, insecurity of lives and properties due to incessant attacks from sea pirates, poor housing, lack of portable water, deplorable state of hospitals and health centres, erratic or lack of power supply, inadequate nursing personnel, and uneven distribution of the few nurses available, were identified to be peculiar with Bayelsa terrain. This consequently resulted in increased nurse- patient load, risk for error, infection spread, high mortality rate, quackery and chances of nurses being over stressed. Recommendation such as increase in the rural posting allowance for nurses, provision of social amenities in rural areas, employment of more nurses from various states of the federation among others were made.

Emmanuel Andy; Stanley I B; Barry Afoi; Gimba S. M

322

Low stream density watersheds produce flashier floods than high stream density watersheds in ephemeral streams across the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty percent of watersheds in the southwestern U.S. are ephemeral. Although flow in these watersheds only occurs immediately following rainstorms, these are dynamic systems that can be serious flood hazards. Watershed-stream density was calculated by dividing watershed area by total stream length. Flood recurrence intervals were calculated for peak and total flood volume, both seasonally and annually using 15-minute hydrograph data for 24 ephemeral watersheds in Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, where rainfall patterns are heavily influenced by seasonal climate. Stream density and flow statistics were compared seasonally for all watersheds. Ephemeral streams with low density (>0.7) produced larger flood peaks and volumes than their high density counterparts. Further, low stream density watershed flows mirror storm events, while high stream density watersheds mute high intensity rainfall. The opposite effect is observed in perennial watersheds, where higher density streams produce relatively the largest flood peak and volumes. This is likely because ephemeral streams can lose up to 40% of the in-channel flow to infiltration and evaporation. As the flood runoff travel length grows, the greater attenuation and infiltration results in muted flood peaks and lower flood volumes. In the study ephemeral watersheds, the low density streams are more likely to produce serious and damaging flood peaks and volumes in all seasons but especially during the summer monsoon.

Fraser, N.; Schumer, R.

2012-12-01

323

Health care workers' knowledge and attitude towards TB patients under Direct Observation of Treatment in Plateau state Nigeria, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health problem in Nigeria. Adherence to the total duration of treatment is critical to cure the patients. We explored the knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients including their perceived reasons for patient non adherence to treatment to develop strategies to improve the quality of the TB control service in the state. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study. We used self administered questionnaire to extract information from the health workers on their trainings for TB control, knowledge of the control services, patients’ education including prevention of defaulting from treatment. We conducted focus group discussion with the health care workers. We performed descriptive analysis using epiInfo software. Results Of the 76 respondents 41 (53.9%) were female, 39.9% were community health extension workers, 26.3% were nurses/midwifes 30.3% lacked training on management of TB patient. Only 43.4% knew when to take action on patients who miss their drugs in the intensive phase, 30.3% and 35.5% knew defaults among category 1 and category 2 in the continuation phases of treatment respectively. They identified side effects of drugs (80%), daily clinic attendance (76.3%), health workers attitude (73.4%) and lack of knowledge on duration of treatment (71.1%) including their unfriendly attitudes towards the patients as the major barriers to patients’ adherence to treatment. Conclusion Lack of knowledge of the health care workers on management of TB patients and poor interpersonal relation and communication with patients have negative effect on patients’ adherence to the long duration of TB treatment. PMID:25328627

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadjia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Patrobas, Phillip; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

324

Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.  

PubMed

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community. PMID:21987506

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

2012-02-01

325

Prevalence and Severity of Malaria Parasitemia among Children Requiring Emergency Blood Transfusion in a Tertiary Hospital in Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria is one of the most serious and complex health problems in Sub Saharan Africa. Anemia in Children with malaria may require blood transfusion and has been be associated with high mortality rates. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, pattern, and severity of malaria parasitemia among children 6 months to 14 years old, requiring blood transfusion. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out at the children emergency unit of the Imo state University Teaching Hospital South East Nigeria. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21, Chicago Il, USA Results: A total of 409 children were recruited into the study. The overall rate of malaria parasitemia was 83.1% (340/409) lower in males 81.6% (228/276) than in females 86.3% (112/133). The peak of parasitemia is similar in both sexes (5-9 years). Most of the children had medium levels of parasitemia, which decreased with increasing age. The proportion of children transfused also decreased with increasing age. At medium and high levels of parasitemia; in children below 5 years, 92.8% (132/142) were transfused while in 5 years and above only 79.6% (39/49) of the children were transfused. At medium level parasitemia the proportion of children transfused was significantly higher than those not transfused (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Most children 6 months to 14 years with medium level of parasitemia may require blood transfusion. Targeted measures toward primary prevention of malaria in children should be intensified as this will not only reduce morbidity and mortality of malaria, but will reduce the economic burden of the disease in Semi-rural and rural dwellers in Sub Saharan Africa. PMID:25221716

Austin, NIR; Adikaibe, EAB; Ethelbert, OO; Chioma, UE; Ekene, NU

2014-01-01

326

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

327

Downscaling Precipitation and Temperature Under Climate Change Over Semi-Arid Regions of Southwestern United States of America.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different space-time models are developed to estimate downscaled precipitation and temperature under the rm 2 times CO_2 scenario of climate change over semi-arid regions of southwestern USA, represented by Arizona and New-Mexico (upper Rio-Grande river basin). Local precipitation and temperature are assumed to be dependent upon two effects: the first one, a global effect, is captured by atmospheric circulation pattern (CP) types and the other, a local effect, is reflected by spatially averaged daily pressure heights of the 500 hPa pressure field (h) within the region. CP classification is performed for the 500 hPa pressure fields of observed data and that obtained from the output of the Max Plank Institute (MPI) general circulation (GCM) model T21 for the rm 1times CO_2 and rm 2 times CO_2 scenarios. The evolution of CP types for different scenarios are modeled by a Markov process. Daily precipitation and temperature conditioned on a CP type are modeled by multivariate autoregressive processes. The daily precipitation probability is linked to h through a parametric regression and daily precipitation amount is modeled by a gamma distribution. The daily temperature is modeled by a two sided normal distribution whose parameters are estimated conditioned on fitted values of h. Models are validated using split sampling. Simulations are performed to generate a series of daily rainfall and temperature (maximum and minimum) both in Arizona and New Mexico stations. Statistical properties of model outputs and statistical significance tests are carried out for current conditions and under climate change using rm 2 times CO_2 scenarios. The results show that precipitation and temperature are increasing significantly with the increase in CO _2 content. Increases in temperature are more prominent in spring and fall. However the actual amounts of increase in precipitation and temperature depend both on the season and station location.

Shrestha, Bijaya Prakash

328

Asynchronous east-west climate changes over the southwestern United States driven by competing moisture sources during the last deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last deglaciation, the climate of the southwestern US changed dramatically, reflecting large-scale shifts in atmospheric circulation that were driven largely by changing temperature and ice cover in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. While a great deal has been learned about the nature of these changes in the desert southwest from speleothem, lake sediment and other proxy climate records, much less is known about deglacial changes in atmospheric circulation to the east, where continuous high-resolution proxy records are rare. Here we present a new record of changing vegetation and atmospheric moisture in central Texas from the ?13C of bulk organic matter and the ?D of plant waxes preserved in the sediments of Hall's Cave. The record shows that Northern Hemisphere cold intervals were characterized by dry conditions, with a decreased proportion of winter grasses, trees and shrubs, whereas during warm intervals conditions were wetter and the proportion of C3 plants increased. These changes are opposite of those recorded elsewhere in the arid southwest, and particularly at sites in Arizona and New Mexico where the glacial was wet and the Bølling-Allerød was exceptionally dry. ?Dwax variations suggest that these east-west differences in deglacial climate change reflect differences in the relative importance of westerly storm tracks and the low level jet (LLJ) for delivering moisture to these areas. Terminal Pleistocene drought during the Bølling-Allerød appears to have been restricted to the desert southwest, while sites in Texas and the Great Plains became wetter. The asynchronous nature of these changes is seemingly at odds with a climatic origin for the late Pleistocene extinction of North American land mammals.

Shanahan, T. M.; Wicks, T.; Jimmie, J. A.

2013-12-01

329

Antiretroviral Drug Therapy in Benue State, Nigeria: A Follow-up of 20 PLWA in a Private Hospital in Gboko  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Antiretroviral. Drug. AIDS. Benue. Nigeria. Follow-Up ABSTRACT The need for a drug policy on HIV\\/AIDS was investigated through a pilot clinical study of 20 Persons Living With AIDS (PLWA), (8 males and 12 females) who took combivir antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Their age range was between 11 and 60 years with those between 11 and 40 years presenting most for

Fred Iornongo Tamen; John Kpamor; Nyitor Alexander Shenge

330

Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

2013-01-01

331

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

332

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

2013-01-01

333

Mental health care policy environment in Rivers State: experiences of mental health nurses providing mental health care services in neuro-psychiatric hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health services for Rivers State and surrounding States in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are provided only at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital in Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study explored mental health nurses’ experiences of providing mental health services at the hospital in an attempt to understand policy implications, identify difficulties and challenges of delivering mental health care services. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interview was conducted among 20 mental health nurses working at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital. This was reviewed within the Townsend mental health policy template of context and resources domains. Results A lack of political support and senior position in the Ministry of Health hinders service delivery, the prevalence of institutionalized stigma, a lack of training, and system failure to provide services at all levels of care is hampering service delivery. The inadequate allocation of resources for hospital renovations and equipment is preventing appropriate client care, as does the lack of funding for drugs, the cost of which makes them unaffordable, affecting clients staying on treatment. Conclusion Education and training of mental health care professionals should be given priority to remedy human resource shortage, provide incentives to motivate health professionals for psychiatric practice, and move toward decentralization of care into general health care services. Information should be provided at all levels to overcome the myths surrounding the causes of mental illnesses, to reduce stigma and discrimination of the affected and their families. PMID:23414640

2013-01-01

334

Human plague in the southwestern United States, 1957-2004: spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Plague is a rare but highly virulent flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis Yersin. Identifying areas at high risk of human exposure to the etiological agent of plague could provide a useful tool for targeting limited public health resources and reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis by raising awareness of the disease. We created logistic regression models to identify landscape features associated with areas where humans have acquired plague from 1957 to 2004 in the four-corners region of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah), and we extrapolated those models within a geographical information system to predict where plague cases are likely to occur within the southwestern United States disease focus. The probability of an area being classified as high-risk plague habitat increased with elevation up to approximately 2300 m and declined as elevation increased thereafter, and declined with distance from key habitat types (e.g., southern Rocky Mountain piñon--juniper [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus spp.], Colorado plateau piñon--juniper woodland, Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson var. scopulorum), and southern Rocky Mountain juniper woodland and savanna). The overall accuracy of the model was >82%. Our most conservative model predicted that 14.4% of the four-corners region represented a high risk of peridomestic exposure to Y. pestis. PMID:17547242

Eisen, Rebecca J; Enscore, Russell E; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Reynolds, Pamela J; Ettestad, Paul; Brown, Ted; Pape, John; Tanda, Dale; Levy, Craig E; Engelthaler, David M; Cheek, James; Bueno, Rudy; Targhetta, Joseph; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

2007-05-01

335

Contaminants from cretaceous black shale Part 2: Effect of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on salinity and selenium cycling, Mancos Shale landscapes, southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) is a known nonpoint source for a significant portion of the salinity and selenium (Se) loads in the Colorado River in the southwestern United States and northwestern corner of Mexico. These two contaminants pose a serious threat to rivers in these arid regions where water supplies are especially critical. Tuttle et al. (companion paper) investigates the cycling of contaminants in a Colorado River tributary watershed (Uncompahgre River, southwestern Colorado) where the MS weathers under natural conditions. This paper builds on those results and uses regional soil data in the same watershed to investigate the impact of MS geology, weathering intensity, land use, and climate on salt and Se storage in and flux from soils on the natural landscape, irrigated agriculture fields, areas undergoing urban development, and wetlands. The size of salinity and Se reservoirs in the MS soils is quantified. Flux calculations show that during modern weathering, natural landscapes cycle salt and Se; however, little of it is released for transport to the Uncompahgre River (10% of the annual salinity and 6% of the annual Se river loads). When irrigated, salinity and Se loads from the MS soil increase (26% and 57% of the river load, respectively), causing the river to be out of compliance with Federal and State Se standards. During 100 years of irrigation, seven times more Se has been removed from agricultural soil than what was lost from natural landscapes during the entire period of pedogenesis. Under more arid conditions, even less salt and Se are expected to be transported from the natural landscape. However, if wetter climates prevail, transport could increase dramatically due to storage of soluble phases in the non-irrigated soil. These results are critical input for water-resource and land-use managers who must decide whether or not the salinity and Se in a watershed can be managed, what sustainable mitigation strategies are possible, and what landscapes should be targeted. The broader implications include providing a reliable approach for quantifying nonpoint-source contamination from MS and other rock units elsewhere that weather under similar conditions and, together with results from our companion paper, address the complex interplay of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on contaminant cycling in the arid Southwest.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

336

PERFORMANCE OF NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS' WORKERS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance of employees of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) with respect to rural development in Cross River State. The factors that enhance job performance and attitudes of workers as well as the constraints to their job performance were also studied. Information derived from a sample of 45 respondents; representing 15 of the 60 registered NGOs in the

P. EKURI; I. A. AKPABIO

337

ASSESSING THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IRRIGATED SOILS FOR SUSTAINABLE RICE PRODUCTION IN PATIGI KWARA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the physical and chemical properties of irrigated soils of a rice producing area in Kwara State with a view to identify the limiting soil physical and chemical properties whose proper management can enhance and increase rice yield to meet its demand in the country. Forty 100m x100m quadrats were demarcated from the 80hectares of irrigated rice field

A. D. Olabode; E. O. Oriola

2013-01-01

338

Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2012-01-01

339

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

340

Benefits of using magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for eclampsia management and maternal mortality reduction: lessons from Kano State in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance. PMID:22873658

2012-01-01

341

Assessment of Quality in Early Childhood Education in Ekiti-State Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early child-hood Education is the bedrock upon which excellent basic and sound education is built. This study examined the concept of quality in early childhood education in Ekiti State. It is a descriptiv e research design of the survey type, which aimed at assessing the quality of early-child-hood education in 12 randomly selected private nursery schools in Ado-Ekiti Local Government

O. Olaleye; O. Florence; K. A. Omotayo

2009-01-01

342

Socioeconomic indicators and the survival of the tropical rainforest of cross river state of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

An internal household survey of socioeconomic indicators in the Cross River State forest communities showed that basic infrastructural\\u000a facilities such as clean water supply, adequate waste disposal system, good roads and electricity are grossly inadequate.\\u000a There is a total absence of modern family planning practices in the communities, and population is projected to increase by\\u000a 44.8% between 2000 and 2015

Matthew E. Eja

2006-01-01

343

Awareness and attitude to the law banning smoking in public places in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Method Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. Conclusion There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law. PMID:24674579

2014-01-01

344

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners to canine rabies in wukari metropolis, taraba state Nigeria.  

PubMed

Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using chi(2) analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies. PMID:25168987

Ameh, Veronica O; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Umoh, Jarlath U

2014-09-01

345

Pattern of paediatric corneal laceration injuries in the University of port Harcourt teaching hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Corneal lacerations mostly affect younger children, commonly males, who will constitute the majority of the workforce. Clinical outcomes are reviewed and compared so that measures to reduce their occurrence and improve outcome can be proffered. Methods Records of all children between the ages of 1-18?yrs, who presented with penetrating eye injuries at the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt teaching Hospital, Rivers state, Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2009 were included. Information retrieved -patient’s Bio data, presenting symptoms, presenting visual acuity (VA), source of injury, surgical intervention and outcome using VA. All data analysed with EPI Info version 6 with the aid of a statistician. Results Folders of thirty-six children (36 eyes) between the ages of 0–18?years diagnosed with corneal laceration over a period of 8?years out of 65 cases managed within that period available. Other folders reported as missing. Male female ratio 3:1, the mean age is 8.7?years (SD?±?3.67). Only one presented within 24?hours. Objects causing injury mainly missiles with stones/catapult injuries (n?=?8, 22.2%). Presenting VAs in those that could be measured, ranged from 6/24 to 6/60 (n?=?4, 11%) to no light perception (NLP) (n?=?5, 13.9%). Associated injuries include lid laceration, cataract, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. Twenty one patients had primary corneal repair (58.3%) carried out within 7?days of presentation. Four had endophthalmitis. After 3?months follow up, VA of 6/60 and better was achieved in 11 of 18 eyes left in follow up (6/60-6/24 in 8 eyes (22.2%), 6/18 and better in 3 eyes (8.3%). Conclusion Most eye injuries in children are preventable. In this study, the prognosis was better in those whose injuries were confined to a peripheral part of the cornea, with no other associated injury, who presented within 5?days and who did not have any intraocular infection at the time of presentation. The importance of health education, adult supervision of play and application of appropriate measures that is necessary for reducing the incidence and severity of trauma is emphasized. PMID:23234255

2012-01-01

346

Estimating recharge distribution by incorporating runoff from mountainous areas in an alluvial basin in the Great Basin region of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

A method is described to estimate the distribution of ground water recharge within hydrographic basins in the Great Basin region of the southwestern United States on the basis of estimated runoff from high mountainous areas and subsequent infiltration in alluvial fans surrounding the intermontane basins. The procedure involves a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, empirical surface-runoff modeling, and water-balance calculations. The method addresses the need to develop and incorporate constraints on the distribution of recharge in regional-scale ground water flow modeling of arid and semiarid environments. The conceptual approach and methodology were developed for Crescent Valley, Nevada. However, the concept and method are generally applicable to any region where excess precipitation in upland areas is conveyed to lower elevations before it infiltrates to recharge the ground water system. Application of the procedure to a ground water flow model of Crescent Valley appears both qualitatively and quantitatively to result in a more accurate representation of actual recharge conditions than might otherwise have been prescribed. PMID:11708447

Stone, D B; Moomaw, C L; Davis, A

2001-01-01

347

Patterns of association with host and habitat: antibody reactive with Sin Nombre virus in small mammals in the major biotic communities of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The distribution and prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre virus were determined in mammals in biotic communities of the southwestern United States. Small mammals (n = 3,069) of 69 species were trapped in nine communities from lower Sonoran desert to alpine tundra. Antibody was found in rodents from all communities (overall prevalence = 6.3%); prevalence was lowest at the altitudinal and climatic extremes (0.4% in desert and 2.0% in alpine tundra). Antibody occurred in 11% of 928 deer mice, 20% of 355 brush mice, 23% of 35 western harvest mice, and 12% of 24 Mexican voles. No infected deer mice were found in desert habitat; prevalence varied from 4% in chaparral to 17% in pinyon-juniper. Brush mice were frequently infected in chaparral and montane forest (25%). Seropositivity was higher in males and in heavier animals, suggesting horizontal transmission among adult males. Decreasing prevalence with age among the youngest deer mice suggests that infected dams confer passive immunity to pups. PMID:9129529

Mills, J N; Ksiazek, T G; Ellis, B A; Rollin, P E; Nichol, S T; Yates, T L; Gannon, W L; Levy, C E; Engelthaler, D M; Davis, T; Tanda, D T; Frampton, J W; Nichols, C R; Peters, C J; Childs, J E

1997-03-01

348

The influence of synoptic scale meteorology on transport of urban air to remote locations in the SouthWestern United States Of America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking air quality at remote sites with synoptic scale atmospheric circulation can provide information regarding the sources of pollutant and may be used to assess the frequency of (and trends in) conditions conducive to long range transport. A methodology for combining tracer studies and regional scale synoptic climatologies is devised herein. Using principal components analysis (PCA) of the 700 and 800 mb heights and precipitable water at 11 radiosonde sites and sea-level reduced surface pressure at 13 surface sites, the dominant modes of atmospheric circulation over the southwestern United States of America are identified and indices of the synoptic scale circulation calculated. These indices are then used as predictor parameters in regression equations of the average daily methylchloroform concentration (a tracer of urban emissions) at two remote sites located to the west of the Grand Canyon National Park, to test the] dependence of ambient methylchloroform concentrations upon prevailing synoptic scale meteorology. It is shown that the influence of synoptic scale conditions is seasonal; the relationship between the average daily methylchloroform concentration at the remote sites and synoptic scale conditions is stronger during the winter season (December-February) than during the summer (June-September).

Pryor, S. C.; Davies, T. D.; Hofferi, T. E.; Richman, M. B.

349

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

350

Improving Agricultural Extension Services through University Outreach Initiatives: A Case of Farmers in Model Villages in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of

Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite

2006-01-01

351

Obstructed labour: a public health problem in Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study reviewed retrospectively the cases of obstructed labour as seen at the specialist Gombe Hospital (SHG), Gombe State, over a period of 5 years. The incidence of obstructed labour was 4.0%. There was a progressive decline in the time trend over the study period. About 80.3% of the patients were unbooked emergencies and 99.5% of them had been in labour elsewhere before presenting at the hospital. The leading cause of obstructed labour was cephalopelvic disproportion (83.0%). Caesarean section (72.2%) was the most common method of delivery. Puerperal sepsis was the most frequent morbidity. However, the longest duration of hospital stay was as a result of a bedsore. The maternal mortality for cases of obstructed labour was 7605/100,000 and the perinatal mortality was 628/1000 births. The study aims to reinstate public interest in this health problem and offers suggestions on how to curb this human tragedy. PMID:12881074

Melah, G S; El-Nafaty, A U; Massa, A A; Audu, B M

2003-07-01

352

Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications.

Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

2014-01-01

353

Maternal attitudes and values to youth sexuality-related activities in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This descriptive study assessed maternal attitudes to youth-related activities in Delta State. Using an adapted questionnaire, 300 women with adolescent children were chosen through a multistage sampling technique and relevant data obtained regarding their socio-economic status, perceptions and values as well as their knowledge of basic reproductive health concerns. Most of the women interviewed (95%), believed it was very important that young people completed secondary education and another 72% said they would normally set rules in their homes regarding what young people should read or watch. Sixty-seven percent of those studied, discussed sexuality issues regularly with their adolescent children, though only 46.4% of them were comfortable discussing these issue and about 50% admitted having enough information in such discussions. Another 76% of the women would approve of their children receiving reproductive health information and service including contraceptive condoms. The mothers studied believed that guided reproductive health information and services should be routinely provided for young people. The findings strongly suggest that the mothers who are important stakeholders in Adolescent Health would most likely be supportive of youth programmes. Most of the findings differ from those of other studies, and a qualitative study would be carried out to identify the reasons for these interesting findings. PMID:14692062

Okonkwo, I P; Ilika, A I

2003-09-01

354

Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2013-01-01

355

Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

2011-01-01

356

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-03-01

357

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

358

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-01-01

359

Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.

Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

2011-01-01

360

Nigeria: female circumcision row.  

PubMed

In October 1989 midwives and nurses held mass demonstrations in Benin city, the capital of Bendel State, Nigeria, to protest against female circumcision. This practice, which is firmly entrenched in the area, may involve cutting off the clitoris or more extensive removal of girls' genitalia, either in infancy or at puberty. Nigerian hospitals no longer perform circumcision, so people do it themselves or have traditional practitioners do so. Recent demonstrations reflect outrage on the part of Western-trained health care activists regarding aesthetic and obstetric complications, as well as added risk of spreading tetanus and AIDS by unsanitary procedures. PMID:12342692

Ezeh, P

1990-02-01

361

Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy in rural Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A community-based case-control study to determine the risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy was conducted in the rural community of Gbongan in southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-two pregnant girls aged 20 years or less were compared with 131 nonpregnant girls of similar age. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics and those of their parents, their knowledge of reproductive health, and

Friday E. Okonofua

1995-01-01

362

Spatial interpolation of precipitation in a dense gauge network for monsoon storm events in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inaccuracy in spatially distributed precipitation fields can contribute significantly to the uncertainty of hydrological states and fluxes estimated from land surface models. This paper examines the results of selected interpolation methods for both convective and mixed\\/stratiform events that occurred during the North American monsoon season over a dense gauge network at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut

Matthew Garcia; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; David C. Goodrich

2008-01-01

363

Dictyoceratida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic (Northeastern Brazil, Sergipe State) and the description of three new species.  

PubMed

Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil.  PMID:25081789

Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

2014-01-01

364

GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF THE MEXICAN DUCK, ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS DlAZl RIDGWAY, FROM NORTH CENTRAL MEXICO AND SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species in- cluded: Echinoparyphium recuruatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, No- tocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echino- cotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp.

Jaime D. Farias

365

Uranium in granites from the southwestern United States: actinide parent-daughter systems, sites and mobilization. Second year report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Results of detailed field and laboratory studies are reported on the primary distribution of uranium (and thorium and lead) in the radioactive minerals of five radioactive granite bodies in Arizona and California. This distribution was examined in a granite pluton. Granites with uranium concentrations ranging from 4 to 47 ppM, thorium concentrations from 11 to 181 ppM, and Th/U ratios of 0.6 to 16.0 were compared. Evidence for secondary mobilization, migration, fixation and/or loss of uranium, thorium and radiogenic leads was explored. Uranium distribution in radioactive granites is hosted in a far greater diversity of sites than has previously been known. Uranium and thorium distribution in primary minerals of granites is almost entirely a disequilibrium product involving local fractionation processes during magmatic crystallization. Every radioactive granite studied contains minerals that contain uranium and/or thorium as major stoichiometric components. When the granites are subject to secondary geochemical events and processes, the behavior of uranium is determined by the stability fields of the different radioactive minerals in the rocks. The two most powerful tools for evaluating uranium migration in a granite are (a) isotope dilution mass spectrometry and (b) the electron microprobe. Uranium mobilization and loss is a common feature in radioactive granites of the southwestern United States. A model for the evaluation of uranium loss from granites has been developed. The mineral zircon can be used as an independent indicator of uranium and thorium endowment. The weathering products show surprising differences in the response of different granites in arid region settings. Significant losses of primary uranium (up to 70%) has been a common occurrence. Uranium, thorium and radiogenic lead exist in labile (movable) form on surfaces of cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries in granites.

Silver, L.T.; Woodhead, J.A.; Williams, I.S.; Chappell, B.W.

1984-09-01

366

A geomorphic application of a coupled, dynamic model of sediment transport and desert shrub populations in the Southwestern United States under anticipated climate-change scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the Southwestern United States, desert shrubs modulate sediment transport on arid hillslopes, wherein rainsplash processes create mounds beneath shrub canopies. These mounds act as capacitors which ultimately influence the sediment flux. Yet, complex plant community dynamics make it difficult to predict changes in the surface of the Earth over extended timescales, such as those associated with climate change. Climate predictions for the American Southwest suggest changes in precipitation which can affect desert shrub populations and in turn, sediment transport rates. To better understand the complex, abiotic-biotic interaction between vegetation and sediment transport on arid hillslopes we couple a biologically-informed, stochastic model of desert shrub population dynamics (presented in a complimentary abstract by Worman et al.), with a model of rainsplash sediment transport. This coupled model allows us to track changes in the total vegetation present on the hillslopes, which we measure in terms of biomass using the WBE allometric scaling model, and relate it to sediment transport rates. We find that the simulated values from the model confirm intuitive assumptions, in which higher amounts of shrub biomass are indeed inversely correlated to sediment flux values. Therefore, it is possible to generalize erosion rates obtained from the model in terms of hillslope biomass. We explore how different climate change scenarios affect desert shrubs and the associated sediment flux. The model suggests that shrub morphology acts as a control on how shrubs respond to climate change, specifically to increased aridification. This work provides an opportunity to develop techniques for large scale monitoring, and possibly prediction, of changes in shrub populations and associated sediment transport on desert hillslopes.

Fathel, Siobhan; Furbish, David; Worman, Stacey

2014-05-01

367

Tuberculosis on the move: the impact of immigration on TB rates in the counties of the Southwestern United States, 1987-1998  

E-print Network

What was the impact of immigration on TB prevalence rates in Southwestern US counties for the years 1987-1998, and what was the nature and degree of risk posed by infected immigrants? Research on this subject has presented immigrants as being...

Dorrell, David William

2012-06-07

368

Gastrointestinal helminths of the Mexican duck, Anas platyrhynchos diazi Ridgway, from north central Mexico and southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species included: Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp. 1, Hymenolepis sp. 2, Sobolevicanthus gracilis. Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus, Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria sp., Epomidiostomum crami, Hystrichis varispinosus, Rusguniella arctica, and Tetrameres sp. Fimbriarioides sp. occurred predominantly in ducks from south-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The distributions for the other 24 species of the helminths were not significantly different among the four collecting areas. The helminth fauna for the 32 complete specimens and 97 intestinal tracts was distributed relatively evenly among the hosts with a calculated mean evenness of 0.77 +/- 0.15 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 respectively. The parasite fauna was more similar to those of the black duck Anas rubripes Brewster of eastern North America (53%), the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (L.) (49%), and the mottled duck, Anas fulvigula Ridgway, from Florida (45%), than to the green-winged teal, Anas crecca (L.) (36%), the gadwall, Anas strepera (L.) (30%), and the American wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin (26%), collected in the Southwest. PMID:3951061

Farias, J D; Canaris, A G

1986-01-01

369

Assessing Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on the Agro-ecosystems in California and Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and change affects natural and managed ecosystems, namely agriculture and rangelands, and the services they offer such as food, fiber, energy, fresh water, etc. we derive from them are among the highest concerns in quantifying the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change. These impacts are expected to be ecosystem and region specific, thus requiring climate information at greater spatial and temporal resolution offered by the global climate models. In this study we are using a combination of climate downscaling and regional climate models in conjunction with ecosystem models to assess the impact of climate variability and change on the natural and managed ecosystems in California and Southwest region of the United States. In an attempt to generate reliable assessments of the impact of regional climate variability and change on the agro-ecosystems in the region, we have designed an impact assessment study in which multiple Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are used to develop downscaled climate information to in turn drive ecosystem models. We develop the climate scenarios for the region based on a combination of dynamical and statistical approaches. We evaluate the efficacy of the climate scenarios in hindcast mode against available historical observation records to build confidence in their future climate projections. We then use the derived climate information in the ecosystem models to assess how these ecosystems will function under the projected climate conditions. We will present some early results from the evaluation of three regional climate models in a long-term hindcast experiments, the fundamental step before performing regional climate projection. Model variables needed by agro-ecosystem models, daily precipitation and temperature extremes, from individual models and their ensembles, are being evaluated against the National Weather Service observation network and the global gridded analyses from NCEP. We also compare direct RCM simulations with a hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling approach in order to expand our understanding of the limitations and strengths of various plausible approaches to generating high-resolution climate projections for agroecosystem impact analyses. The combination of Earth observations with model runs provides great opportunities for practical assessment of climate impacts at regional scales.

Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Hayhoe, K.; Kim, J.; Ziska, L.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

2011-12-01

370

Southwestern Research Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site profiles AMNH's Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), a year-round field station that allows biologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the diverse environments and biotas of the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The site includes an overview of the field station and its work, information on courses offered, and information for visitors, researchers, interns and volunteers.

371

Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population. PMID:24348064

Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

2013-01-01

372

Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

*Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary, but should be more biologically meaningful because it incorporates the landscape features that may be driving separation of the subspecies. Even so, we caution that using any narrow boundary line as an indicator of subspecies identity could be misleading because biologically the boundary is a region of intergradation rather than a discrete line. Designating, a boundary ultimately becomes a regulatory and management decision based on how much of the genetic variation unique to a subspecies should be protected. We discuss how the results of this study can help guide this decision process by wildlife policy makers.

Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

2008-01-01

373

A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.

McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

2003-01-01

374

Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m?2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the Colorado River well into the future. Other trace elements weathering from MS that are often of environmental concern include U and Mo, which mimic Se in their behavior; As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, which show little redistribution; and Cd, Sb, V, and Zn, which accumulate in Stage I shale, but are lost to varying degrees from upper soil intervals. None of these trace elements have been reported previously as contaminants in the study area.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

375

Etiology of Acute Diarrhea in Adults in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okeke et al. (5) recently reported that Entameoba histolytica was by far the most frequently encountered pathogen found in association with bloody diarrhea. The method used to come to that conclusion consisted of microscopic examination of a sim- ple wet smear, which is nonspecific in the diagnosis of amebi- asis. Moreover, multiple infections with other enteric bacteria were very common,

Amha Kebede; Anton M. Polderman; I. N. Okeke; O. Ojo; A. Lamikanra; J. B. Kaper

2004-01-01

376

Schistosomiasis in Kano State, Nigeria. I. Human infections near dam sites and the distribution and habitat preferences of potential snail intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Stool and urine samples from 813 schoolchildren and adults from the Tomas and Rimin Gado dam areas of Kano State, Nigeria, showed Schistosoma haematobium to be present at both localities with prevalences of 26.6 and 36.8%, respectively. No cases of S. mansoni were found. The prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium was low and similar in both study areas. Statistical analysis revealed a correlation between prevalence and location, but no evident association with professed patterns of water contact. Investigation of 165 freshwater habitats throughout the state revealed the presence of a number of potential snail intermediate host species, namely Bulinus senegalensis, B. forskali, B. globosus, B. rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The most widespread species was Bulinus senegalensis, which inhabited shallow pools and excavations on a variety of substrata. Its habitats were typically devoid of aquatic vegetation and included those with highly turbid waters and conductivities as low as 11 microseconds. Bulinus forskali was by contrast relatively rare, occurring in more permanent water courses, although it was often found in mixed populations with B. senegalensis. Bulinus globosus also occurred in seasonally rainfilled pools, but was confined to areas south of the 12 degrees N parallel, and its habitats tended to have a well-developed aquatic flora and clear water. The dominant species in man-made lakes was B. rohlfsi, which occurred in both the Tomas and Rimin Gado reservoirs. Biomphalaria pfeifferi was also primarily lake dwelling, although all species save B. senegalensis were found in irrigation canals. PMID:3256277

Betterton, C; Ndifon, G T; Bassey, S E; Tan, R M; Oyeyi, T

1988-12-01

377

Appraisal of Observance of Behaviour Change Communication Programme for Maternal and Child Health at First Level of Midwifery Practice in Kaduna State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) is a key component of the roadmap adopted by the Nigerian government to address the high maternal and child mortality in the country. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to appraise the participation of midwives in BCC at the first level of health care in Kaduna State, Nigeria before planning a context specific and sustainable BCC capacity building programme. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with nine midwives selected by maximum variation technique across Kaduna State. Content analysis of the interviews was performed using a priory codes derived from the integrative framework. Results: The integrative framework provided a comprehensive appraisal of BCC in the facilities. Health talks were unplanned, difficult and more task-oriented than being behaviour change focused. The required skills, integrated services to enhance behaviour change by clients, and enabling environment, were missing. The findings were used, in collaboration with the midwives to develop and implement a context specific and efficient capacity building programme. Conclusions: The framework was adequate in identifying the gaps in the BCC activities of midwives at the facilities. There is a need to understand and support midwives with their BCC activities. Government policies should be brought closer to frontline staff who would implement them, by engaging such staff all through the process of developing the policies.

Akin-Otiko, Bridget Omowumi; Bhengu, Busisiwe Rosemary

2013-01-01

378

Gender differences in the use of insecticide-treated nets after a universal free distribution campaign in Kano State, Nigeria: post-campaign survey results  

PubMed Central

Background Recent expansion in insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution strategies range from targeting pregnant women and children under five and distributing ITN at antenatal care and immunization programmes, to providing free distribution campaigns to cover an entire population. These changes in strategy raise issues of disparities, such as equity of access and equality in ITN use among different groups, including females and males. Analysis is needed to assess the effects of gender on uptake of key malaria control interventions. A recent post-universal free ITN distribution campaign survey in Kano State, Nigeria offered an opportunity to look at gender effects on ITN use. Methods A post-campaign survey was conducted three to five months after the campaign in Kano State, Nigeria from 19 October to 4 November, 2009, on a random sample of 4,602 individuals. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire adapted from the Malaria Indicator Survey. Using binary logistic regression, controlling for several covariates, the authors assessed gender effects on ITN use among individuals living in households with at least one ITN. Results The survey showed that household ITN ownership increased more than 10-fold, from 6% before to 71% after the campaign. There was no significant difference between the proportion of females and males living in households with at least one ITN. However, a higher percentage of females used ITNs compared to males (57.2% vs 48.8%). After controlling for several covariates, females remained more likely to use ITNs compared to males (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.7). Adolescent boys remained the least likely group to use an ITN. Conclusions This study reveals gender disparity in ITN use, with males less likely to use ITNs particularly among ages 15–25?years. The uptake of the intervention among the most at-risk group (females) is higher than males, which may be reflective of earlier strategies for malaria interventions. Further research is needed to identify whether gender disparities in ITN use are related to traditional targeting of pregnant women and children with malaria interventions; however, results provide evidence to design gender-sensitive messaging for universal ITN distribution campaigns to ensure that males benefit equally from such communications and activities. PMID:23574987

2013-01-01

379

Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. Methods We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008” and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008” to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Results Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to “ECWA clinic” from “January, 2006” to “December, 2008”. Most bite victims were <16 years 141 (72.3%), male 128 (65.6%), and 48.2% had primary school education. Bites were unprovoked 184 (94.4%), mostly on arms. 54.4% victims received complete post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Majority of the biting dogs were housed and unvaccinated. Conclusion This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination. PMID:25328631

Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

2014-01-01

380

Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.  

PubMed

Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects. PMID:16295564

Opara, A A

2005-07-01

381

ABSTRACT FOR 3rd GLOBAL CONFERENCE PLURALISM, INCLUSION AND CITIZENSHIP TOPIC ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN A NATIONISTIC STATE: THE CRISIS OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The socio-linguistic picture of Nigeria, as a developing nation with so much economic, political, human resources and potentials is handicapped by her geo-linguistic landscape with regard to national integration. It is known that this country has over 450 different registered languages within this geo-polity. Nigeria is therefore a politico-geogr aphical linguistic lump begging for unity and the good will of

Ifeoma Obauasi

382

A record of more than 500,000 years of large-volume travertine formation in the southwestern United States and links between paleohydrology, paleoclimate, and landscape evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 springs and associated travertine deposits offer a unique tool to better understand Cenozoic paleohydrology and paleoclimate in the context of geomorphic and neotectonic evolution of the southwestern United States. Travertine accumulations represent places of persistent and significant mantle CO2 degassing in high discharge spring systems that are found along faults and above magmatic systems. They complement speleothem records from the same regions in that they can provide better links to the surface geomorphic and neotectonic systems. New Mexico and Arizona host several exceptionally well-preserved, large-volume travertine deposits that extend from 10 - 60 km2, with thicknesses ranging from 15 to more than 60 m. Precise U-series and stable isotope analyses are underway for large travertine platforms at Mesa del Oro, NM (~27 km2), Riley North and South Mesa, NM (~60 km2), Mesa Aparejo/Belen Quarries, NM (~13 km2), and Springerville, AZ (~30 km2). New ages for the travertine deposits at Mesa del Oro are 56 ka, 253 ka, 361 ka, and more than 500 ka. The travertine deposits at Riley North and South Mesa are older than 500 ka and 207/287 ka, respectively. At Mesa Aparejo, travertine ages are 312 ka and more than 500 ka. U/Th dates from Springerville, AZ show that major travertine accumulations occurred over several time intervals: 36-100 ka, 200-280 ka and 300-350 ka. Stable isotope analyses overlap substantially, exhibiting high ?13C values, +2.0% to +8.3%, and ?18O values that range from -13.5% to -4%. High ?13C values are interpreted to be caused by rapid CO2 degassing while the range of ?18O values is interpreted to represent changing water temperatures and mixing trends of groundwater. U-series data show that travertine deposition at all of these localities overlapped temporally and that major aggradation and high volume deposition was not steady, but occurred episodically at 36-100, 200-280, and 300-380 ka. Times of high accumulation rates are interpreted as times of high groundwater flow and hence as a proxy for regional paleohydrology/paleoclimate controls while the locations of the travertine occurrences (along faults of the Jemez lineament and Rio Grande rift) reflect more local CO2-discharge (tectonic) controls. These travertine occurrences are important indicators of the extent of past natural CO2 leakage that can inform carbon sequestration models both in areas of modern CO2 gas fields (Springerville) and at sites of potential paleo-gas fields. The travertine platforms now occupy positions high in the landscape (inverted topography) and also provide data on the scales and timing of regional landscape denudation.

Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Embid, E.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Polyak, V.; Asmerom, Y.; Ricketts, J. W.

2011-12-01

383

CYBERCRIME IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of

Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola

384

Communication Policies in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of monographs published as part of a UNESCO program to analyze the communication policies of selected countries, this report provides information about Nigeria. Various sections of the report discuss the following topics: (1) Nigeria's socioeconomic and political geography, (2) its system of mass communication, (3) its public…

Ugboajah, Frank Okwu

385

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

386

Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  

PubMed

As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E

2009-06-01

387

Effects of parental involvement in HIV/AIDS preventive education on secondary student knowledge about transmission and prevention in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study investigated HIV/AIDS preventive health education involving nurses alone (IG1) and another involving both nurses and trained parents/ guardians (IG2) on students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS' transmission and prevention in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Subjects included 339 students selected through a multistage and stratified random sampling technique. A pre-test/post-test intervention design with control group was used. Data were obtained using questionnaire, and analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance, multiple classification analysis, and Scheffe's post-hoc test. Results show that students exposed to parental involvement had significantly better mean scores on knowledge of prevention (IG2: x=7.51; IG1: x=6.96 control: x=3.82). Furthermore, although the male students had significantly higher mean score with intervention involving only nurses, the females had higher mean score with intervention involving parents/guardians. It is recommended that parents/guardians should be trained and involved in HIV/AIDS' preventive education of secondary school students. PMID:19342358

Akpabio, I I; Asuzu, M C; Fajemilehin, B R; Ofi, Bola

388

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria. PMID:24143124

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

389

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

390

Southwestern Utah Population and Economy  

E-print Network

Kane Washington Population in Southwestern Utah Counties: 1900-2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census Counties: 1900-2020 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 1995; 2000; and GOPB 2008 baseline. 0 1,000 2,000 3 Population in Smallest Southwestern Utah Counties: 1900-2000 Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census 1995; 2000

Provancher, William

391

Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Baseline Data for Vision 2020: The Right to Sight Eye Care Programme  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of low vision and blindness, identify the causes, and suggest policies for an effective eye care program based on 2005 data from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling method was used to quantify the prevalence of blindness and the causes from 4 health zones in Sokoto State. Subjects were evaluated using a magnifying loupe, direct ophthalmoscope and torchlight. Data were collected based on the World Health Organization prevention of blindness coding for an eye examination. Prevalences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and surgical coverage for causes of blindness was also analyzed. Results: The response rate was 91%. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%) ranging from 1.6% to 2.0% across the four health zones. The prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%) in males and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1–2.1%) in females. The leading cause of bilateral blindness was cataract (51.6%), followed by uncorrected aphakia (20.9%) and glaucoma (11%). The prevalence of bilateral operable cataract was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%). The cataract surgical coverage (individuals with visual acuity <6/60) for the study was lower than the couching coverage (4.4% vs. 14.9%, respectively). Surgical coverage for trichiasis was 4.4%. The major barrier to cataract and glaucoma management was cost. Conclusions: The prevalence of blindness in Sokoto State is high yet the main causes are largely avoidable. Barriers can be reduced by appropriate health education regarding the eye care program and the provision of integrated, sustainable, affordable and equitable services. PMID:21731322

Muhammad, Nasiru; Mansur, Rabiu M.; Dantani, Adamu M.; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday

2011-01-01

392

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

393