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1

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay

M. K. Fasasi; A. A. Oyawale; C. E. Mokobia; P. Tchokossa; T. R. Ajayi; F. A. Balogun

2003-01-01

2

Natural radioactivity of the tar-sand deposits of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of gamma spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the presence and level of radioactivity of radionuclides in bituminous sand and overburden obtained from bituminous sand deposits in Ondo State Nigeria for the purpose of providing baseline data and assessing its impact on the environment. The radionuclides identified with reliable regularity belong to the decay series of naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th. The non-decay series of naturally occurring 40K was found to be below the limit of detection. The average specific activity concentration values obtained for 214 Bi, 208Tl, and 226Ra in the overburden are 165.64±2.91, 150.25±2.91 and 60.97±2.27 Bq kg -1, respectively. The measured activity in the bituminous sand layer is so low that it can be said to be non-radioactive. The result of the EDXRF supports the presence of radioelements in the overburden, which are likely to be embedded in accessory minerals like zircon and tourmaline. Thus, surface exploration technique using soil-gas radon measurement will not yield the desired result. Furthermore, the level of radioelements and associated decay daughter 222Rn is not expected to cause any health hazard.

Fasasi, M. K.; Oyawale, A. A.; Mokobia, C. E.; Tchokossa, P.; Ajayi, T. R.; Balogun, F. A.

2003-06-01

3

Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is a serious public health problem in rural communities of Nigeria. The study assessed the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis and associated clinical morbidities in Ado-Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 500 participants of both sexes and age ranging from 1 to 79 years was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection were also conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection were 21% and 21.4 mf/mL of blood respectively. Microfilaraemic prevalence was significantly higher in males (27.1%) than in females (16%) (P < 0.001). However, intensity of infection was not gender and age dependent (P > 0.05). The overall prevalence of all clinical manifestations of infection due to W. bancrofti is 15% with hydrocele, limb and breast elephantiasis constituting 16.9%, 4.6% and 5.1% of the total population respectively. Prevalence of hydrocele and limb elephantiasis was significantly higher in the older age groups (P < 0.05). Occurrence of elephantiasis of the breast in women however was not associated with age (P > 0.05). Integrated approach through chemotherapy and vector control is therefore advocated to reduce morbidity due to infection in this study area. PMID:23518235

Christiana, Okonofua; Olajumoke, Morenikeji; Oyetunde, Salawu

2014-01-01

4

Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

2005-09-01

5

Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of childhood malnutrition, at least in the present study area. Steps should be taken to control both of these important health problems, through functional school-health programmes that provide regular deworming, supervised school meals and health education. PMID:21092395

Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

2010-10-01

6

Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

2012-01-01

7

Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis. PMID:23998005

Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

2013-01-01

8

Groundwater fluoride and dental fluorosis in southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i.e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0.65 ± 0.21 and 1.20 ± 0.14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1.10 ± 0.14-1.45 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07-2.20 ± 1.41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0.6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ? 0.05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested. PMID:22539221

Gbadebo, A M

2012-10-01

9

Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

2011-01-01

10

Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

Olumakaiye, M. F.

2013-01-01

11

ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIENCE OF DEVELOPING THE DAIRY INDUSTRY IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, there have been efforts made to develop the dairy industry in Nigeria, especially in the southwestern area, without any obvious success. This study examined the experiences and identified the strengths and weaknesses of the efforts so far, and suggested strategies for ensuring success in the future.This study surveyed the producers in the industry, government officials, and consumers to

F. E. OGBIMI; A. A. OYEWALE

2000-01-01

12

Emotional Intelligence In Modifying Signs And Symptoms Of Sexual Anxiety Among Fresh University Students In South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined effects of emotional intelligence training in reducing signs and symptoms of sexual anxiety among fresh university students in South Western Nigeria. 450 fresh university students who were randomly selected from the three randomly selected universities in South-western Nigeria constituted the experimental and the control group. Results indicated significant mean difference by gender between participants. There was also

13

Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates from selected poultry waste dumps in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in the waste dumpsite of ten poultry farms in Southwestern Nigeria\\u000a was investigated. The susceptibility of 195 organisms isolated from the study sites to eight antimicrobial agents were tested\\u000a using disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration of cloxacillin and amoxicillin determined by the agar\\u000a dilution method. Resistance to the test antibiotics

Olawale Olufemi Adelowo; Folakemi Aderonke Ojo; Obasola Ezekiel Fagade

2009-01-01

14

Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains from Cases of Childhood Diarrhea in Provincial Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study carried out in small-town and rural primary health care centers in southwestern Nigeria, 330 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 187 children with diarrhea and 144 apparently healthy controls were examined for virulence traits. Based on the results of colony blot hybridization, strains were categorized as enteropathogenic E. coli (1.8%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), enteroinvasive E. coli (1.2%),

IRUKA N. OKEKE; ADEBAYO LAMIKANRA; HARTMUT STEINRUCK; JAMES B. KAPER

2000-01-01

15

Elemental composition of rutile from south-western Nigeria using X-ray techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) have been used respectively to identify and analyse rutile obtained from a recently discovered deposit in the Osun-state in the south-western region of Nigeria. While the XRD provides structural information about the natural ore, the ED-XRF gives detailed information about the major, minor and trace elements/impurities contained in the sample. Quantitative analyses of the ore using pellets made from properly homogenised samples showed that the concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO 2), which is the dominant phase in the mineral could be as high as 82.45 wt%, giving Ti concentration of 49.4 wt%. The level of TiO 2 in the ore compared favourably with those found in some countries with notable rutile qualities. Other major elements observed in the ore include Fe (3.1 wt%), V (1.01 wt%), Ca (0.19 wt%) and K (0.21 wt%). In addition, several other elements/impurities were detected in minor and trace quantities including; Cr, Mn, Co (with concentration between 300 and 1000 ppm) and Zr, Ni, Zn, Rb, W, Pb, Sr, Y, Mo, Nb, Br, As, Cu (with concentration between 10 and 300 ppm). It is suggested that when properly mapped and extracted, the rutile deposit could become a reliable source of good grade TiO 2 for various industrial applications.

Siyanbola, W. O.; Fasasi, A. Y.; Funtua, I. I.; Afolabi, O. M.; Adesiyan, T. A.; Adetunji, A. R.

2004-01-01

16

Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen/oil shows associated with the study area. The results also point to the southern and south-western part of the basin as the appropriate direction to focus at for meaningful hydrocarbon potential development.

Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

2014-11-01

17

Childhood Eye Diseases in Southwestern Nigeria: A Tertiary Hospital Study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Eye diseases are important cause of medical consultation in children, with the spectrum varying in different localities. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of childhood eye diseases in a tertiary hospital serving rural and semi-rural communities. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of all patients less than 15 years old who presented to the eye clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between January 2001 and December 2006. Data on age at presentation, age at onset of disease, sex and diagnosis were collected and analyzed using SPSS. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS We evaluated the reports of 286 children, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Children aged 11–15 years made up the largest group (p=0.013). Ocular trauma (21.7%), allergic conjunctivitis (17.8%), infections of the eye and its adnexa (15.4%) and refractive errors (14.3%) were the most common conditions. Ocular injury was more common in males (p=0.002) and children aged 6–10 years, and 87.1% of these cases were a closed globe injury. Infections were seen more commonly among females and children aged 0–5 years, with keratitis representing 40.9% of these cases. Congenital eye disease represented 13.3% of childhood eye diseases. CONCLUSION The prevalent childhood eye diseases recorded here can lead to absenteeism from school and are potentially blinding. Health education aimed at the prevention of ocular trauma and prompt presentation for the management of other eye diseases should be encouraged. PMID:19841700

Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin Helen; Adeoye, Adenike Odunmorayo

2009-01-01

18

High seroprevelance of west nile virus antibodies observed in horses from southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

To investigate exposure of Nigerian horses to West Nile virus (WNV), we determined the seroprevalence rate of anti-WNV antibody in a cohort of 145 horses. Serum samples were collected from three locations in southwestern Nigeria between October, 2011, and July, 2012. The horses were asymptomatic and unvaccinated against WNV at the time of sampling. All sera were tested using a competition enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an immunoglobulin M (IgM)-specific ELISA. High rates of anti-WNV antibody prevalence were observed in all locations with a mean level of 90.3% (95% confidence interval 84.3-94.6%). None of the horses had detectable anti-WNV IgM. This is the first ELISA-based report of WNV seroprevalence in Nigerian horses and suggests that WNV is enzootic in the study areas, indicating a potential risk of infection in humans and animals. PMID:25793479

Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adedokun, Rahamon Akinyele Moshood; Rufai, Nurudeen; McCracken, Fiona; Mansfield, Karen L; Johnson, Nicholas

2015-03-01

19

Transboundary aquifers: Southwestern states assess  

E-print Network

of these areas,? said Karl Wood, director of the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute at New Mexico State Uni- versity. New Mexico State is the lead institu- tion for this project. Because surface water is scarce and unreli- able, the area relies... of these areas. ? ? ?Karl Wood, director of the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute at New Mexico State University aquifers _ tx H2O | pg. 16 Using groundwater for irrigation is also a factor because of the continuing drought that has...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

20

Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.  

PubMed

An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall <10 mSv (6.4 and 6.5 mSv y(-1) n living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), which is the upper range of action levels recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average excess lung cancer risk was estimated 24.8 and 25.2 per million person-years in both living rooms and bedrooms. It is believed that the high radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area. PMID:21515612

Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

2012-03-01

21

Molecular epidemiology of human and animal tuberculosis in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

From 2005 to 2007, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains were isolated from cattle, goats and pigs samples collected at the Bodija abattoir and from human samples from tuberculosis patients and livestock traders at the Akinyele cattle market in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Seventy four isolates obtained from humans (24) and livestock (50) were identified as MTC strains. Thirty two isolates were spoligotyped. Nineteen of these 32 isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis whilst 13 were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. M. bovis was isolated from two humans, whereas M. tuberculosis was isolated from a bovine, a pig and a goat. All the M. bovis isolates identified in this study belonged to the Africa 1 clonal complex. Multiple locus VNTR [variable number of tandem repeats] analysis (MLVA) was carried out on the 74 isolates. Three major clusters were defined. Group A consisted of 24 M. tuberculosis isolates (MLVA genotypes 1-18). One strain was isolated from a bovine and one from a pig. Group B consisted of 49 M. bovis strains (MLVA genotypes 19-48), mainly of cattle origin but also included four goat, nine pig and two human isolates. Group C consisted of a single M. tuberculosis isolate (MLVA genotype 49) obtained from a goat. Spoligotyping and MLVA confirmed it as clustering with the East Africa Indian clade found in humans in Sudan and the Republic of Djibouti. The isolation of three M. tuberculosis strains from livestock raises the question of their epidemiological importance as a source of infection for humans. PMID:21458174

Jenkins, A O; Cadmus, S I B; Venter, E H; Pourcel, C; Hauk, Y; Vergnaud, G; Godfroid, J

2011-07-01

22

Seismic stratigraphy and development of Avon canyon in Benin (Dahomey) basin, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons and a newly formed submarine canyon have been identified. Seismic reflection parameters of the ancient canyons are characterized by transparent to slightly transparent, continuous to slightly discontinuous, high to moderate amplitude and parallel to sub-parallel reflections. Locally, high amplitude and chaotic reflections were observed. The reflection configurations consist of regular oblique, chaotic oblique, progradational and parallel to sub-parallel types. These seismic reflection characteristics are probably due to variable sedimentation processes within the canyons, which were affected by mass wasting. Canyon morphological features include step-wise and spoon-shaped wall development, deep valley incision, a V-shaped valley, similar orientation in the southeast direction, and simple to complex erosion features in the axial floor. The canyons have a composite origin, caused partly by lowering of the sea level probably associated with the formation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet about 30 Ma ago and partly by complex sedimentary processes. Regional correlation with geological ages using the reflectors show that the canyons cut through the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments while the sedimentary infill of the canyon is predominantly Miocene and younger. Gravity-driven depositional processes, downward excavation by down slope sediment flows, mass wasting from the canyon walls and variation in terrigenous sediment supply have played significant roles in maintaining the canyons. These canyons were probably conduits for sediment transport to deep-waters in the Gulf of Guinea during their period of formation.

Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

2008-03-01

23

Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at DOTS Centre in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria: A 4-Year Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Information. Monitoring outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in Ogbomoso town, Southwestern Nigeria. Methodology. Medical records of all tuberculosis patients registered from January 2008 to December 2011 in 5 Local Government areas, Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria, were reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control guideline. Bivariate analysis was used to analyse the association between treatment outcome and potential predictor variables. Results. Out of the 965 total TB patients (579 males and 386 females) with mean age 42.4 ± 1.9 years, 866 (89.74%) were categorized as pulmonary tuberculosis and 109 (11.30%) as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment outcome among total 914 subjects was as follows: 304 (33.26%) patients got cured, 477 (52.19%) completed treatment, 87 (9.52%) died, 9 (0.98%) defaulted, and 1 (0.11%) failed treatment while 36 (3.94%) were transferred out. Higher treatment success rate was associated with those on Category 1 treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The treatment success rate of tuberculosis patients was high (85.45%) compared to national target. However, certain proportion of patients died (9.52%) and defaulted (0.98%), which is a serious public health concern that needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:25328702

Sunday, Olarewaju; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Ebenezer, Folorunso; Akintunde, Babatunde; Abiola, Temitayo-Oboh; Saliu, Abdulsalam; Abiodun, Oluwatoyin

2014-01-01

24

Roles of Personality, Vocational Interests, Academic Achievement and Socio-Cultural Factors in Educational Aspirations of Secondary School Adolescents in Southwestern Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the roles of personality, vocational interests, academic achievement and some socio-cultural factors in educational aspirations of secondary school adolescents in southwestern Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 430 (males = 220, females = 210)…

Salami, Samuel O.

2008-01-01

25

Detection of hepatitis B virus isolates with mutations associated with immune escape mutants among pregnant women in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its associated immune escape mutants (IEMs), is the major vehicle through which a population of chronically infected people who serve as infectious HBV reservoirs is maintained in communities. Therefore, to assess the risk of perinatal transmission, 272 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in Ibadan metropolis, southwestern, Nigeria, were screened for HBsAg using ELISA technique. Samples positive for HBsAg were subjected to HBV DNA detection by PCR amplification of the S-gene and amplicon sequencing. Isolates were genotyped and subtyped using a combination of molecular techniques. Fifteen (5.5%) of the pregnant women were positive for HBsAg of which HBV DNA was detected in seven. Five of the isolates were typed as genotype E subtype ayw4 using amino acid residues at positions 122, 127, 134 and 160. Another could only be typed as genotype E subtype ayw4 by further phylogenetic analysis. The remaining one isolate did not belong to any of genotypes A - H. Three of the HBV isolates including the untypable, had mutations in the 'a' determinant associated with IEMs. This study confirms the endemicity of HBV, the risk of perinatal transmission and the circulation of genotype E subtype ayw4 in Nigeria. It further demonstrates the presence of IEMs in Nigeria. PMID:25674500

Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Ifeorah, Ijeoma Maryjoy; Omoruyi, Ewean Chukwuma; Bakarey, Solomon Adeleye; Akere, Adegboyega; Awokunle, Funmilola; Ajibola, Hannah Opeyemi; Makanjuola, Deborah Oluwaseyi; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle

2015-01-01

26

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254

Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

2013-01-01

27

Influence of sample preparation and mode of testing on the shear strength characteristics of laterite soils from Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shear Strengths of four laterite soils from Southwestern Nigeria are investigated through:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (i) \\u000a \\u000a consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests with pore water measurements on Standard Proctor compacted soils and\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (ii) \\u000a \\u000a direct shear tests on remoulded soils.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The Shear Strength parameter obtained in both cases are high with those of the first method being generally higher than those\\u000a of the second

Olufemi Ogunsanwo

1993-01-01

28

Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

2009-01-01

29

Co-endemicity of Loiasis and Onchocerciasis in Rain Forest Communities in Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Loiasis is currently receiving attention as a disease of public health importance because of the possibility of increased risk of developing neurologic serious adverse event following mass ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis in individual co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Methodology/Principal Findings Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was conducted in 12 communities covering the 3 senatorial districts of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 960 people were interviewed for history of eye worm using the WHO guidelines for rapid assessment. The survey confirmed the presence of loiasis in all the 12 communities with 4 in Osun East/Ife south senatorial district being at high risk with a prevalence of over 40%. Based on the RAPLOA results, communities within Osun East/Ife south senatorial district were selected for microfilaraemic assessment of L. loa and O. volvulus. A total of 1115 and 1091 individuals were screened for L. loa and O. volvulus microfilaria worms respectively. 160 (14.3%) had L. loa microfilaria detected in their blood with 8 (5.0%) individuals having L. loa loads above 8000 mf/ml. 166 (15.2%) subjects had O. volvulus microfilaria (range 4-504 mf/ml) detected in their skin snip. 30 (2.69%) subjects were co-infected with both L. loa and O. volvulus. There was a significant variation in the prevalence (2.1% to 33.3%) of onchocerciasis in the communities studied (p = 0.001). Five (41.7%) of the studied communities had a prevalence that is equal to or greater than 20%. Conclusions/Significance Low prevalence of onchocerciasis and loiasis co-infection in this study suggests that loiasis may not pose a serious epidemiological threat to the continuous distribution and sustainability of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Evaluation of the interruption of onchocerciasis transmissions in this region using all the indicators set forth by WHO is therefore suggested. PMID:25812086

Ojurongbe, Olusola; Akindele, Akeem Abiodun; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Oyedeji, Matthew Oyebode; Adedokun, Samuel Adeyinka; Ojo, Josephine Folashade; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adefioye, Olusegun Adelowo; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

2015-01-01

30

©Wilolud Online Journals, 2007. ECONOMIC POTENTIALS OF THE PEGMATITES OF ERUKU AREA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.  

E-print Network

The close proximity of the pegmatites of Eruku area to the strongly mineralized pegmatites of Egbe area and lack of published work on those from the former formed the basis of this research. Sub-parallel, steeply-dipping, lenticular/podlike pegmatite bodies occur in the Eruku area, southwestern

unknown authors

31

An audit of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a tertiary health institution in South-western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study is aimed at determining the pattern of ear, nose and throat diseases and their relationship with socio-demographic factors with auditing intent in a tertiary hospital in South-western Nigeria. Methods Medical records of patients managed at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed for all essential clinical data. Results There were 2641 (52.8%) males and 2360 (47.2%) females. Two thousand and fifty (41%) patients had age ?15years old. Sixty three percent of the patients were Christians, 37% were Muslims and less than 1% had other religions. There were more patients in lower occupational classes than those in the upper classes. The average number of patients with ear, nose and throat diseases managed per month was eighty three. Patients with ear diseases were 3136 (62.7%), the nose diseases were 1153 (23.0%), the throat diseases were 479 (9.6%) and head/neck diseases were 233 (4.7%). Conclusion This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ?15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 years and above. Although these disorders are not yet considered to be of public health importance, they contribute significantly to the existing burden of health problems in our environment. Therefore, there is a need for improved public awareness on ear, nose and throat diseases. PMID:23503692

Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Samdi, Musa; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George

2013-01-01

32

Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them were also less likely to be sexually experienced than those to whom it was acceptable (AOR =0.043, 95% CI =0.016–0.122). Predictors of having multiple sexual partners include the sex of the respondent and the frequency of Internet use, with females (AOR =0.308, 95% CI =0.113–0.843) and those who rarely use the Internet less likely to have multiple sexual partners. Conclusion We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet could negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths. PMID:24729737

Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

2014-01-01

33

Species composition and temporal distribution of mosquito populations in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Nigeria has a high burden of vector borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF). This study aimed to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria as well as determine their role in malaria and LF transmission. Adult mosquitoes were collected by Pyrethrum Spray Catch (PSC) and identified and graded according to their abdominal conditions. The mosquitoes were dissected to determine the parity status and to check for microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. The presence of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was examined using ELISA. A total of 1600 mosquitoes were collected of which 31 (1.9%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l. while 1756 (98%) were Culex sp. None of the mosquitoes examined was positive for Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti. The lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the area could be responsible for the large number of mosquitoes collected. Health education could help in sensitizing the inhabitants. PMID:25520960

Okorie, Patricia N.; Popoola, K.O.K.; Awobifa, Olayemi M.; Ibrahim, Kolade T.; Ademowo, George O.

2014-01-01

34

Relative Height and Weight among Children and Adolescents of Rural Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background There are few data describing the relative height and weight patterns of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, despite a prevalence of stunting of over 38% among children younger than five years. Aim To document the height and weight patterns relative to international standards among children and adolescents aged 5 to 20 years in rural Nigeria. Subjects and methods Children 5 to 20 years of age were enrolled from two rural villages. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Z-scores and centiles for height and body mass index were calculated; prevalences of low relative height (ie, > 2 standard deviations below mean for age and sex) and weight by sex and age were estimated. Results A total of 623 participants (326 male and 297 female) were enrolled. The mean height-for-age z-score for males younger than 19 years was ?2.1 and prevalence of low relative height was 50%. Among females, the mean height-for-age z-score was ?1.2 during adolescence; only 15% of adolescent females were of low relative height. Based on BMI-for-age, 37% of the adolescent males and 23% of females were underweight. No children or adolescents were overweight based on BMI-for-age. Conclusions Low relative height and underweight occur in a large proportion of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, with the lowest relative heights and weights occurring in mid-adolescence and among males. PMID:19449276

Ayoola, Omolola; Ebersole, Kara; Omotade, Olayemi O.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Brieger, William R.; Salami, Kabiru; Dugas, Lara R.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

2010-01-01

35

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Risk Perception among Pregnant Women in a Teaching Hospital, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022

Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.

2011-01-01

36

Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

2009-01-01

37

Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

2011-01-01

38

Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.  

PubMed

The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ?2?°C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6?°C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483

Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

2011-02-24

39

Western United States and Southwestern Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2003-01-01

40

Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration in the southwest

Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

2006-12-01

41

Nigeria  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... oblique forward viewing cameras. The images extend from arid Niger in the north (including the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. Smoke present in the ...

2013-04-15

42

Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

43

Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The majority of subjects were aged ?40 years (41.6%) and were female (61.9%). Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05). A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%), cefotaxime (77.7%), and cefuroxime (75.7%) was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 ?g/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of stx1 were in the 0–10-year-old age group, 3.5% of stx2 were aged ?40 and above, and 1.0% of the hlyA isolates were in the 0–10-year-old age group. Conclusion The prevalence of virulent STEC is a public health concern. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay should aid quick detection of this virulent serotype and help curb the severe epidemic of human diseases associated with STEC infections. PMID:25342913

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Aboderin, Bukola W; Idris, Olayinka O; Mabayoje, Victor O; Opaleye, Oluyinka O; Adekunle, O Catherine; Olowe, Rita Ayanbolade; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola

2014-01-01

44

Critical levels for soil pH, available P, K, Zn and Mn and maize ear-leaf content of P, Cu and Mn in sedimentary soils of South-Western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sedimentary soils of South-western Nigeria, actual and expected relative yields of maize were plotted against soil physical factors, soil avalilable nutrients and ear-leaf content of maize. These were used to set critical ranges of these factors for optimum production. Regression equations were obtained for each of the soil and plant factors for predicting yield, thereby making possible yield

Gideon O Adeoye; Akinola A Agboola

1985-01-01

45

Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the Mojave

Harland L. Goldstein; Richard L. Reynolds; Marith C. Reheis; James C. Yount; Jason C. Neff

2008-01-01

46

Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the

Harland L. Goldstein; Richard L. Reynolds; Marith C. Reheis; James C. Yount; Jason C. Neff

2008-01-01

47

PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

Olabanji, S. O.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Pelemo, D. A.; Obiajunwa, E. I.; Oladele, A. T.

2014-01-01

48

Block kinematics of the PacificNorth America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS,  

E-print Network

Block kinematics of the Pacific­­North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States­North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS, seismological of the southwestern United States (30°­41°N) is represented by a finite number of rotating, elastic-plastic spherical

McCaffrey, Robert

49

Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

2001-10-01

50

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Abia State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in developed and emerging economies. There is a paucity of data from Nigeria on the association between socioeconomic status and obesity. The aim of this study is to highlight that association in Abia State, South East Nigeria. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional survey in South East Nigeria. Participating subjects were recruited from the three senatorial zones of Abia state. A total of 2,487 adults took part in the study. The subjects were classified based on their monthly income and level of educational attainment (determinants of obesity). Monthly income was classified into three groups: low, middle, and upper income, while educational level was classified into four groups: no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Body mass index of subjects was determined and used for defining obesity. Data on blood pressure and other anthropometric measurements were also collected using a questionnaire, modified from the World Health Organization STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Results Overall, the prevalence of obesity in low, middle, and upper income groups was 12.2%, 16%, and 20%, respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity in individuals with no formal education, primary, secondary, and tertiary education was 6.3%, 14.9%, 10.5%, and 17.7%, respectively. Educational status was found to be significantly associated with obesity in women, but not in men, or in the combined group. However, level of income was observed to be significantly associated with obesity in men, women, and in the combined group. Conclusion Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors are important determinants of obesity in our study population, and therefore may be indirectly linked to the prevalence and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease in Nigeria. PMID:24204167

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Okafor, Godwin Oguejiofor Chukwuebuka; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

51

Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

2007-01-01

52

Emergence of hantaviral disease in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. They have a worldwide distribution. Hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. In most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. In May 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. Serologic and genetic studies indicated that the etiologic agent was a novel hantavirus. The uncertainty engendered by the emergence of a new disease with high mortality forced a rapid response by state and federal agencies and by the University of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, where most patients from this region were referred. Considerable progress has been made in identifying infected cases on clinical and laboratory grounds and in ensuring that appropriate supportive care is made available to patients as soon as they are suspected of having hantaviral infection. Cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--both new and retrospectively diagnosed--are still being recognized throughout the western United States. Many important questions remain unanswered. Images PMID:7810123

Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Mertz, G; Koster, F; Foucar, K

1994-01-01

53

Obstetric outcome of twin gestations in a tertiary hospital South-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Twin pregnancy is considered a high risk pregnancy due to associated adverse obstetric outcomes. The objective was to determine the prevalence, complications and the obstetric outcomes of twin deliveries in EKSUTH. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of twin gestations managed at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti between January 2009 and December 2012 was done. Results: The prevalence of twin deliveries was 1 in 23 deliveries (4.3%). Increasing age and parity and Yoruba ethnicity were associated with higher twinning rate. The mean gestational age at delivery was 36.6?±?2.9 weeks and the mean birth weight was 2.47?±?0.49?kg with first twins having higher birth weight. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was the most common mode of delivery accounting for 52.6% and 49.3% in twin 1 and twin 2, respectively, and majority (39.5%) of the twins were in cephalic-cephalic presentation. The most common indication for caesarean delivery was breech presentation in the first twin. Preterm labour was the commonest maternal complications occurring in 25.7% of cases. The perinatal mortality rate was 105 per 1000 deliveries and this was significantly associated with unbooked patients, p?=?0.001. There were no maternal deaths. Conclusion: Preterm labour remains the commonest complication with associated high perinatal mortality. PMID:25030878

Aduloju, Olusola Peter; Olofinbiyi, Babatunde; Olagbuji, Biodun Nelson; Ade-Ojo, Idowu Pius; Akintayo, Akinyemi

2014-07-17

54

Clinical profile of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Current data on the pattern of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Nigerians are sparse. This database was designed to document the clinical profile of PD in Nigerians, and compare this to prior observations. Methods A database of patients presenting to the Neurology out-patients clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital was established in October 1996. Demographic and clinical data at presentation (disease stage using Hoehn and Yahr scale; 'off' state severity on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale) were documented for patients diagnosed with parkinsonism between October 1996 and December 2006. Cases were classified as Parkinson's disease or secondary parkinsonism (in the presence of criteria suggestive of a secondary aetiology). Results The hospital frequency of parkinsonism (over a 2-year period, and relative to other neurologic disorders) was 1.47% (i.e. 20/1360). Of the 124 patients with parkinsonism, 98 (79.0%) had PD, while 26 (21.0%) had secondary parkinsonism. Mean age (SD) at onset of PD (61.5 (10.0) years) was slightly higher than for secondary parkinsonism (57.5 (14.0) years) (P = 0.10). There was a male preponderance in PD (3.3 to 1) and secondary parkinsonism (2.7 to 1), while a positive family history of parkinsonism was present in only 1.02% (1/98) of PD. There was a modestly significant difference in age at onset (SD) of PD in men (60.3 (10.4)) compared to women (65.2 (7.9)) (T = 2.08; P = 0.04). The frequency of young onset PD (? 50 years) was 16.3% (16/98). The mean time interval from onset of motor symptoms to diagnosis of PD was 24.6 ± 26.1 months with majority presenting at a median 12 months from onset. On the H&Y scale, severity of PD at presentation was a median 2.0 (range 1 to 4). PD disease subtype was tremor-dominant in 31 (31.6%), mixed 54 (55.1%) and akinetic-rigid 14 (14.3%). Hypertension was present as a co-morbidity in 20 (20.4%), and diabetes in 6 (6.12%). Conclusions The clinical profile of PD in Nigerians is similar to that in other populations, but is characterized by delayed presentation as has been reported in other developing countries. Young-onset disease occurs but may be less commonly encountered, and frequency of a positive family history is lower than in western populations. PMID:20051133

2010-01-01

55

Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Red band bidirectional reflectance factor data from the NASA MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) acquired over the southwestern United States were interpreted through a simple geometric–optical (GO) canopy reflectance model to provide maps of fractional crown cover (dimensionless),...

56

GENETIC STRUCTURING OF COUES WHITE-TAILED DEER IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

E-print Network

patterns of genetic relatedness for Coues white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus couesi) in Arizona. hemionus eremicus). Both species are sympatric in many areas of the southwestern United States. Hybrid

57

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.

1973-01-01

58

Profile and predictor of health-related quality of life among hypertensive patients in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of hypertensives may be influenced by blood pressure, adverse effects of drugs used to treat hypertension, or other factors, such as the labelling effect, or beliefs and attitudes about illness and treatment. There is paucity of information on the determinants of HRQOL among black hypertensives especially in the developing countries such as Nigeria.

Michael O Ogunlana; Babatunde Adedokun; Magbagbeola D Dairo; Nse A Odunaiya

2009-01-01

59

Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An analysis was performed on the states in the Southwestern United States to determine methods to increase the proportion of wind and solar generated electricity in those states to levels as high as 40% of total electricity used. This analysis was performed by comparing the monthly and diurnal elect...

60

Cataract Blindness in Osun State, Nigeria: Results of a Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To estimate the burden of blindness and visual impairment due to cataract in Egbedore Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Twenty clusters of 60 individuals who were 50 years or older were selected by systematic random sampling from the entire community. A total of 1,183 persons were examined. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral cataract-related blindness (visual acuity (VA) < 3/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6–2.4%). The Cataract Surgical Coverage (CSC) (persons) was 12.1% and Couching Coverage (persons) was 11.8%. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of bilateral operable cataract (VA < 6/60) in people of 50 years and older was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1%). In this last group, the cataract intervention (surgery + couching) coverage was 22.2%. The proportion of patients who could not attain 6/60 vision after surgery were 12.5, 87.5, and 92.9%, respectively, for patients who underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, cataract surgery without IOL implantation and those who underwent couching. “Lack of awareness” (30.4%), “no need for surgery” (17.6%), cost (14.6%), fear (10.2%), “waiting for cataract to mature” (8.8%), AND “surgical services not available” (5.8%) were reasons why individuals with operable cataract did not undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: Over 600 operable cataracts exist in this region of Nigeria. There is an urgent need for an effective, affordable, and accessible cataract outreach program. Sustained efforts have to be made to increase the number of IOL surgeries, by making IOL surgery available locally at an affordable cost, if not completely free. PMID:23248537

Kolawole, Olubayo U.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Adeoti, Caroline O.

2012-01-01

61

Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.  

PubMed

The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 ?m) in comparison to other positions (135-288 ?m). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ? 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed ?-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22105848

Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

2012-07-01

62

Migrant Programs in the Southwestern States -- Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory was prepared for use by agencies working with migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the Southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The directory lists programs, services, and resources available to migrants in these states.…

National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

63

Characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates infecting peanut in Southwestern states of USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates associated with peanut in southwestern states, the aim of this study was directed at ...

64

RAPID URBAN SECTOR PROFILING FOR SUSTAINABILITY STUDIES (RUSPS) IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR URBAN PLANNING IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the application of rapid urban profiling for sustainability studies (RUSPS) in articulating city strategic plans in developing countries with the aim of determining its implications for urban planning in Ondo State, Nigeria. Ondo State is one of the 36 states of Nigeria where urban planning is undertaken by the state government. It discusses the usefulness of the

Johnson Bade FALADE; Afolabi ARIBIGBOLA

2010-01-01

65

A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

2007-07-01

66

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

67

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A

2014-12-01

68

The source hydrology of severe sustained drought in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the risk of drought and develops drought scenarios for use in the study of severe sustained drought in the southwestern United States. The focus is on the Colorado River basin and regions to which Colorado River water is exported, especially southern California, which depends on water from the Colorado River as well as the four major rivers

David G. Tarboton

1994-01-01

69

Artemisia tridentata (basin sagebrush) in the Southwestern United States of America: medicinal uses and pharmacologic implications.  

PubMed

Artemisia tridentata (basin sagebrush) is discussed as a medicinal plant in the southwestern United States of America. Active constituents present in A. tridentata are listed, the pharmacologic implications of their presence are reviewed, and medicinal applications are tabulated. Further research to determine the status of A. tridentata as a medicinal plant is encouraged. PMID:1563890

Kelley, B D; Appelt, J M; Appelt, G D

1992-03-01

70

VILAS A. PRABHU M.B.A., Management/ Finance, Southwestern Oklahoma State University -1991  

E-print Network

VILAS A. PRABHU Education: M.B.A., Management/ Finance, Southwestern Oklahoma State University -1991 Ph.D., Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin - 1977 M.S., Pharmaceutical /Professional Development Experiences: 2006 Institute of Education Management (IEM), Harvard University School

Hardy, Christopher R.

71

Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect

MARITH C. REHEIS; JAMES R. BUDAHN; PAUL J. LAMOTHE

2002-01-01

72

The Southern Sierra Nevada Drip and the Mantle Wind Direction Beneath the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Miocene-Pliocene convective removal of the southern Sierra Nevada batholithic root and its sinking through the upper mantle provides a natural experiment to estimate the direction and velocity of mantle flow beneath the southwestern United States. Xenolith data, volcanism patterns, and geologic evidence are used to constrain the location and timing of the initial detachment. Seismic tomography images of the

George Zandt

2003-01-01

73

Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Combining the output of wind farms with that of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants (including a heat storage system) resulted in a substantial percentage (40%) of the total utility electrical generation in the Southwestern United States being met by renewable energy. Using wind and solar resourc...

74

Ground Based Reflectance Measurements of Arid Rangeland Vegetation Communities of the Southwestern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 1997 a research program began using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD-FR) spectroradiometer to collect ground based in situ radiance/reflectance measurements from vegetation communities typical of semiarid/arid rangelands of southwestern United States. Measurements were made after the spring (Ap...

75

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--  

E-print Network

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States-- Appendix--1 Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge By Kyle W. Blasch, Jim is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging

76

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States --  

E-print Network

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States -- Climatic and Geologic Framework By David A. Stonestrom and James R. Harrill Abstract Ground-water recharge in the arid focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during

77

THE FLOOD CYCLE OF EPHEMERAL MOUNTAIN STREAMS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flood cycle of an arroyo in southwestern United States exhibits three separate stages: 1) the flood stage, often turbulent and violent, and impossible to study as it occurs; 2) the immediate after-flood stage, exhibiting conspicuous and interesting patterns, of which some may be observed; and 3) the dry stage, an indefinite period which lasts until the next flood, during

Jacques B. Wertz

1966-01-01

78

Automatic detection of vegetation changes in the southwestern United States using remotely sensed images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using

P. S. Chavez; D. J. Mackinnon

1994-01-01

79

Distinguishing Pronounced Droughts in the Southwestern United States: Seasonality and Effects of Warmer Temperatures  

E-print Network

Distinguishing Pronounced Droughts in the Southwestern United States: Seasonality and Effects droughts of the 1950s and 2000s, the latter likely influenced by warmer temperatures now attributed mostly to the buildup of greenhouse gases. In the hot­dry foresummer during the 2000s drought, much of the Southwest

Castro, Christopher L.

80

Characteristics and Consequences of Invasion by Sweet Resin Bush into the Arid Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eutyops multifidus (sweet resin bush), a shrubby composite native to South Africa, was introduced to the arid southwestern United States in 1935 by the USDA Soil Conservation Service. The spread of this shrub represents one of the most serious threats to the ecological integrity and economic value of several ecosystems in the semiarid Southwest. In southern Arizona, this shrub readily

Elizabeth A. Pierson; Joseph R. McAuliffe

81

Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods were developed for estimating magnitude and frequency of floods at gaged and ungaged sites in the Southwestern United States. Estimating equations for ungaged sites were developed by transferring information from gaged to ungaged sites using multiple regression and a hybrid method developed during this study. The methods and analysis are described, and information from more than 1,300 gaged sites is tabulated.

Thomas, Blakemore E.; Hjalmarson, H.W.; Waltemeyer, Scott D.

1997-01-01

82

Isosporiasis in HIV/AIDS Patients in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The role of opportunistic infections in accelerating disease progression in HIV-positive individuals, leading to quick death, is still receiving serious attention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Isospora belli infections in HIV-positive patients in Edo State, Nigeria between August 2007 and March 2008. Methods: A total of 268 samples from HIV-positive patients and 20 samples from HIV-negative patients were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the presence of I. belli oocysts. Results: The overall prevalence of the coccidian was 3.1%. Gender and age had no correlation with the prevalence of the parasite (P > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between isosporiasis and CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-positive patients (OR=11.388, 95% CI= 2.797–46.371, P=0.0004). Conclusions: Routine investigation of I. belli in HIV-positive subjects is advocated in tertiary health institutions. PMID:22589664

Olusegun, Akinbo Frederick; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Luiz Dantas Machado, Ricardo

2009-01-01

83

Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree-ring record indicates that this is the case. During the 20th century, tree-ring widths correlated very positively with total winter precipitation and very negatively with spring-summer maximum temperature. This indicates that Southwestern forest growth is significantly impacted by both the amount of water delivered before the growing season and temperature during the growing season. We conclude that in the absence of a significant increase in winter precipitation, continued warming should lead to a more sparsely populated Southwestern forest population, similar to the one that appears to have existed during 1000-1600 AD.

Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

2011-12-01

84

Hydrogeochemical characterization of a shallow groundwater system in the weathered basement aquifer of Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeochemical characterization of a weathered basement aquifer in Ilesha area, southwest Nigeria, was carried out with respect to geogenic and anthropogenic influences on the shallow groundwater system. Physico-chemical parameters revealed a pH of 6.4-8.4 and EC of 22-825 ?s/cm in the urban areas compared to a pH of 7.3-10.5 and relatively higher EC of 126-1027 ?s/cm in the peri-urban area. The concentrations of major cations (Ca, Na, K, Mg) in the urban areas revealed relatively lower average concentrations of 28.4, 16.7, 8.4 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively, compared to 82.5, 33.4, 19.3 and 12.4 mg/L, respectively, for the peri-urban areas. The low concentrations of major cations in the urban areas can be attributed to low mineral dissolution of quartzite and muscovite quartz-schist bedrocks compared to the weathered granitic, amphibolite and biotite schist in the peri-urban areas. Hydrochemical characterization revealed two main water types; namely Ca-Mg-(Na)-HCO3 mostly in the urban areas suggesting CO2-charged infiltrating recharge rainwater, and Ca-Na-(K)-SO4-Cl type in the peri-urban areas as products of water-rock interactions.

Tijani, M. N.; Oke, S. A.; Olowookere, A. T.

2014-09-01

85

Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

Musa, Alice K.J.

2013-01-01

86

Factors Responsible for Career Choice among Sampled Nigerian Teenagers in Bendel State of Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Male and female students in four urban locations of Bendel State of Nigeria were administered a questionnaire on choice of careers. The sample consisted of 640 students, 160 in each location ranging in age from 14 to 17. It was hypothesized that factors influencing career choice were money-yielding prospects, desire to work in state of origin,…

Odebunmi, Akin

87

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BEEKEEPING AND CROP PRODUCTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the beekeeping industry and crop production in Adamawa State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the more profitable form of sustainable income for small- scale farmers. Data were collected from 120 traditional beekeepers across the state who engaged in both forms of farming. Farm budgeting analysis and descriptive statistics revealed that beekeeping was a far more profitable

MUHAMMAD R. JA' AFAR-FURO; ABDURRAHMAN SULEIMAN; YUSUF EL-SAHAB HONG

2006-01-01

88

Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

2008-01-01

89

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ?2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ?7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ?18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, Constance I.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

2010-01-01

90

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ? 2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ? 7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ? 18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

Williams, A Park; Allen, Craig D; Millar, Constance I; Swetnam, Thomas W; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J; Leavitt, Steven W

2010-12-14

91

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasingmortality inmany temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth.We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ???2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantialmortality due to wildfires from1984 to 2006, and???7. 6%experiencedmortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ???18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

Williams, A.P.; Allen, C.D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, S.W.

2010-01-01

92

CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES:CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Historical Changes Along the Mojave River, CaliforniaHistorical Changes Along the Mojave River, California  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES:CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION conditions for the growth of riparian vegetation. The width of the channel has decreased by about two thirds

93

Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

Thomas, Harold G.

2012-01-01

94

Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

Ojebode, Ayo

2005-01-01

95

Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Problem statement In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. Approach Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. Results Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). Conclusion/Recommendations The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

Fuller, Amy C.; Harhay, Michael O.

2011-01-01

96

Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

PROBLEM STATEMENT: In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. APPROACH: Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. RESULTS: Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

Fuller, Amy C; Harhay, Michael O

2010-06-30

97

Spectrum of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among 168 Consecutive Referrals to an Urban Private Hospital in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10–76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement. PMID:24701123

Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Peter, Johnson O.

2014-01-01

98

Prevalence of hospital-acquired enterococci infections in two primary-care hospitals in osogbo, southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that become pathogenic when they colonize niches where they are not normally found. Of recent, they have become major cause of nosocomial infections, especially of the bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical sites. The aim of this study is to determine the point-prevalence rate of human enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in Osogbo, Nigeria. The study was conducted between January and June 2009 in two primary-care hospitals in Osogbo and involved a total of 118 patients who developed clinical evidence of infection at least 48 hours after hospital admission. Appropriate clinical samples were collected from the patients after an informed consent and cultured for isolation/biochemical identification of Enterococcus species at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo using standard microbiological methods. There were 525 hospital admissions within the time frame of the study of which 118 (22.5%) developed hospital acquired infection (HAI); 58 (49.2%) of which cultured positive for bacterial pathogens. Enterococci were isolated from infective focus in 7 patients, giving a prevalence rate of hospital-acquired enterococci infection of 5.9%. Two species of Enterococcus were identified; Enterococcus faecalis from urinary tract infection (UTI) and surgical site infection (SSI) of 6 (85.7%) patients and Enterococcus faecium from UTI in 1 (14.3%) patient. Other bacteria recovered from other infective foci were Klebsiella spp 31.0%, Pseudomonas spp 20.7%, Staphylococcus aureus 17.2%, Escherichia coli 12.1%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.7% and Serratia spp 1.7%. All the enterococci isolates were multiply antibiotic resistant, and 42.9% were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) with the VRE strains showing resistance to wider range of antibiotics than the vancomycin-sensitive strains. Other Gram-positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates also demonstrated multiple resistance to all commonly available antibiotics in this community except E. coli and Pseudomonas spp which were relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. This limited study demonstrated a high prevalence rate of multiple antibiotic resistant enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in this environment. There is need for systematic surveillance of hospitals for enterococci infections; prudent use and rational prescription of antibiotics and stringent measures to reduce the prevalence rate by health education on infection control measures such as isolation, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization. PMID:23878706

Olawale, Kafayat Olayinka; Fadiora, Solomon Olufemi; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday

2011-01-01

99

LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV,

M. J. Evans; M. Fayek; L. Riciputi; L. Anovitz; S. Hull; F. J. Mathien; H. Milford

2004-01-01

100

Distribution and Variation of Pocket Gophers (Genus Geomys) in the Southwestern United States.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, A & COLLEGE, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 590 AUGUST 1940 DISTRIBUTION AND VARIATION OF POCKET GOPHERS (GENUS GEOMYS) IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES WILLIAM B...&~-A stadl, itg& brwo tme&qpa with dietinet d ai&pe;.hind foot ,of. feana3.e~ am- near 24 q.; .rostmm - - - ' --A - 1'. 1 _ - rnprow; comt ef same. c=~&p&kd .p...

Davis, William B.

1940-01-01

101

Economic burden of glaucoma in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy. PMID:23271881

Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A

2012-01-01

102

Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

2012-01-01

103

Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

Emielu, Austin

2011-01-01

104

Gender Factor in Utilisation of Library Resources at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses results of a survey of gender factors in library resource use at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria (Africa). Highlights include reasons for library use, how library materials are located, materials consulted, relevance of library materials to information needs, frequency of use, and factors inhibiting effective use of the library.…

Adomi, Esharenana E.; Ogbomo, Monday O.

2003-01-01

105

Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

2011-01-01

106

Assessment of the qualitative adequacy of newly constructed public housing in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present research assessing the level of qualitative adequacy of newly constructed public housing in urban centres in Ogun State, Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/ approach – The study followed a quantitative research strategy. A survey of 517 housing units constructed through four different strategies and selected based on quota of their existence in nine

Eziyi O. Ibem; O. O. Amole

2011-01-01

107

Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

Odebode, Stella O.

2009-01-01

108

Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Malnutrition is a major public health and social problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. The study focuses on the assessment of nutritional status of 40 Queens College Students of Lagos State age 10-19 years. It was glaringly shown that most of the nutrients are lacking with inadequate energy intake especially among students of younger ages.

O. Akinyemi; A. G. Ibraheem

2009-01-01

109

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

110

Medicinal Herbs Used for Managing Some Common Ailments among Esan People of Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal herbs used for managing some common ailments in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The Esan people have a rich cultural heritage, which is reflected in the well- developed herbal medicine used to cure and manage various disease conditions. Herbal medicine offered remedies to common ailments ranging from common cold to complex pathological disorders including those

R. I. Okoli; O. Aigbe; Ohaju-Obodo; J. K. Mensah

2007-01-01

111

Nutrient Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Secondary Schools and Universities in Abia State of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: A total of 160 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years were surveyed for nutrient intake. Three-days weighed food intake was the technique used for this study. Subjects were from model secondary schools and universities in Abia State, Nigeria. The values for food nutrients were calculated using food composition tables. Foods that were not in the food composition

J. U. Anyika; A. C. Uwaegbute; A. O. Olojede; J. U. Nwamarah

2009-01-01

112

Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were measured with standardized instruments. The results

D. A. Adeyemo; T. M. Williams

2010-01-01

113

Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

2009-01-01

114

Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

2008-01-01

115

ALLEVIATING RURAL POVERTY: WHAT ROLE FOR SMALLHOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnai res were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 comm un ities in 6 local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, flock size, livestock income, annual

116

Alleviating Rural Poverty: What Role for SmallHolder Livestock Production in Delta State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to examine the role of small-holder livestock production in reducing rural poverty among small-scale farmers in Delta State, Nigeria, structured questionnaire were administered randomly to 264 small-scale farmers in 24 communities in six local government areas of the State, using multistage sampling technique. Data collected include socio-economic characteristics of households, fl ock size, livestock income, annual income

Odjuvwuederhie E. INONI; Christopher O. CHUKWUJI; D. OGISI; William J. OYAIDE

117

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States - Executive Summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a regional study in the Southwestern United States to characterize dissolved-solids conditions in major water supplies, including important rivers and aquifers. High concentrations of dissolved solids can degrade a water supply's suitability for important uses, such as drinking water or crop irrigation. In an effort to ensure the continued availability of clean surface and groundwater, USGS scientists identified areas where there have been both increasing and decreasing trends in dissolved-solids concentrations.

Anning, David W.

2008-01-01

118

Technical Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Summary of Proceedings of the Workshop on Technical Education: A Foundation for a Healthy Economy (Ota, Ogun State of Nigeria, March 1-2, 1994).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of proceedings includes papers from and about a workshop on technical education in Nigeria and the lessons Nigeria may gain by examining the vocational and technical education systems of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and Japan. The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Iyorchia Ayu); "Introduction: A Time for Action…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

119

Maternal mortality in northern Nigeria: findings of a health and demographic surveillance system in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate: (1) the lifetime risk (LTR) of maternal death; and (2) the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the Zamfara State of northern Nigeria. Data from the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System were utilized using the 'sisterhood method' for estimating maternal mortality. Female respondents (15-49 years) from six districts in the surveillance area were interviewed, creating a retrospective cohort of their sisters who had reached the reproductive age of 15 years. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the LTR of maternal death and the MMR. A total of 17,087 respondents reported 38,761 maternal sisters of whom 3592 had died and of whom 1261 were maternal-related deaths. This corresponded to an LTR of maternal death of 8% (referring to a period of about 10.5 years prior to the survey) and an MMR of 1049 deaths per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval, 1021-1136). The study provides documented evidence of high maternal mortality in the study area and the state as a whole. Thus, there is a need to improve the health system with an emphasis on interventions that will accelerate reduction in MMR such as the availability of skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care, promotion of facility delivery and antenatal care attendance. This can be achieved through a holistic approach and is critical in order to accelerate progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goal of maternal mortality reduction. PMID:22544044

Doctor, Henry Victor; Olatunji, Alabi; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Jumare, Abdulazeez

2012-07-01

120

Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dass area of Bauchi state Northern Nigeria we studied the infection rates, intensity and clinical manifestations of human filarial infections. After an initial census, 1,638 persons who presented themselves were physically examined from a total population of 53.213. Two hundred and fifteen (20.3%) of 1059 males and 99 (19.1%) of 569 females examined had fi- larial infections. Overall, 314

J. C. ANOSIKE; C. O. E. ONWULIRI; V. A. ONWULIRI

121

Incidence of Malaria Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients in Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Blood samples from 1410 patients within the age groups of 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59, in Akure Owo, Ondo, Okitipupa and Ikare-Akoko all in Ondo State, Nigeria, were screened for the presence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, (HIV-1) and (HIV-2 antibodies. The subjects were made up of 570 (40.43%) males and 840 (59.57%) females. In all, 206

A. K. Onifade; E. O. Akanni

122

FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES AMONG COCOA FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawal J. O. and Oluyole K. A. 2008. Factors Influencing Adoption of Research Results and Agricultural Technologies among Cocoa Farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 3(5):10-12 Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) is mandated to develop, improve and translate appropriate research results and post-harvest agricultural technologies to farmers (end users) and the general public on

J. O. LAWAL; K. A. OLUYOLE

123

Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

2002-01-01

124

Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the Mojave Desert to the central Colorado Plateau. Aeolian dust is recognized in these depressions on the basis of textural, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics and comparisons of those characteristics to the underlying bedrock units. Spatial and temporal trends suggest that although local dust sources are important to the accumulated material in these depressions, Mojave Desert dust sources may also contribute. Depth trends in the depressions suggest that Mojave sources may have contributed more dust to the Colorado Plateau recently than in the past. These interpretations point to the important roles of far-traveled aeolian dust for landscape geochemistry and imply future changes to soil geochemistry under changing conditions in far-distant dust source areas. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Goldstein, H.L.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.; Yount, J.C.; Neff, J.C.

2008-01-01

125

Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.  

SciTech Connect

As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

2013-07-01

126

Automatic detection of vegetation changes in the southwestern United States using remotely sensed images  

SciTech Connect

The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using same-date Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) data for comparison with the MSS results. The change-detection procedure includes multitemporal image calibration using a hybrid method that we developed for the project; the hybrid calibration allows a radiometric calibration to be applied to historical data by using field-radiance information rather than a modeling procedure. The results indicate that a calibrated visible band is more sensitive than the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting vegetation changes in the arid and semi-arid environments of the southwestern United States. Changes were detected in the desert environment, where the vegetation density is relatively low, with both Landsat MSS and GOES VISSR images. Some changes detected by the automatic procedure were confirmed in the field during two of the Landsat overpasses. The changes corresponded mostly to the blooming of ephemeral or annual vegetation.

Chavez, P.S.; Mackinnon, D.J. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)

1994-05-01

127

Association of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with 'Zebra Chip', a New Potato Disease in Southwestern United States and Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new defect of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), “Zebra Chip”, so-named for the characteristic symptoms that develop in fried chips processed from affected potato tubers has recently been documented in several southwestern states of the United States, Mexico, and Central America. This defect is causin...

128

Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

2011-01-01

129

Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level  

PubMed Central

Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of ?6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of ?50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

2014-01-01

130

Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

2013-01-01

131

Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.

2013-01-01

132

Impacts of climate variability and changes on groundwater recharge in the semi-arid southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract ,An understanding of groundwater ,recharge processes in the semi-arid southwestern United States is essential for the creation of sustainable water and land resource management. Recharge is a function of soil texture, vegetation, the type and locations of preferential flowpaths, and water availability. The spatial and temporal variability of precipitationin the area isinfluenced by several climate cycles including glacial periods,

Sarah Davidson

133

CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation on the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah  

E-print Network

CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation whitewater recreation area, and supports valued riparian habitat. This major tributary of the Colorado River riparian vegetation, and repeat photographs show a large increase in both native and non-native vegetation

134

Restoration of riparian vegetation in the south-western United States: importance of flow regimes and fluvial dynamism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riparian ecosystems in the south-western United States have undergone extensive physical and biological changes, due, in part, to alteration of natural flow regimes and suppression of fluvial processes. Many riparian ecosystem restoration projects are achieving success because they recognize the importance of restoring the hydrologic regime. In other words, these projects are restoring flows of water and sediment in sufficient

Juliet C. Stromberg

2001-01-01

135

Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: importance of the Colorado River and local sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized

Daniel R. Muhs; Richard L. Reynolds; Josh Been; Gary Skipp

2003-01-01

136

The Western Viceroy butterfly (Nymphalidae: Limenitis archippus obsoleta): an indicator for riparian restoration in the arid southwestern United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history characteristics of the Western Viceroy (Limenitis archippus obsoleta), an obligate riparian nymphalid butterfly in the desert southwestern United States, are described and related to Colorado River riparian restoration efforts. Riverine disturbance regimes and associated fluvial and hydrological dynamics may provide resources critical to this butterfly. Puddling by adult butterflies may require flood-cleared surfaces and an obligate riparian plant,

S. Mark Nelson

2003-01-01

137

Assessing the Impacts of Prescribed Burning on Soil and Water Resources of Oak Savannas in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oak (encinal) woodlands and savannas cover large areas in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. However, there is relatively little hydrologic and soils data available to aid in the management of these lands. Fire was the most important natural disturbance prior to European settlement of the region. The decline of the native herbaceous vegetation, because of past over-grazing, and

Gerald J. Gottfried; Daniel G. Neary; Ronald J. Bemis

138

Late Pleistocene C4 Plant Dominance and Summer Rainfall in the Southwestern United States from Isotopic Study of Herbivore Teeth  

E-print Network

in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth to forecasting global change (Bartlein et al., 1998). Disagreements over the ecological significance and past from the diets of megaherbivores. The data are derived from isotope values of tooth enamel and provide

139

Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was reported as common practice. The resources available for these activities and which constitute potential resources for the CDI process include community volunteers, CBOs and NGOs. Others are landlords; professional, women and youth associations; social clubs, religious organisations and the available health facilities. Conclusion This study’s findings support the feasibility of using the CDI process in delivering health interventions in urban poor communities and show that potential resources for the strategy abound in the communities. PMID:24156481

2013-01-01

140

The diffusion of maize to the southwestern United States and its impact  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the initial period of agriculture in the southwestern United States has been transformed by recent discoveries that establish the presence of maize there by 2100 cal. B.C. (calibrated calendrical years before the Christian era) and document the processes by which it was integrated into local foraging economies. Here we review archaeological, paleoecological, linguistic, and genetic data to evaluate the hypothesis that Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) farmers migrating from a homeland in Mesoamerica introduced maize agriculture to the region. We conclude that this hypothesis is untenable and that the available data indicate instead a Great Basin homeland for the PUA, the breakup of this speech community into northern and southern divisions ?6900 cal. B.C. and the dispersal of maize agriculture from Mesoamerica to the US Southwest via group-to-group diffusion across a Southern Uto-Aztecan linguistic continuum. PMID:19995985

Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Fritz, Gayle J.; Adams, Karen R.; Roney, John R.; MacWilliams, A. C.

2009-01-01

141

Patterns of diversity for fungal assemblages of biological soil crusts from the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Molecular methodologies were used to investigate fungal assemblages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) from arid lands in the southwestern United States. Fungal diversity of BSCs was assessed in a broad survey that included the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts as well as the Colorado Plateau. At selected sites samples were collected along kilometer-scale transects, and fungal community diversity and composition were assessed based on community rRNA gene fingerprinting using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Individual phylotypes were characterized through band sequencing. The results indicate that a considerable diversity of fungi is present within crusted soils, with higher diversity being recovered from more successionally mature BSCs. The overwhelming majority of crust fungi belong to the Ascomycota, with the Pleosporales being widespread and frequently dominant. Beta diversity patterns of phylotypes putatively representing dominant members of BSC fungal communities suggest that these assemblages are specific to their respective geographic regions of origin. PMID:22123652

Bates, Scott T; Nash, Thomas H; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

2012-01-01

142

Analysis of watershed topography effects on summer precipitation variability in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With climate change, precipitation variability is projected to increase. The present study investigates the potential interactions between watershed characteristics and precipitation variability. The watershed is considered as a functional unit that may impact seasonal precipitation. The study uses historical precipitation data from 370 meteorological stations over the last five decades, and digital elevation data from regional watersheds in the southwestern United States. This domain is part of the North American Monsoon region, and the summer period (June-July-August, JJA) was considered. Based on an initial analysis for 1895-2011, the JJA precipitation accounts, on average, for 22-43% of the total annual precipitation, with higher percentages in the arid part of the region. The unique contribution of this research is that entropy theory is used to address precipitation variability in time and space. An entropy-based disorder index was computed for each station's precipitation record. The JJA total precipitation and number of precipitation events were considered in the analysis. The precipitation variability potentially induced by watershed topography was investigated using spatial regionalization combining principal component and cluster analysis. It was found that the disorder in precipitation total and number of events tended to be higher in arid regions. The spatial pattern showed that the entropy-based variability in precipitation amount and number of events gradually increased from east to west in the southwestern United States. Regarding the watershed topography influence on summer precipitation patterns, hilly relief has a stabilizing effect on seasonal precipitation variability in time and space. The results show the necessity to include watershed topography in global and regional climate model parameterizations.

Sohoulande Djebou, Dagbegnon C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Frauenfeld, Oliver W.

2014-04-01

143

Impact of PermaNet 3.0 on entomological indices in an area of pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae in south-western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background PermaNet® 3.0 is an insecticide synergist-combination long-lasting insecticidal net designed to have increased efficacy against malaria vectors with metabolic resistance, even when combined with kdr. The current study reports on the impact of this improved tool on entomological indices in an area with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Nigeria. Methods Baseline entomological indices across eight villages in Remo North LGA of Ogun State provided the basis for selection of three villages (Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa) for comparing the efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 (PN3.0), PermaNet® 2.0 (PN2.0) and untreated polyester nets as a control (UTC). In each case, nets were distributed to cover all sleeping spaces and were evaluated for insecticidal activity on a 3-monthly basis. Collection of mosquitoes was conducted monthly via window traps and indoor resting catches. The arithmetic means of mosquito catches per house, entomological inoculation rates before and during the intervention were compared as well as three other outcome parameters: the mean mosquito blood feeding rate, mean mortality and mean parity rates. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main malaria vector in the three villages, accounting for >98% of the Anopheles population and found in appreciable numbers for 6–7 months. Deltamethrin, permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin resistance were confirmed at Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa. The kdr mutation was the sole resistance mechanism at Ilara, whereas kdr plus P450-based metabolic mechanisms were detected at Irolu and Ijesa. Bioassays repeated on domestically used PN 2.0 and PN 3.0 showed persistent optimal (100%) bio-efficacy for both net types after the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month following net distribution. The use of PN 3.0 significantly reduced mosquito densities with a ‘mass killing’ effect inside houses. Households with PN 3.0 also showed reduced blood feeding as well as lower mosquito parity and sporozoite rates compared to the PN 2.0 and the UTC villages. A significant reduction in the entomological inoculation rate was detected in both the PN 2.0 village (75%) and PN 3.0 village (97%) post LLIN-distribution and not in the UTC village. Conclusion The study confirms the efficacy of PN 3.0 in reducing malaria transmission compared to pyrethroid-only LLINs in the presence of malaria vectors with P450-based metabolic- resistance mechanisms. PMID:24886399

2014-01-01

144

The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

2013-01-01

145

Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

2012-01-01

146

Parental Involvement, Interest In Schooling And Science Achievement Of Junior Secondary School Students In Ogun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and three instruments were used to collect data. The combined

R. A. Olatoye

147

The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state

Borode, Matthew

2010-01-01

148

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and

H. G. Balla; A. S. Tahir; C. Haskainu

2008-01-01

149

Combating cyber crime in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe cyber crime and techniques adopted for combating it in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reviews the state of cyber crime in Nigeria, and how it is being stemmed in the country. Findings – The types of cyber crime in Nigeria are revealed together with the efforts geared towards combating\\/preventing cyber crime in

Esharenana E. Adomi; Stella E. Igun

2008-01-01

150

Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?  

PubMed Central

Background While freshwater sustainability is generally defined as the provisioning of water for both people and the environment, in practice it is largely focused only on supplying water to furnish human population growth. Symptomatic of this is the state of Arizona, where rapid growth outside of the metropolitan Phoenix-Tucson corridor relies on the same groundwater that supplies year-round flow in rivers. Using Arizona as a case study, we present the first study in the southwestern United States that evaluates the potential impact of future population growth and water demand on streamflow depletion across multiple watersheds. Methodology/Principal Findings We modeled population growth and water demand through 2050 and used four scenarios to explore the potential effects of alternative growth and water management strategies on river flows. Under the base population projection, we found that rivers in seven of the 18 study watersheds could be dewatered due to municipal demand. Implementing alternative growth and water management strategies, however, could prevent four of these rivers from being dewatered. Conclusions/Significance The window of opportunity to implement water management strategies is narrowing. Because impacts from groundwater extraction are cumulative and cannot be immediately reversed, proactive water management strategies should be implemented where groundwater will be used to support new municipal demand. Our approach provides a low-cost method to identify where alternative water and growth management strategies may have the most impact, and demonstrates that such strategies can maintain a continued water supply for both people and the environment. PMID:20657735

Marshall, Robert M.; Robles, Marcos D.; Majka, Daniel R.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.

2010-01-01

151

Nigeria. Spotlight.  

PubMed

Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

Lecky, M

1984-12-01

152

Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

2014-01-01

153

Screening for Common Occupational Health Diseases Among Long Distance Professional Drivers in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries. PMID:24829742

Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi

2014-01-01

154

National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?  

PubMed Central

Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

2014-01-01

155

Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P??0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?State, Nigeria. PMID:22992226

2012-01-01

156

Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for plantation-grown Nauclea diderrichii (de wild) in the humid tropical rainforest zone of south-western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Adequate management of forest plantation requires estimation of growth and biomass yield and consequently, the fitting of functions for estimating biomass. Growth, biomass yield and biomass functions for estimating biomass of Nauclea diderrichii plantations in Omo forest reserve, Nigeria are described. Data were obtained from 30 temporary sample plots selected from stands that are 5-30 years old. A total of 81 trees were harvested for biomass estimation. Mean tree diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and stand bole volume ranged from 9.6 to 29.3 cm; 9.0 to 23.6m and 23.27 to 535.52 m(3)ha(-1), respectively while Total Above Ground Biomass (TAGB) varied from 32.5 t ha(-1) to 287.5 t ha(-1) between 5 and 30 years. Biomass allocations to stem, branch and foliage were 84.5%, 13.5% and 3%, respectively. All biomass components could be described precisely by dbh alone (R(adj)(2)>0.97), with very low standard errors of estimates. Little improvement in the precision of the functions was achieved by including total height. In addition, the residuals of regression functions with only dbh were generally more constrained than those that included total height. Consequently, the functions with dbh alone and its derivative as independent variables were recommended for estimating biomass of opepe in Nigeria. PMID:17097288

Onyekwelu, Jonathan C

2007-10-01

157

A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

2012-01-01

158

Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

2012-01-01

159

Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

2010-01-01

160

Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

2012-01-01

161

Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

2013-01-01

162

Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

2013-01-01

163

Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seeds Collected from Three Locations in Edo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was initiated to ascertain some physical and chemical characteristics of the breadfruit seed collected from three locations (Benin City in Oredo, Egor in Egor, and NIFOR in Ovia North-East Local Government Areas) in Edo State, Nigeria. 150 units of well-matured seeded breadfruits were harvested, the fruits were opened and the following physical characters were determined; weight of fruits,

2006-01-01

164

Cultivation of Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on Various Farm Wastes in Obubra Local Government of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Abstract: A study on the cultivation of Volvariella volvacea mushroom (Basidiomycetes), a Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) on different wastes (palm fibers, rice husk and saw dust) was conducted at CRUTECH, Obubra Campus, Cross River State, Nigeria. The aim was to investigate the influence of selected farm wastes on the growth of V. volvacea, so as to organically utilize these

H. N. Ukoima; L. O. Ogbonnaya; G. E. Arikpo; F. N. Ikpe

2009-01-01

165

Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.  

PubMed

Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017

Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

2013-10-15

166

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer Drought Severity Index and tree-ring reconstructed ENSO, PDO and AMO phases (1905-1978 and 1700-1904). Upper elevation fires (115 fires, 84 fire years, 1623-1904) were compared with climate indices. ENSO, PDO, and AMO affected regional PDSI, but AMO and PDO teleconnections changed between periods. Fire occurrence was significantly related to inter-annual variability in PDSI, precipitation, ENSO, and phase combinations of ENSO and PDO, but not AMO (1700-1904). Reduced upper elevation fire (1785-1840) was coincident with a cool AMO phase.

Margolis, Ellis Quinn

167

Detection of Historical Summertime Monsoon Precipitation Trends over the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we use stochastic daily-precipitation models—models in which the simulated interannual-to-multidecadal precipitation variance is purely the result of the random evolution of daily precipitation events within a given time period—as a novel method to detect trends in seasonal-mean summertime precipitation and precipitation characteristics over the southwestern United States during the North American Monsoon (NAM). We find that over the last 70+ years there has been a significant overall increase in summertime monsoon precipitation—as well as number of rainfall events and coverage of rainfall events—in peripheral regions north of the "core" monsoon area of Arizona and western New Mexico. In addition, there is an increasing trend in intense storm activity and a decreasing trend in extreme dry-spell lengths. Further analysis indicates that there has been a concurrent expansion of the near-surface dynamic pressure field associated with the monsoon-induced thermal low corresponding to enhanced global-mean temperatures. While our results do not unequivocally attribute the northward expansion of the NAM precipitation to increasing global-mean temperatures, they are in agreement with similar expansions during relatively warm periods within the Holocene. As such these observational results suggest that this region may serve as a "sentinel" region, in which detectable trends in precipitation characteristics are already emerging from the envelope of interannual to decadal variability.; ;

Anderson, B. T.; Salvucci, G.; Wang, J.

2012-12-01

168

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis.  

PubMed Central

A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans. PMID:10081681

Mills, J. N.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Peters, C. J.; Childs, J. E.

1999-01-01

169

Genetic analysis of a novel Xylella fastidiosa subspecies found in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke. PMID:19581467

Randall, Jennifer J; Goldberg, Natalie P; Kemp, John D; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M; Olsen, Mary W; Hanson, Stephen F

2009-09-01

170

Perchlorate in the feed-dairy continuum of the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Perchlorate has the potential to cause thyroid dysfunction by inhibiting iodide uptake by the sodium iodide symporter. Perchlorate-contaminated waters may lead to human exposure through drinking water and food chain transfer in crops by way of irrigation water. Perchlorate has been found in dairy milk collected nationally and internationally. This study was conducted to evaluate perchlorate in the feed-dairy continuum in the southwestern United States. All feed products collected at dairies in this study had detectable levels of perchlorate as analyzed by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated total perchlorate intake across dairies ranged from 1.9 to 12.7 mg/cow per day. The variation in total perchlorate intake across dairies was largely associated with variation in forage and silage products. Alfalfa products were the single most important source of perchlorate intake variability among dairies. The estimated perchlorate intake from drinking water ranged from 0.01 mg per cow per day and was generally less than 2% of the total perchlorate intake. The perchlorate content of milk ranged from 0.9 to 10.3 microg/L and was similar to levels reported by the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. The perchlorate content of milk was significantly related to the presence of perchlorate in feed but the variation of perchlorate in milk could not be explained by feed intake alone. PMID:18553887

Sanchez, C A; Blount, B C; Valentin-Blasini, L; Lesch, S M; Krieger, R I

2008-07-01

171

Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

Kaban, M.K.; Mooney, W.D.

2001-01-01

172

Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-04-01

173

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-10-01

174

Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

2014-01-01

175

Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-01-01

176

Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.  

PubMed

Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma. PMID:25545928

Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

2014-11-01

177

The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.

2013-01-01

178

Quantitative analysis of nitrate and nitrite contents in vegetables commonly consumed in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Plasma thiocyanate has been reported to be high among cassava-eating populations such as that in Nigeria because of the cyanide content of cassava. Thiocyanate, which is secreted into the stomach contents of animals, has been demonstrated to catalyse the formation of nitrosamines (potent carcinogens) in the stomach from secondary amines and nitrite. The main source of the nitrite precursor in this environment is vegetables, primarily eaten as the chief supplier of proteins. The present study attempts to analyse the levels of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables commonly grown and consumed in Delta State, Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite contents in green vegetable (Amaranthus spp.), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) grown in different localities of the state were determined by standard analytical procedures. The results show that those vegetables grown in the industrialised urban centres of the state had higher nitrate (223 (SD 71) mg/kg dry weight; P<0.05) and nitrite (12.6 (SD 1.7) mg/kg dry weight; P>0.05) levels when compared with the same species (188 (SD 77) mg nitrate/kg dry weight and 10.9 (SD 1.1) mg nitrite/kg dry weight) cultivated in less industrialised suburbs. We conclude that frequent consumption of such vegetables whose nitrate and nitrite contents are high by cassava-eating individuals might put them at risk of developing stomach cancer and other possible results of nitrate and/or nitrite toxicity. In order to avoid an outbreak in our communities, appropriate agencies should monitor and regulate the release of chemicals into the environment. In the meantime, the cultivation and consumption of vegetables grown in industrialised areas of the state should be discouraged. PMID:17092380

Onyesom, I; Okoh, P N

2006-11-01

179

Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

2007-05-01

180

Anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among general practitioners in Enugu state, south east Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 ± 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy. PMID:23798794

Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.

2013-01-01

181

Treatment outcome and impact of leprosy elimination campaign in Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A Leprosy Elimination Campaign (LEC) was implemented in 37 districts of Sokoto and Zamfara states, Nigeria from 13 August to 30 November 1998. The campaign utilized intensive community mobilization and training of local health personnel to detect hidden leprosy cases. During 8 weeks of case finding, 160,127 persons were screened; 353 new cases of leprosy were detected and placed on MDT; 236 (67%) of new cases detected were classified as MB, 64 cases (18%) suffered visible deformities and 24 patients (6.8%) were children. Follow-up in December 1999 of patients placed on MDT revealed 97% PB and 96% MB cure rates, respectively. Detection of cases in communities led some community leaders to ask for repeat surveys in their communities. Repeat surveys continue to yield new cases. The authors recommend that LECs be maintained for 3 years to accelerate leprosy elimination in the region. The cost effectiveness and impact of LEC in Sokoto-Zamfara are discussed. PMID:11495450

Ebenso, B E; Tureta, S M; Udo, S O

2001-06-01

182

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

2007-01-01

183

Climate change and the rising cost of living for forests in the southwestern United States and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As climate changes, drought may reduce tree productivity and survival across many forest ecosystems; however, the relative influence of specific climate parameters on forest decline is poorly understood. We derive a forest drought-stress index (FDSI) for the southwestern United States using a comprehensive tree-ring dataset representing CE 1000-2007. FDSI is approximately equally influenced by warm-season atmospheric moisture demand (largely controlled by temperature) and cold-season precipitation, together explaining 82% of FDSI variability. Correspondence between FDSI and measures of forest productivity, mortality, bark-beetle outbreak, and wildfire validate FDSI as a holistic indicator of forest vigor throughout the region. In fact, the exceptionally large burned areas in 2002, 2011, and 2012 were all predictable based upon FDSI. If atmospheric moisture demand continues increasing as projected by climate models, average forest drought stress levels by the 2050s will exceed those of the worst megadroughts in at least 1000 years. Collectively, these results foreshadow 21st century changes in southwestern forest structures and compositions, with a transition of southwestern forests, and perhaps water-limited forests globally, toward distributions unfamiliar to modern civilization.

Williams, P.; Allen, C. D.; Macalady, A. K.; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Meko, D. M.; Swetnam, T. W.; Rauscher, S.; Seager, R.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; Dean, J.; Cook, E.; Gangodagamage, C.; Cai, M.; McDowell, N. G.

2012-12-01

184

Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

Tillman, Fred D.; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

2008-01-01

185

LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

2004-12-01

186

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Anning, D.W.

2011-01-01

187

Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States - Climatic and Geologic Framework  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly but irregularly control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Anthropogenically induced climate change likely will reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations, and perhaps through increased drought. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge directly through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area, and indirectly through climate change. High ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions.

Stonestrom, David A.; Harrill, James R.

2007-01-01

188

Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States  

E-print Network

southwestern forests. forest mortality | climate change | drought | fire | tree rings Intense droughts Forest Service, Albany, CA 94710; and d Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United

Swetnam, Thomas W.

189

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States--  

E-print Network

USGS Professional Paper 1703--Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United, streamflow, and water-table eleva- tions, for example--for calibration and performance testing. Calibration provides initial estimates of the rates and distribu- tion of ground-water recharge, and the calibrated

Binley, Andrew

190

Solar thermal electricity generation and desalination in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are direct links between water and energy use, sometimes referred to as the energy-water nexus. Water rights issues have confronted the southwestern U.S. for a long time. Furthermore, climate change is decreasing the already limited water resources in this region, and the growing population in the Southwest has also increased the consumption of freshwater. Here we study solar energy,

Dexinghui Kong; K. E. Holbert

2010-01-01

191

Climate change and spotted owls: potentially contrasting responses in the Southwestern United States  

E-print Network

strategies that reduce the impacts of climate change on biodiversity will require projections of the future might be affected by climate change for three spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) populationsClimate change and spotted owls: potentially contrasting responses in the Southwestern United

Mladenoff, David

192

High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and maximum temperature), beyond which the yields were negatively affected. These results are now being used for further regional-scale yield analysis as the aforementioned framework is adaptable to multiple geographic regions and crop types.

Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

2012-12-01

193

Mothers knowledge on the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria in a university staff clinic in an urban setting in Southwestern Nigeria.  

PubMed

This prospective study was carried out at Jaja Clinic, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study documented the knowledge of mothers of children about the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria. These were mothers of children between ages 1 month to 12 years that presented with fever at the clinic for the first time during the current illness. Data was collected with structured questionnaires administered to the mothers of the enrolled children. The children were clinically examined by clinicians and blood films for malaria parasites were taken and examined in the laboratory using Giemsa stain. The haematocrit level of each child was also determined. 60.4% of the children were 1 month-5 years (mean age 33.0 +/- 15.2 months) while 39.6% of them were over 5-12 years (mean 8.1 +/- 2.1 years). Most of the mothers (58.3%) had above secondary school education. Blood films for malaria parasites were positive in 76% of the children that presented with fever. 74.2% of the mothers knew mosquito bite as the cause of malaria while 13.2% of them were ignorant of the cause of malaria. The main protective measures practiced by the mothers against mosquito bites were netted windows (86.2%), use of aerosol insecticides (76.1%), and mosquito coil (17.0%). Most mothers were not knowledgeable about the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) which is the most recently introduced protective measure against mosquito bite. Ninety percent of the mothers knew fever as the major symptom of malaria. The degree of parasitaemia affected the PCV level. The greater the parasite count, the lower the PCV level. PMID:17876917

Omole, M K; Alabi, O M; Ayoola, O O

2007-03-01

194

Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés à une profondeur de 5,0 m dans 20 puits tests et analysés pour la qualité. Les concentrations en Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn et Cu sont légèrement au-dessus des valeurs recommandées par l'OMS. Des panaches d'eau contaminée provenant de bassins d'eaux usées ont été délimités. Les profils géoélectriques mettent en évidence quatre couches, qui sont successivement en profondeurs croissantes une argile latéritique, un sable ou un sable argileux, le substratum altéré, puis fissuré, et enfin le substratum non altéré. Les niveaux 3 et 4 les plus profonds constituent l'aquifère principal, de 3,1-67,1 m d'épaisseur. La distribution des éléments dans les effluents d'égouts confirme l'existence d'une communication hydrologique entre les bassins d'épandage et la nappe. Les eaux souterraines sont contaminées, comme le prouvent les résultats des prélèvements et de la géophysique. Par conséquent, les résultats démontrent la fiabilité de la méthode géophysique de résistivité électrique pour la détection et la cartographie de panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle cristallin. Resumen. Se ha efectuado un estudio hidrogeológico ambiental en el punto de vertido de las aguas residuales del Campus Universitario de Obafemi Awolowo, en Ile-Ife (Nigeria). El objetivo era determinar la validez del método de la resistividad eléctrica para delimitar penachos de contaminación en un medio rocoso. Se utilizó 50 estaciones con un Terrameter ABEM SAS 300C, utilizando la matriz de Wenner. Se interpretó los resultados por medio de una técnica iterativa automática. Se recogieron muestras de agua a una profundidad de 5 m en 20 pozos de ensayo, las cuales fueron posteriormente analizadas en laboratorio. Las concentraciones de cromo, cadmio, plomo, cinc y cobre son ligeramente superiores a los valores guía de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se delineó el penacho de agua contaminada procedente de las balsas de aguas residuales. Las secciones geoeléctricas revelan la existencia de cuatro capas, que están

Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

2001-11-01

195

Geospatial Data to Support Analysis of Water-Quality Conditions in Basin-Fill Aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

2009-01-01

196

Assessing the strength of the monsoon during the late Pleistocene in southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved predictions of drought require an understanding of natural and human-induced climate variability. Long-term records across glacial-interglacial cycles provide the natural component of variability, however few such records exist for the southwestern United States (US) and quantitative or semi-quantitative records of precipitation are absent. Here we use the hydrogen isotope (?D) value of C28n-alkanoic acid in lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene age to reconstruct ?D values of precipitation in northern New Mexico over two glacial-interglacial cycles (?550,000-360,000 years before present) and obtain a record of monsoon strength. Overall, reconstructed ?D values range from -53.8‰ to -94.4‰, with a mean value of -77.5 ± 8‰. Remarkably, this variation falls within the measured present-day summer monsoonal and winter weighted means (-50.3 ± 3‰ and -106.4 ± 20‰ respectively), suggesting that processes similar to those of present time also controlled precipitation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13 to 10. Using the ?D summer monsoonal and winter mean values as end-members, we interpret our reconstructed ?D record of precipitation as a direct, and semi-quantitative, indicator of monsoon strength during MIS 13 to 10. Interglacial periods were characterized by greater monsoon strength but also greater variability compared to glacial periods. Pronounced cycles in the strength of the monsoon occurred during interglacial periods and in general were positively correlated with maximum mean annual temperatures. Our estimates of monsoon strength are supported by independent proxies of ecosystem productivity, namely, TOC, ?13C of TOC and Si/Ti ratio and warm pollen taxa Juniperus and Quercus. Interglacial variability in the strength of the monsoon resembles a response to the land-sea surface temperature contrast (LSTC) except for the early part of MIS 11. During this period, LSTC would have remained relatively strong while monsoonal strength decreased to a minimum. This minimum occurred following the warmest interval of MIS 11, suggesting a more complex driving of monsoon strength during warm periods. In addition, this period of monsoon minimum coincided with a core section of mud-cracked sediments that suggest low monsoonal precipitation was an important factor in the onset of drought. Our estimates of monsoon strength represent a record of natural variability in the region that is relevant to present time, in particular the variability during interglacial MIS 11, which is considered an analog for the current interglacial. Our results suggest that natural variability can cause significant reductions in monsoonal precipitation with the implication of a potentially adverse effect from sustained warming.

Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M.; Huang, Yongsong; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Fawcett, Peter J.; Fessenden, Julianna; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, Philip A.; Larson, Toti; Perkins, George; Toney, Jaime; Werne, Josef P.; Goff, Fraser; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Berke, Melissa A.

2014-11-01

197

Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

198

Perceived causes of eclampsia in four ethnic groups in Borno State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was conducted among the four major ethnic groups(Kanuri, Babur, Shuwa and Marghi) of Borno State, North-east Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify the perceived causes of eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal death in the State. The data were obtained through focus group discussions (FGDs), questionnaires and in-depth interviews. A total of 16 FGDs and 1,167 questionnaire interviews were conducted among the rural populace. In-depth interviews were conducted on relatives of thirty eclamptic patients admitted to the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The findings revealed that evil spirits/witches and wizards, poor nutrition, heredity early marriage, destiny from God and machinations of co-wives are the perceived causes of eclampsia in the area. These perceptions result in the use of the following as means of treatment: drinks of various concoctions, inhalation of smoked herbs in rooms, potash drinks, and the wearing of talisman around the neck. These perceptions and traditional medications have implications for design of educational and informational messages aimed at reducing maternal mortality from eclampsia in Borno State. PMID:10214425

el-Nafaty, A U; Omotara, B A

1998-04-01

199

Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the Southwest are particularly dependent on supplies of good-quality groundwater. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Many factors influence the quality of groundwater in the 15 case-study basins, but some common factors emerge from the basin summaries presented in this report. These factors include the chemical composition of the recharge water, consolidated rock geology and composition of aquifer materials derived from consolidated rock, and land and water use. The major water-quality issues in many of the developed case-study basins are increased concentrations of dissolved solids, nitrate, and VOCs in groundwater as a result of human activities. The information presented and the citations listed in this report serve as a resource for those interested in the groundwater-flow systems in the NAWQA case-study basins. The summaries of water-development history, hydrogeology, conceptual understanding of the groundwater system under both predevelopment and modern conditions, and effects of natural and human-related factors on groundwater quality presented in the sections on each basin also serve as a foundation for the synthesis and modeling phases of the SWPA regional study.

Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

2010-01-01

200

Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods.  

PubMed Central

Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North and South America. The epidemiology of human diseases caused by these viruses is tied to the ecology of the rodent hosts, and effective control and prevention relies on a through understanding of host ecology. After the 1993 HPS outbreak in the southwestern United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated long-term studies of the temporal dynamics of hantavirus infection in host populations. These studies, which used mark-recapture techniques on 24 trapping webs at nine sites in the southwestern United States, were designed to monitor changes in reservoir population densities and in the prevalence and incidence of infection; quantify environmental factors associated with these changes; and when linked to surveillance databases for HPS, lead to predictive models of human risk to be used in the design and implementation of control and prevention measures for human hantavirus disease. PMID:10081676

Mills, J. N.; Yates, T. L.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Peters, C. J.; Childs, J. E.

1999-01-01

201

College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

202

Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates. PMID:24661795

2014-01-01

203

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n=64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2-32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25-34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p=0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n=42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n=27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n=52 isolates, 2-9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n-1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p=0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P; Asuquo, Anne E; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-06-01

204

Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in the Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397

Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin

2012-01-01

205

Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu-Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Leveille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

2014-08-01

206

Radiological study of soils in oil and gas producing areas in Delta State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Measurements of radioactivity concentrations in soils around the oil and gas producing areas in Delta State of Nigeria were carried out using a high-purity germanium detector gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil samples were collected from 20 locations from the study area and analysed. The radionuclides detected are traceable to the primordial series of (238)U and(232)Th as well as (40)K and traces of globally released (137)Cs. The specific activity values ranged between 7 and 60 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 24±2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U; while for (232)Th the range was 7-73 Bq kg(-1) with a mean of 29±3 Bq kg(-1). Relatively higher specific activity values were recorded in (40)K with a range of 15-696 Bq kg(-1), while the mean was 256±37 Bq kg(-1). However, a relatively low-specific radioactivity was obtained from(137)Cs with a range of 1-25 Bq kg(-1) and a mean of 7±1 Bq kg(-1). The estimated dose equivalent obtainable per year from these levels of radioactivity is <5 % of the recommended safe level of 1 mSv per annum. Therefore, the area and the use of the soils as building materials may be considered safe. PMID:22791838

Tchokossa, P; Olomo, J B; Balogun, F A; Adesanmi, C A

2013-01-01

207

The use of the sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality ratio in Lagos state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Summary Estimates of maternal mortality are crucial to inform the planning of reproductive health programmes and guide advocacy. The aim of this study was to obtain a population-based estimate of maternal mortality in Lagos State, Nigeria. The sisterhood method was used in 2008 to carry out the survey using a questionnaire in which respondents were asked about their sisters who died during pregnancy, childbirth or within 6 weeks after childbirth. The survey involved 4,315 respondents who provided information on 9,910 ever married sisters. The life-time likelihood (risk) of maternal death for women aged 15-49 years was found to be 0.0239 or 1 in 42. The estimated maternal mortality ratio was 450 per 100,000 live births with a 95% CI of 360 and 530. Out of 111 reported deaths, 35 (31.5%) occurred during pregnancy, 49 (44.1%) occurred during delivery and 27 (24.3%) within 6 weeks of delivery. PMID:21534753

Oye-Adeniran, B A; Odeyemi, K A; Gbadegesin, A; Ekanem, E E; Osilaja, O K; Akin-Adenekan, O; Umoh, A V

2011-05-01

208

Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

209

A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2012-01-01

210

Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 °C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas

2013-07-01

211

Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria by Pregnant Women in Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was conducted to assess the level of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) in Rivers State, Nigeria, to identify obstacles prohibiting utilization in order to make recommendations for improved uptake and malaria control in general. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in November 2008 among 339 pregnant women and those who had delivered children in the last 1 year, using a multistage sampling method. Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info version 6.04d statistical software package and hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. Results: Most of the respondents (76.4%) had knowledge that malaria was caused by mosquitoes and was harmful in pregnancy. Although majority of the pregnant women (80.8%) attended antenatal care clinics, knowledge of the correct use of SP was low (32.6%) and only 62.8% took malaria preventive treatment. Of these, 58.4% took SP, while nearly a third, 31.8%, took chloroquine. Only 16.4% took their SP at the health facility directly observed by health workers according to the national guidelines. The commonest reason for not preventing malaria was that they were not sick during the period of pregnancy. Conclusions: Misconceptions about IPTp persist among women known to have attended antenatal care clinics, resulting in only a minority of pregnant women receiving IPTp as recommended by national guidelines. Efforts directed at awareness creation on the new malaria prevention and treatment policy are therefore necessary to enhance the uptake of IPT in pregnancy in Rivers State. Further studies are however, needed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of health care workers on the new malaria treatment policy. PMID:23412963

Tobin-West, Charles I; Asuquo, Eme O

2013-01-01

212

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

213

DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

1987-01-01

214

Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-05-10

215

Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

Muhs, D.R.; Reynolds, R.L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

2003-01-01

216

Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the area of these three basin-fill aquifer systems had dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 1,000 milligrams per liter. Dissolved solids in streams were described on the basis of median daily concentration, median annual load, and median annual yield data for 420 surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The time period with dissolved-solids data for individual sites varied but was at least 10 or more years between 1974 and 2003. Median daily dissolved-solids concentrations vary substantially among the sites in the Southwest, ranging between 22 and 13,800 milligrams per liter, and also vary between different sites on the same stream. Median daily concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction for sites on the Rio Grande, Colorado River, Yampa River, White River, Green River, San Juan River, Gila River, Bear River, and Sevier River. Median annual dissolved-solids loads ranged from 60 tons per year for a site on Elk Creek, a headwater tributary to the Colorado River, to 7.86 million tons per year at Colorado River below Hoover Dam, Arizona-Nevada. Typically, streams with the highest flows have the highest dissolved-solids loads. Median annual loads for sites on these rivers generally increased in the downstream direction, except where streamflow decreased substantially due to diversions and (or) streambed infiltration, typically in the downstream part of the river system. Median annual yields ranged from 0.69 to 7,510 tons per year per square mile, and the mean for all 420 sites was 125 tons per year per square mile. Most (104 of 112) sites with median annual yields greater than 100 tons per year per square mile were in the Colorado River basin upstream from Lees Ferry and in the Bear and Great Salt Lake hydrologic subregions. A conceptual model was developed for the effects of natural and human factors on dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers and streams. Factors affecting concentrations in streamflow of upland mountain

Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

2007-01-01

217

Isotopic Composition and Origin of Indigenous Natural Perchlorate and Co-Occurring Nitrate in the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected over an expansive area in groundwater and soils in the southwestern United States. Because of its wide distribution, much of the ClO4- is presumed to be from natural sources, primarily atmospheric deposition and accumulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the range of the isotopic composition of natural ClO4- indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O were determined for ClO4- collected from numerous sources, including: groundwater from several locations in the southern high plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico, vadose zone soil from the SHP, and surface NO3--rich caliches from four locations in Death Valley, CA. The data suggest that natural ClO4- in the southwestern U.S. has at least two distinctive isotope signatures that differ both from each other and from those previously reported for natural ClO4- from the Atacama Desert of Chile and all anthropogenic ClO4- sources tested to date. The ClO4- in four caliche samples collected in Death Valley has high 17O values (8.6 to 18.4 ), similar to those described for ClO4- from the Atacama, and suggesting atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley samples have 37Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 ) and 18O values (+2.9 to +26.1 ), that are appreciably higher than Atacama perchlorate ( 37Cl; -14.3 to -10.2 and 18O; (-10.5 to -2.2 , respectively). In contrast, samples from 8 locations in West Texas and New Mexico were characterized by only a slight elevation in 17O (0.3 to 1.3 ), suggesting either that this material is not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4- has been consistently altered post-deposition by one or more processes that caused isotopic exchange of O. The 37Cl values in the SHP perchlorate (+ 3.4 to + 5.1 ) were consistently higher than for the Atacama or Death Valley salts, while the 18O values (+ 0.5 to + 4.8 ) overlapped significantly with those from Death Valley. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the various origins and potential exchange reactions of natural perchlorate, however, the data presented herein provide constraints on natural isotope signatures important for interpretation of isotope values at locations in which ClO4- sources in groundwater or drinking water are unknown.

Jackson, Andrew [Texas Tech University, Lubbock; Bohlke, J. K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Hatzinger, Paul B. [Shaw Environmental, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ; Sturchio, N. C. [University of Illinois, Chicago

2010-01-01

218

Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

2014-01-01

219

Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

2014-01-01

220

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

221

Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

2011-03-01

222

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

2010-11-01

223

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the Southeastern and Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61±12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

2010-07-01

224

Ecological and cultural barriers to treatment of childhood diarrhea in riverine areas of Ondo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Nigeria diarrhea still poses the greatest health problem to the survival of the under-fives in spite of the fact that the majority of mothers are reportedly to have been reached by health education on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) regardless of their ecological and socioeconomic situations. This study assesses the effect of different ecological and sociocultural conditions on use of

B. Folasade Iyun; E. Adewale Oke

2000-01-01

225

Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

2010-01-01

226

Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

2013-01-01

227

Biological input to visibility-reducing aerosol particles in the remote arid southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Source contributions of contemporary biological material to remote airsheds of the arid southwestern US are described. Combined inputs of epicuticular plants waxes and airborne microorganisms range from winter minimum (11.3-26.9 ng/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of aromatic resin acids (i.e., dehydroabietic acid and 13-isopropyl-5{alpha}-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraen-16-oic acid) plus a thermally matured wood smoke marker (i.e., retene) range from 1.2 to 9.6 ng/m{sup 3}. Minimum levels of the resin acids and wood smoke marker are observed for the sparse desert vegetation site (low elevation), and maximum levels are found for the transition site of ponderosa pine and pinyon/juniper forest (high elevation). The total wood smoke mass contributions were estimated by using the ambient mass concentrations of both the aromatic resin acid and wood smoke tracers. Based on these estimates, combustion of conifer biomass (e.g., natural wildfires, camp fires, home heating) is an important component of the organic emission source inventory for this desert region.

Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States)); Simoneit, B.R.T. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-04-01

228

Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

Adeyemi, T. O.

2009-01-01

229

Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

2013-01-01

230

An Appraisal of Beekeeping Activities among Beneficiaries and Non-Beneficiaries of Ekiti State Agricultural Credit Agency (ESACA) Scheme in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined beekeeping activities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically the study appraised the costs and returns structure of beekeeping activities by beneficiaries of the ESACA scheme, examined the constraints to beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme and identified factors that affect beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme. A total of 150 beekeeper households were selected;

S. B. Fakayode; Raphael O. Babatunde; S. T. Olowogbon; W. S. Adesuyi

2010-01-01

231

Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined the consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 randomly selected respondents from ten extension blocks. Findings indicated that majority (71.3%) of the households prepared their soyabeans farm manually

A. E. Agwu; J. Ellah; E. Ekweagwu; J. C. Iwuchukwu

232

The Use of Associations Between Anthropometric and Food Variables in the Assessment of Nutritional Status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, malnutrition is identified using anthropometric indices based on NCHS\\/WH O reference standards, in this paper, we explore the associations that exist between anthropometric and nutrition variables for assessing the nutritional status of Queens College Students of Lagos State, Nigeria. Results show that the nature of associations are causally related to nutritional status; the participants are not adequately fed on

O. Akinyemi

2009-01-01

233

American Indian Methamphetamine and other Drug use in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AI) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. Methods (1) We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwest AI participants (N=81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine (2) We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N=100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. (3) We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Results Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. Conclusions There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

Forcehimes, A.A.; Venner, K.L; Bogenschutz, M.P.; Foley, K.; Davis, M. P.; Houck, J. M.; Willie, E. L.; Begaye, P.

2012-01-01

234

The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Serological studies of persons infected with yellow fever (YF) during the 1970 epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that epidemic YF occurred despite a high prevalence of pre-existing group B arbovirus immunity, which increased with age. The viruses involved were primarily dengue, Zika, and Wesselsbron. Patterns of responses of haemagglutination-inhibiting, complement-fixing, and neutralizing antibodies in primary YF and in superinfections are defined in this paper. PMID:4546521

Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Casals, J.

1973-01-01

235

HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

236

Factors influencing knowledge about childhood autism among final year undergraduate Medical, Nursing and Psychology students of University of Nigeria, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health care workers and the general populace in Nigeria. Poor knowledge about childhood autism among final year medical, nursing and psychology students who would form tomorrow's child health care professionals can compromise early recognition and interventions that are known to improve prognosis in childhood autism. Educational factors that could be

Monday N Igwe; Muideen O Bakare; Ahamefule O Agomoh; Gabriel M Onyeama; Kevin O Okonkwo

2010-01-01

237

Religious Violence in Nigeria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

238

Block kinematics of the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS, seismological, and geologic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active deformation of the southwestern United States (30°–41°N) is represented by a finite number of rotating, elastic-plastic spherical caps. GPS-derived horizontal velocities, geologic fault slip rates, transform fault azimuths, and earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths are inverted for block angular velocities, creep on block-bounding faults, permanent strain rates within the blocks, and the rotations of 11 published GPS velocity

Robert McCaffrey

2005-01-01

239

Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530m

Robert H. Webb; Stanley A. Leake

2006-01-01

240

Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: Perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The report includes three listings of research and management needs in the woodlands of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The first two provide an historical perspective to current efforts within the woodlands; the third listing represents suggestions and recommendations made by the participants at the 1992 symposium. Topics in the present listing are grouped under several broadly defined headings, such as general ecology, tree regeneration, mass production, wildlife, fire, hydrology and watershed management, social concerns, inventory and monitoring, and management.

Not Available

1992-08-01

241

NigeriaWorld  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fine coverage offered by the BBC and other news providers, finding detailed and up-to-date information about any number of African countries can be frustrating -- especially when looking for different perspectives on events that have bearing on international affairs and the like. Despite the presence of numerous advertisements, NigeriaWorld is a good way to find out about current events in the country and is a real boon for persons looking to stay current on the affairs of this region of Africa. From the main page, visitors can read news from each state in Nigeria, and browse news headlines and complete articles organized under such familiar sections as business, sports, arts, and politics. The site also contains feature columns that provide additional insight into Nigeria from such journalists as Tonye David-West and Rudolf Okonkwo.

242

Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.  

PubMed

Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After birth, the placenta is disposed of with care because it is regarded as part of the baby even after birth. The mother is given a warm bath and a specially prepared oil is applied over her body. The abdomen is bound tightly with a cloth believing it will help the abdominal muscles regain their tone and maintain the prepregnancy figure. Much importance is attached to the 1st bath of the baby, for it is believed that lifelong body odor can be prevented at this stage. Lactation is encouraged by giving the mother palm wine to drink or an unripe paw paw is crushed and the liquid is given to the mother to drink. These liquids are believed to have an almost immediate effect on the mammary glands. As soon as the baby is born, the mother or grandmother talks to the baby with words of praise and blessing. It is believed that a baby talked to in this manner grows to be happy and peace loving. PMID:6552278

Iweze, F A

1983-01-01

243

Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of the study area-about 93 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers was less than one-half the standard for nitrate as N (5.0 milligrams per liter), and 50 percent was less than one-half the standard for arsenic (5.0 micrograms per liter). The predicted concentrations and the improved understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of southwestern basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment can be used by water managers as a qualitative tool to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources in the Southwest.

Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

2012-01-01

244

Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Perchlorate (ClO4?) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4? appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4? indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4? (?18O, ?17O, ?37Cl) and associated NO3? (?18O, ?17O, ?15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3?-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4? in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4? from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4?. ClO4? in Death Valley caliche has a range of high ?17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley ?37Cl values (?3.1 to ?0.8 ‰) and ?18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4?. In contrast, ClO4? from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower ?17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high ?37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and ?18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4? was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High ?17O values in ClO4? (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high ?17O values in NO3?, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low ?17O values in less arid settings. Although ?17O variations in terrestrial NO3? can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high ?17O) and biogenic (low ?17O) NO3?, variations in ?17O of terrestrial ClO4? are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO4? in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO4? formation mechanisms and(or) ClO4? isotopic exchange in biologically active environments.

Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, Neil C.

2010-01-01

245

Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Delta(17)O values in less arid settings. Although Delta(17)O variations in terrestrial NO(3)(-) can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high Delta(17)O) and biogenic (low Delta(17)O) NO(3)(-), variations in Delta(17)O of terrestrial ClO(4)(-) are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO(4)(-) in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO(4)(-) formation mechanisms and(or) ClO(4)(-) isotopic exchange in biologically active environments. PMID:20521813

Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C

2010-07-01

246

Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

2015-01-01

247

All-Sky Imaging Measurements of an Unusually Bright Gravity Wave Event Observed Over the South-Western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-wavelength all-sky imaging of the nighttime mesospheric emission layers can yield valuable information about the vertical structure and dynamics of the region. Wave structures occur very frequently in these layers and comprise of two main types: bands and ripples. In contrast to these types, this paper presents observations of a wave event known as a mesospheric bore which was observed on 14 November 1999 at two sites in the South-Western United States separated by over 500 km. The bore event was easily visible to the naked eye and lasted for over 2 1/2 hours. The event was observed using two wide-angle imaging systems: (1) in the OI, Na and OH nightglow emissions at the Boston University field-station at McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas; (2) in the OH emission at the Starfire Optical Range, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The intensity and temperature measurements made at the two sites provided a unique opportunity to estimate the physical extent of the bore and its time history. Simultaneous radar neutral wind measurements in the 85 to 95 km altitude region were made from the Starfire Optical Range and these indicated that a strong vertical wind shear (14 m/s/km) occurred at the time of the bore's appearance.

Smith, S. M.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, G. R.; Hocking, W.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Mendillo, M.

2001-05-01

248

Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Health: Voices and Images of Latina Immigrant Survivors in Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

Moya, Eva M.; Chávez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

2014-01-01

249

Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities.

Jenerette, G. Darrel; Miller, Greg; Buyantuev, Alexander; Pataki, Diane E.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Pincetl, Stephanie

2013-12-01

250

Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.  

PubMed

The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems. PMID:25331641

Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

2015-01-01

251

Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John

2015-01-01

252

Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model  

SciTech Connect

The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

1996-09-01

253

Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 ?g/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 ?g/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 ?g/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2011-01-01

254

The Economic Burden of Malaria on Households and the Health System in Enugu State Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is the number one public health problem in Nigeria, responsible for about 30% of deaths in under-fives and 25% of deaths in infants and 11% maternal mortality. This study estimated the economic burden of malaria in Nigeria using the cost of illness approach. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in two malaria holo-endemic communities in Nigeria, involving both community and hospital based surveys. A random sample of 500 households was interviewed using interviewer administered questionnaire. In addition, 125 exit interviews for inpatient department stays (IPD) and outpatient department visits (OPD) were conducted and these were complemented with data abstraction from 125 patient records. Results From the household survey, over half of the households (57.6%) had an episode of malaria within one month to the date of the interview. The average household expenditure per case was 12.57US$ and 23.20US$ for OPD and IPD respectively. Indirect consumer costs of treatment were higher than direct consumer medical costs. From a health system perspective, the recurrent provider costs per case was 30.42 US$ and 48.02 US$ for OPD and IPD while non recurrent provider costs were 133.07US$ and 1857.15US$ for OPD and IPD. The mode of payment was mainly through out-of-pocket spending (OOPS). Conclusion Private expenditure on treatment of malaria constitutes a high economic burden to households and to the health system. Removal of user fees and interventions that will decrease the use of OOPS for treatment of malaria will significantly decrease the economic burden of malaria to both households and the health system. PMID:24223796

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uguru, Nkoli; Etiaba, Enyi; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Adjagba, Alex

2013-01-01

255

Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

Ademoroti, C.M.A. (Univ. of Benin (Nigeria))

1987-01-01

256

Investigating gender disparities in the profile and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis in Ebonyi state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Globally, twice as many men as women are being diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) annually. Little is known about gender differentials in TB in Africa. A retrospective cohort analysis of routine data was conducted on adult TB patients treated between 2011 and 2012 in two large healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Gender differences in their demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes were analysed accordingly. Of 1668 TB patients enrolled, the male:female ratio was 1·4:1. The mean ages of males and females were 40·2 ± 14·7 and 36·1 ± 14·6 years, respectively (t test 6·62, P < 0·001). Male gender was associated with a higher failure to smear convert after 2 months (21·8% vs. 17·5%, P = 0·06) and 5 months (4·3% vs. 1·5%, P = 0·02) of treatment for smear-positive TB patients. Moreover, men were more likely than women to fail treatment (2·2% vs. 0·7%, P = 0·01). No significant differences exist in the treatment success rates between women and men (78·2% vs. 74·5%, P = 0·08). Adjusted analyses showed significant association between being an urban male and a HIV-infected female with unsuccessful outcome adjusted by socio-demographic and clinical factors. We found that gender disparities exist in TB profile and treatment outcomes in Nigeria and gender-specific strategies are needed to optimize TB management. PMID:25355040

Oshi, S N; Alobu, I; Ukwaja, K N; Oshi, D C

2015-04-01

257

Native riparian ecosystems throughout the southwestern United States are being altered by  

E-print Network

­509 MODELING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA IN THE ARKANSAS RIVER BASIN OF SOUTHEASTERN COLORADO, and ornamentation, Tamarix was acclaimed for its ability to with- stand drought, heat, and diverse soil condi- tions Landingham, Colorado State Forest Service, personal communication). A reliable method for estimating biomass

MacDonald, Lee

258

An International Periodical Promoting Conservation and Biodiversity Southwestern United States--Mexico--Central America  

E-print Network

, Springville, UT 84663 (JMW) Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center, Dexter, NM 88230 (CS of Wildlife Resources, Native Aquatics, Springville, UT 84663 (JMW) Dexter National Fish Hatchery and Technology Center, Dexter, NM 88230 (CS) Department of Biology/Aquatic Station, Texas State University

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

259

Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation.  

PubMed

This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally. PMID:25711750

Casey, Ryan P; Rouff, Mark A; Jauregui-Covarrubias, Lorena

2014-12-01

260

Ordinary High Water Mark in ephemeral and intermittent channels in the arid southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) is important for regulating stream channels, as it defines the lateral extent of non-wetland waters, as defined under Waters of the United States in the Clean Water Act (33 CFR Part 328.3). Prior to this study, little was known about the OHWM and geomorphically effective events in arid southwest ephemeral and intermittent channels. The

K. E. Curtis; R. Lichvar; L. Dixon

2010-01-01

261

Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

2003-01-01

262

A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

2004-01-01

263

Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

Anning, David W

2011-01-01

264

New host and locality records of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from rodents in the southwestern and western United States.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven murid and heteromyid rodents were collected from various sites in the southwestern and western United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah) and Baja California Norte, Mexico, and their feces were examined for coccidial parasites. Of these, 53 (36%) were infected with at least 1 coccidian; 45 of 53 (85%) of the infected rodents harbored only 1 species of coccidian. Infected rodents included: 10 of 22 (45%) Neotoma albigula, 3 of 11 (27%) Neotoma floridana, 2 of 14 (14%) Neotoma lepida, 15 of 29 (52%) Neotoma micropus, 5 of 8 (63%) Peromyscus crinitis, 6 of 6 (100%) Peromyscus difficilis, 1 of 2 (50%) Peromyscus eremicus, 9 of 34 (26%) Sigmodon hispidis, and 2 of 3 (67%) Sigmodon ochrognathus; 4 Neotoma cinerea, 3 Neotoma devia, 3 Neotoma mexicana, 1 Peromyscus maniculatus, 1 Onychomys leucogaster, 1 Onychomys torridus, 3 Chaetodipus fallax, and 2 Chaetodipus penicillatus were negative. Although no new species was found, the following coccidians were identified from infected rodents: Eimeria albigulae from N. albigula, N. floridana, and N. micropus, Eimeria antonellii from N. albigula and N. micropus, Eimeria ladronensis from N. albigula, N. floridana, N. lepida, and N. micropus, Eimeria arizonensis and Eimeria lachrymalis from P. crinitis and P. difficilis, Eimeria lachrymalis from P. eremicus, Eimeria tuskeegensis from S. ochrognathus, and Eimeria roperi, Eimeria sigmodontis, Eimeria tuskeegensis, Eimeria webbae, and an unidentified species of Eimeria from S. hispidis. This report documents 12 new host and several distributional records for Eimeria species from murid rodents in Arizona, Texas, and Utah. PMID:1779282

McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Planz, J V; DeWalt, T S

1991-12-01

265

Introducing Nigeria at fifty: the nation in narration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria, Africa's most populous democracy, celebrates her 50th year as an independent nation in October 2010. As the cliché states, ‘As Nigeria goes, so goes Africa’. This volume frames the socio-historical and political trajectory of Nigeria while examining the many dimensions of the critical choices that she has made as an independent nation. How does the social composition of interest

Wale Adebanwi; Ebenezer Obadare

2010-01-01

266

Nigeria's foreign policy and transnational security challenges in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how Nigeria's foreign policy has responded to transnational security challenges in West Africa. It engages in a conceptual overview of the discourse on transnational security and links this with a discussion of Nigeria's foreign policy towards West Africa. Of note is Nigeria's pursuit of a leadership role in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in

Cyril I. Obi

2008-01-01

267

Population redistribution in Nigeria.  

PubMed

One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819 PMID:12266187

Adebayo, A

1984-07-01

268

Coping Strategies for Living in Student Residential Facilities in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines coping strategies used by students in high-density living. It uses the questionnaire survey method in 20 university halls-of-residence in southwestern Nigeria. The study focused on students' cognitive responses to the bedroom, the coping strategies that they used, gender differences in coping styles, and the influence of…

Amole, Dolapo

2005-01-01

269

A test of a climatic index of dune mobility using measurements from the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.

2000-01-01

270

Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources. About 46.6 million people live in the SWPA study area, mostly in urban areas, but also in rural, agricultural communities that cultivate about 14.4 million acres of cropland. Other rural areas contain small communities with mining, retirement, or tourism/recreational-based economies. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the region are particularly dependent on good-quality groundwater supplies. In the year 2000, about 33.7 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of surface water was diverted from streams, and about 23.0 million acre-ft of groundwater was withdrawn from basin-fill aquifers in the SWPA study area. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area for 2000 were about 18.0 million acre-ft and 4.1 million acre-ft, respectively, and together account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Although irrigation and public supply are the primary uses of basin-fill aquifer withdrawals in the study area, water use varies locally by basin, and withdrawals for industrial, mining, and electric power generation also are substantial in some areas.

Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

2012-01-01

271

Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.  

PubMed

In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

2013-09-01

272

Effect of water supply and sanitation on the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides among pre-school-age children in Ajebandele and Ifewara, Osun State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between Ascaris lumbricoides infection and provisions for safe water supply and excreta disposal was investigated in Ajebandele and Ifewara, 2 peri-urban communities near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, from September 1998 to December 1999. Although there were more facilities for safe water supply (pipe-borne and shallow wells) and sanitation (flush toilets and pit latrines) in Ajebandele than in Ifewara,

S. O. Asaolu; I. E. Ofoezie; P. A. Odumuyiwa; O. A. Sowemimo; T. A. B. Ogunniyi

2002-01-01

273

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Summer Hydroclimate Extremes in Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer monsoon rains contribute substantially to the water resources in the semi-arid Southwest United States by providing inflow to the Lower Colorado River Basin and its tributaries. While winter rain and snow contribute over half of the annual flow to these river systems, summer precipitation is important for ecosystems and fire. Three factors are enhancing the importance of summer hydroclimate: 1) rising stress on the water and natural resources due to unprecedented socio-economic growth in recent decades, 2) the recent dry spell in the region, and 3) projected drying of the region in future decades. The summer rains often occur in heavy pulses resulting in natural hazards such as flooding, landslides etc., in addition to replenishing the water resources on the surface and below. Thus, understanding the variability of summer climate and its extremes is important for resource management and hazard mitigation. To this end, we perform a systematic analysis of spatial and temporal variability in the summer hydroclimate in the South Western US and its extremes. We compute 3-day maximum precipitation during the early monsoon season (June-July) at each location and perform PCA and cluster analysis to identify the dominant spatial and temporal patterns, which are then related to large-scale climate variables such as Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures, sea level pressures and winds. Similar analysis will also be performed in the late season rainfall and streamflow extremes. These analyses will provide insights into the mechanisms of moisture source and delivery that result in hydroclimate extremes in the region. We will also demonstrate modeling of the extremes at representative locations in the region with nonstationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution.

Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.

2013-12-01

274

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships  

PubMed Central

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42?, NO3?, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42? show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42? unlike snow SO42?, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42? (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42?-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3? : SO42? ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3? : SO42? ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3? : SO42? ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42? precursors. PMID:24432030

Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

2013-01-01

275

Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships.  

PubMed

This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+)) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Cl(-), suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate [Formula: see text] show a statistically significant correlation with rain [Formula: see text] unlike snow [Formula: see text], which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of [Formula: see text] (and precursors) and the varying degree to which [Formula: see text]-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of [Formula: see text] precursors. PMID:24432030

Sorooshian, A; Shingler, T; Harpold, A; Feagles, C W; Meixner, T; Brooks, P D

2013-08-01

276

Ordinary High Water Mark in ephemeral and intermittent channels in the arid southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) is important for regulating stream channels, as it defines the lateral extent of non-wetland waters, as defined under Waters of the United States in the Clean Water Act (33 CFR Part 328.3). Prior to this study, little was known about the OHWM and geomorphically effective events in arid southwest ephemeral and intermittent channels. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain features and flow dynamics are challenging to identify in these channels because of the unstable channel morphology, flashy flood events, and lack of gage data. Through field surveys, LiDAR high-resolution topography data collection, HEC-RAS flow modeling, analysis of aerial photography, and determination of recurrence intervals using gage data, we have developed a methodology to identify the hydrogeomorphic floodplain units and delineate the OHWM. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain units include a migratory low-flow channel, an active floodplain associated with low to moderate discharge events, and a low terrace inundated by moderate to high floods. We identified primary OHWM indicators such as a break in slope, a change in sediment texture, and a change in vegetation characteristics that create a repeatable and reliable signature in the channel morphology that is associated with the OHW boundary between the active floodplain and the low terrace. Secondary indicators such as drift, ripples, and silt deposits are randomly distributed throughout the channel and cannot be linked to a particular inundation extent. In an analysis of 14 gaged ephemeral and intermittent channels, we determined that the recurrence intervals varied from <1 to 15.5 yr. Lower recurrence intervals were typically associated with more stable channels, while channels with a sandy, erodable substrate had higher recurrence intervals. A more complete understanding of the channel morphology and the highly variable OHW recurrence intervals allows more reliable and repeatable delineations in southwest ephemeral and intermittent streams.

Curtis, K. E.; Lichvar, R.; Dixon, L.

2010-12-01

277

Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n?=?2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n?=?4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ?10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n?=?1,305) or Plateau (n?=?1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

2014-01-01

278

Poor Availability of Skilled Birth Attendants in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State Primary Health Care System  

PubMed Central

Background: The Government of Enugu State plans to offer free perinatal services at the primary health care (PHC) centers in order to improve perinatal outcomes in the state, but it was not clear whether there are skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at the PHC level to implement the program. Aims: To determine whether there are sufficient numbers of SBAs in the public PHC system in Enugu State of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved enumeration of health workers who worked at each public PHC facility in Enugu State and included verification of the qualifications and trainings of each health worker. Data analysis was performed with the help of Stata statistical package version 13 and results were presented in tables and as simple proportions. Results: There were 55 nurses and no midwife or doctor in the 152 PHC clinics studied. This number represents 0.36 nurses per health facility or about 9% (i.e., 55/608) of a minimum of 608 SBAs required for 24-h perinatal services at the 152 PHC clinics. There were 1233 junior community health extension worker/community health extension workers (JCHEW/CHEWs), averaging 8.1 JCHEW/CHEWs per PHC clinic. Conclusions: Enugu State has an acute shortage of SBAs. We recommend employment of qualified SBAs and in-service training of the JCHEW/CHEW and nurses to upgrade their midwifery skills. Incorporation of competency-based midwifery training into the pre-service training curricula of nurses and JCHEW/CHEW would provide a more sustainable supply of SBAs in Enugu state. PMID:25745571

Nkwo, Peter O; Lawani, Lucky O; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onodugo, Vincent A; Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M

2015-01-01

279

Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the timing and amount of precipitation suggest three considerations for large mammal conservation in the Southwest. First, being tied to June NDVI, mule deer distribution is likely to track areas defined by relatively early growing seasons, whereas elk abundance is likely to increase in response to enhanced summer precipitation. Second, in mesic environments bighorn sheep are both poor competitors and susceptible to predation. To the extent that bighorn sheep are forced to share ranges with deer or elk, they may be adversely affected by changing climate. Lastly, shifts in ungulate abundance may lead cougars to switch prey in some localities, or contract from the drier portions of their current range as energetic costs rise beyond threshold values.

Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

2013-12-01

280

A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by environmental factors operating on the entire drainage basin, classification of channels can provide land managers and users with an understanding of what areas are likely to be most susceptible to erosion or the effects of high sedimentation rates and under what conditions they are most likely to occur.

Parker, John T.C.

2000-01-01

281

Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws.

Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

2014-01-01

282

FINANCING OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA: SOME LESSONS FROM KWARA STATE \\/ LE FINANCEMENT DE LA REVOLUTION VERTE EN NIGERIA: L'EXAMPLE DU KWARA STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cet article traite du financement du Programme Révolution Verte en Nigéria en général et dans le Kwara State en particulier. En Nigéria, comme ailleurs, le manque d'un financement adéquat est l'une des entraves les plus gênantes dans le développement de l'agriculture, tandis que, d'après quelques commentateurs, les Autorités de la Nigéria n'auraient pas encore compris ce simple message. L'allocation de

Ifeyori I. Ihimodu

1981-01-01

283

The “coprolites” that aren't: The straight poop on specimens from the Miocene of southwestern Washington State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprolite?like siderite masses from paludal deposits of the Miocene?Pliocene(?) Wilkes Formation near Toledo, southwestern Washington, have been studied since 1939. Over the years, numerous fossil supply houses have also sold them as vertebrate coprolites. The origin of these curious objects has been attributed to formation as speleo?thems, pseudomorphs of bryozoa, and as feces of vertebrates, including reptiles, fish, and mammals.

Patrick K. Spencer

1993-01-01

284

Implications of hydrogeophysical investigations of the Agulu-Nanka gullies area of Anambra state of Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Agulu-Nanka gully complex area forms a part of Anambra River Sedimentary Basin of southeastern Nigeria. The lithology in the basin includes the Nanka Formation and the Imo Shale. After detailed geological and hydrogeological studies of the area, seven geoelectric depth soundings with the Schlumberger configuration using the Abem Terrameter SAS 300 were made within the gully complex area. Array lengths of 1200 m were taken and the sounding curves were evaluated by automatic computer interpretation using Dar-Zarouk curves. The hydrogeophysical results show that the lithology consists of series of aquifers separated by aquitards forming a multi-aquifer system. Two borehole logs from the area matched well with the geoelectric sections. The integrated hydrogeological and geophysical investigations revealed that groundwater in conjuction with surface water hydrology and their activities contribute immensely to the present extensive soil and gully erosion. Groundwater flow dynamics, consequent aquifer parameters of transmissivity, conductivity, flow directions, flow velocities, pore water pressures and effluent discharges in relation to the micro- and macro-lithology exacerbate gully incidents. Control measures for checking the destructive water run-off and groundwater movements are recommended. It is also suggested that such detailed and combined multi-objective and intergrated hydrogeological and hydrogeophysical investigations provide complementary information on the stratigraphic and sedimentological characteristics thereby making interpretations of the subsurface more meaningful.

Onwuemesi, A. G.; Egboka, B. C. E.; Orajaka, I. P.; Emenike, E. A.

285

Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ?15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism.

Eseigbe, E. E.; Nuhu, F. T.; Sheikh, T. L.; Eseigbe, P.; Sanni, K. A.; Olisah, V. O.

2015-01-01

286

An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W

2013-08-01

287

An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

2013-01-01

288

Post-Closure Challenges of U.S. Department of Energy Sites in Desert Environments of the Southwestern United States - 12095  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites located in harsh desert environments of the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States require diligence and continual maintenance to ensure the remediation systems function as designed to protect human health and the environment. The geology and climate of this area create issues that are unique to these sites. Geologic formations contain naturally occurring constituents that are often the same as the residual contaminants remaining from historical milling activities at the sites. Although annual precipitation is low, when precipitation events occur they can be of extreme intensity, resulting in erosion and flooding that can quickly destroy infrastructure and rapidly change site conditions. Winds can cause sand storms and sand mounding that effect site features. These challenging environmental conditions, along with the remote locations of the sites, require active management beyond what was originally envisioned for uranium disposal sites to address concerns in a safe and cost-effective manner. The unique environment of the Four Corners region creates many challenges to the LTSM of LM sites in southwestern United States. The remediation efforts and approaches to infrastructure have to be specifically structured to work in this environment. Often, the systems and structures have to be modified based on lessons learned on how to best adapt to these difficult conditions and remote locations. These sites require continual maintenance and additional efforts compared to many other LM sites. (authors)

Gil, April; Steckley, Deborah [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States); Gauthier, Cassie; Miller, David [S.M. Stoller Company, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

2012-07-01

289

Village health workers' and traditional birth attendants' record keeping practices in two rural LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Village health workers (VHWs) and Traditional Birth attendants (TBAs) provide health care services to the communities in which they live, improving access to health care as well as serving as an important link between the periphery (the communities) and the health sector. The data this category of workers generates about their communities will strengthen primary health care management information system in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of VHWs and TBAs regarding record keeping in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele local government areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria. Using a pre-tested, semi structured questionnaire and an observation checklist, trained research assistants visited and interviewed all the active, registered VHWs and TBAs in the two LGAs. Results showed that there were a total of 62 and 102 active VHWs/TBAs in Ibarapa Central and Akinyele LGAs respectively with most of them being farmers aged between 30-59 years. Over two-thirds in both LGAs knew the uses of record keeping for monitoring and evaluation purposes and most of them felt that keeping records was easy. Sixty-one percent of the respondents in Ibarapa Central and 96% of those in Akinyele LGA reported keeping records of their health activities. Of those who kept records, two thirds in Ibarapa Central and almost all (96%) in Akinyele LGA reported forwarding the records they keep. The type of records they keep was mostly on patients' treatment and (in Akinyele) delivery records using an exercise book. Most did not have the VHW/TBA record of work or the community profiles (wall chats) developed and recommended by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) because they were not supplied. The factors associated with record keeping included duration as a VHW/TBA, previous training on record keeping, receiving feedback. Recommendations made included ensuring availability of materials and periodic training and re-training of the VHWs/TBAs by the LGAs, and regular provision of feedback by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA). PMID:15032467

Umar, U S; Olumide, E A A; Bawa, S B

2003-06-01

290

International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

2015-02-01

291

?-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.  

PubMed

The ?-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ?-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ?20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ?-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ?-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ?-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

2013-06-01

292

Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

2014-01-01

293

Comparison of knowledge on diarrheal disease management between two types of community-based distributors in Oyo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Community-based distributors (CBDs) have been trained and utilized to promote a variety of health commodities. In addition, a variety of different types of community residents have been trained ranging from traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to patent medicine vendors. A training programme for CBD agents in the Akinyele Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria, provided the opportunity to compare the knowledge of two different types of CBD agents, TBAs and volunteer village health workers (VHWs). Although VHWs were younger and better educated than the TBAs, the two groups had similar levels of knowledge about diarrhea recognition, cause and prevention. It was common for the respondents to confuse diarrhea and dehydration in their answers about signs (recognition) and prevention, showing that at least they had some perception that the two conditions were connected. Overall knowledge results showed some gaps that may likely be a natural result of knowledge decay. The major lesson learned is that the type of CBD agent may not be as important as the fact that they receive follow-up after they have been trained. PMID:15020550

Ande, Oluyinka; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Brieger, William R

2004-02-01

294

Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products. PMID:17490709

Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

2007-07-01

295

Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

2007-01-01

296

Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

2012-09-01

297

Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents result of 30 vertical electrical soundings carried out in Makurdi, Benue state capital, north-central Nigeria to evaluate aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity of overburden units in the study area. This was done using the Schlumberger electrode array to obtain the data and was modelled using computer iteration (Winresist software). The field data gives a resolution with 3-4 geoelectric layers and the observed frequencies in curve types include: 30% of KQ, 16.67% of QH, 6.67% of AA and K, 3.33% of HA, Q and A, 10% of H, KH and HK. Using the longitudinal unit conductance (S), the protective capacities of the study area were classified as 36.67% weak, 10% poor, 40% moderate, and 13.33% as good. The corrosivity ratings of the study area show that 10% is strongly corrosive, 23% moderately corrosive, 37% slightly corrosive, and 30% noncorrosive The results reasonably provide information on areas where industries can be sited and iron pipes can be laid in order to safeguard the hydrological setting for resident's safety in the study area. Regions with moderate/good protective capacity are good sites for locating boreholes.

Obiora, Daniel N.; Ajala, Adeolu E.; Ibuot, Johnson C.

2015-02-01

298

Adverse Drug Reactions amongst Adult Patients Admitted in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Lagos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a global drug therapy problem. It has been rated as one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In Nigeria, not much is known about ADRs especially with the existing weak post marketing surveillance for monitoring drug use, and its effect on the population. Objectives: The study is aimed to determining the incidence of ADRs, presentations of ADRs, classes of drugs that frequently cause ADRs and predictors of ADRs in adult medical in-patients in LASUTH. Method: A retrospective study of six hundred and twenty four (624) case notes of all patients admitted to the medical wards in LASUTH between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 was carried out. Information obtained includes age, gender, and adverse drug reaction and drug details. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Level of significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results: A total of 624 case notes consisting of 358 males and 266 females were assessed. The number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions was 67 (n = 624, 10.7%). The incidence rate of ADRs in LASUTH from the study was 10.7 per 100 patients' population. Most of the ADRs observed were type A reactions (97.8%). Mostly implicated classes of drugs are antidiabetics (26.7%) and NSAIDs (29.3%). Conclusion: The incidence rate of ADRs was 10.7%. ADRs which are predictable and preventable occur in hospitalized patients, such may be prevented or minimized by implementing measures to target specific drugs that are commonly suspected. PMID:24909574

Aderemi-Williams, R I; Awodele, O; Boyle, C A

2014-06-01

299

A geospatial approach to evaluation of accessibility to secondary educational institution in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study therefore examined the spatial distribution of secondary school and the accessibility levels to students in Yewa South local Government area of Nigeria and the factors that give rise to them with a view to providing a framework for effective placement of students. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire and a hand-held GPS receiver used to capture the coordinate points of schools and other relevant data. Secondary data include administrative map, population figures of both students and Teachers, Names and addresses of the secondary schools in the study area, the school placement sheet and list of schools. The data analysis was carried out using network analysis. School location, number of secondary schools in each ward and the total area were used to determine the pattern of distribution of secondary schools in the study area. Settlements, roads, schools location, number of secondary schools, ward and school enrolments were used to generate both school accessibility and effective placement measure using network analysis. Network analyses were also performed to evaluate nearest school to student and a set of origin-destination (OD) matrix. However, the whole of 25 secondary schools in Yewa south were considered for network analysis ward by ward, and the results of the distance students travel from their settlements to their various schools were shown for all the secondary schools in each ward. Out of 415 Students, 210 students travel below 2 km to their schools which constitute 50.60% total number of students in the local government area while 205 students travel above 2 km to their schools which constitute 49.40%.

Ogunyemi, S. A.; Muibi, K. H.; Eguaroje, O. E.; Fabiyi, O. O.; Halilu, A. S.

2014-06-01

300

Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated  

PubMed Central

This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

2010-01-01

301

Acculturation and alcohol consumption in the Mexican American population of the southwestern United States: findings from HHANES 1982-84.  

PubMed Central

Data from the Southwestern sample of the Hispanic HANES are employed to evaluate the relationship of acculturation into the larger society with alcohol consumption. As in previous work, acculturation was not found to be related to alcohol consumption of Mexican American men, but was positively related to the consumption of younger Mexican American women. Among middle-aged women, acculturation was not important. However, we found evidence that middle-aged women might be turning to alcohol in response to marital disruption and poverty. In addition, middle-aged women who are not employed are less frequent drinkers but those who drink are heavier drinkers than employed women. PMID:9187581

Markides, K S; Ray, L A; Stroup-Benham, C A; Treviño, F

1990-01-01

302

Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

2014-01-01

303

Assessing exclusive breastfeeding practices, dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) of nursing mothers in Ekiti State of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI. PMID:20607068

2010-01-01

304

University of Texas Southwestern  

Cancer.gov

The Southwestern Small Animal Imaging Resource (SW-SAIR) seeks to promote and facilitate small animal imaging research related to cancer at UT Southwestern. It combines facilities, expertise, and resources of the Department of Radiology, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the Advanced Imaging Research Center. Major recent investment in imaging has provided a new building and substantial infrastructure (instruments, space, and personnel) based on a trinity of collaboration between UT Southwestern Medical Center, UT Dallas and UT Arlington.

305

Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status of a screened population in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and partial edentulism, in addition to assessing the oral hygiene status and restorative care among adults in a community-based outreach program in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults who participated in oral health screening program, which took place in Alakahia and Obigbo rural communities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. After a brief oral health education, clinical examination was conducted and the diagnosis of caries was made based on the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization. Prevalence of caries was measured using decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, and oral hygiene status was assessed using the OHI-S. The restorative index [(F/F + D) ×100] was also calculated and the sociodemographic factors of the subjects were noted. Chi-square test, independent t-test and descriptive statistic were employed for analysis. Results: One fifty-five females (53.8%) and 133 males (46.2%) attended the events and their mean age was 29.3 ± 10.5 years. About one-third of the participants (35.1%) presented with dental caries. The mean DMFT for the whole group was 0.67 ± 2.0. The restorative index for the subjects was 26.8%. The oral hygiene status of most of the participants was fair. This was significantly better in females than in males (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although about one-third of the participants had dental caries, only a quarter of them had received restorative care. Most of the respondents had fair and poor oral hygiene, this suggests the need to educate and motivate the community toward adopting and maintaining positive oral health attitudes and practices.

Olabisi, Arigbede Abiodun; Udo, Umanah Ayamma; Ehimen, Ukegheson Gabriel; Bashiru, Braimoh Omoigberai; Gbenga, Omitola Olufemi; Adeniyi, Akadiri Oladimeji

2015-01-01

306

Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.  

PubMed

As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707

Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

2011-01-01

307

Southwestern Historical Quarterly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwestern Historical Quarterly started publication in 1897 and remains one of the preeminent journals about the history of Texas and the Southwest. The Texas State Historical Association has undertaken a vast effort to digitize the first 100 years of this publication, and the fruits of their labors are available here. Visitors can search through each of the issues as they wish, or just browse through the table of contents for articles of interest. The issues from 1972 and 1973 are both great places to start, as they contain pieces like "Internal Improvements in Texas in the Early 1850s" and "Pioneer Evaluation of Vegetation in Frontier Texas." Users can view the table of contents for issues after 1997, but they will not have access to the full text of the articles without a subscription. As a whole, this magisterial collection is a tremendous resource for anyone with an interest in the history of the region.

2012-08-24

308

Metazoan parasites of lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes (Charadriiformes) from southwestern United States and Alaska with a checklist of parasites reported from this host.  

PubMed

In total, 30 lesser yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes (Charadriiformes), 24 from southwestern United States and 6 from Alaska, were examined for metazoan parasites. Ten species of helminths (4 cestodes, 4 trematodes, and 2 nematodes), and 5 species of ectoparasites were collected. Cestodes were the most prevalent and abundant taxon. The dominant cestode was an undescribed species of Choanotaenia. The cestode Kowalewskiella totani was the only helminth recovered from Alaskan hosts, and it was also present in birds from the southwest. It appears to be a specialist in lesser yellowlegs. The mallophagans Quadraceps falcigerus and Actornithophilus totani and the nasal mite Colinoptes cubanensis were common to birds from both geographic regions. Characteristics of the helminth community from the southwest and ectoparasite communities of this region and Alaska were low mean species richness, low mean abundance, medium diversity, and uneven distribution of parasites. PMID:18564761

Enz, John J; Canaris, A G

2008-04-01

309

Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

1997-10-01

310

Blood Pressure Gradients and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban and Rural Populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria Using the WHO STEPwise Approach  

PubMed Central

Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa. PMID:24039932

Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

2013-01-01

311

Aging Field Collected Aedes aegypti to Determine Their Capacity for Dengue Transmission in the Southwestern United States  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, is well established throughout urban areas of the Southwestern US, including Tucson, AZ. Local transmission of the dengue virus, however, has not been reported in this area. Although many factors influence the distribution of the dengue virus, we hypothesize that one contributing factor is that the lifespan of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the Southwestern US is too short for the virus to complete development and be transmitted to a new host. To test this we utilized two age grading techniques. First, we determined parity by analyzing ovarian tracheation and found that only 40% of Ae. aegypti females collected in Tucson, AZ were parous. The second technique determined transcript levels of an age-associated gene, Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein 1 (SCP-1). SCP-1 expression decreased in a predictable manner as the age of mosquitoes increased regardless of rearing conditions and reproductive status. We developed statistical models based on parity and SCP-1 expression to determine the age of individual, field collected mosquitoes within three age brackets: nonvectors (0–5 days post-emergence), unlikely vectors (6–14 days post-emergence), and potential vectors (15+ days post-emergence). The statistical models allowed us to accurately group individual wild mosquitoes into the three age brackets with high confidence. SCP-1 expression levels of individual, field collected mosquitoes were analyzed in conjunction with parity status. Based on SCP-1 transcript levels and parity data, 9% of collected mosquitoes survived more than 15 days post emergence. PMID:23077536

Joy, Teresa K.; Jeffrey Gutierrez, Eileen H.; Ernst, Kacey; Walker, Kathleen R.; Carriere, Yves; Torabi, Mohammad; Riehle, Michael A.

2012-01-01

312

Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and is required for remediating salinity problems.

Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

2009-01-01

313

An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

2013-12-01

314

Mental health care policy environment in Rivers State: experiences of mental health nurses providing mental health care services in neuro-psychiatric hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Mental health services for Rivers State and surrounding States in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria are provided only at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital in Port Harcourt City, Rivers State, Nigeria. The study explored mental health nurses’ experiences of providing mental health services at the hospital in an attempt to understand policy implications, identify difficulties and challenges of delivering mental health care services. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interview was conducted among 20 mental health nurses working at the neuropsychiatric Rumuigbo Hospital. This was reviewed within the Townsend mental health policy template of context and resources domains. Results A lack of political support and senior position in the Ministry of Health hinders service delivery, the prevalence of institutionalized stigma, a lack of training, and system failure to provide services at all levels of care is hampering service delivery. The inadequate allocation of resources for hospital renovations and equipment is preventing appropriate client care, as does the lack of funding for drugs, the cost of which makes them unaffordable, affecting clients staying on treatment. Conclusion Education and training of mental health care professionals should be given priority to remedy human resource shortage, provide incentives to motivate health professionals for psychiatric practice, and move toward decentralization of care into general health care services. Information should be provided at all levels to overcome the myths surrounding the causes of mental illnesses, to reduce stigma and discrimination of the affected and their families. PMID:23414640

2013-01-01

315

Formal and Informal Crime Control Views in Nigeria and the United States: An Exploratory Study Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal and informal crime control is used to deter individuals from engaging in criminal behavior. Formal crime control relies on the law and official government agencies to curb criminal actions. Informal crime control relies on moral and social institutions (e.g., family or church) to promote lawful behavior. This study examined the importance of formal and informal crime control in Nigeria

Eric G. Lambert; O. Oko Elechi; Shanhe Jiang

2010-01-01

316

Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (I = 89.8 +/- 6.42 microg/L). However, total water values for Se, Zn, and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. The mean urinary iodine concentration of 170.65 +/- 27.17 microg/L in school children from Oba was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the mean concentration of 156.12 +/- 16.48 microg/L found in school children from Nanka. However, the mean urinary iodine concentration of all the women (pregnant and non-pregnant) were not significantly different in the two communities but they are below the recommended daily intake. The results show that people living in Nanka and Oba, could be at risk of IDD. PMID:17970305

Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

2007-09-01

317

Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

2013-01-01

318

Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

Smith, Daniel Jordan

2013-01-01

319

Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

320

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peer Education in Improving HIV Knowledge, Attitude, and Sexual Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212

Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

2014-01-01

321

Assessment of Computer Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…

Oluwatayo, James Ayodele

2012-01-01

322

Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

Akpochafo, G. O.

2012-01-01

323

THE IMPLICATIONS OF POLITICAL THUGGERY ON SOCIOECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years the activities of thugs have been legitimatized and powerfully backed by the political class and unfortunately in Maiduguri most of these thugs have metamorphosed to Boko Haram. This study is, therefore, meant to examine the implications of political thuggery on socio- economic and political development of Maiduguri capital city of Borno State. To achieve the above, both

PAUL Y. MBAYA

2013-01-01

324

Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

2006-01-01

325

Lameness and reproductive performance in small ruminants in Nsukka Area of the Enugu State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four communities in Nsukka Area of Enugu State, known for sheep and goat keeping were purposefully selected for this work. Seventy-one sheep and goat farms were visited between January 1995 and December 1999. During the course of visit no one animal was registered twice in one farm during the study except where the cause of lameness was entirely different from

C. A Eze

2002-01-01

326

COMMUNICATION FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATION AT THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates communication factors affecting the adoption of innovation at the grassroots level in Ogun State. Two hundred farmers and twenty-five extension agents were selected using a multi - stage sampling technique, and were interviewed for the purpose of the study. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The study revealed that the majority of

A. S. Onasanya; S. F. Adedoyin; O. A. Onasanya

327

Evaluating the performance of wind turbines in selected locations in Oyo state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wind speed distribution and wind energy potential are investigated in three selected locations in Oyo state using wind speed data that span between 12 and 20 years measured at 10 m height. In addition, the performance of selected small to medium size wind turbines in these sites were examined. The annual energy output and capacity factor for these turbines were

M. S. Adaramola; O. M. Oyewola

2011-01-01

328

Museum of Southwestern Biology: Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mammal Collection at the University of New Mexico's Museum of Southwestern Biology (MSB) "contains over 118,000 specimens, mostly from the southwestern United States, Mexico, Central and South America, but there are also large holdings from other portions on North America, Japan, Africa, and Eurasia." MSB offers a searchable database of the Mammal Collection with search fields for Order, Family, Species, Continent/Ocean, Country, Sex, Season, and more. MSB specimen loans are available to "researchers at established, scientifically recognized institutions." Site visitors will appreciate the extensive list of mammal-related publications from 1994-2004, with many of the papers from recent years available in downloadable format. MSB staff contact information, and related links are provided as well.

329

Seeking evidence to support efforts to increase use of antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two states of Nigeria.  

PubMed

BackgroundAntenatal care (ANC) attendance is a strong predictor of maternal outcomes. In Nigeria, government health planners at state level and below have limited access to population-based estimates of ANC coverage and factors associated with its use. A mixed methods study examined factors associated with the use of government ANC services in two states of Nigeria, and shared the findings with stakeholders.MethodsA quantitative household survey in Bauchi and Cross River states of Nigeria collected data from women aged 15¿49 years on ANC use during their last completed pregnancy and potentially associated factors including socio-economic conditions, exposure to domestic violence and local availability of services. Bivariate and multivariate analysis examined associations with having at least four government ANC visits. We collected qualitative data from 180 focus groups of women who discussed the survey findings and recommended solutions. We shared the findings with state, Local Government Authority, and community stakeholders to support evidence-based planning.Results40% of 7870 women in Bauchi and 46% of 7759 in Cross River had at least four government ANC visits. Women's education, urban residence, information from heath workers, help from family members, and household owning motorized transport were associated with ANC use in both states. Additional factors for women in Cross River included age above 18 years, being married or cohabiting, being less poor (having enough food during the last week), not experiencing intimate partner violence during the last year, and education of the household head. Factors for women in Bauchi were presence of government ANC services within their community and more than two previous pregnancies. Focus groups cited costly, poor quality, and inaccessible government services, and uncooperative partners as reasons for not attending ANC. Government and other stakeholders planned evidence-based interventions to increase ANC uptake.ConclusionUse of ANC services remains low in both states. The factors related to use of ANC services are consistent with those reported previously. Efforts to increase uptake of ANC should focus particularly on poor and uneducated women. Local solutions generated by discussion of the evidence with stakeholders could be more effective and sustainable than externally driven interventions. PMID:25410003

Omer, Khalid; Afi, Nshadi; Baba, Moh D; Adamu, Maijiddah; Malami, Sani; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

2014-11-20

330

Paleogene state and planktonic foraminiferal zone boundaries and unconformity-bounded depositional sequence contacts in southwestern Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In the southwestern Alabama area, Paleogene Stage boundaries, which are based on planktonic foraminiferal ranges, can correspond to unconformity-bounded depositional sequence contacts. Planktonic foraminiferal zone boundaries evident in the Paleogene strata of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain generally correspond to marine transgressions (rises in relative sea level). These biostratigraphic zonal boundaries are observed to occur at depositional sequence bounding surfaces (unconformities), transgressive surfaces within depositional sequences, or within transgressive or condensed section deposits of depositional sequence. The stratigraphic occurrence of the biostratigraphic boundary is influenced by the paleogeographic setting and paleoenvironmental conditions of a given site of deposition. Differential amounts and rates of sedimentation associated with paleobathymetry and/or distance from the shoreline at various depositional sites and differential subsidence within the depositional basin resulting largely from local tectonics are integral controls on the stratigraphic occurrence of biostratigraphic datums. Other factors affecting the stratigraphic occurrence of planktonic foraminiferal zonal boundaries are the presence of unconformities and associated paleontological hiatuses resulting from nondeposition or erosion, the degree of postdepositional erosion and removal of sediments, and the presence or absence of lowstand deposits associated with type 1 unconformities or shelf margin deposits associated with type 2 unconformities.

Mancini, E.A. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States)); Tew, B.H. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

1991-03-01

331

Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

2007-01-01

332

Sound management of brominated flame retarded (BFR) plastics from electronic wastes: State of the art and options in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo

2008-01-01

333

Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

2013-01-01

334

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

2011-01-01

335

Alternative Format Preferences among Secondary School Visually Impaired Students in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons with visual impairment have consistently shown a preference for one alternative reading format over another, often because of factors outside their control. This study adopted survey research design to investigate alternative format preferences among secondary school visually impaired students, focusing on Southwestern Nigeria. Using total…

Adetoro, 'Niran

2012-01-01

336

Asynchronous east-west climate changes over the southwestern United States driven by competing moisture sources during the last deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last deglaciation, the climate of the southwestern US changed dramatically, reflecting large-scale shifts in atmospheric circulation that were driven largely by changing temperature and ice cover in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. While a great deal has been learned about the nature of these changes in the desert southwest from speleothem, lake sediment and other proxy climate records, much less is known about deglacial changes in atmospheric circulation to the east, where continuous high-resolution proxy records are rare. Here we present a new record of changing vegetation and atmospheric moisture in central Texas from the ?13C of bulk organic matter and the ?D of plant waxes preserved in the sediments of Hall's Cave. The record shows that Northern Hemisphere cold intervals were characterized by dry conditions, with a decreased proportion of winter grasses, trees and shrubs, whereas during warm intervals conditions were wetter and the proportion of C3 plants increased. These changes are opposite of those recorded elsewhere in the arid southwest, and particularly at sites in Arizona and New Mexico where the glacial was wet and the Bølling-Allerød was exceptionally dry. ?Dwax variations suggest that these east-west differences in deglacial climate change reflect differences in the relative importance of westerly storm tracks and the low level jet (LLJ) for delivering moisture to these areas. Terminal Pleistocene drought during the Bølling-Allerød appears to have been restricted to the desert southwest, while sites in Texas and the Great Plains became wetter. The asynchronous nature of these changes is seemingly at odds with a climatic origin for the late Pleistocene extinction of North American land mammals.

Shanahan, T. M.; Wicks, T.; Jimmie, J. A.

2013-12-01

337

Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

2014-01-01

338

HIV association with conventional STDS (sexual transmitted diseases) in Lagos State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The study examined a possible association between HIV infection and conventional sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) in a population of 700 patients seen in some hospitals and clinics in Lagos State between November 1997 and December 1999. The patients were drawn mainly from LUTH and Jolad hospitals in Lagos State. In these hospitals, patients who presented with symptoms of STDS were screened clinically and microbiologically for agents of STDS and HIV antibodies. Screening was carried out using conventional methods. A total of 150 (21.5%) were found positive for various STDS while 550 (78.5%) were negative Also, 109 (15.8%) were sero-positive for HIV while 591 (84.4%) were sero-negative. The frequency of STDS diagnosed were, Treponema pallidum, 38(25.3%), Neisseria gonorrhoea 3(2.0%), Chlamydia trachomatis 26(17.3), Hepatitis B virus 60(40.0%) Staphylococcus aureaus, 20 (13.3%) and Candida albicans 3(2.0%). Data showed that Syphillis was the most prevalent STDS diagnosed while Calbicans and N. gonorrhoea are the least. Amongst the 150 (21.5%) patients positive with STDS, 82(54.65%) were found to be positive for HIV antibodies. The remaining 68(45.3%) patients were negative for HIV. The difference in sero-prevalence on the true group of patients rates was significant. The higher rate in the STDS patients strongly suggest some association between HIV infections andSTDS amongst the patients studied p = 0.05. It was also recorded that HIV-1 infection is four times more prevalent than HIV-2 in these patients. PMID:12403041

Otuonye, N M; Olukoya, D K; Odunukwe, N N; Idigbe, E O; Udeaja, M N; Bamidele, M; Onyewuchie, J I; Oparaugu, C T; Ayelari, O S; Oyekunle, B

2002-01-01

339

Bacteriuria and urinary schistosomiasis in primary school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction According to a study conducted in1989, Enugu State has an estimated urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 79%. Recently, studies have implicated bacteriuria co-infection in bladder cancer. These bacteria accelerate the multi-stage process of bladder carcinogenesis. Knowledge about the prevalence of this co-infection is not available in Enugu and the information provided by the 1989 study is too old to be used for current decision making. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of primary school children aged5-15years, who were randomly selected through a multi stage sampling method using guidelines recommended by WHO for schistosomiasis surveys. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, socioeconomic variables and clinical presentations. Urine samples were collected between 10.00am and 2.00pm. Each sample was divided into two: (A) for prevalence and intensity using syringe filtration technique and (B) for culture. Intensity was categorized as heavy (>50ova/10mls urine) and light (<50ova/10mls urine). Significant bacteriuria was bacteria count ? 105 colony forming units/ml of urine. Results Of the 842 pupils, 50.6% were females. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 34.1%. Infection rate was higher(52.8%) among 13-15 years(Prevalence Ratio = 2.45, 95% Confidence Interval 1.63-3.69). Heavy infections wad 62.7% and egg count/10mls urine ranged from 21-1138. Significant bacteriuria among pupils with urinary schistosomiasis was 53.7% compared to 3.6% in the uninfected(PR = 30.8,95% CI 18.91- 52.09). The commonest implicated organism was Escherchia coli. Conclusion We found high prevalence of bacteriuria co-infection among children with urinary schistosomiasis in Enugu State. This underscores the need for concurrent antibiotics administration and follow-up to avert later complications. PMID:25328634

Ossai, Okechukwu Paulinus; Dankoli, Raymond; Nwodo, Chimezie; Tukur, Dahiru; Nsubuga, Peter; Ogbuabor, Daniel; Ekwueme, Osaeloka; Abonyi, Godwin; Ezeanolue, Echezona; Nguku, Patrick; Nwagbo, Douglas; Idris, Suleiman; Eze, George

2014-01-01

340

Human plague in the southwestern United States, 1957-2004: spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

Plague is a rare but highly virulent flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis Yersin. Identifying areas at high risk of human exposure to the etiological agent of plague could provide a useful tool for targeting limited public health resources and reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis by raising awareness of the disease. We created logistic regression models to identify landscape features associated with areas where humans have acquired plague from 1957 to 2004 in the four-corners region of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah), and we extrapolated those models within a geographical information system to predict where plague cases are likely to occur within the southwestern United States disease focus. The probability of an area being classified as high-risk plague habitat increased with elevation up to approximately 2300 m and declined as elevation increased thereafter, and declined with distance from key habitat types (e.g., southern Rocky Mountain piñon--juniper [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus spp.], Colorado plateau piñon--juniper woodland, Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P.& C. Lawson var. scopulorum), and southern Rocky Mountain juniper woodland and savanna). The overall accuracy of the model was >82%. Our most conservative model predicted that 14.4% of the four-corners region represented a high risk of peridomestic exposure to Y. pestis. PMID:17547242

Eisen, Rebecca J; Enscore, Russell E; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Reynolds, Pamela J; Ettestad, Paul; Brown, Ted; Pape, John; Tanda, Dale; Levy, Craig E; Engelthaler, David M; Cheek, James; Bueno, Rudy; Targhetta, Joseph; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

2007-05-01

341

Flow of water and sediments through Southwestern riparian systems  

E-print Network

Flow of water and sediments through Southwestern riparian systems Leonard F. Peter F. and Kenneth N. Abstract.-The paper describes streamflow, sediment movement and veg- etation interactions within riparian systems of the southwestern United States. Riparian systems are found in a wide range of vegetation types

342

Contaminants from cretaceous black shale Part 2: Effect of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on salinity and selenium cycling, Mancos Shale landscapes, southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) is a known nonpoint source for a significant portion of the salinity and selenium (Se) loads in the Colorado River in the southwestern United States and northwestern corner of Mexico. These two contaminants pose a serious threat to rivers in these arid regions where water supplies are especially critical. Tuttle et al. (companion paper) investigates the cycling of contaminants in a Colorado River tributary watershed (Uncompahgre River, southwestern Colorado) where the MS weathers under natural conditions. This paper builds on those results and uses regional soil data in the same watershed to investigate the impact of MS geology, weathering intensity, land use, and climate on salt and Se storage in and flux from soils on the natural landscape, irrigated agriculture fields, areas undergoing urban development, and wetlands. The size of salinity and Se reservoirs in the MS soils is quantified. Flux calculations show that during modern weathering, natural landscapes cycle salt and Se; however, little of it is released for transport to the Uncompahgre River (10% of the annual salinity and 6% of the annual Se river loads). When irrigated, salinity and Se loads from the MS soil increase (26% and 57% of the river load, respectively), causing the river to be out of compliance with Federal and State Se standards. During 100 years of irrigation, seven times more Se has been removed from agricultural soil than what was lost from natural landscapes during the entire period of pedogenesis. Under more arid conditions, even less salt and Se are expected to be transported from the natural landscape. However, if wetter climates prevail, transport could increase dramatically due to storage of soluble phases in the non-irrigated soil. These results are critical input for water-resource and land-use managers who must decide whether or not the salinity and Se in a watershed can be managed, what sustainable mitigation strategies are possible, and what landscapes should be targeted. The broader implications include providing a reliable approach for quantifying nonpoint-source contamination from MS and other rock units elsewhere that weather under similar conditions and, together with results from our companion paper, address the complex interplay of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on contaminant cycling in the arid Southwest.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

343

Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For qualitative data, four focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted to collect information from stakeholders within the study population, while In-depth interview was employed to collect information from 188 people living with HIV/AIDS through support groups in the State. The data collected were subjected to basic demographic analytical techniques. Combination of univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis were employed. Information from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed and organized under broad headings that depict different aspects of the discussions. Majority of the respondents interviewed did not inform their partners about their infection in the study area. It was also discovered that stigmatization did not allow some women to disclose their status to their sexual partners. Some of the HIV-positive patients interviewed agreed that they did not attend the health facilities to treat the STI’s before they were finally confirmed positive. The study hypothesis revealed that communication between partners about STI’s was associated with an increase in risk reduction behaviour. The paper concluded that there is need for more information and education on communication about STI’s between the sexual partners; to reduce the spread of sexually transmitted diseases within the nation. PMID:24470905

Adeyemi, Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

2011-01-01

344

Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. Results LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00 hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. Conclusion The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits. PMID:24885737

2014-01-01

345

Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont été utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores refleja

Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

346

Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

347

Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

2013-01-01

348

Development Imperatives for the Twenty-First Century in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development as a growth process is what every person, nation and state seeks from day to day. The issues of development and better welfare are generally important to the average man and woman, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria and other African countries need to instigate the principles and strategies that will bring about…

Arikpo, Arikpo B.; Etor, Robert B.; Usang, Ewa

2007-01-01

349

Unknown risk: co-exposure to lead and other heavy metals among children living in small-scale mining communities in Zamfara State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria has been called the worst such case in modern history and it presents unique challenges for risk assessment and management of co-exposure to multiple heavy metals. More than 400 children have died in Zamfara as a result of ongoing lead intoxication since early in 2010. A review of the common toxic endpoints of the major heavy metals advances analysis of co-exposures and their common pathologies. Environmental contamination in Bagega village, examined by X-ray fluorescence of soils, includes lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and manganese. Co-exposure risk is explored by scoring common toxic endpoints and hazard indices to calculate a common pathology hazard risk ranking of Pb?>?As?>?Hg?>?Cd?>?Mn. Zamfara presents an extreme picture of both lead and multiple heavy metal mortality and morbidity, but similar situations have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. PMID:24044870

Bartrem, Casey; Tirima, Simba; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Worrell, Mary Claire; Mohammad Anka, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aishat; Moller, Gregory

2014-08-01

350

Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

2013-01-01

351

Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.

Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

2011-01-01

352

Spatial interpolation of precipitation in a dense gauge network for monsoon storm events in the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inaccuracy in spatially distributed precipitation fields can contribute significantly to the uncertainty of hydrological states and fluxes estimated from land surface models. This paper examines the results of selected interpolation methods for both convective and mixed\\/stratiform events that occurred during the North American monsoon season over a dense gauge network at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut

Matthew Garcia; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; David C. Goodrich

2008-01-01

353

GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS OF THE MEXICAN DUCK, ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS DlAZl RIDGWAY, FROM NORTH CENTRAL MEXICO AND SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species in- cluded: Echinoparyphium recuruatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, No- tocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echino- cotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp.

Jaime D. Farias

354

Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences in Acre state, southwestern Amazonia: Fluvial or tidal? Deductions from the IGCP 449 fieldtrip  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IGCP 449 fieldtrip in June 2003 drew attention to the Late Cenozoic fluvial sequences of western Amazonia. In Acre state in western Brazil, underlain by relatively mobile crust, rivers have incised up to 70minto the stacked latest Miocene (?)\\/Early Pliocene (?) sediments of the Solimões Group, creating staircases of fluvial terraces and indicating regional uplift on this time scale.

Rob Westaway

2006-01-01

355

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

356

Late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences in Acre state, southwestern Amazonia: Fluvial or tidal? Deductions from the IGCP 449 fieldtrip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IGCP 449 fieldtrip in June 2003 drew attention to the Late Cenozoic fluvial sequences of western Amazonia. In Acre state in western Brazil, underlain by relatively mobile crust, rivers have incised up to 70 minto the stacked latest Miocene (?)/Early Pliocene (?) sediments of the Solimões Group, creating staircases of fluvial terraces and indicating regional uplift on this time scale. In contrast, in western Rondonia state, the Madeira River flows through the Early Proterozoic western part of the Amazon Craton, where Late Cenozoic vertical crustal motions seem minimal. The evidence in Acre suggests that the Solimões Group was deposited by an ancestral river system associated with the incipient development of the modern eastward Amazon drainage.

Westaway, Rob

2006-03-01

357

Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

Webb, Robert H.; Leake, Stanley A.

2006-04-01

358

Seasonal Rainfall Variability and its Impact on Vegetation Dynamics in the Southwestern United States: AN Outlook on Future Water Budget Issue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under global warming, the more likely rainfall scenario expected should be characterized by a high variability. Considering the watershed as a functional unit with a range of biophysical components, the present study targeted the interactions between vegetation dynamics and rainfall variability. The study used historical rainfall data from 370 ground based stations for the last five decades as well as spatial and the last 22 years remote sensed data over regional watersheds in the southwestern United States. The region of study is a part of the North American Monsoon Region, and the seasonal period June-July-August JJA was considered in the study. From 1895 to 2011, the JJA precipitations counted in average for 22 to 43% of total annual precipitation depending of the region and that percentage gets higher in arid regions. Entropy theory which is a probabilistic approach has been used to address precipitation variability issue in time and space. However, the present document targets the results obtained with the Texas Gulf watershed. Different seasonal rainfall characteristics such as number of rainfall events, rainfall amount was involved in the analysis of the interaction between seasonal rainfall variability and vegetation dynamics. The amount of the seasonal rainfall variability induced by the watershed characteristics was investigated through different time series analysis. In final we found out that seasonal rainfall variability tends to be higher in arid regions. More the impact of seasonal precipitation variability on vegetation tends to be more pronounced in arid regions. The implication on water budget was analyzed and it came out potential changes in future terrestrial hydrological process particularly in arid regions.elating spatial variability trend of seasonal number of rainfall events with humidity/aridity level in the Texas Gulf omparing NDVI trends in two regions with different rainfall variability Characteristics in the Texas Gulf watershed

Sohoulande, D. C.; Singh, V. P.; Frauenfeld, O. W.

2012-12-01

359

Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

2006-01-01

360

A geomorphic application of a coupled, dynamic model of sediment transport and desert shrub populations in the Southwestern United States under anticipated climate-change scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the Southwestern United States, desert shrubs modulate sediment transport on arid hillslopes, wherein rainsplash processes create mounds beneath shrub canopies. These mounds act as capacitors which ultimately influence the sediment flux. Yet, complex plant community dynamics make it difficult to predict changes in the surface of the Earth over extended timescales, such as those associated with climate change. Climate predictions for the American Southwest suggest changes in precipitation which can affect desert shrub populations and in turn, sediment transport rates. To better understand the complex, abiotic-biotic interaction between vegetation and sediment transport on arid hillslopes we couple a biologically-informed, stochastic model of desert shrub population dynamics (presented in a complimentary abstract by Worman et al.), with a model of rainsplash sediment transport. This coupled model allows us to track changes in the total vegetation present on the hillslopes, which we measure in terms of biomass using the WBE allometric scaling model, and relate it to sediment transport rates. We find that the simulated values from the model confirm intuitive assumptions, in which higher amounts of shrub biomass are indeed inversely correlated to sediment flux values. Therefore, it is possible to generalize erosion rates obtained from the model in terms of hillslope biomass. We explore how different climate change scenarios affect desert shrubs and the associated sediment flux. The model suggests that shrub morphology acts as a control on how shrubs respond to climate change, specifically to increased aridification. This work provides an opportunity to develop techniques for large scale monitoring, and possibly prediction, of changes in shrub populations and associated sediment transport on desert hillslopes.

Fathel, Siobhan; Furbish, David; Worman, Stacey

2014-05-01

361

Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

2012-01-01

362

Paleostress states at the south-western margin of the Central European Basin System — Application of fault-slip analysis to unravel a polyphase deformation pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the deformation pattern along the south-western margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS) where Upper Carboniferous-Mesozoic rocks are uplifted due to the Late Cretaceous basin inversion. The geometry of mesoscale faults and associated striae are used to calculate the stress state(s) responsible for the observed deformation. Each reduced stress tensor obtained comprises (i) the directions of the principal stress axes ?1, ?2, and ?3 ( ?1 ? ?2 ? ?3) and (ii) the ratio of principal stress differences R = ( ?2 - ?3) / ( ?1 - ?3). We present a stress inversion technique that allows each stress state inherent in a heterogeneous fault population to be identified by integrating the results of the PBT-Method [Turner, F.J., 1953. Nature and dynamic interpretation of deformation lamellae in calcite of three marbles. American Journal of Sciences, 251(4): 276-298; Sperner, B., Ratschbacher, L. and Ott, R., 1993. Fault-striae analysis: a Turbo Pascal program package for graphical presentation and reduced stress tensor calculation. Computers & Geosciences, 19: 1361-1388] and the Multiple Inverse Method [Yamaji, A., 2000. The multiple inverse method; a new technique to separate stresses from heterogeneous fault-slip data. Journal of Structural Geology, 22(4): 441-452]. This comprehensive approach not only facilitates the separation of complex data sets into homogeneous subsets but also guarantees that each stress state derived fulfils both the criteria of low-misfit angles (Wallace-Bott hypothesis) and high shear-to-normal-stress ratios (Mohr-Coulomb criterion). The reliability of our technique is confirmed by the fact that irrespective of (i) the number of fault-slip data from an outcrop, (ii) the number of subsets they represent and (iii) the proportion of newly formed and reactivated faults, we obtain consistent results from outcrops of variously aged rocks. This consistency concerns both calculated stress states as well as locally observed deformation sequences. Such local chronologies are derived from cross-cutting relationships and superimposition of different fault-slip data which individually are assigned to a consistent stress state. A synthesis of results from different locations of the study area argues for the superposition of two main deformation events. Most prominently, the area was affected by a stress state with a horizontal N-S- to NE-SW-directed maximum compression ( ?1) and a low stress ratio which induced reverse and strike-slip faulting. A pure strike-slip regime of E-W- to NW-SE-directed compression with moderate stress ratios is less prevalent and probably younger. The age of the youngest rocks documenting these two phases proves the stress fields to correspond to the polyphase Late Cretaceous-Tertiary basin inversion of the CEBS during post-Cenomanian times. The youngest tectonic imprints detected in the study area correspond to locally appearing extensional stress states with varying directions of ?3. At many sites, the youngest derived paleostress state coincides with the present-day stress field in terms of the direction of the maximum horizontal stress axis, SHmax. The only stress state detected which pre-dates the basin inversion corresponds to an extensional regime with an WNW-ESE- to NW-SE-directed ?3-axis observed only locally in the N-S striking Leine Graben and its prolongation to the North. The fact that the majority of variously aged rocks exhibit only the traces of the latest deformation phases indicates a high degree of fault plane reactivation in the study area.

Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Reicherter, Klaus; Mazur, Stanislaw

2009-05-01

363

Southwestern Research Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site profiles AMNH's Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), a year-round field station that allows biologists, geologists, and anthropologists to study the diverse environments and biotas of the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The site includes an overview of the field station and its work, information on courses offered, and information for visitors, researchers, interns and volunteers.

364

The WWW in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before Nigeria can connect to the World Wide Web, it must have a national computer network and a series of organization-based intranets. This letter assesses Nigeria's communications infrastructure; discusses what is being done to improve it; and credits its shortcomings to low university funding, rising computers costs, currency exchange rates,…

Olorunsola, R.; Adeoti-Adekeye, A.

1997-01-01

365

Welcome to Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…

Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

366

Determining the Spatial Influence of Imported and Local Water Sources to Municipal Tap Water Systems in the Southwestern United States Using Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid and semi-arid parts of the southwestern USA, imported waters derived from large canal systems like the Colorado River Aqueduct, Los Angeles Aqueduct, and the California Aqueduct service a significant component of the regional water needs. These waters are sourced primarily from high altitude snowmelt runoff and have relatively low annually averaged stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen

J. C. Stalker; C. D. Kennedy; G. J. Bowen

2010-01-01

367

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

368

Gastrointestinal helminths of the Mexican duck, Anas platyrhynchos diazi Ridgway, from north central Mexico and southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species included: Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp. 1, Hymenolepis sp. 2, Sobolevicanthus gracilis. Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus, Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria sp., Epomidiostomum crami, Hystrichis varispinosus, Rusguniella arctica, and Tetrameres sp. Fimbriarioides sp. occurred predominantly in ducks from south-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The distributions for the other 24 species of the helminths were not significantly different among the four collecting areas. The helminth fauna for the 32 complete specimens and 97 intestinal tracts was distributed relatively evenly among the hosts with a calculated mean evenness of 0.77 +/- 0.15 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 respectively. The parasite fauna was more similar to those of the black duck Anas rubripes Brewster of eastern North America (53%), the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (L.) (49%), and the mottled duck, Anas fulvigula Ridgway, from Florida (45%), than to the green-winged teal, Anas crecca (L.) (36%), the gadwall, Anas strepera (L.) (30%), and the American wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin (26%), collected in the Southwest. PMID:3951061

Farias, J D; Canaris, A G

1986-01-01

369

Correlation between aflatoxin M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in Ogun State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin M1 (AF M1), a hydroxylated metabolite of AF B1, is an important toxin that can contaminate the milk of lactating mothers. A correlation study was conducted to determine the relationship between AF M1 content of breast milk, dietary exposure to AF B1 and socioeconomic status of lactating mothers in the three Senatorial districts of Ogun State, Nigeria. Equal amounts of breast milk (20 ml) and food rations (40 kg) obtained from 50 volunteer lactating mothers and eighty-two frequently consumed food commodities in the preceding month were used for the study. The level of contamination of the foods by AF B1 was low (0.16-0.33 ?g/kg) and differed significantly (p<0.05) across the state but did not exceed the EU limit of 2 ?g/kg. The occurrence level of AF B1 was however high (93.75-94.45%) and was more pronounced in Ogun East Senatorial district (94.45%). Eighty-two percent of the breast milk was contaminated with AF M1 (3.49-35 ng/l) and 16% exceeded the EU limit of 25 ng/l while a 100% occurrence risk was recorded in Ogun Central Senatorial district. The socioeconomic status of the mothers also significantly influenced their dietary exposure and exposure risk of the sucklings to AF M1. PMID:23462105

Adejumo, Oloyede; Atanda, Olusegun; Raiola, Assunta; Somorin, Yinka; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Ritieni, Alberto

2013-06-01

370

Plant distributions in the southwestern United States; a scenario assessment of the modern-day and future distribution ranges of 166 Species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The authors developed spatial models of the predicted modern-day suitable habitat (SH) of 166 dominant and indicator plant species of the southwestern United States (herein referred to as the Southwest) and then conducted a coarse assessment of potential future changes in the distribution of their suitable habitat under three climate-change scenarios for two time periods. We used Maxent-based spatial modeling to predict the modern-day and future scenarios of SH for each species in an over 342-million-acre area encompassing all or parts of six states in the Southwest--Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Modern-day SH models were predicted by our using 26 annual and monthly average temperature and precipitation variables, averaged for the years 1971-2000. Future SH models were predicted for each species by our using six climate models based on application of the average of 16 General Circulation Models to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios B1, A1B, and A2 for two time periods, 2040 to 2069 and 2070 and 2100, referred to respectively as the 2050 and 2100 time periods. The assessment examined each species' vulnerability to loss of modern-day SH under future climate scenarios, potential to gain SH under future climate scenarios, and each species' estimated risk as a function of both vulnerability and potential gains. All 166 species were predicted to lose modern-day SH in the future climate change scenarios. In the 2050 time period, nearly 30 percent of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day suitable habitat, 21 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 30 species gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. In the 2100 time period, nearly half of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day SH, 28 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 34 gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. Using nine risk categories we found only two species were in the least risk category, while 20 species were in the highest risk category. The assessment showed that species respond independently to predicted climate change, suggesting that current plant assemblages may disassemble under predicted climate change scenarios. This report presents the results for each species in tables (Appendix A) and maps (14 for each species) in Appendix B.

Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia P.; Gass, Leila

2012-01-01

371

Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: source water for the arid Southwestern United States.  

PubMed

Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits. PMID:22684090

Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

2012-07-15

372

Assessment of the nested grid model estimates for driving regional visibility models in the southwestern United States.  

PubMed

The Nested Grid Model (NGM) is a primitive-equation meteorological model that is routinely exercised over North America for forecasting purposes by the National Meteorological Center. While prognostic meteorological models are being increasingly used to drive air quality models, their use in conducting annual simulations requires significant resources. NGM estimates of wind fields and other meteorological variables provide an attractive alternative since they are typically archived and readily available for an entire year. Preliminary evaluation of NGM winds during the summer of 1992 for application to the region surrounding the Grand Canyon National Park showed serious shortcomings. The NGM winds along the borders between California, Arizona and Mexico tend to be northwesterly with a speed of about 6 m/sec, while the observed flow is predominantly southerly at about 2-5 m/sec. The mesoscale effect of a thermal low pressure area over the highly heated Southern California and western Arizona deserts does not appear to be represented by the NGM because of its coarse resolution and the use of sparse observations in that region. Tracer simulations and statistical evaluation against special high resolution observations of winds in the southwest United States clearly demonstrate the northwest bias in NGM winds and its adverse effect on predictions of an air quality model. The "enhanced" NGM winds, in which selected wind observations are incorporated in the NGM winds using a diagnostic meteorological model provide additional confirmation on the primary cause of the northwest bias. This study has demonstrated that in situations where limited resources prevent the use of prognostic meteorological models, previously archived coarse resolution wind fields in which additional observations are incorporated to correct known biases provide an attractive option. PMID:10842945

Pai, P; Farber, R J; Karamchandani, P; Tombach, I

2000-05-01

373

Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emergingcontaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the UnitedStates. The objective of this study was to evaluate pointsources of ECs along the ColoradoRiver, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the ColoradoRiver Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log Dow values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the ColoradoRiver) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

2012-01-01

374

Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States  

SciTech Connect

Fuels commonly managed by prescribed burning were collected from five Department of Defense (DoD) bases in the southeast and southwest U.S. and burned under controlled conditions at the USFS Firelab in Missoula, MT. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation. A key instrument used in the measurement of the gas-phase species in smoke was an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer. The OP FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires - CO2, CO, H2O, NO2, NO, HONO, NH3, HCl, SO2, CH4, CH3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, C2H2, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCN, C3H6 and C4H4O. Of particular interest, gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factor ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg 1 and was higher for the southeast fuels. Similarly, the fire-integrated molar emission ratios (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values observed for the southeast fuels. HONO is an important precursor in the production of OH, the primary oxidizing species in the atmosphere but there exists little previous data documenting HONO emissions from either wild or prescribed fires. The detected non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions were dominated by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with total identified molar OVOC emissions ranging from 39 to 79% of the total identified molar non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). Emitted NMOC can undergo further oxidation and photolysis in the case of OVOC and thus involved in secondary aerosol formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected in the smoke, with the amounts varying depending on location and vegetation type. Emission factors for HCl were typically much higher for the southwest fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

Burling, Ian; Yokelson, Robert J.; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, J.; Warneke, Carsten; Urbanski, Shawn; Reardon, James; Weise, David; Hao, WeiMin; Gouw, Joost de

2010-11-25

375

Resources, environment and economic development in Nigeria.  

PubMed

It is argued that Nigeria must focus on effective environmentally protective intensive farming, resource management methods, and strong family planning programs. Other contributory factors are recognized as the lack of democracy and the "ill-advised" internal policies of the government. The emphasis is on man-made decisions about migration, natality, and land use practices that have ecological consequences that significantly affect the economy. Land degradation in Nigeria is attributed to improper agricultural and husbandry practices. Land degradation has severe ecological, economic, and human costs. Awareness of environmental problems in Nigeria is growing. Natural disasters such as the droughts of 1984-85, continued soil depletion, accumulations of soil wastes, increased flooding in urban areas, and land erosion in Anambra state are evidence of the growing environmental problems. Agricultural development should involve changing rural land use practices, using technology that is "appropriate" to the climate, crops, and culture of the people, and introducing agroforestry. Population growth in Nigeria puts pressure on the fragile ecosystem. Actual carrying capacity is a rough calculation. Nigeria's population growth patterns follow a pattern that suggests population pressure on carrying capacity. The acceleration of population growth has strained the traditional system of agriculture. Land is overused, and cultivation continues on unsuitable land. Domestic policies during the oil boom encouraged rapid industrialization at the expense of the environment. Migration increased to urban centers, but cities did not provide suitable housing, waste disposal, safe water supplies, and other basic facilities. PMID:12347030

Okpala, A O

1995-06-01

376

Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m?2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the Colorado River well into the future. Other trace elements weathering from MS that are often of environmental concern include U and Mo, which mimic Se in their behavior; As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, which show little redistribution; and Cd, Sb, V, and Zn, which accumulate in Stage I shale, but are lost to varying degrees from upper soil intervals. None of these trace elements have been reported previously as contaminants in the study area.

Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2013-01-01

377

A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.

McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

2003-01-01

378

Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  

PubMed

As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E

2009-06-01

379

Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are known to have a negative impact on human health especially children through oral ingestion. Total metal concentrations were determined in indoor dust from 19 locations consisting of classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Digestion and instrumentation reproducibility were validated using certified reference materials (BCR 723 (Road Dust), NIST 2711a (Montana Soil) and NIST SRM 1640e (Trace element in water)). The measured and certified values showed good agreement. Potential threat levels using geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk for both children and adult were assessed. The mean Igeo levels for the classified and probable carcinogens is in the order Cd (4.84) > Cr (3.28) > Pb (2.61) > Ni (2.48) > As (1.64) while other elements are in the order Zn (5.41) > Ba (4.86) > Sr (4.38) > Zn (4.27) > V (3.24) > Cu (3.14) > Hg (2.61) ? TI (2.61). For human health risk, ingestion was the main route of exposure followed by dermal uptake and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1 while Hg vapor exhibited the highest risk value (0.13) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were all within the acceptable level (10-4-10-6), but there was potential carcinogenic risk posed by Cr for both adults and children.

Olujimi, Olanrewaju; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter

2015-01-01

380

Barriers to use of modern contraceptives among women in an inner city area of Osogbo metropolis, Osun state, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria. PMID:24143124

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO

2013-01-01

381

Shelf circulation patterns off Nigeria  

E-print Network

Little has been published about the shelf circulation off the coast of Nigeria. Due to increased activity and associated incidents in the shallow waters offshore Nigeria, there is a need to more clearly define the near-shore circulation patterns...

Rider, Kelly Elizabeth

2005-08-29

382

SELF-PERCEIVED AND UNMET GENERAL HEALTH NEED AMONG PLWHA IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study set out to determine the self-reported unmet health needs of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) in a Nigerian population. Methods: A prospective study conducted among consecutive 209 consenting PLWHA in the South-western Nigeria; who sought for care in the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex, Ile-Ife and General Hospital, Ilesa were recruited. Participants completed a comprehensive survey

Adedigba MA; Ogunbodede E; Jeboda SO

383

Delimitation and management of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) at an outlier infestation in southwestern New York State, United States of America: case study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research objectives were to develop an adaptive delimitation technique and to implement and evaluate management of emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis in the first infestation discovered in New York State. Delimitation was accomplished using 91 girdled “sentinel” trap trees deployed up to 1...

384

Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

2013-01-01

385

The frequency of ABO blood group maternal–fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: ABO incompatibility in maternal–fetal relationship has been shown to cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDNB); a survey which is not yet done in this locality. Aim: Frequency of ABO blood group maternal-fetal incompatibility, maternal iso-agglutinins, and immune agglutinins quantitation was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, South-West of Nigeria. Settings and Designs: A total of 260 subjects comprising 130 postpartum mothers within the age range of 22-35 years having good obstetrics history and normal delivery, with their 130 neonate babies were used for the study. Materials and Methods: ABO cell and serum groupings were carried out on the subjects using standard antisera and cells with appropriate controls. Direct Coomb’s Test was carried out on neonate red cells. Antibody quantitation by double dilution on the maternal serum using red cells containing corresponding antigen to the antibody was determined. A titer, which is the reciprocal of the highest dilution showing agglutination by Indirect Coombs Test, was determined. Another batch of sera was pretreated with 2-mecarptoethanol before determining the titer. Statistical Analysis: The distribution study results obtained were compared in percentages, whereas the antibodies quantitation was expressed as titers using the mode of the titers for compariso-agglutininsn. Results and Conclusions: Thirty-eight percent (50) mothers were ABO incompatible with their babies, whereas 62% (80) mothers were compatible. The distribution of blood groups in the compatible population showed blood group O (45%); A (30%); B (20%); and AB (5%). Mothers O, A, and B carrying incompatible babies had a frequency of 24% each, whereas mothers AB had 28%. Serologist differences occur in maternal ABO antibodies of corresponding incompatible baby ABO antigens. A high incidence of ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility observed without detection of immune agglutinins is indicative of a rare incidence of HDNB due to ABO incompatibility in the population studied. PMID:21572716

Oseni, Bashiru S.; Akomolafe, Oluseun F.

2011-01-01

386

Nigeria: too many children?  

PubMed

Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D

1987-04-01

387

(Eco) Tourism in the Cross River National Park (Cross River State, Nigeria): Sustainability of National Park through Private Companies involvement and Occupational Diversification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oban Hills are adjacent to the Korup National Park in Cameroon. The Cross River National Park, together with the Oban Hills, forms the focus of the activities of WWF in Nigeria. Currently, the WWF, the Nigerian Conservation Foundation and the Federal Parks Service are carrying out an integrated conservation and development project in the northern part of the park.

Jesse Ojobor H

388

Imperial Expansion, Ethnic Change, and Ceramic Traditions in The Southern Chad Basin: A Terminal Nineteenth-Century Pottery Assemblage from Dikwa, Borno State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of an archaeological project in the southern Chad Basin of Nigeria, excavations were conducted at several deeply stratified mound sites that date from the Late Neolithic to the Late Iron Age. As a way to complement the ceramic sequence obtained so far and to link it with today's pottery tradition, a small excavation was conducted at a

Detlef Gronenborn; Carlos Magnavita

2000-01-01

389

Adult Learners' Demographic Variable as Predictor of Access and Participation in Literacy Programmes in Oyo and Ondo States, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literacy is an indispensable foundation that enables young people and adults to engage in learning opportunities at all stages of the learning continuum. Literacy is a prerequisite for the development of personal, social, economic and political empowerment. In Nigeria, attempt to increase access to literacy education for the enhancement of…

Olojede, Adeshina Abideen; Oladitan, Idowu Oladiran

2013-01-01

390

The Role of Sandwich In-Service Program in Developing Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of the sandwich in-service educational program of Delta State University, Abraka in developing agricultural science teachers in the state. Data were collected from 895 agricultural science teachers who completed the program between 1989-2004. However, response to the questionnaire was by 391 in-service agricultural…

Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.; Ideh, Victor

2007-01-01

391

78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Nigeria Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State...similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Nigeria and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

2013-12-18

392

Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

2013-01-01

393

Cultural, Socio-Economic and Political Influences on Special Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the present state of education in Nigeria with emphasis on the cultural, socio-economic, and political influences affecting special education. After a brief summary of education in Nigeria since independence (1960), the paper looks at problems identified in special education and at Section 8, that portion of the National Policy…

Obiakor, Festus E.

394

Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use as Predictors of Computer Literacy of Science Teachers in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of computer attitude, ownership and use on the computer literacy of science teachers in Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (120) science teachers drawn from the four political divisions of Ogun State, Nigeria were used for the study. Two valid and reliable instruments namely Computer Attitude, Ownership and Use…

Ogunkola, Babalola J.

2008-01-01

395

Stress Management Strategies of Secondary School Teachers in Nigeria. Short Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study provides empirical evidence for the management of stress by teachers of secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 3466 teachers, drawn from secondary schools in Ogun State of Nigeria, returned their questionnaire for the study. Data were analysed using simple percentage and chi-square. The findings indicate that teachers frequently use…

Arikewuyo, M. Olalekan

2004-01-01

396

Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

2007-01-01

397

Plants used for female reproductive health care in Oredo local government area, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of maternal health in Nigeria is poor and can be attributed to inadequate access to reproduce- tive health services, poverty and in some areas cultural resistance. Consequently, many rural people in Nigeria turn to ethno-medicinal health care systems due to accessibility, affordability, availability and an inherent trust in this method. These systems are threatened by erosion of plant

Folu M. Dania Ogbe; L. Eruogun; Marilyn Uwagboe

2009-01-01

398

Roles of Counsellors in Promoting Sexuality Education for In-School Adolescents in Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was embarked upon to investigate the role of counselors in promoting sexuality education for in-school adolescents in Nigeria. The respondents were made up of 120 practicing guidance counselors in Enugu State situated in South-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. They were drawn from both professional and teacher counselors practicing in…

Omeje, Joachim C.; Michael, Eskay; Obiageli, Modebelu Josephine

2012-01-01

399

Effect of Cuisenaire Rods' Approach on Some Nigeria Primary Pupils' Achievement in Decimal Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the effect of Cuisenaire Rods' approach on some Nigeria primary pupils' achievement in decimal fractions. Three hypotheses guided the study. A total of 200 Primary six pupils (that is, 6th grade) from randomly selected schools in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State of Nigeria served as the sample for the study. A Mathematics…

Kurumeh, M. S. C.; Achor, E. E.

2008-01-01

400

Norphlet formation (Upper Jurassic) of southwestern and offshore Alabama: environments of deposition and petroleum geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern and offshore Alabama accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama to provide a barrier for air and water circulation during the deposition of the Norphlet Formation. These mountains produced topographic conditions that contributed to the arid climate, and they affected sedimentation. Norphlet paleogeography in

E. A. Mancini; B. L. Bearden; R. M. Mink; R. P. Wilkerson

1985-01-01