Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.007–0.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities.
Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA
The study was conducted to find out how much this group of nurses from south-western Nigeria knew about the HIV/AIDS phenomenon. A survey questionnaire was distributed to two population convenient samples of nurses; one group at a university teaching hospital, and the other at a post-basic institution of higher learning. The respondents stated that many of them knew quite a bit about HIV/AIDS, but only a few affirmed that they were taught informal classroom setting. Many of the nurses were able to identify the HIV as the culprit in causing the infection that leads to AIDS. The sources of information about HIV/AIDS vary. The nurses attributed the spread of HIV/AIDS to promiscuous teenage girls predominantly, as well as older men due to infidelity. Many of the nurses stated that sex education should be given to children as young as five years old, and as old as over sixteen years of age. It is recommended that curricular infusion should be done to incorporate HIV/AIDS education in the nursing schools in south-western Nigeria. PMID:17252879
Adepoju, Joseph A
A total of 672 sera from apparently healthy commercial and indigenous chickens of different ages were screened for antibodies to infectious bronchitis (IB) virus using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples obtained from breeder, layer, grower and indigenous chicken flocks in Oyo, Ogun, Ondo and Lagos states of southwestern Nigeria were screened. The total seroprevalence was 82.7% with ELISA units
B. O. Emikpe; O. G. Ohore; S. O. Akpavie
Stool specimens from 113 adult outpatients with diarrhea in southwestern Nigeria and 63 controls were examined for bacterial and parasitic enteric pathogens. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) (P < 0.02), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (P < 0.02), and Entamoeba histolytica (P < 0.0002) were significantly associated with diarrhea. Salmonella, Shigella, nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae, other categories of diarrheagenic E. coli, as well
Iruka N. Okeke; Oladipupo Ojo; Adebayo Lamikanra; James B. Kaper
A twelve-month epidemio-ecological study on the prevalence, infection intensity, water contact and vector aspects of urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in a rural community of south-west Ebonyi State, Nigeria, using standard procedures, and involving 894 individuals (527, 58.9% males; and 367, 41.1% females). An overall community prevalence (15.3%) was established with more males (20.7%) than females (7.6%) being significantly positive for both micro-and macro-haematuria (?² = 0.806; df = 1, p < 0.05). Intensity of infection was generally of the light category (< 100 eggs/10 ml urine) with more infected males (n = 95, 87.2%) than infected females (n = 15, 53.6%). Correlation analysis showed no linear relationship between prevalence and intensity of infection. Individuals aged 16-20 years dominated interschool/intervillage infection profile (range 13.2-50%) while participants in 6-10 years age bracket recorded the lowest infection rates (range 2.8-5.0%). Age-related difference in prevalence was not significant (?² = 1.80; df = 2, p > 0.05). A total of 2877 ova of Schistosoma haematobium were recovered providing an overall mean egg burden of 21 ± 7 eggs/10 ml urine per infected person. Age-related infection intensity was similarly of the light category involving 80.3% of infected persons. Bulinus globosus (n = 308) was identified as the vector of the parasite with 20.1% snails found to be shedding cercariae. Monthly and seasonal infection rates in snails were season-dependent and peaking in May (35.5%). Participants aged 13-15 years accounted for 25.1% of total water contacts (n = 9938) whereas individuals aged 6-9 years accounted for only 9.6% contacts. The most performed water contact activity was bathing (33.3%), followed by washing of clothes (25.7%). Correlation analysis indicated that village of residence, age and cumulative water contacts were significant correlates of possible S. haematobium infection. PMID:24862047
Ivoke, N; Ivoke, O N; Nwani, C D; Ekeh, F N; Asogwa, C N; Atama, C I; Eyo, J E
Geophysical survey involving electrical resistivity methods has been carried out at Annunciation grammar school, Ikere- Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria with the view to delineate the geo-electric characteristics of the basement complex and evaluate its groundwater potential in the area. A total of 5 vertical electrical sounding stations were established within the site along 5 traverses. The schlumberger configuration was used for the data acquisition. The half â??currents electrode (? 2) used range from 1 to 100m. The quantitative interpretation of the VES curves involved the use of partial curve matching and the 1-D computer iteration technique. The depth sounding interpretation results were used to generate geo-electric sections from which the aquifer was delineated. The geo-electric section drawn from the results of the interpretation reveal five subsurface layer which comprises of the topsoil, lateritic sand, partially weathered, weathered and fractured basement. The weathered and fractured layers constituted the aquiferous zone in all the stations. Hence, from this project work it is recommended that boreholes can be sited in high conductivity zones in VES 1,2,3 and 4 as they contain probable aquifers. The depth of any borehole should be located between 15m and 30m to take advantage of the basement fractures
Lateef, T. A.
This study examined the relationship between problem-solving ability and study behavior of secondary school students in Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 430 SS 3 students randomly selected from fifteen secondary schools in Southwestern Nigeria participated in the study. A Problem-Solving Inventory and a Study Behaviour Inventory were employed in…
Salami, Samuel O.; Aremu, A. Oyesoji
Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…
Olumakaiye, M. F.
Dry and rainy season investigations of diverse freshwater habitats in south-western Nigeria revealed fourteen species of snail comprised of nine pulmonates: Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss, Bulinus globosus Morelet, Bulinus rohlfsi Clessin, Lymnaea natalensis Krauss, Physa ( ˜ Aplexa) waterloti Germain, Bulinus forskali Ehrenberg, Gyraulus costulatus Krauss, Ferrissia sp, Segmentorbis sp. and five prosobranchs namely, Lanistes libycus Morelet, Lanistes ovum Peters, Pila
G. T. Ndifon; F. M. A. Ukoli
For decades, there have been efforts made to develop the dairy industry in Nigeria, especially in the southwestern area, without any obvious success. This study examined the experiences and identified the strengths and weaknesses of the efforts so far, and suggested strategies for ensuring success in the future.This study surveyed the producers in the industry, government officials, and consumers to
F. E. OGBIMI; A. A. OYEWALE
At Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, papaya trees were intercropped with okra, watermelon, sweet potato, bush greens, jews' mallow and Solanum gilo Raddi. The aim of the experiment was to select crops suitable for intercropping in the alleys of papaya plants in orchards. Sweet potato and Solanum gilo Raddi caused marked reduction in the yield of papaya. Land Equivalent Ration (LER) for
I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe; M. A. Jolaoso
Abstract This study examined,the relationship between problem-solving ability and study behaviour of secondary school students in Southwestern ,Nigeria. A total of 430 SS 3 students randomly selected from fifteen secondary schools in Southwestern,Nigeria participated in the study. A Problem-Solving Inventory and a Study Behaviour Inventory were employed,in the data col- lection from the respondents. Multiple Regression Analysis was used ,to
Samuel O. Salami; A. Oyesoji Aremu
The researcher investigated occupational hazards of sex work and determined coping strategies adopted by female sex workers in Nigeria. Participants were 112 female sex workers selected from three urban towns in southwestern Nigeria. An instrument titled "Questionnaire on Sex Work" adapted from Akinnawo ( 1995 ) was administered to collect information on factors influencing the growth of the sex industry, occupational hazards in the industry, and coping mechanisms adopted by sex workers. It was found that the majority of sex workers joined the profession for socioeconomic reasons. Reported occupational hazards include poor health, risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), police harassment, and loss of social prestige. PMID:23311907
Popoola, Bayode Isaiah
As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant\\u000a animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation\\u000a of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection\\u000a records was
Simeon I. B. Cadmus; Hezekiah K. Adesokan
The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist\\/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite\\/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite\\/quartz
O. A. Ehinola; A. O. Opoola; H. A. Adesokan
The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 meters was carried out in 10 villages in Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist\\/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatised undifferentiated biotite\\/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite\\/quartz vein
O. A. Ehinola; A. O. Opoola
The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele\\u000a area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated\\u000a gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist\\/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite\\/hornblende\\u000a gneiss (M) and pegmatite\\/quartz vein
O. A. Ehinola; A. O. Opoola; H. A. Adesokan
This paper examines cuttability of selected rocks in south-western (S\\/W) Nigeria. Rock samples from this region were tested for rebound hardness value, uniaxal compressive strength, and silica content using Schmidt hammer, 1100KN compression machine and X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer, respectively. These properties were correlated with the cutting rate of the rock samples. The regression carried out gives values of R2 =
The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84%), oral powders (63%), use as soaps and creams (40%) in a multiple response system, were the most prevalent routes of administration of prepared herbs used in the treatment of the fevers. Boiling in water or alcohol was the most common method used in the preparation of the remedies. The four most frequently mentioned (multiple response system) plants in the Southwest ethnobotany for fevers were Azadirachta indica (87.5%), Mangifera indica (75.0%), Morinda lucida (68.8%) and Citrus medica (68.8%). PMID:12639738
Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J
Combined techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) have been used respectively to identify and analyse rutile obtained from a recently discovered deposit in the Osun-state in the south-western region of Nigeria. While the XRD provides structural information about the natural ore, the ED-XRF gives detailed information about the major, minor and trace elements/impurities contained in the sample. Quantitative analyses of the ore using pellets made from properly homogenised samples showed that the concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO 2), which is the dominant phase in the mineral could be as high as 82.45 wt%, giving Ti concentration of 49.4 wt%. The level of TiO 2 in the ore compared favourably with those found in some countries with notable rutile qualities. Other major elements observed in the ore include Fe (3.1 wt%), V (1.01 wt%), Ca (0.19 wt%) and K (0.21 wt%). In addition, several other elements/impurities were detected in minor and trace quantities including; Cr, Mn, Co (with concentration between 300 and 1000 ppm) and Zr, Ni, Zn, Rb, W, Pb, Sr, Y, Mo, Nb, Br, As, Cu (with concentration between 10 and 300 ppm). It is suggested that when properly mapped and extracted, the rutile deposit could become a reliable source of good grade TiO 2 for various industrial applications.
Siyanbola, W. O.; Fasasi, A. Y.; Funtua, I. I.; Afolabi, O. M.; Adesiyan, T. A.; Adetunji, A. R.
The use of the Internet as a health education tool and as a resource in health education planning is widely accepted as the norm in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, access to computers and the Internet is quite limited in developing countries. Not all licensed service providers operate, many users are actually foreign nationals, telephone connections are unreliable, and electricity supplies are intermittent. In this context, computer, e-mail, Internet, and CD-Rom use by health and health education program officers in five states in southwestern Nigeria were assessed to document their present access and use. Eight of the 30 organizations visited were government health ministry departments, while the remainder were non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Six NGOs and four State Ministry of Health (MOH) departments had no computers, but nearly two-thirds of both types of agency had e-mail, less than one-third had Web browsing facilities, and six had CD-Roms, all of whom were NGOs. Only 25 of the 48 individual respondents had computer use skills. Narrative responses from individual employees showed a qualitative difference between computer and Internet access and use and type of agency. NGO staff in organizations with computers indicated having relatively free access to a computer and the Internet and used these for both program planning and administrative purposes. In government offices it appeared that computers were more likely to be located in administrative or statistics offices and used for management tasks like salaries and correspondence, limiting the access of individual health staff. These two different organizational cultures must be considered when plans are made for increasing computer availability and skills for health education planning. PMID:17686702
Oyadoke, Adebola A; Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R
BACKGROUND Eye diseases are important cause of medical consultation in children, with the spectrum varying in different localities. This study aimed to determine the spectrum of childhood eye diseases in a tertiary hospital serving rural and semi-rural communities. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of all patients less than 15 years old who presented to the eye clinic of Wesley Guild Hospital Ilesa, Nigeria between January 2001 and December 2006. Data on age at presentation, age at onset of disease, sex and diagnosis were collected and analyzed using SPSS. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS We evaluated the reports of 286 children, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Children aged 11–15 years made up the largest group (p=0.013). Ocular trauma (21.7%), allergic conjunctivitis (17.8%), infections of the eye and its adnexa (15.4%) and refractive errors (14.3%) were the most common conditions. Ocular injury was more common in males (p=0.002) and children aged 6–10 years, and 87.1% of these cases were a closed globe injury. Infections were seen more commonly among females and children aged 0–5 years, with keratitis representing 40.9% of these cases. Congenital eye disease represented 13.3% of childhood eye diseases. CONCLUSION The prevalent childhood eye diseases recorded here can lead to absenteeism from school and are potentially blinding. Health education aimed at the prevention of ocular trauma and prompt presentation for the management of other eye diseases should be encouraged.
Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin Helen; Adeoye, Adenike Odunmorayo
Background Though the major target of the HIV-virus is the immune system, the frequency of abdominal disorders in HIV/AIDS patients has been reported to be second only to pulmonary disease. These abdominal manifestations may be on the increase as the use of antiretroviral therapy has increased life expectancy and improved quality of life. Ultrasonography is an easy to perform, non invasive, inexpensive and safe imaging technique that is invaluable in Africa where AIDS is most prevalent and where sophisticated diagnostic tools are not readily available. Purpose: To describe the findings and evaluate the clinical utility of abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in Ibadan, Nigeria Methods A Prospective evaluation of the abdominal ultrasonography of 391 HIV-positive patients as well as 391 age and sex-matched HIV-negative patients were carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Results Of the 391 cases studied, 260 (66.5%) were females; the mean age was 38.02 years, (range 15–66 years). The disease was most prevalent in the 4th decade with an incidence of 40.4%. Compared with the HIV-negative individuals, the HIV+ group of patients had a significantly higher proportion of splenomegaly (13.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.01), lymphadenopathy (2.0% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.70), and renal abnormalities (8.4% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.02). There were no differences in hepatic and pancreatic abnormalities between the HIV+ and HIV- groups. There were significantly fewer gallstones in the HIV+ group (1.4% vs. 5.1%; p < 0.01). Conclusion AIDS is a multi-systemic disease and its demographic and clinical pattern remains the same globally. Ultrasonography is optimally suited for its clinical management especially in Africa. Its accuracy and sensitivity may be much improved with clinico-pathologic correlation which may not be readily available in developing countries; further studies may provide this much needed diagnostic algorithms.
Obajimi, Millicent O; Atalabi, Mojisola O; Ogbole, Godwin I; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike T; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Adekanmi, Ademola J; Osuagwu, Yvonne U; Olarinoye, Sefiat A; Olusola-Bello, Mojisola A; Ogunseyinde, Ayotunde O; Aken'Ova, Yetunde A; Adewole, Isaac F
Sixteen medicinal plants used for cleaning teeth in southwestern Nigeria were analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. These medicinal plants have other therapeutic uses, but the emphasis and main focus were on their beneficial effects on human teeth. PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova Italy. The results showed the presence of 18 different elements at different concentrations, 2 plants had traces of gold, and none of the plants contained any toxic heavy metals. The metabolic roles of the detected elements were discussed especially as they affected the formation, growth, development, and protection of human teeth. The results of this study are presented and discussed. PMID:17646686
Olabanji, S O; Adesina, S K; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; Moschini, G
We evaluated the temporal variation of microbial biomass C, #-glucosidase, acid phosphomonoesterase (acP), alkaline phosphomonoesterase (alP), and protease activity over 18 consecutive months. The likely causes for the seasonal variability at a non-degraded and a degraded site in south-western Nigeria were identified. Microbial biomass, alP, and #-glucosidase activity were sensitive indicators of soil quality changes over time. Microbial biomass C
Barbara Wick; Ronald F. Kühne; Konrad Vielhauer; Paul L. Vlek
Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207
Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children\\u000a of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools\\u000a were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness
A. I. Ajaiyeoba; M. A. Isawumi; A. O. Adeoye; T. S. Oluleye
Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South-Western Nigeria with their accompanied nursing and pharmacy students. All students in the selected schools were eligible to participate and student's participation was voluntary. The Global Health Professional Students Survey core questionnaire was used to collect data on smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control. The data were summarized using percentages and confidence interval (CI) was calculated using standard error of mean. Pearson's Chi-square and fisher's exact were employed to test the significance. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking was 17.9% (121/675) with (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-20.8). Only 5.04% (34/675) with (95% CI 3.7-7.1) of the respondents were currently smoking. Ever smokers were significantly less likely than non-smokers to indicate that tobacco sales to adolescents should be banned (P < 0.01). Fewer smokers than non-smokers agreed that there should be a complete ban on advertising of tobacco products (P < 0.001). 93.3% of them said that they were taught about danger of smoking but only 48.6% ever heard of using anti-depressant in tobacco cessation program. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence among health professional students in South-West Nigeria is relatively low; however, majority believed that health-care providers serve as role models for their patients and the public.
Awopeju, OF; Erhabor, GE; Awosusi, B; Awopeju, OA; Adewole, OO; Irabor, I
As a result of inadequate veterinary services and indiscriminate slaughter of animals in most Nigerian abattoirs, pregnant animals are often slaughtered resulting in wastage of scarce protein made available to the people. To this end, an evaluation of the volume of pregnant cows slaughtered at some abattoirs in Southwestern Nigeria between 2005 and 2007 based on meat inspection records was carried out with a view to determining the level of fetal wastage in this part of the country. A total of 321,448 cows were slaughtered, out of which, 16,092 (5.01%) were pregnant. The fetal wastages across the four seasons of the study period were statistically significant (P < 0.05); the late dry season showing the highest percentage. There was a downward trend across the years, and this was considerably lower in 2007 than the other 2 years which were not statistically different from each other (X (A2005) = 224.33; X (A2006) = 216.38; X (B2007) = 126.38). Our results indicated a considerable level of slaughtering of pregnant cows in the abattoirs studied. Hence, we advocate stepping up routine veterinary checks and interventions among trade animals in order to salvage the high level of fetal wastage in the region and the country at large. PMID:19821049
Cadmus, Simeon I B; Adesokan, Hezekiah K
The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural patterns were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by a high density of positive (HDP) or a high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of a high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing shows that the borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. The asymmetry of the anomaly was also found to be useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.
Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.; Adesokan, H. A.
The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 meters was carried out in 10 villages in Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatised undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural pattern were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by high density of positive (HDP) or high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing show that borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. Asymmetry of the anomaly was also found useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.
Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.
Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and causes of eye diseases and visual impairment in students in the Ilesa\\u000a East local government area of Osun state, Nigeria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A cross-sectional survey that utilised a multistage random sampling method to select 1,144 primary and secondary school students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results A total of 1,144 students (504 males and 640 females) were
Ayotunde I. Ajaiyeoba; Michaeline A. Isawumi; Adenike O. Adeoye; Tunji S. Oluleye
An unusual supergene manganese enrichment occurs in the Igarra Formation within the schist belt of southwestern Nigeria. The manganese occurs mainly as peanut-size pisolitic grains or spherical concretions in the weathered schistose units within the formation. The mineralogy of the weathered schists consists of irregularly shaped quartz grains of varying sizes embedded in a matrix composed mainly of sheet-silicates, organic materials and heavy minerals (mostly oxides) which have been almost completely replaced by todorokite. The most abundant of these heavy minerals was probably ilnenite (FeTiO 3) which has now been transformed into pseudo-rutile (Fe 2Ti 3O 9) by the leaching of iron. Ore microscopic studies reveal that the concretions have essentially the same mineralogy as the weathered host rock. But in addition, they also contain some plant remains in the form of decomposing cellular tissues which are generally either completely or partly replaced by todorokite which also replaces the surrounding cement. Microprobe analysis of relicts of the original cement indicates that it was initially thuringitic to chamositic in composition, with FeO content of about 38 weight %. Manganese replacement of the cement was at various stages. The final product of the enrichment process contained over 70 % MnO while the FeO value decreased to only about 2 %. The unusual aspect of this enrichment is the reversal in the usual process of separation of manganese from iron. The reversal is explained as resulting from the transportation of the two elements in the supergene solution in the form of organo-metallic complexes. The manganese complex, being less stable than the iron complex, was precipitated around spots defined by relicts of decomposing plant materials whcih formed a geochemical manganese barrier, while the more stable iron complex still remained in solution. Subsequent erosion concentrated the manganese-rich spots into resistant concretions paving the present surface of the area.
Bafor, B. E.; Mücke, A.
Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons and a newly formed submarine canyon have been identified. Seismic reflection parameters of the ancient canyons are characterized by transparent to slightly transparent, continuous to slightly discontinuous, high to moderate amplitude and parallel to sub-parallel reflections. Locally, high amplitude and chaotic reflections were observed. The reflection configurations consist of regular oblique, chaotic oblique, progradational and parallel to sub-parallel types. These seismic reflection characteristics are probably due to variable sedimentation processes within the canyons, which were affected by mass wasting. Canyon morphological features include step-wise and spoon-shaped wall development, deep valley incision, a V-shaped valley, similar orientation in the southeast direction, and simple to complex erosion features in the axial floor. The canyons have a composite origin, caused partly by lowering of the sea level probably associated with the formation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet about 30 Ma ago and partly by complex sedimentary processes. Regional correlation with geological ages using the reflectors show that the canyons cut through the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments while the sedimentary infill of the canyon is predominantly Miocene and younger. Gravity-driven depositional processes, downward excavation by down slope sediment flows, mass wasting from the canyon walls and variation in terrigenous sediment supply have played significant roles in maintaining the canyons. These canyons were probably conduits for sediment transport to deep-waters in the Gulf of Guinea during their period of formation.
Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.
This dissertation investigates the crustal structure in the southwestern United States using different geophysical techniques. Surface wave analysis of paths in the SBR, CP, RGR, SRM and GP were conducted. The Moho of TUC-EPT path in the SBR is estimated at 30 km with upper mantle velocity of 7.85 km/sec. The Moho for the TUC-ALQ path is estimated between 29-34 km with upper mantle velocity of 4.2 km/sec. This path passes through SBR, CP and RGR. The Moho for the GOL-ALQ path in the SRM and RGR is estimated between 40-45 km with upper mantle velocity of 7.9 km/sec. The Moho for ALQ-EPT path in the RGR is estimated between 32-37 km/sec showing thinning in crust toward the south. Crustal structure between EPT-JCT shows a gradual increase in velocity over the crust with the Moho estimated at 39-44 km depth, reflecting mostly the stable craton of the GP. The path between ALQ-LUB shows higher velocities in the lower crust of 4.0 km/sec with the Moho estimated at 37-42 km depth which is similar to EPT-JCT, showing the more stable craton of the GP. Shear wave velocities for the GOL-DAL-LUB path derived from the inversion are 3.2 km/sec for the upper crust (17 km thick), 3.9 km/sec for the lower crust (25 km thick), and 4.1 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Crustal structure for the path LUB-GOL-RCD path derived from the inversion shows a gradual increase of velocity with the Moho estimated at a depth of 42-47 km. Receiver function analysis was conducted for the Lajitas seismic station for all three back azimuths, NW, SE and SW. Moho depth is estimated at 34-36 km with shear wave velocities of 4.2 km/sec in the uppermost mantle for all back azimuths. These results suggest that the RGR extends south, but its effect is minimized compared to the El Paso area. Receiver function results from the ANMO seismic station for all three back azimuths SW, SE and NW show the Moho at a depth of 36 km. Analysis of three seismic lines in southern New Mexico show a Moho depth of 30-32 km with velocity of 7.6--7.7 km/sec Gravity database for the US was complied and bad, duplicate, redundant, erroneous points were removed from the dataset. The database was stored in a relational database and its accessible from http://gis.utep.edu or http://research.utep.edu/paces or http://www.geongrid.org.
Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254
Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B
Background There are currently no reports of a multicentre assessment of the presence of antibodies to Salmonella in donated blood in Nigeria. Materials and methods Blood specimens from blood donors presenting at six selected public blood collection centres in the south-western region of Nigeria were analysed for the presence of Salmonella antibodies. Results Out of the 200 specimen analysed, 106 (53%) were found to be Widal-positive with a minimum titre of 160. Among the positive cases, reactivity was most common to S. typhi (D) antigens (48.6%). The most frequently recorded titre of reactive specimens (i.e., the modal titre) was 160, with 71 donors (35.5%) of the total sample population from the different centres reacting at this level. Thirty-one donors had elevated titres of = 320 and nine donors had a titre of 640. The percentages of Widal-positive cases among donors with A positive and O positive blood groups were 58.7% and 64.2%, respectively; the percentage of Widal-positive cases was lowest among B positive blood donors (26.7%). The p-value for these differences (p<0.05) shows that blood group has a statistically significant impact on Widal reaction in donors. Conclusion. This study confirms that salmonellosis is endemic in Nigeria and that many of our blood donors may be Salmonella carriers. This study also revealed a positive association between blood groups and typhoid fever.
Adias, Teddy C.; Jeremiah, Zaccheaus A.; Ilesanmi, Ayo O.
This study investigates the role of increased atmospheric humidity in occurrences of wet days in the southwestern United States during the monsoon seasons of 1996–2002, using spatiotemporal analyses of ground-measured precipitation, spatial analyses of surface and 700-hPa humidity, and air-parcel trajectory analyses. A precipitation regionalization indicates that the Gila River basin in southern Arizona\\/southwest New Mexico should be divided into
Jeremy E. Diem; David P. Brown
The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ?2?°C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6?°C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483
Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D
Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, infection has been a major problem across the globe with a high socioeconomic burden. Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) is a measure put in place to encourage people to know their HIV status with essential counseling support to help them cope with a positive or a negative test result. This study was carried out to determine the utilization of VCT services, prevalence of HIV among VCT attendees, and the distribution of the viral infection based on gender and age in Ogbomoso, an urban community, southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The health records of patients in Adebayo Alata Primary Health Centre, Ogbomoso South, Nigeria, between 2008 and 2011, were used. Results: A total of 1,490 patients used the VCT services during the period of study, out of which 271 (18.19%) were males and 1,219 (81.81%) were females. A consistent number of people used the VCT service throughout the period of study. HIV infection was higher in females (2.15%) than males (0.54%). The viral infection was more prevalent in people above 14 years of age (2.62%). However, none of these differences observed in gender and age were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It was concluded that HIV infection has neither gender nor age bias. Efforts should be made to increase the provision of VCT services and ensure its continued utilization in an attempt to maintain a healthy social and reproductive health culture, improve maternal and child health in the context of HIV transmission, and improve global child survival.
Akhigbe, Roland E.; Bamidele, James O.
Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them were also less likely to be sexually experienced than those to whom it was acceptable (AOR =0.043, 95% CI =0.016–0.122). Predictors of having multiple sexual partners include the sex of the respondent and the frequency of Internet use, with females (AOR =0.308, 95% CI =0.113–0.843) and those who rarely use the Internet less likely to have multiple sexual partners. Conclusion We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet could negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths.
Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G
The data on tillage methods, mulching and manuring are needed to identify strategies for sustainable management of soils and for improving agronomic productivity. Hence, three field experiments were carried out at two locations in late-season 2004, early 2005 and late-season 2006, respectively, on Alfisol (Oxic Tropuldalf) at Owo in the forest-savanna transition zone of southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects
T. M. Agbede; S. O. Ojeniyi
Background There are few data describing the relative height and weight patterns of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, despite a prevalence of stunting of over 38% among children younger than five years. Aim To document the height and weight patterns relative to international standards among children and adolescents aged 5 to 20 years in rural Nigeria. Subjects and methods Children 5 to 20 years of age were enrolled from two rural villages. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Z-scores and centiles for height and body mass index were calculated; prevalences of low relative height (ie, > 2 standard deviations below mean for age and sex) and weight by sex and age were estimated. Results A total of 623 participants (326 male and 297 female) were enrolled. The mean height-for-age z-score for males younger than 19 years was ?2.1 and prevalence of low relative height was 50%. Among females, the mean height-for-age z-score was ?1.2 during adolescence; only 15% of adolescent females were of low relative height. Based on BMI-for-age, 37% of the adolescent males and 23% of females were underweight. No children or adolescents were overweight based on BMI-for-age. Conclusions Low relative height and underweight occur in a large proportion of children and adolescents in rural Nigeria, with the lowest relative heights and weights occurring in mid-adolescence and among males.
Ayoola, Omolola; Ebersole, Kara; Omotade, Olayemi O.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Brieger, William R.; Salami, Kabiru; Dugas, Lara R.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy
Samples of soils underlying wastes were collected from four sites representing four demographic regions of a medium sized town in southwestern Nigeria. Standard methods and reference strains of isolated bacteria were employed for identification. Evaluation of the enzymatic and biochemical reactions showed that all isolated and identified microbes were non-fermenting heterotrophic (HTB). For example, Klebsiella pnemuniae may be involved in wound infections, particularly following bowel surgery. Similarly Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce serious nosocomial infections if it gains access to the body through wounds or intravenous lines. From the 15 culure plates, 88 colonies with various characteristics were enumerated. They differed in aspect of viscosity and color. The bacterial species were identified by percent positive reactions while oxidative and sugar fermentation tests revealed various characteristics among the isolated strains. All of the isolates were negative for citrate utilization, gelatin liquefaction, nitrate reduction, methyl red and Voges Proskaur, motility and hydrogen sulphate production. The quantity of HTB present in an area serves as an index of the general sanitary conditions of that area. The presence of a large number of HTB, in an ecological area may be considered a liability as it can enhance the spread of diseases and on a larger scale may enable epidemics to arise. Therefore, there is need for control of waste sites by recovery and regular germicidal sanitation. PMID:21387915
Achudume, A C; Olawale, J T
Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS.
Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.
The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195
Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O
This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…
Deji, O. F.
The frequent building collapses in Nigeria have been attributed to a lack of pre-construction investigations, which assist engineers in obtaining in situ geotechnical information. Further, the structural subsurface settings are often ignored or investigation is haphazardly carried out. To address this issue and demonstrate the importance of such a survey, a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired in a part of Southwestern Nigeria. A 200 MHz antenna was used for the data acquisition along four traverses. The data were subjected to standard GPR processing techniques, and attribute analysis such as instantaneous frequency, amplitude and phase. Also, for comparative and engineering characterization purposes, longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy were computed from the VES results and used for determining the competency of the bedrocks. From the GPR results, it was observed that the mapped subsurface is characterized as erosional truncated at a low angle, which is southerly dipping and includes tangential reflections. Further, stratified rocks dipping at an angle of 32° occur between 1.0 and 4.5 m depth in all of the GPR sections; these strata were truncated by topsoil at shallow depths. Also, some of the sections depict ancient channel structures that have a dimension of 70 m × 40 m. The resistivity data suggest that the study area is characterized by four distinct geoelectric sequences. These comprise topsoil which is composed of clay-like sand to lateritic clay whose thickness ranges between 0.25 and 8.12 m, weathered bedrock with a thickness between 3.84 and 12.61 m, stratified bedrock with a thickness between 0.33 and 7.51 m, and fresh bedrock. These results reveal a complex subsurface geology and this characterizes the study area. The area has low to moderate longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy values, which suggest that incompetent to semi-competent bedrock exists beneath the subsurface. A good correlation between the GPR and resistivity derived thicknesses was established.
Adepelumi, A. A.; Fayemi, O.
Preliminary studies: A study of institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria, revealed poor storage facilities and inadequate availability of blood. Focus group discussions highlighted people's fears and misconceptions about blood donations as important factors contributing to the problem. Interventions: Blood facilities were upgraded in the teaching hospital and a secondary institution. Fifteen community mobilization sessions to improve attitudes and stimulate
J. G Ottong; E. E. J Asuquo; N. S Olaniran; F. D Duke; R. P Abia
This study addresses the socio-economic impact of AIDS on rural livelihoods in Benue State, Nigeria, where HIV prevalence is 9.3% but the number of AIDS cases is still relatively low. About 6% of the study households had experienced illness and death classified as AIDS, and reported high costs in terms of expenditures and time spent on care, funerals and mourning.
Thea Hilhorst; Marti van Liere; Adiya V Ode; Korrie de Koning
Background: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be- tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec- tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area.
The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs
Thomas P. Archdeacon; Alison Iles; Jason S. Kline; Scott A. Bonar
A cross-sectional study was conducted in a schistosome-endemic rural community in Southwestern Nigeria. We assessed prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted nematodes and the co-occurrence with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Urine and stool samples from 419 schoolchildren were examined, and a questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics. In total, 78.3% (328/419) were infected with at least one helminth species, with a prevalence (mean egg-count) of 55.1% (3069.2) of Ascaris lumbricoides, 41.1% (127.5) of S. haematobium, 22.7% (98.6) of hookworms, 17.9% (161.3) of Trichuris trichiura, and 10.3% (12.9) of S. mansoni. Multiple infections were significantly more common among children from households with more playmates, absence of toilet facilities and low income level (all p<0.001). Children with heavy hookworm burden were at a significantly higher chance of acquiring S. mansoni (OR=36.35; 95% Cl: 13.22-100.97; p<0.0001). The risk of S. mansoni and A. lumbricoides infections was increased in co-infections with S. haematobium. Logistic regression analysis revealed infections by hookworms and S. mansoni (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.90, 95% Cl: 2.03-7.46; p<0.0001), and by hookworms and T. trichiura (aOR=2.46, 95% Cl: 1.44-4.22; p=0.001) as significant risk factors for multiple infections. Our study shows that polyparasitism is common in the study area. Focused interventions such as mass treatment with anthelminthics and health education are needed to improve the well-being of the affected population. PMID:22440198
Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Danladi, Y K; Heukelbach, J; Ofoezie, I E
Hantaviruses are parasites of small mammals, predominantly peridomestic and commensal rodents. They have a worldwide distribution. Hantavirus-related illness occurs in rural areas where humans come into contact with rodents. In most cases human infection is manifested by one of a variety of acute illnesses involving hemorrhagic fever and renal disease. In May 1993, a cluster of patients with an acute pulmonary disease with high mortality was noted in the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. Serologic and genetic studies indicated that the etiologic agent was a novel hantavirus. The uncertainty engendered by the emergence of a new disease with high mortality forced a rapid response by state and federal agencies and by the University of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque, where most patients from this region were referred. Considerable progress has been made in identifying infected cases on clinical and laboratory grounds and in ensuring that appropriate supportive care is made available to patients as soon as they are suspected of having hantaviral infection. Cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome--both new and retrospectively diagnosed--are still being recognized throughout the western United States. Many important questions remain unanswered. Images
Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Mertz, G; Koster, F; Foucar, K
Nigeria, like most African nations, is basically conservative, but the young people are becoming more sexually liberated, and the incidence of STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and abortions among these young people is on the increase. The use of barrier contraception (BC), which is a cost-effective method of preventing STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and its attending complications, has therefore become an important issue in reproductive health. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among first year students of Osun State University, Nigeria. Four hundred respondents were studied using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were selected by balloting. Most respondents (93%) had heard about the male condom as a method of barrier contraception. Most respondents (79.1%) supported the use of barrier contraceptives, but many (62.5%) thought it would promote sexual promiscuity, 33.4% believed that the use of barrier contraception reflected a lack of trust from the partner, and 38.7% felt barrier contraception is not necessary with a stable partner. One hundred and sixty one (40.5%) had used a form of barrier contraception before, but only 130 (32.7%) are currently using BC. The male condom was the most commonly used method (88.2%), followed by female condom and diaphragm (5.6% respectively). The prevention of STI and unwanted pregnancies were the main reasons (59%) given by respondents for using BC, while religion was the main reason given by non-users. The attitudes of these students toward barrier contraception and their practice were poor. The role of sex education at homes and religious gatherings cannot be over-emphasized. PMID:21061934
Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O; Adeomi, Adeleye A
A detailed statistical analysis of the morphometry of channel bends along the low-energy River Elemi in southwestern Nigeria confirms the inherent tendency in rivers to develop sinuous channels with asymmetrical bends and compound loops. However, the channel bends differ in many respects from those widely reported in the literature. First, the parameters have low values because of the characteristic low energy to resistance ratio of the intermittent streams. Second, cross-sectional and planform properties vary downstream in a non-systematic manner, owing to the greater effectiveness of site-specific rather than areal factors in controlling the morphology of channel bends in the area. Third, the interrelations of bend properties are extremely weak, and the patterns of correlations also are different. All these findings indicate that the channel bends of the River Elemi are neither true meanders nor equilibrium forms. It is doubtful, therefore, if the observed relations are of any use in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.
Ebisemiju, Fola S.
This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…
Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu
Uncontrolled deposition of waste from animal farms is a common practice in south-western Nigeria, and the presence of heavy metals in soil constitutes environmental and health hazards by polluting the soil, ground water, adjoining streams and rivers. The study investigated the profile distribution of Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cr in some tropical Alfisols in south-western Nigeria after nine years disposal of animal wastes. The amount of these metals in the soil horizons was high enough to cause health and phytotoxic risks. All the metals except Zn and Cr increased down the profile, while Mn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Ni accumulated at 80-120 cm depth. The increment of these metals at this depth over the top soil were 26%, 143%, 72%, 47%, 328% for Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni, respectively. It thus, shows their mobility and the possibility of polluting ground water. The Mn content at the poultry and cattle waste sites increased by 127% and 25%, respectively over the control, while that of cattle and swine dump site for Cd content were 9.82 and 15.63 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead content also increased by 8.52 and 5.25 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was the accumulation of Zn and Cu at the swine dump site while the cattle dump site had the highest amounts of nickel and chromium. The least amount of Fe was recorded at the swine waste dump site. The reduction in organic matter with depths together with the reduced pH might have favored the mobility of the metals. The ranking of pollution among the sites was poultry>swine>cattle>sheep and could be due to the type of ration fed, the vaccination programmes, sanitation programmes and other management practices. PMID:19525105
Azeez, J O; Adekunle, I O; Atiku, O O; Akande, K B; Jamiu-Azeez, S O
As part of efforts aimed at providing an adequate data base for the control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) in Nigeria, we undertook an extensive goitre survey of Ifedapo Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, which lies within the goitre-belt of South-western Nigeria. Primary school pupils aged between six and twelve years were the subjects of the survey. From each of ten health districts of the LGA, one primary school was included in the survey. For each school, the entire school population was assessed for goitre by palpation and goitre graded according to WHO/ICCIDD criteria. The survey included 3599 pupils (1889 males and 1710 females). The total goitre rate (TGR) for the LGA was 23.4% while the visible goitre rate (VGR) was 6.4%. The highest goitre rate was recorded in District I (Sango, Saki) TGR = 39.5%; VGR = 17.3%), while the lowest rate was seen in District 4 (Wasengare) TGR = 5.2%; VGR = 0.7%). Females had higher goitre rates than males (TGR: 25.7% vs 21.3%; VGR: 7.5% vs 5.5%). Most of the goitres were Grades IA (36.7%) or IB (35.7%). Goitre grades 2 and 3 accounted for only 27.3% and 0.2%, respectively. These results show that there is a mild to moderate IDD problem in Ifedapo LGA. The implications of this finding, in view of the known deleterious consequences of IDD, are discussed and the need for correction highlighted. PMID:10456136
Ojule, A C; Abbiyesuku, F M; Osotimehin, B O
This dissertation consists of two separate lines of research. The first uses the receiver function technique to estimate crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio for three receiver stations in the southwestern United States. One station is located in El Paso because relatively few geophysical experiments have been conducted in the southern Rio Grande rift. Two stations are located on the Colorado Plateau, in an attempt to resolve an ongoing dispute concerning the crustal thickness of this province. The results of the receiver functions studies are used as additional constraints for gravity models along two regional profiles coincident with the much shorter profiles of the Pacific to Arizona Crustal Experiment (PACE) that was led by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Colorado Plateau. Because the profiles extend into adjacent provinces, these models are balanced for isostatic equilibrium and are consistent with elevations predicted by buoyancy calculations. The results are most consistent with a thick (?50 km) crust for the Colorado Plateau and do not support the presence of large lateral thickness variations within the plateau. The second line of research presented also derives Poisson's ratio, in this case from seismic refraction data. The results are used to interpret a structural cross-section in southwest Washington State and to shed light on a feature of low resistivity (1--5 Om) located in the High Cascades (the Southern Washington Cascades Conductor or SWCC). This feature is delineated by the interpretation of magnetotelluric and seismic reflection profiles and has been interpreted to be largely composed of Lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks. Both lines of research estimate Poisson's ratio using dissimilar techniques, but have produced results consistent with one another. Poisson's ratio for quartz-rich rocks (such as sandstones and granites) generally lies between 0.23 and 0.26, as exemplified by the upper crust of the Rio Grande rift, and by sedimentary rocks in southwest Washington. In comparison quartz-poor rocks generally exhibit Poisson's ratios between 0.28 and 0.32, typical of the lower crust and the many basaltic formations that comprise the upper crust in southwest Washington. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Kilbride, Fiona Elizabeth Anne
This manuscript has been prepared after careful study and a visit into the territory concerned. There have been many Spanish speaking foreigners, largely from Mexico, in the United States in recent years. They are sufficiently numerous, however, in our five Southwestern States to constitute a rather serious school problem. Enough of the social and…
This study is to determine whether design improvement and further study is required to improve the conditions in Nigeria tertiary institutions. The supplied standard government issued furniture was measured and anthropometrics measurements data were collected from 720 students of three randomly selected tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, covering the age group of between 17 and 27 years. The
Adekunle Ibrahim Musa; Salami Olasunkanmi Ismaila
A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper. PMID:4545318
Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Lee, V H; Stroh, G; Kuteyi, K; Smith, E A
A focal epidemic of yellow fever occurred in late 1970 in southern Benue Plateau State, Nigeria, 1 year after a much larger outbreak in northern Nigeria. Like its predecessor, the 1970 epidemic was associated with virus transmission by wild-breeding Stegomyia mosquitos. Epidemiological data on the outbreak are reported in this paper.
Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Lee, V. H.; Stroh, G.; Kuteyi, K.; Smith, E. A.
Secondary calcium carbonate of diverse origins, 'caliche' of many authors, is widespread in the southwestern United States. 'Caliche' includes various carbonates such as calcic soils and products of groundwater cementation. The term 'caliche' is generally avoided in this report in favor of such terms as calcrete, calcic soils, and pervasively cemented deposits. Criteria for the recognition of various types of calcrete of diverse origins include field relations and laboratory data. Calcic soils provide a comprehensive set of characteristics that aid in their recognition in the field. These characteristics include a distinctive morphology that is zoned horizontally and can frequently be traced over tens to hundreds of square kilometers. The major process in the formation of pedogenic calcrete and calic soils is the leaching of calcium carbonate from upper soil horizons by downward percolating soil solutions and reprecipitation of the carbonate in alluvial horizons near the base of the soil profile. The formation of pedogenic calcrete involves many factors including climate, source of carbonate, and tectonic stability of the geomorphic surface on which the calcrete is deposited. Most of the carbonate in pedogenic calcrete is probably derived from windblown sand, dust, and rain. Calcic soils and pedogenic calcretes follow a six-stage sequence morphologic development and is based on a classification devised by Gile, Peterson and Grossman in 1966. The .six morphologic stages of carbonate deposition in soils are related to the relative age of the soil and are as follows: I. The first or youngest stage includes filamentous or faint coatings of carbonate on detrital grains. II. The second stage includes pebble coatings which are continuous; firm carbonate nodules are few to common. III. The third stage includes coalesced nodules which occur in a friable or disseminated carbonate matrix. IV. The fourth stage includes platy, firmly cemented matrix which engulfs nodules; horizon is plugged to downward moving solutions. V. The fifth stage includes soils which are platy to tabular, dense, strongly cemented. A well-developed laminar layer occurs on the upper surface. VI. The sixth and most advanced stage is massive, multilaminar, and strongly cemented calcrete with abundant pisoliths, the upper surface of which may be brecciated. Pisoliths may indicate many generations of brecciation and reformation. In general calcic soils include stages I through III and are friable to moderately indurated; whereas pedogenic calcretes include stages IV through VI and are dense and strongly indurated. In a single pedon the morphologic stage of carbonate deposition decreases downward in the profile. The stage of development may be used in local regions for correlation and determination of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces. Some structures observed in pedogenic calcretes may be present in other types of calcrete but the horizontal zonation typical of deposits of soil processes is absent. Laminar structure in particular is not restricted to pedogenic deposits and is common in many varieties of calcrete. Very little chemical change occurs in the noncalcareous nonclayey fractions of calcretes with age; but clay minerals within calcretes undergo a complex history of authigenesis. There is a depletion of magnesium in the calcareous portion and an enrichment of magnesium in the clayey portion of a calcrete with age. In keeping with this relationship, montmorillonite, or mixed layer montmorillonite-illite, is common in younger calcretes; whereas the high magnesium-silicate clays, sepiolite and palygorskite, are common in older calcretes. This indicates that the magnesium depleted from the carbonate is redistributed authigenically in clay minerals. The mobility of carbonate introduces many problems in attempts to date calcretes directly. Although the relative ages of soils within a province may be determined by quant
Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.
Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state’s common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources.
McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E
Background: Belonging to a social network group may influence a person's decisions to engage in desired behavior. Aim: The objective of our study was to determine factors associated with utilization of psychosocial group services among people living with human immunodeficiency virus acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHAs) in a Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Southwestern Nigeria. Settings and Design: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. All consenting PLHAs who attended the anti-retroviral clinic (ART) clinic during the study period were recruited into the study. Materials and Methods: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect relevant information and a total of 205 PLWHAs were interviewed. Statistical Analysis Used: The data analysis focused on univariate frequency table and bivariate cross tabulations that identify important relationships between the variables. Odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence level (CI) and Chi-squared and t-tests were also computed. Results: The overall point utilization of psychosocial services among the PLWHAs was 23.4%. Utilization of psychosocial services was statistically significantly associated with religion (?2 = 11.74, P = 0.003), disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus status (?2 = 9.18, P = 0.01) and satisfactory self-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) (?2 = 5.67, P = 0.017) while sex (?2 = 0.02, P = 0.96), education (?2 = 4.67, P = 0.32) tribe (?2 = 1.46, P = 0.48) adherence to ART drugs (?2 = 0.44, P = 0.51), mental health status (?2 = 0.64, P = 0.42) and occupation (?2 = 3.61, P = 0.61) were not. The only predictor of utilization of psychosocial group services was religion (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.23-0.84). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of the psychosocial networks group in improving the overall HRQOL of the PLWHAs.
Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of hypertensives may be influenced by blood pressure, adverse effects of drugs used to treat hypertension, or other factors, such as the labelling effect, or beliefs and attitudes about illness and treatment. There is paucity of information on the determinants of HRQOL among black hypertensives especially in the developing countries such as Nigeria.
Michael O Ogunlana; Babatunde Adedokun; Magbagbeola D Dairo; Nse A Odunaiya
The frequent building collapses in Nigeria have been attributed to a lack of pre-construction investigations, which assist engineers in obtaining in situ geotechnical information. Further, the structural subsurface settings are often ignored or investigation is haphazardly carried out. To address this issue and demonstrate the importance of such a survey, a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vertical electrical
A A Adepelumi; O Fayemi
Despite the endemicity of brucellosis in Nigeria, reports on equine brucellosis are rare. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used to determine the serologic prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies amongst 75 horses from three stables in two States of northern Nigeria. The highest prevalence (22.7%) was recorded in stable C located in Plateau State and the lowest (6.7%) was found in stable B in Kaduna State. The overall prevalence determined was 14.7%. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Nigeria to safeguard people at high risk.
EHIZIBOLO, David O.; GUSI, Amahyel M.; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; MBUK, Elsie U.; OCHOLI, Reuben A.
Despite the endemicity of brucellosis in Nigeria, reports on equine brucellosis are rare. The Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) was used to determine the serologic prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies amongst 75 horses from three stables in two States of northern Nigeria. The highest prevalence (22.7%) was recorded in stable C located in Plateau State and the lowest (6.7%) was found in stable B in Kaduna State. The overall prevalence determined was 14.7%. There is need for the inclusion of horses in brucellosis surveillance and control strategies in Nigeria to safeguard people at high risk. PMID:24833983
Ehizibolo, David O; Gusi, Amahyel M; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Mbuk, Elsie U; Ocholi, Reuben A
Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect
MARITH C. REHEIS; JAMES R. BUDAHN; PAUL J. LAMOTHE
The Younger Dryas was one of the more dramatic climatic transitions ever recorded. How these types of climatic shifts are expressed in continental interiors is of primary scientific interest and of vital societal concern. Here we present a speleothem-based ab- solutely dated record (using uranium-series data) of climate change for the southwestern United States from growth chronology of multiple speleothems.
Victor J. Polyak; Jessica B. T. Rasmussen; Yemane Asmerom
The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed.
With the current population of Nigeria and the limited number of trained health care providers, PMVs are inevitable and highly needed especially in the rural areas for the supply of drugs in treating minor illnesses. Thus, pharmacovigilance (PVG) activity in Nigeria cannot exclude the roles of PMVs; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the knowledge of PMVs on PVG and adverse drug reaction reporting system. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of the knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting system of 96 PMVs in Ekiti state, Nigeria before the National Pharmacovigilance training in February, 2011 and after the training. The data obtained before the training showed that more than 87% of the respondents had at least secondary level of education. About half of the respondents (58.5%) knew the correct meaning of PVG and 56.6% knew how to report ADRs. But only about one third of them (35.8%) knew where to obtain ADR forms. Very few respondents 3 (5.7%) had received report/complaints of ADR from patients in the last 1 month while just 2 (3.8%) of them reported. The most commonly mentioned factors/reasons for poor reporting of ADRs/compliance with PVG guideline by the respondents were fears of indictment (61.3%), poor public knowledge (88.7%), and poor training on PMVs (92.5%). However, the results after the training showed a statistically significant (p ? 0.005) improvement in the proportion of respondents who were aware of PVG (from 55.8% to 89.1%), those who knew the meaning of PVG (from 49.0% to 61.7%), where to obtain ADR form (28.3% to 92.1%) and those who knew how to report ADRs (44.2% to 88.0%). PMVs are ready to practice PVG if they are properly trained. Training has been revealed to play a significant role in the knowledge of the concept of PVG amongst PMVs. It is therefore recommended that National Pharmacovigilance Centre should continue to organize periodic trainings for PMVs especially those with poor knowledge on PVG. PMID:22751188
Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Awodele, Deborah F
In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ? 2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ? 7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ? 18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715
Williams, A Park; Allen, Craig D; Millar, Constance I; Swetnam, Thomas W; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J; Leavitt, Steven W
In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ?2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ?7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ?18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.
Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, Constance I.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J.; Leavitt, Steven W.
Problem statement In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. Approach Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. Results Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). Conclusion/Recommendations The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses.
Fuller, Amy C.; Harhay, Michael O.
Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV,
M. J. Evans; M. Fayek; L. Riciputi; L. Anovitz; S. Hull; F. J. Mathien; H. Milford
Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch
Ellis Quinn Margolis
This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built â lghook=`` up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town - another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market.
Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.
Several climatic changes occurred in the northern Chihuahuan Desert and other parts of the south-west United States during the last 12,000 years leading to a markedly warmer and drier climate. Vegetation changed in response to this climatic shift. Generally, this transition was from coniferous woodland to grasslands and eventually to the present day desert scrub. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of this region
Ed Fredrickson; Kris. M. Havstad; Rick Estell; Paul Hyder
Ijebu-Ode and its environs in southwestern Nigeria is located within a geological transition zone from the Precambrian migmatite gneiss rocks and Cretaceous sedimentary rock units of Abeokuta Group. Unique geological structures, complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between the basement and sedimentary rocks typifies tectonic events that accompany crustal thinning and downwarping at the basement/sedimentary-basin edge. This has posed serious geological decision challenges especially since it is difficult to characterize the area either as sedimentary or crystalline terrain. High Resolution Aeromagnetic (HRAM) data were collected, the data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages and subsequently employed to generate model of the subsurface basement topography. The magnetic intensity distribution in the field ranged from -120 to +80 nT and was found to depend on the size, depth of burial and the thickness of low susceptibility superficial material overlying the magnetite rich crystalline rocks. High magnetic intensity characterized the crystalline basement rocks while lower values distinguished the sedimentary terrain. The average radial power analysis delineated shallow and relatively deep sources as the two distinct types of magnetic anomalies. The radial signal analysis defined four crystalline rock exposures and a sediment filled basin. Euler deconvolution indicated depth range from -80 to +30 m for sources located below and above the reference datum, respectively. Euler result also showed that the depth to magnetic sources is heterogeneous and highly erratic around the transition zone, ranging between -25 and +12 m. This study identified rugged and undulating basement topography around the contact zone; it also identified outliers of crystalline rocks within the sedimentary terrain as well as delineated the lateral and basal contacts between the two coexisting rock types. High resolution aeromagnetic mapping of basement sedimentary transition zone around Ijebu-Ode has proved very efficient in revealing the nature of the basement topography which provides vital information for geological decisions necessary before drilling and some engineering constructions.;
Osinowo, O.; Olayinka, A. I.
The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes. PMID:21413512
Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A
Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.
Oke, I.A. [Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This dissertation is comprised of an introductory chapter (1) and four subsequent chapters (2, 3, 4, and 5) which concentrate on the evolution of Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern United States. Chapter 2 utilizes gravity and magnetic geophysical techniques to delineate subsurface occurrences of Mesoproterozoic Unkar and Neoproterozoic Chuar Group rocks in northern Arizona and southern Utah. These rocks were delineated using gravity and aeromagnetic data, in combination with gravity profile modeling, seismic velocity analysis, geologic cross-sections, analysis of surface geologic structures, and analysis of drilling data. Delineation of Proterozoic extensional trends within this region provides insights in to Proterozoic paleogeography along the southwestern margin of Laurentia. Chapter 3 focuses on the geologic mapping and areal distribution of the Mesoproterozoic Apache Group, Troy Quartzite and diabase in central Arizona. Landsat TM imagery was used in combination with existing geologic maps of the region to define the areal distribution of these units. Results were used to construct a regional-scale photo-geologic map of exposed Middle Proterozoic rocks. Chapter 4 introduces a sequence stratigraphic model for siliciclastic rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Lanoria Formation of the Franklin Mountains, Texas, comprised of 700+ m of marine shelf and marginal marine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. It is divided into six members (L1 through L6). Four facies associations are identified: proximal, distal shelf; tidal flat; incised valley; and, estuarine/deltaic. Six stratigraphic sequences have been interpreted. Sequences LS1, LS2, LS4 and LS6 represent marine shelf deposits. Sequence LS3 comprises incised valley fill and overlying tidal flat deposits. Sequence LS5 comprises incised valley fill overlain by estuarine/deltaic sediments. Sequences, facies, and paleocurrents suggest a northward sloping platform, indicating a southern source. Tidal processes dominated on proximal portions, while storm processes dominated on distal portions. Chapter 5 of this manuscript presents a hypothesis for the Proterozoic tectonic evolution of southwestern Laurentia during the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. Recent tectonic models of Grenville-age rocks along this margin document arc-continent and continent-continent collision ca. 1150--1120 Ma. Current interpretations, however, do not take into account the prior, and coeval tectonic history of Proterozoic rocks of southwestern regions of Laurentia that currently comprise the southwestern United States.
Seeley, John Martin
This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…
Adeyemi, T. O.
The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…
Ojugo, Augustine I.
This paper examined principals' management of conflicts in public secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a descriptive survey, the study population comprised all the 281 public secondary schools in the State. Out of this population, a sample of 80 schools was drawn while 340 respondents (80 principals and 260 teachers) were selected through…
Adeyemi, T. O.
A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management
S. E Atawodi; D. A Ameh; S Ibrahim; J. N Andrew; H. C Nzelibe; E. O Onyike; K. M Anigo; E. A Abu; D. B James; G. C Njoku; A. B Sallau
This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…
Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.
This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…
Adeyemi, T. O.
Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that become pathogenic when they colonize niches where they are not normally found. Of recent, they have become major cause of nosocomial infections, especially of the bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical sites. The aim of this study is to determine the point-prevalence rate of human enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in Osogbo, Nigeria. The study was conducted between January and June 2009 in two primary-care hospitals in Osogbo and involved a total of 118 patients who developed clinical evidence of infection at least 48 hours after hospital admission. Appropriate clinical samples were collected from the patients after an informed consent and cultured for isolation/biochemical identification of Enterococcus species at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo using standard microbiological methods. There were 525 hospital admissions within the time frame of the study of which 118 (22.5%) developed hospital acquired infection (HAI); 58 (49.2%) of which cultured positive for bacterial pathogens. Enterococci were isolated from infective focus in 7 patients, giving a prevalence rate of hospital-acquired enterococci infection of 5.9%. Two species of Enterococcus were identified; Enterococcus faecalis from urinary tract infection (UTI) and surgical site infection (SSI) of 6 (85.7%) patients and Enterococcus faecium from UTI in 1 (14.3%) patient. Other bacteria recovered from other infective foci were Klebsiella spp 31.0%, Pseudomonas spp 20.7%, Staphylococcus aureus 17.2%, Escherichia coli 12.1%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.7% and Serratia spp 1.7%. All the enterococci isolates were multiply antibiotic resistant, and 42.9% were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) with the VRE strains showing resistance to wider range of antibiotics than the vancomycin-sensitive strains. Other Gram-positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates also demonstrated multiple resistance to all commonly available antibiotics in this community except E. coli and Pseudomonas spp which were relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. This limited study demonstrated a high prevalence rate of multiple antibiotic resistant enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in this environment. There is need for systematic surveillance of hospitals for enterococci infections; prudent use and rational prescription of antibiotics and stringent measures to reduce the prevalence rate by health education on infection control measures such as isolation, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization. PMID:23878706
Olawale, Kafayat Olayinka; Fadiora, Solomon Olufemi; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday
Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an important non-invasive cardiac examination that provides structural and functional information. It is useful in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and often guides the management and follow-up of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The study aimed to present an audit of the echocardiograms performed in an urban private hospital over a two-year period in order to define the pattern of cardiac diseases in our center. Echocardiogram reports of 168 consecutive patients performed between May 2011 and April 2013 at an organized private sector hospital in Lagos, south-west Nigeria were reviewed. Studies were performed with a Toshiba Nemio XG ultrasound machine. The data obtained were analyzed for mean age, sex, clinical indications, and echocardiographic diagnosis in the study subjects. A total of 168 echocardiography reports were examined, comprising of 92 males (54.8%) and 76 females (45.2%). The age range of the subjects was 10–76 years (mean 42.5 ± 12.1 years). The commonest indication for echocardiography was systemic hypertension and hypertension related causes (38.1%), followed by abnormal resting electrocardiogram (14.9%). Routine annual medical screening was the next most common indication, representing 13.1% of the indications for echocardiography. The other indications are as presented in Table 1. The echocardiogram was normal in 64.3% of the subjects. The commonest abnormality detected was hypertensive heart disease (HHD); accounting for 9.6% of the subjects studied. Isolated atrial enlargement (left, right, or bi-atrial) was the next most common abnormality accounting for 6% of the echocardiographic diagnosis. Pulmonary hypertension was the next most common diagnosis accounting for 4.8% of our findings. The other echocardiographic diagnoses are as listed in Table 2. Hypertension represents the commonest indication for echocardiography. Normal echocardiogram was the commonest echocardiographic finding while HHD was the commonest echocardiographic abnormality. The prevalence of ischemic heart disease by echocardiography was 2.4%. There was no case of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) was 1.2%. Ease of access to echocardiography may influence the findings in an echocardiographic audit and policy makers should incorporate appropriateness criteria into their guidelines for reimbursement.
Oyedeji, Adebayo T.; Akintunde, Adeseye A.; Owojori, Olukolade O.; Peter, Johnson O.
A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria.
Ayanru, J. O.
Background Primary open angle glaucoma is reported to blind 150,000 people in the Nigerian population and over 7000 in Rivers State, and requires constant follow-up. Compliance is a challenge, given that most inhabitants live below the poverty line. This study was performed to determine how Nigerian patients are affected economically by the disease. Methods Consecutive adult patients attending the eye clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria, with a diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma and on outpatient antiglaucoma treatment in the first 6 months of 2006, were recruited for the study. The lowest paid government worker was on USD50 (N7500.00) per month and the gross domestic product per capita was USD1150 for the period under review. Results We enrolled 120 consecutive patients of mean age 52.7 ± 10.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:3. The most common occupations were in the civil service (n = 56, 46.7%). All participants were on topical antiglaucoma treatment. The average cost of medical antiglaucoma medication was N6000 (USD40) per month. Computed to include indirect costs, including medical laboratory tests, transportation, and care by patient escorts, an average sum of USD105.4 (N15,810) was spent by each patient per month. Most of the patients (73.3%) were responsible for their own treatment costs. No patient accepted the cheaper option of surgery (USD275.4, N41,310). Eighty of the patients (66.7%) visited our eye clinic monthly. Direct and indirect loss to the economy was USD3,064587 per annum from those already blind. This was in addition to the USD 4.1 million being spent yearly on medical treatment by those who were visually impaired by glaucoma. Conclusion Middle-income earners spent over 50% of their monthly income and low-income earners spend all their monthly earnings on treatment for glaucoma. This situation often resulted in noncompliance with treatment and hospital follow-up visits. To reduce the economic burden of glaucoma, trabeculectomy performed by experienced surgeons should be offered as first-line treatment for glaucoma in this country, rather than medical therapy.
Adio, Adedayo O; Onua, Alfred A
In 1997 a research program began using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD-FR) spectroradiometer to collect ground based in situ radiance/reflectance measurements from vegetation communities typical of semiarid/arid rangelands of southwestern United States. Measurements were made after the spring (April-May) and fall (September-October) rainy seasons each year. Measurements were made on a 30-m grid at 5-m intervals in vegetation ecosystems typical (grass, grass/shrub transition, shrub) of the region. The 49 measurements were averaged for each 30-m grid site. Reflectance was in general, shrub > grass/shrub transition > grass community, and was related to the total vegetation cover (LAI). Both seasonal and annual variations were measured during the 12 year study period. These variations have implications for the water and energy budgets in this region of the southwestern United States where shrub communities with low ground cover are invading and replacing grass communities. This research is part of a larger study where reflectance from ground (ASD), aircraft (MASTERS), and satellite (ASTER and Landsat) data are being compared. These data provide unique opportunities to study changing rangeland communities using remote sensing techniques.
Ritchie, J. C.; Rango, A.; Schmugge, T. J.
As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations&maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.
Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO
The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using same-date Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) data for comparison with the MSS results. The change-detection procedure includes multitemporal image calibration using a hybrid method that we developed for the project; the hybrid calibration allows a radiometric calibration to be applied to historical data by using field-radiance information rather than a modeling procedure. The results indicate that a calibrated visible band is more sensitive than the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting vegetation changes in the arid and semi-arid environments of the southwestern United States. Changes were detected in the desert environment, where the vegetation density is relatively low, with both Landsat MSS and GOES VISSR images. Some changes detected by the automatic procedure were confirmed in the field during two of the Landsat overpasses. The changes corresponded mostly to the blooming of ephemeral or annual vegetation.
Chavez, P.S.; Mackinnon, D.J. [Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)
BACKGROUND: The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of
Uwem F Ekpo; Chiedu F Mafiana; Clement O Adeofun; Adewale RT Solarin; Adewumi B Idowu
The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…
Alufohai, G. O.
This study investigated the achievement of pupils in the public and private primary schools in mathematics and science. The descriptive survey research design was employed to carry out this study. Four hundred and eighty (480) pupils from thirty primary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria were randomly selected for this study. From the results of this…
Olatoye, R. Ademola; Agbatogun, A. Olajumoke
Describes results of a survey of human and veterinary medical scientists in Borno State (Nigeria) that was conducted to determine their information-seeking behavior and to examine sources of information used. Problems in information gathering are discussed, including lack of relevant sources, and suggestions for improvements in information…
Nweke, Ken M. C.
Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)
This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…
Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome
The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The…
A survey was carried out on the distribution of ringworm infections among school children in four primary schools in Jos, Plateau State of Nigeria. Out of a total population of 6 987, 237 (3.4%) were found to be infected by this disease. There was a high incidence of both scalp and foot ringworms among the infected children. Fourteen species of
C. I. C. Ogbonna; R. O. Robinson; J. M. Abubakar
This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…
Odebode, Stella O.
Soils samples were collected from selected automobile workshops in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria, at the depths of 0 - 15cm, 15 - 30cm and 30 - 45cm representing top,- sub- and bottom soils respectively and also from control site and 20m away from the point of impact. The soils were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels. The
Osakwe Stephen Anapuwa
Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract
E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili
This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…
Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly
The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…
Arubayi, D. O.
This study reports an ethnobotanical survey by means of semi-structured questionnaire of medicinal plants in five districts of Lagos State of Nigeria reputed for the treatment of diabetes. 100 respondents from the predominantly Yoruba tribe mostly males (76%) were knowledgeable in traditional treatment of diabetes. About half of the respondents with 20–30 years experience in treating diabetes used mainly herbs
Adebayo A. Gbolade
The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…
Osagie, Roseline O.
Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin.
Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.
The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.
Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.
This study investigates the hydrocarbon and toxic metal contents of the bitumen-impacted soil, sediment and water samples\\u000a within the Ogun block aspect of Nigerian bitumen belt. The aim was to determine the level of induced pollution on the immediate\\u000a environments directly under the influence of the oil tar seepage. The results indicate exceptionally high concentration of\\u000a both total hydrocarbon and
Adewole Michael Gbadebo
A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total suspended particulates were estimated using automatic air monitors. The noise levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels obtained for the air pollution indicators in Lagos were CO- 232 ppm at Idumota; SO2- 2.9 ppm at Idumota; NO2- 1.5 ppm at Iyana-Ipaja bus stop; total suspended particulates- 852 cpm at Oshodi bus stop. At Ibadan, the CO and SO2 levels at 271 and 1.4 ppm were, respectively highest at Mokola round about while NO2 at 1.0 ppm was highest at Bere round about. In Ado-Ekiti, the highest levels obtained were CO- 317 ppm at Oke Isha, NO2- 0.6 ppm at Ijigbo junction and SO2- 0.8 ppm at Old garage junction. The recorded noise levels were 112.8 dB at Oshodi bus stop in Lagos, 120 dB at Iwo road in Ibadan and 115 dB at Old Garage junction, Ado-Ekiti. The Federal Ministry of Environment National Standards for these air pollutant indicators are CO, 10-20 ppm; SO2, 0.01-0.1 ppm; NO2, 0.04-0.6 ppm and total suspended particulates, 250 mg dm-3. The noise level is restricted to 90 db. The blood samples of people at these high trafficked locations such as the commercial drivers, conductors, street traders and road traffic wardens were also analysed for Lead content with a resultant high Pb concentration. Responses to interviews indicate that these people suffer from air pollution related diseases such as headaches, loss of vision, anaemia, forgetfulness and fatigue than those from the control locations.
Osuntogun, B. A.; Koku, C. A.
This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70. PMID:24880626
Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O
The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process.
Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.
The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495
Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M
Molecular methodologies were used to investigate fungal assemblages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) from arid lands in the southwestern United States. Fungal diversity of BSCs was assessed in a broad survey that included the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts as well as the Colorado Plateau. At selected sites samples were collected along kilometer-scale transects, and fungal community diversity and composition were assessed based on community rRNA gene fingerprinting using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Individual phylotypes were characterized through band sequencing. The results indicate that a considerable diversity of fungi is present within crusted soils, with higher diversity being recovered from more successionally mature BSCs. The overwhelming majority of crust fungi belong to the Ascomycota, with the Pleosporales being widespread and frequently dominant. Beta diversity patterns of phylotypes putatively representing dominant members of BSC fungal communities suggest that these assemblages are specific to their respective geographic regions of origin. PMID:22123652
Bates, Scott T; Nash, Thomas H; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran
The purpose of this study was to extend our knowledge of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the arenavirus(es) associated with Neotoma species (woodrats) in the southwestern United States. Infectious arenavirus was recovered from 14 (3.3%) of 425 woodrats. The virus-positive species included N. albigula in New Mexico and Oklahoma, N. cinerea in Utah, N. mexicana in New Mexico and Utah, and N. micropus in Texas. Analyses of viral nucleocapsid protein gene sequence data indicated that all the isolates were strains of the Whitewater Arroyo virus, an arenavirus previously known only from northwestern New Mexico. Analyses of the sequence data also indicated that there can be substantial genetic diversity among strains of Whitewater Arroyo virus from conspecific woodrats collected from different localities and substantial genetic diversity among strains from different woodrat species collected from the same locality.
Fulhorst, C. F.; Charrel, R. N.; Weaver, S. C.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Bradley, R. D.; Milazzo, M. L.; Tesh, R. B.; Bowen, M. D.
Caledonian basement of the Svalbard Archipelago is divisible into three provinces, namely Northeastern, Northwestern and Southwestern. The latter is recently a matter of lively debate, since new evidence for Tonian magmatism (Grenville-Sweconorwegian) and late Neoproterozoic metamorphism (Torellian) has been provided. Moreover, early Caledonian high-pressure rocks known from this area seem to be much more widespread than previously thought. These new discoveries call for re-interpretation of the geological history of the Southwestern Basement Province (SBP) as well as re-consideration of its paleogeographic position prior to the Caledonian orogeny. Yet another factor, which is causing uncertainties in the up-to-date understanding of the SBP, results from the fact that several unconnected groups of geologists have been working in this area. Here, we propose a new tectonostratigraphical scheme for the SBP, which summarizes current state of knowledge and unifies several, previously vaguely connected geological units. However, there is still a need to answer critical questions about the age and tectonostratigraphical position of some uncertain geological successions. These include mainly high-grade rocks exposed in the northern part of Oscar II Land (mostly garnet-bearing mica schists of the Kongsvegen Group), on Prins Karls Forland (garnet-bearing mica schists and amphibolites of the Pinkie Group), central Nordenskiöld Land (unnamed retro-blueschists) and southernmost Sørkapp Land (unnamed garnet-bearing mica schists). Moreover, age and position of widely recognized diamictites (Comfortless, Bellsund, Lågneset and Ferrierpiggen groups) are dubious. Also, nothing is known about quite widespread, mostly carbonaceous and presumably early Palaeozoic sediments of northern Wedel Jarlsberg Land. An unequivocal tectonic scenario for the SBP and inter-connections with the two other basement provinces cannot be proposed before comprehensive structural, geochronological and petrological studies within the above mentioned areas will be done.
Majka, Jaros?aw; Dallmann, Winfried; Ko?mi?ska, Karolina
A study is presented of the reported cases of child rape in Benin City, the capital of Edo State in Nigeria. The conditions that make children, particularly females, more vulnerable to sexual abuse are explored. The organization of family life places children in a dependency cycle that makes rape both inevitable and invisible. Change that is responsive to family needs is more likely to have a positive effect in preventing child rape. PMID:7928452
Omorodion, F I
Although not common, long wave troughs over the southwestern United States produce strong temperature and moisture gradients and often favor the development of intense surface storms. The analyses outlined in this dissertation focused on the climatological characteristics of southwestern troughs and were driven by three key objectives. These objectives were: (1) to determine the temporal frequency of these features; (2) to detail their middle tropospheric wave associations; and (3) to examine the contribution of these systems on precipitation and energy transfer processes. Data for these analyses included daily northern hemispheric 500 mb geopotential height and temperature values and daily precipitation totals for fifty-four stations throughout the central and western United States. All southwestern events during the data record were objectively identified and a series of seasonal composite 500 mb geopotential height, geostrophic wind, and twenty-four hour height change maps constructed for the period before and after the troughing period. Precipitation influences were evaluated in terms of specific precipitation density and percent of total precipitation. In addition, daily mean transient eddy sensible heat transfers were calculated for troughing periods and compared to similar values calculated for non-trough transient eddies and quasi-stationary eddies. Results of these procedures indicated that: (1) southwestern troughs occurred most frequently during spring and fall, with somewhat fewer events during winter and very few events in summer; (2) trough development followed the same developmental sequence each season and involved the formation and eastward movement of a triggering short wave over the western Pacific, amplified ridge development over the Gulf of Alaska, and downstream teleconnection; (3) these events provided the west-central United States with a large proportion of the monthly precipitation total during the data record; and (4) the southwestern trough daily mean transient eddy sensible heat flux was quite large compared to non-trough transient and quasi-stationary eddy flux.
Burnett, Adam Wade
A house-to-house survey of paediatric deaths which occurred from January to December 1991 in the village of Nko, Cross River State, Nigeria, was carried out. Among the 471 total deaths recorded, the leading causes were malaria (29%), protein-energy malnutrition, pneumonia and diarrhoeal disease (11% each). Neonatal deaths were largely due to septicaemia, tetanus and birth asphyxia. Poor domestic and human waste disposal, lack of portable water and basic health facilities appear to be the important related factors to child health problems in this community. The provision of public toilets, safe water, primary health care centres and health education can definitely improve the health status of this rural community. Events in other rural communities in Nigeria are most likely to be similar to that in Nko. Such populations need to be identified and their problems urgently addressed. PMID:7855918
Ekanem, E E; Asindi, A A; Okoi, O U
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme.
EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991
Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O
Quality control (QC) in radiology is meant to ensure that accurate diagnoses are obtained with radiation doses kept as low as reasonably achievable. It is also a fundamental requirement by the Regulatory Authorities in issuing operational license to operators of radiology facilities. In Nigeria, QC issues in Radiation Medicine have recently been introduced and are being enforced by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). The level of QC practice in the radiology facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria was evaluated to obtain baseline information that could be relied on in the future to determine the level of improvement. It was observed that radiology practitioners appreciate QC and its importance in their practice, the present low level of its implementation notwithstanding.
Inyang, S. O.; Egbe, N. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Oshi, D. O.
Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117
Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N
Hard rocks occupy large parts of the earth's crust. These rocks are devoid of primary porosity and permeability. Most crystalline rock areas of Nigeria are located in areas of high relief; as a result, run off is high and infiltration rates very low. Most often, the occurrence of groundwater in this terrain is localized and confined to weathered\\/fractured zones. Hence
Stephen O. Ariyo; Gabriel O. Adeyemi
Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke.
Randall, Jennifer J.; Goldberg, Natalie P.; Kemp, John D.; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M.; Olsen, Mary W.; Hanson, Stephen F.
We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.
Kaban, M. K.; Mooney, W. D.
This study examines the spatial variability of mean monthly summer rainfall in the southwestern United States, with special attention given to the effect elevation. Rain gauge data from a consistent 60-yr period show that mean rainfall increases linearly with elevation within a local area. A simple model (rain = normalized rainfall as a function of latitude and longitude + elevation coefficient × elevation) explains a large part of the spatial variability of mean rainfall. The rainfall model (the MSWR model) and digital elevation data were used to produce a 1° × 1° gridded rainfall climatology for July, August, and September. Regional rainfall estimated with this model is 9.3% higher than an estimate based on arithmetic averaging of gauge data over 2° × 2° areas. For individual 2° × 2° cells, the difference between model rainfall and the arithmetic mean of gauge rainfall ranged from 250% to +41%.The MSWR model was used to remove orographic effects from regional rainfall fields. When rainfall is normalized to sea level, two rainfall maximums emerge: one in south-central Arizona associated with the Mexican monsoon maximum and one in southeastern New Mexico associated with the Gulf of Mexico. Detrended block kriging (using the MSWR model as an estimate of the long-term trend) and monthly rain gauge data were used to produce unbiased areal rainfall estimates that were compared to 1° × 1° satellite-based rainfall estimates. On a month-by-month basis, there were large differences between the two estimates, although the comparison improved after temporal averaging.
Michaud, Jené D.; Auvine, Brian A.; Penalba, Olga C.
Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of several scorch diseases, is associated with leaf scorch symptoms in Chitalpa tashkentensis, a common ornamental landscape plant used throughout the southwestern United States. For a number of years, many chitalpa trees in southern New Mexico and Arizona exhibited leaf scorch symptoms, and the results from a regional survey show that chitalpa trees from New Mexico, Arizona, and California are frequently infected with X. fastidiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of multiple loci was used to compare the X. fastidiosa infecting chitalpa strains from New Mexico, Arizona, and trees imported into New Mexico nurseries with previously reported X. fastidiosa strains. Loci analyzed included the 16S ribosome, 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer region, gyrase-B, simple sequence repeat sequences, X. fastidiosa-specific sequences, and the virulence-associated protein (VapD). This analysis indicates that the X. fastidiosa isolates associated with infected chitalpa trees in the Southwest are a highly related group that is distinct from the four previously defined taxons X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (piercei), X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, and X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Therefore, the classification proposed for this new subspecies is X. fastidiosa subsp. tashke. PMID:19581467
Randall, Jennifer J; Goldberg, Natalie P; Kemp, John D; Radionenko, Maxim; French, Jason M; Olsen, Mary W; Hanson, Stephen F
Gravity measurements in the Malumfashi area of Nigeria show large negative Bouguer anomalies ranging from — 33 mGal to — 65 mGal and free-air anomalies distributed about a mean of +15 mGal. A regional anomaly ranging from about -56 mGal in the southwestern part to about -44 mGal in the northeastern part of the area is tentatively correlated with a gradual thinning of the crust from southwest to northeast. Negative residual anomalies in the area correlate well with granite bodies thus confirming the acidic (low density) nature of the Older Granites. Positive residual anomalies of values up to about +12 mGal are associated with the schist bodies in the area. From two-dimensional modelling using approximate density values, it is estimated that the schists in the area vary in thickness from 4 to 5 km and the granite bodies have thicknesses of the order of 4 km. High-gravity gradients of up to 6 mGal/km at some contact areas between the schists and granitic bodies are attributed to sharp contacts and magmatic sloping is thought to be the most likely mode of emplacement of the granites in the area. The Bouguer anomalies observed over the schists have a maximum of only - 34 mGal. These values are considered too low to allow the existence of more mafic rocks at depth and the schists in the Malumfashi area are therefore believed to have evolved in an ensialic environment.
Gandu, A. H.; Ojo, S. B.; Ajakaiye, D. E.
The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a multicultural food frequency questionnaire1 (FFQ) for young women in the southwestern United States. The instrument was validated against 3-day diet records in 95 college women, and cross-validated against the mean of two 24-hour recalls and 4-day food records in 50 low-income postpartal women. Internal consistency reliability was assessed via
Goldy Chacko George; Tracey J Milani; Henry Hanss-Nuss; Minseong Kim; Jeanne H Freeland-Graves
OBJECTIVE:We performed a case-control study to evaluate risk factors and possible modes of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with no history of blood transfusion or injection drug use.METHODS:Study subjects were selected from among patients seen in gastroenterology outpatient clinics at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. The study group consisted of 58 patients
Ranga Balasekaran; Marc Bulterys; M. Mazen Jamal; Patrick G Quinn; David E Johnston; Betty Skipper; Sanjana Chaturvedi; Sanjeev Arora
We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973
Nweze, E I; Okafor, J I
Background PermaNet® 3.0 is an insecticide synergist-combination long-lasting insecticidal net designed to have increased efficacy against malaria vectors with metabolic resistance, even when combined with kdr. The current study reports on the impact of this improved tool on entomological indices in an area with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Nigeria. Methods Baseline entomological indices across eight villages in Remo North LGA of Ogun State provided the basis for selection of three villages (Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa) for comparing the efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 (PN3.0), PermaNet® 2.0 (PN2.0) and untreated polyester nets as a control (UTC). In each case, nets were distributed to cover all sleeping spaces and were evaluated for insecticidal activity on a 3-monthly basis. Collection of mosquitoes was conducted monthly via window traps and indoor resting catches. The arithmetic means of mosquito catches per house, entomological inoculation rates before and during the intervention were compared as well as three other outcome parameters: the mean mosquito blood feeding rate, mean mortality and mean parity rates. Results Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the main malaria vector in the three villages, accounting for >98% of the Anopheles population and found in appreciable numbers for 6–7 months. Deltamethrin, permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin resistance were confirmed at Ilara, Irolu and Ijesa. The kdr mutation was the sole resistance mechanism at Ilara, whereas kdr plus P450-based metabolic mechanisms were detected at Irolu and Ijesa. Bioassays repeated on domestically used PN 2.0 and PN 3.0 showed persistent optimal (100%) bio-efficacy for both net types after the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month following net distribution. The use of PN 3.0 significantly reduced mosquito densities with a ‘mass killing’ effect inside houses. Households with PN 3.0 also showed reduced blood feeding as well as lower mosquito parity and sporozoite rates compared to the PN 2.0 and the UTC villages. A significant reduction in the entomological inoculation rate was detected in both the PN 2.0 village (75%) and PN 3.0 village (97%) post LLIN-distribution and not in the UTC village. Conclusion The study confirms the efficacy of PN 3.0 in reducing malaria transmission compared to pyrethroid-only LLINs in the presence of malaria vectors with P450-based metabolic- resistance mechanisms.
The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.
Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.
Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration
A. A. Adepelumi; B. D. Ako; T. R. Ajayi
The effects of cultivating and incorporating residues of previous tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and soybean (Glycine max) with application of NPK fertilizer on yam performance were evaluated at the teaching and research farm, LAUTECH, Nigeria. There were nine treatments: incorporation of legume residues (5 t DM ha), application of recommended fertilizer rate for yam (90–50–75 kg NPK ha) in the zone or
Gani Oladejo Kolawole
Introduction Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if there is any association between measles immunization coverage and measles outbreak. Methods This is a descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results As the proportion of cases with febrile rash who were immunized decreased from 81% in 2007 to 42% in 2011, the laboratory confirmed cases of measles increased from two in 2007 to 53 in 2011.Of the laboratory confirmed cases of measles, five (7%) occurred in children < 9 months, 48 (64%) occurred in children 9 - 59 months and 22 (29%) occurred in children < 59 months old. Seventy five percent of all laboratory confirmed cases of measles occurred in rural areas. Conclusion Efforts should be made to increase measles immunization in children between 9 and 59 months as most cases of measles occurred in this age group as immunization coverage dropped. In addition, further studies should be carried out to determine the cause of the disproportional incidence of measles in rural areas in Abia state bearing in mind that measles immunization coverage in urban and rural areas was not markedly different
Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Ahaneku, Hycienth Peterson
We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.
van Riper, Charles, III; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.
Purpose: To determine the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders in industrial technical workers in the Delta state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of the pattern of non-traumatic ocular disorders among industrial technical workers in 3 factories in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria was conducted between February, 2002 and May, 2002. In addition to the demographic, the workers were studied for the presence of any non-trauma related ocular findings. Visual acuity of these workers was obtained as well as ocular examination was performed by using the Snellen's chart, pen torch, ophthalmoscope, Perkins hand-held tonometer, Ishihara plates. Patients were refracted if their visual acuity was less than normal. Results: Five hundred technical workers were screened that included 200 (40%) from the construction industry, 180 (36%) from the rubber factory and 120(24%) from the oil mill. All the workers studied were males. Ocular disorders were seen in 664 (66.4%) of the eyes. The most common ocular disorders were pingueculum 215 (21.5%), presbyopia 97 (9.7%), refractive error 94 (9.4%), pterygium 86 (8.6%) and chronic conjunctivitis 45 (4.5%). None of the workers was blind from non-traumatic causes. Only 36 (7.2%) workers wore any protective eye devices at work. Conclusion: Non-traumatic ocular disorders are common in the industrialized technical workers in the Delta state of Nigeria. The use of protective eye devices is low in these workers and suggests that measures to implement ocular safety should be undertaken in these industries.
Omoti, A. E.; Edema, O. T.; Akinsola, F. B.; Aigbotsua, P.
Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster
Edited by Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.
This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…
Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma
This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…
Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.
Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583
Anning, David W
Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Anning, D. W.
A geoelectric investigation involving twenty-six vertical electrical soundings was carried out at Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. The survey was aimed at determining the structure of the underlying bedrock, as well as computing the transmissivity for the aquifer in the area. The basement geometrymapproduced from the results of the survey indicates that the bedrock is undulating lying at depths between 30 m to 6.5 m. There is evidence of faulting and fracturing within the area. Computation of aquifer transmissivity values based on the results obtained made it possible to demarcate regions with good ground water potential in the area. PMID:16570227
On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.
Chizea, F. D.
The sky islands of the southwestern U.S. offer a unique opportunity to study the coevolution of landscape processes in areas of similar rock type and tectonic history but a wide range of climates. In this study we compile high-resolution, spatially-distributed data for the available energy to drive rock weathering and other landscape processes, i.e. the Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT) variable of Rasmussen and Tabor (2005), together with data for LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass, soil thickness, water storage potential, hillslope relief, and valley density in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno Mountains, two predominantly granitic ranges in southern Arizona. Strong correlations exist among these variables such that warm, dry, low elevation portions of these areas are characterized by low biomass, thin soils, low water-storage potential, steep slopes, and high valley densities. Cooler, wetter, higher-elevation portions have systematically higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water-storage potential, gentler slopes, and lower valley densities. Moreover, all of these variables have a nonlinear dependence on climate/elevation. Slope gradient and aspect also exert an important control on these variables, with steep, south-facing hillslopes characterized by drier-than-average conditions for a given elevation and north-facing slopes associated with wetter-than-average conditions. We hypothesize that these correlations partly reflect coevolutionary positive-feedback mechanisms among these processes that amplify differences in rates set by climate, tectonics, and rock type. For example, thicker soils with higher water storage potential that form at higher elevations/north-facing slopes tend to have greater biomass, causing lower runoff ratios, lower rates of slopewash and fluvial erosion, and increased rates of colluvial transport, thereby promoting thicker soils, lower-gradient slopes, and lower valley densities. Thicker soils and higher water storage potentials, in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.
Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest death rate from induced abortion in the world, and young women in southern Nigeria are particularly likely to terminate their pregnancies. This study assesses the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among 602 young women aged 15-24 who were surveyed in Edo State, Nigeria, in 2002. We find that 41 percent of all pregnancies reported by the young women surveyed were terminated, and we estimate the age-specific abortion rate for 15-19-year-olds in Edo State at 49 abortions per 1,000 women, which is slightly higher than previous local estimates and nearly double the countrywide estimate for women aged 15-49. We construct explanatory multivariate models to predict the likelihood that a young woman has experienced sexual intercourse, has become pregnant, and has undergone an induced abortion, controlling for important demographic and risk-behavior factors. Young women unmarried at the time of the interview are found to be significantly more likely than married women to have had an abortion. Young women who have experienced transactional or forced sex are also significantly more likely to report ever having had an abortion, as are young women who have experienced more than one pregnancy. We conclude with suggestions for modifying the content and target populations of behavioral change messages and programs in the area. PMID:17209283
Murray, Nancy; Winfrey, William; Chatterji, Minki; Moreland, Scott; Dougherty, Leanne; Okonofua, Friday
Investigations were conducted to evaluate the thermal conductivity of soils of Sedimentary rock origin in two locations namely; Obaretin in Ikpoba/Okha and Idumabi-Irrua in Esan Central Local Government Areas respectively in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was aimed at validating the effects of the thermal regimes of these soils and their relation to soil productivity. The investigation showed that soil conductivity is related to temperature factors such as soil resistance and resistivity that controls the processes involved in the production and plant growth. The investigation showed that soil thermal conductivity is related to temperature and solar radiation factors such as soil resistance and resistivity, that control the processes involved in plant growth and productivity with accompanied macro and micro fauna in soils. Functional activities of plant roots such as absorption of water and nutrients are encouraged at low or high soil thermal conductivity levels. In this study, there were significant (p = 0.05) differences in thermal conductivity in the soils of both locations. Similarly soil resistance and resistivity were significantly different (p = 0.05) in the two locations (Obaretin and Idumabi Irrua) in Ikpoba-Okha and Esan Central Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. This study indicates attributes of temperature changes in soil regimes, reflecting the difference in vegetation obtained in the two locations. Therefore soil productivity and plant growth is influenced by soil thermal conductivity and it`s related factors such as soil resistance and resistivity.
Molindo, W. A.; Alile, O. M.
Objective To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle in some local government areas (LGA) of the northern part of Plateau State, Nigeria. Methods Sera obtained from a total of 270 randomly selected cattle from different herds in the four selected LGAs were for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). Results An overall brucellosis seroprevalence of 9.6% (26/270) was obtained. The seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies among the cattle across the LGA ranged from 0%-37.3% with Riyom and Bassa LGA having the lowest and highest seroprevalence respectively while Barkin Ladi LGA had no sero-positive cattle. Females had a higher percentage of seropositives compared to males while cattle reared under extensive system of management had a higher (11.6%) percentage of sero-positives compared to cattle kept under the intensive system of management. However, there was no statistically significant (P>0.05) association between serological status and sex or management practice. Conclusions The results of this study indicates that bovine brucellosis is still a problem among the cattle population in Plateau State, Nigeria. And the public and other animals are at risk of exposure to the disease agent in these animals which are still shedding the organism.
Maurice, Nanven Abraham; Wungak, Samuel Yiltawe; Gana, Balami Arhyel; Nanven, Magdalene Baneche; Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Ibrahim, Amina; Aworh, Mabel Kamweli; Konzing, Leviticus; Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Gugong, Victor Tita
Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision.
Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter
Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000-680,000 naira (46.7-4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1-118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola
Background: Long term exposure to hazards at the work place is injurious to health and usually leads to diseased conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the occupational health problems associated with driving among the professional drivers in Sagamu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Total sample of all the consenting professional drivers in the five interstate motor parks, including the cement factory [WAPCO] in the local government area, were recruited into the study. An interviewer administered structured questionnaire was administered by trained health workers and respondents were screen for common occupational health problems. Results: A total of 400 professional drivers were interviewed, all [100%] of them were males with age range from 21 to 59 yrs and nearly half [42%] were non indigenes. Only half, 208 [52%] of them were married with majority, 232 [58.0%] working for about 12 hrs daily and 46% of them had been working for 5 yrs or more. Most, 382 [95.5%] had been educated on HIV/AIDS before and 313 [78.3%] of them had multiple sexual partners. Only 241 [60.3%] used condom at the last sexual act and 55 [13.5%] had ever been tested for HIV/AIDS. Common occupational health diseases were renal tubular acidosis (RTA) 52 [13%] in the last one year and most of them currently have myalgia 352 [88.0%], upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) 20 [5.0%], sexually transmitted diseases (STD) 15 [3.8%], short sightedness 41 [10.3%], and Hypertension 90 [22.5%]. Conclusions: The study shows that common occupational diseases among long distance professional drivers in Western Nigeria were myalgia, upper respiratory tract infection, hypertension, short sightedness, sexually transmitted diseases, and RTA. Prevention and control of these common diseases among the drivers will lead to reduction of road traffic accidents in Western Nigeria and other low income countries.
Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Salako, Albert Adekunle; Jeminusi, Olubunmi
Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE.
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola
The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.
McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.
Out of the total number at 200 suspected cases of otomycoses consisting of 40 malnourished and 160 apparently healthy children examined in this study between the months of July and August in Edo State, 64 Cases (32%) were identified to be of fungal aetiology on the basis of positive culture and careful microscopic examination. The state at protein energy malnourishment was deterwined using physicians' comments in their case files. The fungal agents isolated were Aspergillus niger 28 (43.8%); A. fumigatus 4 (25%); Fusarium solari 4 (6.3%); Candida albicans 8 (12.5%); and Hendersonula teruloidea types torn B 5 (6.3%). Of these isolates, A. niger having an solation rate of (43.8%) was found to be the most predominant fungal species associated with otomycosis. PMID:9646512
Enweani, I B; Igumbor, H
Traditional medicinal treatments of guinea worm being applied in various parts of Bauchi State were investigated. Extracts of leaves of a number of plants were universally applied topically. Users perceived relief of pain and accelerated expulsion of worms and healing process. In particular, Tamarindus indica, Adansonia digitata, Calotropis procera, Ziziphus jaozeiro and Moringa olifera are known in nature to have relevant medicinal properties especially lessening of inflammation, relief of pain, or promoting healing or reducing secondary bacterial infections. The possibility was expressed that some of the herbs might be exerting useful effects and could be exploited for the effective treatment of guinea worm. PMID:7758381
Fabiyi, J P; Kela, S L; Tal, K M; Istifanus, W A
The poor state of learning in pre-service science teacher education is typical. of the problems in the Nigeria education sector (Afe, 2001; Odubunmi, 2006; Okebukola, 2004). Little research based evidence about Nigerian pre-service science teacher education has been reported in the literature, however, this problem has been documented to be a common phenomenon among other African countries with similar programmes.
Durojaiye S. Braimoh
This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…
Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.
The study examined the effect of supplementing laboratory instruction with problem solving strategy and or practical skills teaching on students' attitude toward chemistry. A total of 286 senior secondary class II students (145 males and 141 females) drawn from four local government areas in Oyo township in Oyo state, Nigeria, took part in the…
Adesoji, Francis Adewumi; Raimi, Sikiru Morakinyo
This study was conducted to detennine the frequency of isolation of salmonella and their microbial resis- tance profiles, across selected feed raw materials sold in lmo State, Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty (360) bulk samples were collected across different feed raw materials which include animal proteins-foreign fish meal (FFM) and local fish meal (LFM), plant proteins-groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean
Ifeanyi Charles Okoli; Ifeoma C. Ekwueagana; Prince Ogbuewu
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…
Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael
This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…
Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola
Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. PMID:24506017
Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F
This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.
Van Gosen, Bradley S.
Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.
Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.
Despite numerous molecular epidemiologic studies of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle in industrialized countries, there are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in native cattle in developing countries. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in 194 fecal specimens from 2 to 365 days old calves in 20 White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali herds in Nigeria. Thirty one (16.0%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium. Restriction digestion of the PCR products showed the presence of Cryptosporidium bovis (7.2%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (4.1%), Cryptosporidium andersoni (2.5%), and concurrent occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (1.5%), and C. bovis and C. andersoni (0.5%). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in Cryptosporidium infection rates by sex, herd location, management system, breed of calves, or fecal consistency. However, calves 180 days or younger had a higher infection rate of Cryptosporidium than older calves (p=0.034). Likewise, younger calves also had higher occurrence of C. bovis and C. ryanae (p=0.022). The absence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in the calves studied suggests that native breeds of cattle may not be important in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:21277091
Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jalarth U; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Lawal, Idris A; Maikai, Victor A; Cama, Vitaliano; Xiao, Lihua
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594
Kaltungo, B Y; Saidu, S N A; Sackey, A K B; Kazeem, H M
Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.
Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria.
Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.
Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper.
Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.
Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383
Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A
Febrile illnesses occur frequently among HIV positive patients and these are often treated presumptively as malaria in endemic areas. Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria will eliminate unnecessary treatment, reduce drug–drug interactions and the chances for the emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium. We evaluated finger prick blood samples from 387 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and suspected of having malaria by expert microscopy and Paracheck-PfTM – a histidine-rich protein-II based malaria rapid diagnostic test. The study was conducted at the PEPFAR supported AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Outcome parameters were prevalence of malaria parasitemia, sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf as well as the positive and negative predictive values for Paracheck-Pf using microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood film as gold standard. Malaria parasites were detected in 19.1% (74/387) of enrollees by microscopy and 19.3% (74/383) by Paracheck-Pf. Geometric mean parasite density was 501/?l (range 39–749 202/?l). Sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf at all parasite densities were 55.4% and 89.3% while corresponding figures at parasite densities ?200/?l were 90.9% and 90.3%. Sensitivity and specificity at parasite densities ?500/?l was 97.6% and 90.3%. Positive and negative predictive values for parasite density ?200/?l were 55.4% and 98.7%, respectively. Paracheck-pf was found to be a useful malaria diagnostic tool at parasite densities ?200/?l facilitating appropriate clinical management.
Falade, C O; Adesina-Adewole, B; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Ajayi, I O; Akinyemi, J O; Ademowo, O G; Adewole, I F; Kanki, P
A survey of bovine campylobacteriosis in breeding bulls and cows was carried out in the states of Kaduna, Kano and Borno. Six hundred and eighty nine cattle composed of 585 and 104 breeding bulls and cows respectively were sampled. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was isolated from 12 bulls while Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from three of them. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from four cows while Campylobacter fetus subsp. veneralis was isolated from one cow. The overall prevalence of campylobacteriosis in the three states was 2.9% (20/689). The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis as the agent of enzootic infertility in Nigeria and suggests that it may be a significant problem. PMID:1763437
Bawa, E K; Adekeye, J O; Oyedipe, E O; Omoh, J U
A survey was carried out in Kaduna State of Nigeria to establish the indigenous knowledge system for treating trypanosomiasis in domestic animals. Questionnaire and interviews were, respectively, administered to, or conducted with about 200 livestock farmers and traders spread around the state. Data obtained revealed the use of several plants either alone or in combination, for the treatment and management of trypasonomiasis. The most common plants encountered were Adansonia digitata, Terminalia avicennoides, Khaya senegalensis, Cissus populnea, Tamarindus indica, Lawsonia inermis, Boswellia dalzielli, Pseudocedrela kotschi, Syzyium quinensis, Sterculia setigera, Afzelia africana, Prosopis africana, Lancea kerstingii. The method of preparation and mode of administration of some of these plants in the treatment of trypanosomiasis are reviewed and discussed. PMID:11801393
Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ibrahim, S; Andrew, J N; Nzelibe, H C; Onyike, E O; Anigo, K M; Abu, E A; James, D B; Njoku, G C; Sallau, A B
The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.
Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.
Background: The national policy on malaria control recommends use of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) for chemoprophylaxis against malaria in pregnancy; and use of quinine and arthemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for acute treatment of malaria in the first, and second/third trimesters, respectively. In Nigeria, a large proportion of pregnant women are seen by the general practitioners (GPs). Objective: To determine the pattern of anti-malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross-section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the Nigeria Medical Association Scientific Conference/Annual General Meeting/Election. Results: The mean age of the GPs was 37 ± 3.6 (range 27-70) years. Quinine was the commonly (45.6% (n = 67)) prescribed anti-malaria drug in the first trimester while in the second/third trimester ACT was commonly (48.3% (n = 71)) prescribed. Seventy-six (51.7%) practitioners prescribed IPT-SP for chemoprophylaxis against malaria while the rest (48.3%) prescribed other drugs. GPs who obtained MBBS qualification less than or equal to 5 years prior to the survey were more likely to comply with the national policy on malaria control in their prescriptions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The pattern of anti-malaria prescription among GPs in Enugu state is varied, and conformed poorly to the evidence-based national policy on malaria control. There is need for continuing professional development to keep the GPs abreast with current trends in malaria treatment during pregnancy.
Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi; Iferikigwe, E. S.; Obi, S. N.; Ugwu, A. O.; Agu, P. U.; Okezie, O. A.
Projections of future changes in mean winter precipitation over the Southewestern US show small and not significant decreases. However, we have found consistent and statistically significant increases in extreme winter precipitation in this particular region, as simulated by regional climate models. The physical mechanisms responsible for these changes are not completely understood. We suggest that potential changes in the intensity of filamentary water vapor fluxes known as atmospheric rivers (ARs) may be associated with the projected increase in intensity of future extreme events over the Southwest. Although several studies have addressed the importance of the ARs in the generation of extreme precipitation and flooding events in both Western North America and Europe, little is known to date about the effects of ARs that penetrate further inland. The Southwestern US in particular is dependent on winter precipitation for its water resources as moisture is generally stored during the cool season and released in the warmer part of the year. In addition, the geographical location of some inland watersheds, such as the Verde and Salt River Basins in central Arizona, allows a virtually uninterrupted passage of oceanic moisture. Therefore, in this work we identify the relationship between extreme winter precipitation in the Southwestern US and ARs. To characterize ARs for the Southwestern US, we identify extreme precipitation events in the Verde River Basin. Then, we (a) perform an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) integrated water vapor (IWV) and flux fields for all extreme events to identify AR "types", and (b) compile observational satellite data derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) for all identified extreme cases to evaluate the NARR fields. Additionally, we employ a Lagrangian technique that uses reanalysis data to trace the moisture sources associated with the impacting ARs.
Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.
Snowmelt from high elevation catchments is the primary source of water resources in the Southwestern United States. Timing and duration of snowmelt and resulting catchment response can show the physical and chemical importance of storage at the catchment scale. Storage of waters in subsurface materials provides a physical and chemical buffer to hydrologic input variability. We expect the hydrochemistry of catchments with less storage capacity will more closely reflect input waters than a catchment with more storage and therefore more geochemical evolution of waters. Two headwater catchments were compared for this study; Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) in the southern Sierra Nevada and Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Colorado Front Range. These sites have geochemically similar granitic terrane, and negligible evaporation and transpiration due to their high-elevation setting. Eleven years of data (1996-2006) from spatially-distributed snowmelt models were spatially and temporally aggregated to generate daily values of snowmelt volume for each catchment area. Daily storage flux was calculated as the difference between snowmelt input and catchment outflow at a daily timestep, normalized to the catchment area. Daily snowmelt values in GL4 are more consistent (the annual standard deviation ranged from 0.19 to 0.76 cm) than the daily snowmelt in ELW (0.60 to 1.04 cm). Outflow follows the same trend, with an even narrower range of standard deviations from GL4 (0.27 to 0.54 cm) compared to the standard deviation of outflow in ELW (0.38 to 0.98 cm). The dampening of the input variability could be due to storage in the catchment; the larger effect would mean a larger storage capacity in the catchment. Calculations of storage flux (the input snowmelt minus the output catchment discharge) show the annual sum of water into storage in ELW ranges from -0.9200 to 1.1124 meters, in GL4 the ranger is narrower, from -0.655 to 0.0992 meters. Cumulative storage for each year can be negative (more water leaving the system than entering; storage loss) or positive (more water coming into the system than leaving; storage gain). The cumulative storage for all years in GL4 show a similar positive trend from day of year 60 through 150, followed by a decrease to the end of the snowmelt season. Only two years (1997 and 2005) in GL4 were calculated to cumulatively gain storage water, the other nine years lost stored water to outflow. The cumulative storage annual data in ELW do not show as strong of a trend for all years. ELW also a different distribution of cumulative storage values; with four years showing a cumulative loss and seven years showing a gain in stored water. This could show a depletion of stored water, an underestimate of snowmelt or a connection to deeper flowpaths. Mass-balance inverse geochemical models will be used to determine the hydrochemical connectivity or lack of connectivity of snowmelt to outflow relative to the physical calculations. Initial hydrochemical results show generally higher concentrations of solutes from GL4 outflow, which may show more contribution from stored waters.
Driscoll, J. M.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.; Meixner, T.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.
Introduction The characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus aureus differs according to geographical regions and in relation to antibiotic usage. The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical characteristics of the prevalent S. aureus from Ekiti State, Nigeria, and to evaluate three commonly used disk diffusion methods (cefoxitin, oxacillin, and methicillin) for the detection of methicillin resistance in comparison with mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction. Materials and methods A total of 208 isolates of S. aureus recovered from clinical specimens were included in this study. Standard microbiological procedures were employed in isolating the strains. Susceptibility of each isolate to methicillin (5 ?g), oxacillin (1 ?g), and cefoxitin (30 ?g) was carried out using the modified Kirby–Bauer/Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute disk diffusion technique. They were also tested against panels of antibiotics including vancomycin. The conventional polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence of the mecA gene. Results Phenotypic resistance to methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin were 32.7%, 40.3%, and 46.5%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 40 isolates, giving a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence of 19.2%. The S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (82.7%) and tetracycline (65.4%), but largely susceptible to erythromycin (78.8% sensitive), pefloxacin (82.7%), and gentamicin (88.5%). When compared to the mecA gene as the gold standard for MRSA detection, methicillin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin gave sensitivity rates of 70%, 80%, and 100%, and specificity rates of 76.2%, 69.1%, and 78.5% respectively. Conclusion When compared with previous studies employing mecA polymerase chain reaction for MRSA detection, the prevalence of 19.2% reported in Ekiti State, Nigeria in this study is an indication of gradual rise in the prevalence of MRSA in Nigeria. A cefoxitin (30 ?g) disk diffusion test is recommended above methicillin and oxacillin for the phenotypic detection of MRSA in clinical laboratories.
Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Kukoyi, Olayinka Oluwatoyin; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adegoke, Abiodun Adebimpe; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Ogbolu, David Olusoga; Alli, Oyebode Terry
An epidemiological study of 1,136 inhabitants from two rural communities in Owan East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria was investigated to ascertain the prevalence, intensities and urinary symptoms in Schistosoma haematobium infections. In both communities, 371 (32.6%) of the villagers screened, excreted S. haematobium with a mean of 40.1 ova per 10 ml of their urine. The pattern of infection was highest among the school children, moderate among the farmers and least among the civil servants. The sensitivities of their urinary symptoms associated with this parasitic infection in these communities are 78.7% hematuria, 71.9% proteinuria, 70.4% supra public pain/discomforts and 59.6% dysuria. These foci of infections will broaden the epidemiological picture of urinary schistosomiasis in this part of the globe. PMID:11944719
Nmorsi, O P; Egwunyenga, O A; Okholo, O E
Survey of urinary schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis was conducted among 830 inhabitants of Ikao village, in Owan local government area of Edo State, Nigeria Between October, 1999 and February, 2000. Of these, 178 (21.4%) excreted Schistosoma haematobium ova in their urine. School children were more infected than the farmers and petty traders. Males were more infected than the female counterparts, These differences were statistically significant using Chi-square test analysis (chi 2). Most of the inhabitants had light infections. In all, urinary schistosomiasis and trichomoniasis co-infection occurred in the genito-urinary tract of 14 (6.3%) females inhabitants. The highest Trichomonas vaginalis infection 16 (40.0%) occurred in female subjects within 20-25 years old. PMID:12170944
Nimorsi, O P; Egwunyenga, A O; Bajomo, D O
The observational/longitudinal study was undertaken in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of prevention on the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy. The study population comprised 4 groups viz; Group l, had 100 women protected with Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs); Group 2, another 100 treated with Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine (SP); Group 3, 100 protected with both ITN and SP, while Group 4, were 100 unprotected others who served as control. Venous blood was collected 7 days to expected date of delivery while placental blood was collected after delivery from the subjects for parasitaemia determination. Findings showed that all protective devices used were effective against malaria. Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be encouraged. It is therefore, recommended that pregnant women should be health educated to appreciate the need for malaria prevention. PMID:19435012
Wagbatsoma, V A; Omoike, B I
This study reports the results of a survey conducted in 2001 to investigate the economic effects of Fascioliasis (Liverflukes) on drought animals in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 and 74 farmers` owners of 148 non-infested and 204 infested drought animals, respectively, through a cost-route method using structured questionnaires and supplemented with interviews. Analysis using descriptive statistics and animal traction efficiency measure showed that the non-infested drought animals were efficiently utilized than the infested drought animals. It was concluded that the non-infested drought animals were more productive. The study therefore, recommend among others, the regular deworming of drought animals in order to improve their efficiency.
Jaafar-Furo, M. R.; Mshelia, S. I.; Suleiman, A.
A survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis among students of Government Secondary School Girei, Song Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, between January and July 1991. Of the 200 students between ages ten to thirty-two years old examined, 86 (43.0%) were infected using the formyl ether concentration method. The most commonly found worm were hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura with mean egg per gram of 4,800; 2,600; and 1,250 respectively. Infection was independent of both sexes, and parental occupations (P > 0.05) but decreased significantly with host age and a progressive increase in body weight (P < 0.05). Suggestions are made for the control of helminth parasites in the area. PMID:8220572
Alo, E B; Anosike, J C; Danburan, J B
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in Nigeria. Many individuals are affected in rural areas, although prevalence data is not available. In this study we aimed to establish the prevalence of epilepsy in a rural community in south-east Nigeria, a community suspected for having a high number of people living with epilepsy. We compared this with the prevalence in a nearby semi-urban community in north-central Nigeria. In both communities we identified potential causes of epilepsy and obtained information on the social beliefs regarding epilepsy. We used door-to-door surveys and focus group discussions. The epilepsy prevalence in the rural community was 20.8/1000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.7-27.4]. The prevalence in the semi-rural community was lower, namely 4.7/1000 [CI: 3.2-6.9]. The difference in prevalence was highly significant (?(2)-test, p<0.0001). In both communities most people with epilepsy were in the age range of 7-24 years. Causes that might be contributory to the prevalence of epilepsy in both communities included poor obstetric practices, frequent febrile convulsions, head trauma, meningitis and neurocysticercosis. In both communities we found stigma of people with epilepsy. In conclusion, the epilepsy prevalence in the semi-urban community is similar to that in industrialized countries. In contrast, the rural community has a much higher prevalence. This may require the establishment of specific community-based epilepsy control programs. Community interventions should focus on treatment of acute epilepsy and on stigma reduction. PMID:24300028
Osakwe, Chijioke; Otte, Willem M; Alo, Chimhurumnanya
Genetic and linguistic data suggest that the Na-Dene, of which the Athabaskans are the largest group, are part of a later immigration into the Americas than the first Amerind immigration. Whether a second and third immigration can be separated seems unlikely but continued cross-Bering Strait exchanges may have masked what was a greater separation in the past. The movement of tribes into Siberia appears to have involved a genetic bottleneck leading to at least one disease allele shared by Eskimo/Aleuts and Navajos and a second possibly shared by the Navajo and a Siberian population, but not the same Siberian population that share deep linguistic affinities with the Navajo. A second bottleneck appears to have occurred with the migration of Athabaskans from Northwest North America to the Southwestern United States along the Rocky Mountains. This bottleneck is reflected in several rare recessive diseases shared by the Navajo and Apache. Finally, the Navajo were captured and imprisoned under conditions which led to severe population loss. This, and the "hiding away" of a small number of Navajos in what is now the Western portion of the reservation, led to a Navajo-specific bottleneck(s) resulting in an increased frequency of several rare recessive diseases among the Navajo. Prejudice against human genetic research is high among the Southwestern Athabaskans but attempts to bridge the gap are now occurring. The involvement of Navajo scientists in this process is especially encouraging. PMID:19842189
Erickson, Robert P
The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.
van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew
Background The control of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria remains inert due to lack of reliable data on the geographical distribution of the disease and the population at risk. To help in developing a control programme, delineating areas of risk, geographical information system and remotely sensed environmental images were used to developed predictive risk maps of the probability of occurrence of the disease and quantify the risk for infection in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods Infection data used were derived from carefully validated morbidity questionnaires among primary school children in 2001–2002, in which school children were asked among other questions if they have experienced "blood in urine" or urinary schistosomiasis. The infection data from 1,092 schools together with remotely sensed environmental data such as rainfall, vegetation, temperature, soil-types, altitude and land cover were analysis using binary logistic regression models to identify environmental features that influence the spatial distribution of the disease. The final regression equations were then used in Arc View 3.2a GIS software to generate predictive risk maps of the distribution of the disease and population at risk in the state. Results Logistic regression analysis shows that the only significant environmental variable in predicting the presence and absence of urinary schistosomiasis in any area of the State was Land Surface Temperature (LST) (B = 0.308, p = 0.013). While LST (B = -0.478, p = 0.035), rainfall (B = -0.006, p = 0.0005), ferric luvisols (B = 0.539, p = 0.274), dystric nitosols (B = 0.133, p = 0.769) and pellic vertisols (B = 1.386, p = 0.008) soils types were the final variables in the model for predicting the probability of an area having an infection prevalence equivalent to or more than 50%. The two predictive risk maps suggest that urinary schistosomiasis is widely distributed and occurring in all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in State. The high-risk areas (? 50% prevalence) however, are confined to scatter foci in the north western part of the State. The model also estimated that 98.99% of schools aged children (5–14 years) are living in areas suitable for urinary schistosomiasis transmission and are at risk of infection. Conclusion The risk maps developed will hopefully be useful to the state health officials, by providing them with detailed distribution of urinary schistosomiasis, help to delineate areas for intervention, assesses population at risk thereby helping in optimizing scarce resources.
Ekpo, Uwem F; Mafiana, Chiedu F; Adeofun, Clement O; Solarin, Adewale RT; Idowu, Adewumi B
The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the area of these three basin-fill aquifer systems had dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 1,000 milligrams per liter. Dissolved solids in streams were described on the basis of median daily concentration, median annual load, and median annual yield data for 420 surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The time period with dissolved-solids data for individual sites varied but was at least 10 or more years between 1974 and 2003. Median daily dissolved-solids concentrations vary substantially among the sites in the Southwest, ranging between 22 and 13,800 milligrams per liter, and also vary between different sites on the same stream. Median daily concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction for sites on the Rio Grande, Colorado River, Yampa River, White River, Green River, San Juan River, Gila River, Bear River, and Sevier River. Median annual dissolved-solids loads ranged from 60 tons per year for a site on Elk Creek, a headwater tributary to the Colorado River, to 7.86 million tons per year at Colorado River below Hoover Dam, Arizona-Nevada. Typically, streams with the highest flows have the highest dissolved-solids loads. Median annual loads for sites on these rivers generally increased in the downstream direction, except where streamflow decreased substantially due to diversions and (or) streambed infiltration, typically in the downstream part of the river system. Median annual yields ranged from 0.69 to 7,510 tons per year per square mile, and the mean for all 420 sites was 125 tons per year per square mile. Most (104 of 112) sites with median annual yields greater than 100 tons per year per square mile were in the Colorado River basin upstream from Lees Ferry and in the Bear and Great Salt Lake hydrologic subregions. A conceptual model was developed for the effects of natural and human factors on dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers and streams. Factors affecting concentrations in streamflow of upland mountain
Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.
Two areas of intense early Miocene crustal extension in the southwestern United States, the Colorado River trough and the central Mojave Desert, are separated by a weakly deformed area in the eastern Mojave Desert. The authors propose that these areas form a left-stepping en echelon rift system linked by a ductile detachment at depth. The en echelon geometry explains the southward loss of displacement in the central Mojave Desert and northward loss of coeval displacement in the Colorado River trough, and it incorporates seismic reflection evidence that mid-crustal Tertiary extensional mylonites continue beneath the weakly deformed area. This geometry also explains clockwise paleomagnetic declination anomalies from lower Miocene rocks as recording thin-skinned, detached rotations; large-scale block rotations are not required. Obliquity of the northeast-trending crustal-extension vector to the east-west-trending early Miocene synextensional volcanic belt may have caused the en echelon pattern to develop.
Bartley, J.M. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Glazner, A.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))
Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
Muhs, D. R.; Reynolds, R. L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.
Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits. PMID:19352690
Ajayi, Oladele Samuel
A 6-year retrospective study (2000–2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was\\u000a carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed.\\u000a A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered\\u000a for the period,
Clement B. I. Alawa; I. Etukudo-Joseph; Judith N. Alawa
Commonly used pesticides and handling practices which might expose farmers and their environment to chemical hazards were investigated in the Irepodun\\/Ifelodun local government area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Direct field observations and answers to a structured questionnaire from a random sample of 150 farming households showed that commonly used pesticides comprised herbicides (48.3 per cent), fungicides (28.2 per cent) and
Oluwafemi Oluwole; Robert A. Cheke
\\u000a For many communities in the “fragile” state order of Nigeria, vigilante groups represent the only pragmatic alternative for\\u000a providing a minimum of protection and order in the face of widespread insecurity. But vigilante groups are often more than\\u000a just controllers of violence and competing operators in security markets. They are also integrated into social networks, representing\\u000a a social response to
Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel
Recent reports in the literature on the health status of southwestern Hispanics, most of whom are Mexican Americans, are reviewed critically. The review is organized into the following sections: infant mortality, mortality at other ages, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, other diseases, interview data on physical health, and mental health. Despite methodological limitations of much of the research, it can be concluded with some certainty that the health status of Hispanics in the Southwest is much more similar to the health status of other whites than that of blacks although socioeconomically, the status of Hispanics is closer to that of blacks. This observation is supported by evidence on such key health indicators as infant mortality, life-expectancy, mortality from cardiovascular diseases, mortality from major types of cancer, and measures of functional health. On other health indicators, such as diabetes and infectious and parasitic diseases, Hispanics appear to be clearly disadvantaged relative to other whites. Factors explaining the relative advantages or disadvantages of Hispanics include cultural practices, family supports, selective migration, diet, and genetic heritage. The recently completed Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey will go a long way to provide answers to many questions regarding the health of Hispanics in the Southwest or elsewhere.
Markides, K S; Coreil, J
The objective of this study is to evaluate the levels of emergency obstetrics care (EOC) signal functions in health facilities in a developing setting with high maternal morbidity and mortality indices and to determine if there are differences between public and private health facilities in terms of availability of these signal functions. A survey of health facilities was carried out in six of the 16 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kwara State Nigeria. All health facilities in these LGAs including public and private health facilities offering some services to pregnant women were surveyed using an interviewer- administered, facility-assessment questionnaire adapted from the WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF international guidelines for monitoring the availability and use of obstetric services. Frequency tables, percentages and charts were used for presenting the data. Comparing public and private facilities was done using chi-square tests. A total of 258 health facilities that provide maternal health services were surveyed in this study, out of which 76 (29.5%) were private facilities and 182 (70.5%) were public sector facilities. Most of the UN indicators were not met by the health facilities in Kwara state. The availability of EOC facilities was more among the private sector and this was statistically significant. This study shows that all stakeholders involved in reducing maternal mortality have a big challenge in the areas of availability, inequity in geographical distribution of EOC facilities and poor utilisation of these EOC services by women. PMID:24069733
Saidu, Rakiya; August, Euna M; Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Saka, Mohammed J; Jimoh, Abdulgafar A G
Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria
Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3-18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10-5 mm s-1, while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10-4 to 1.36 × 10-3 mm s-1. The thick but less permeable lateritic unit which overlaid the more permeable rocks constituted a partial impermeable overburden that prevented an adequate groundwater recharge during and immediately after rainfall. Three zones were delineated as low, medium and high groundwater resource potential areas, located in the northern, central and southern part of the study area, respectively. The low groundwater resource potential around Ijebu-Ode is due to the less permeable lateritic overburden, which prevents an adequate recharge during rainfall and the rugged/undulating basement topography that controls the distribution and storage of the limited recharged water. The southern part of the study area can be developed to meet the water needs of the inhabitants.
Osinowo, Olawale O.; Idowu Olayinka, A.
Introduction Contraception means procedures employed to interfere at one stage or the other with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction leading to a failure in conception. It means voluntary techniques adopted to achieve birth control. Its use remains sensitive worldwide. Within the same society, contraception varies amongst people of different socio-cultural, educational, religious, or occupational affiliations. It also varies between urban and rural settlements. Some contraceptive techniques also prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of STIs also varies with these same factors. There is very limited literature on contraception exclusively amongst bankers. We sought to investigate the level of awareness and practice of contraception amongst bankers in an urban society in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 200 self-administered structured questionnaires were retrieved from bankers from 5 banks selected by simple random sampling in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data was subsequently statistically analyzed using SPSS. Results The age range was 21-45 years, mean28.8±1.4 years, 51.7% were males (72% single, 27% married, 1% separated) and 48.3% were females (52.4% single, 47.6% married). All (100%) respondents were aware of contraception, 93.3% males and 91.7% females were sexually active, 88.9% males and 84.5% females believe contraception is useful. Most (71.4%) respondents practice contraception, males (81%) being more than females (61.1%), p < 0.05. More (71.4%) females and fewer (37.8%) males believe that contraception prevents pregnancy but not STIs, 28.6% of females and 46.6% of males believe it prevents both pregnancy and STIs, whereas 14% of males and no female believe contraception prevents STIs but not pregnancy. Conclusion The awareness of and practice of contraception was very high among the bankers but more male bankers practice contraception whereas more female bankers perceive contraceptives to be for the married only.
Meka, Ijeoma Angela; Okwara, Emmanuel Chidiebere; Meka, Anthony Obiamaka
Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852
Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J
Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in general, and antenatal care attendance in particular in combination with supply side interventions. Given the relatively modest financial commitments they require, community-directed programmes appear to be a cost-effective way to improve malaria prevention; the participatory approach underlying CDI programmes also promises to strengthen ties between the formal health sector and local communities.
This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n=64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2-32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25-34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p=0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n=42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n=27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n=52 isolates, 2-9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n-1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p=0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. PMID:21878397
Thumamo, Benjamin P; Asuquo, Anne E; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Véronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O; Rastogi, Nalin
Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n?=?100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates.
This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12 months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n = 64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2–32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25–34 years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p = 0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n = 42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n = 27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n = 52 isolates, 2–9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n ? 1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p = 0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU–VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria.
Thumamo, Benjamin P.; Asuquo, Anne E.; Abia-Bassey, Lydia N.; Lawson, Lovett; Hill, Veronique; Zozio, Thierry; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Eko, Francis O.; Rastogi, Nalin
This study was conducted to assess the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in modern health care delivery in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 391 respondents comprising 48 TBAs, 309 childbearing mothers and 34 medical and para-medical professionals constituted the study sample. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions as well as validated questionnaires were the tools used for data collection. The results reveal that respondents believe that TBAs can play meaningful roles in family planning, screening of high-risk pregnant mothers, fertility/infertility treatment and maternal and child care services. Rural dwellers prefer to use the services of TBAs, as compared to their urban counterparts. Reasons for the preference included TBAs, availability, accessibility, cheap services and rural dwellers' faith in the efficacy of their services. There is, therefore, the need to restructure the training of TBAs as well as to fully integrate their services into the Nigerian orthodox healthcare delivery system especially as they affect rural settings. PMID:12476721
Imogie, A O; Agwubike, E O; Aluko, K
A community survey of enuresis was carried out in November/December 2002 among 300 apparently healthy children aged 5-16 years selected systematically from the Ehor Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. This was done with the aim of ascertaining the true prevalence of the disease and the contributions of some organic causative factors. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 21.3%. Of the 64 children who were enuretic, 58 (91%) had only nocturnal enuresis. No strict daytime enuresis was recorded. Combined daytime and night time enuresis accounted for only six (9.4%) cases. Ninety-four percent of cases of enuresis were primary, while only six were secondary. Prevalence of enuresis declined significantly with increasing age (chi2= 14 .93, df= 3; p = 002). There was a strong association between enuresis and family history of bed wetting (more so with siblings) (chi2 = 45.09, p < 0.000). Though not statistically significant, enuresis was more common in males, in children drawn from families of poor socio-economic status, among first order births, and among those with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Also, there was no significant association between enuresis and hemoglobin genotype. Organic conditions played a minimal role in the etiology of enuresis in the study location, but the morbidity occurred frequently enough to warrant health attention. A community approach is advocated because only an insignificant proportion is seen in orthodox health facilities. PMID:16903624
Iduoriyekemwen, N J; Ibadin, M O; Abiodun, P O
High vaginal swabs (HVS) obtained from 500 volunteers in Edo State, Nigeria which comprised 394 contraceptive users and 106 non-contraceptive users were screened for the prevalence of Candida species using standard procedures. Results revealed the isolation of Candida species in 246 of volunteers. These included Candida albicans 174 (38.4%), Candida pseudotropicalis 20 (4%), Candida stellatoidea 15 (3%), Candida krusei nine (1.8%), Candida guilliermondii 12 (2.4%), Candida tropicalis 11 (2.2%) and Candida glabrata five (1%). Of the 394 contraceptive users, 203 (51.5%) had Candida species isolated from them compared to 43 (40.6%) from 106 non-contraceptive users. There was significant relationship (P<0.001) between the type of contraceptive used and the prevalence of vaginal colonization. Age and marital status of the volunteers sampled had significant relationship (P<0.001) with the prevalence of vaginal colonization. Results have revealed an association between use of contraceptive and the prevalence of vaginal colonization in our environment. PMID:15496123
Enweani, I B; Gugnani, H C; Okobia, R; Ojo, S B
Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (? (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978
Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu
Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed. PMID:22871225
Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F
Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.
Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.
Monthly bacteriological water testing of traditional water sources (ponds, rivers, unprotected springs and traditional wells) used by five villages in northeastern Imo State, Nigeria, was conducted during the period January 1983 to August 1985. The membrane-filtration technique was used to detect faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Evidence of faecal pollution was seen throughout the year for all water sources. During the study period, the monthly geometric mean counts per 100 ml of water (all sources combined) ranged from 760 to 17877 for FC and from 678 to 17394 for FS. The peak period of faecal pollution occurred during the transition between the dry and wet seasons and in the early wet season. During this peak pollution season (February-May), the geometric mean counts were 2.5-7.2 times higher than in the remaining part of the year for all source types except rivers, with ponds being the most heavily polluted. Preliminary findings on the sensitivity and specificity, in this tropical environment, of the standard membrane-filtration technique for enumerating FC are presented. The implications of the findings of this study for the environmental control of waterborne and hygiene-related diseases are discussed.
Blum, D.; Huttly, S. R.; Okoro, J. I.; Akujobi, C.; Kirkwood, B. R.; Feachem, R. G.
Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1?:?7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (?2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area.
Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria.
Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing
This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…
Adeyemi, T. O.
The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 °C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.
Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas
In Nigeria, most studies concerning HIV/AIDS transmission have looked at the sexual route from both epidemiological and behavioral perspectives. A few have examined the role of blood transfusion and the potential for indigenous surgical practices. None have specifically looked at the transmission of potential barbers. This study distinguished between indigenous barbers who function as surgeons and "modern" barbers who cut hair, and focused on the latter through observations of barbering practices in 77 shops in Igbo-Ora and Apete communities in Oyo State. Igbo-Ora is headquarters of a rural local government, while Apete is a peri-urban community near Ibadan, the state capital. Five barbering sessions were observed in each shop using a checklist during evening hours when shops are busiest. All barbers used clippers to cut hair, either electric or manual. On average, barbers sterilized the clippers in a commercial disinfectant, Jik, or with methylated spirits prior to 4.2 barberings. Sex and age of customer were not associated with wether the clippers were sterilized. Three shop characteristics appeared to influence sterilization behavior. Clippers were more likely to be sterilized if the shop was in Apete, if the shop owner was male, and if the shop had two or more of the following electrical appliances: fan, TV, or radio/cassette layer. There were only two observed cases of the barbers causing a cut, and in both cases the clippers had been sterilized. Overall, 63 (16.3%) of the 385 customers were barbed with non-sterilized clippers. The relatively short time gap between customers implies that the potential for disease transmission exists, though it was not within the scope of this study to study disease transmission itself. In-service training that involves the barbers themselves and addresses both gender and town differences is recommended. PMID:17695087
Salami, Kabiru K; Titiloye, Musibau A; Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A
To identify key socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance with recommended use of commodities for preventing malaria in pregnancy (MIP) in Enugu State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional study of 720 women who delivered within 6 months preceding the survey in three local government areas in Enugu State was conducted using a structured questionnaire. About half (51.6 %) of the women used IPTp1 while 25.9 % took IPTp2 as recommended during their most recent pregnancy. Forty-one percent of the women slept under insecticide treat nets (ITN) during the most recent pregnancy but only 15.4 % did so as recommended every night. Socio-demographic and knowledge factors associated with compliance were identified. Compliance with intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) recommendation was more common among those in the rural setting (26.9 %) compared to the peri-urban (20.3 %) and urban (17.3 %) (P = 0.032). Those with good knowledge of the causes, effects and prevention of malaria during pregnancy complied more (23.7 %) than those with poor knowledge (17.0 %) (P = 0.020). With respect to sleeping under ITN, more of those with post secondary education, good knowledge of MIP and currently living with a partner used ITN every night during the last pregnancy. Knowledge about the MIP issues and having a partner influence compliance with relevant preventives. Efforts to increase compliance with recommended practices to prevent MIP should focus on providing health education to pregnant women and their partners, who reinforce what the women are told during antenatal care. More qualitative studies need to be conducted on this subject. PMID:24043556
Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Idemili-Aronu, Ngozi; Okoye, Ijeoma; Ugwu, Chidi; Iremeka, Felicia U
Mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics is a key component of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control. Guidelines recommend that where MDA is warranted the whole population be targeted with 80% considered the minimum acceptable coverage. In other countries, MDA is usually conducted by salaried Ministry of Health personnel (MOH). In Plateau State, Nigeria, the existing network of volunteer Community Directed Distributors (CDD) was used for the first trachoma MDA. We conducted a population-based cluster random survey (CRS) of MDA participation to determine the true coverage and compared this to coverage reported from CDD registers. We surveyed 1,791 people from 352 randomly selected households in 24 clusters in three districts in Plateau State in January 2011, following the implementation of MDA. Households were enumerated and all individuals present were asked about MDA participation. Household heads were questioned about household-level characteristics and predictors of participation. Individual responses were compared with the CDD registers. MDA coverage was estimated as 60.3% (95% CI 47.9-73.8%) by the survey compared with 75.8% from administrative program reports. CDD registration books for comparison with responses were available in 19 of the 24 clusters; there was a match for 658/682 (96%) of verifiable responses. CDD registers did not list 481 (41.3%) of the individuals surveyed. Gender and age were not associated with individual participation. Overall MDA coverage was lower than the minimum 80% target. The observed discrepancy between the administrative coverage estimate from program reports and the CRS was largely due to identification of communities missed by the MDA and not reported in the registers. CRS for evaluation of MDA provides a useful additional monitoring tool to CDD registers. These data support modification of distributor training and MDA delivery to increase coverage in subsequent rounds of MDA. PMID:23326617
Cromwell, Elizabeth A; King, Jonathan D; McPherson, Scott; Jip, Falam N; Patterson, Amy E; Mosher, Aryc W; Evans, Darin S; Emerson, Paul M
Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Delta(17)O values in less arid settings. Although Delta(17)O variations in terrestrial NO(3)(-) can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric (high Delta(17)O) and biogenic (low Delta(17)O) NO(3)(-), variations in Delta(17)O of terrestrial ClO(4)(-) are not readily explained in the same way. This study provides important new constraints for identifying natural sources of ClO(4)(-) in different environments by multicomponent isotopic characteristics, while presenting the possibilities of divergent ClO(4)(-) formation mechanisms and(or) ClO(4)(-) isotopic exchange in biologically active environments. PMID:20521813
Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C
We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 ?g/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 ?g/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 ?g/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%). PMID:21247209
Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth
Hydrologic time series of groundwater levels, streamflow, precipitation, and tree-ring indices from four alluvial basins in the southwestern United States were spectrally analyzed, and then frequency components were reconstructed to isolate variability due to climatic variations on four time scales. Reconstructed components (RCs), from each time series, were compared to climatic indices like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North American Monsoon (NAM), and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to reveal that as much as 80% of RC variation can be correlated with climate variations on corresponding time scales. In most cases, the hydrologic RCs lag behind the climate indices by 1-36 months. In all four basins, PDO-like components were the largest contributors to cyclic hydrologic variability. Generally, California time series have more variation associated with PDO and ENSO than the Arizona series, and Arizona basins have more variation associated with NAM. ENSO cycles were present in all four basins but were the largest relative contributors in southeastern Arizona. Groundwater levels show a wide range of climate responses that can be correlated from well to well in the various basins, with climate responses found in unconfined and confined aquifers from pumping centers to mountain fronts. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.
Hanson, R. T.; Dettinger, M. D.; Newhouse, M. W.
Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit.
Anning, David W
The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.
Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.
To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities.
Jenerette, G. Darrel; Miller, Greg; Buyantuev, Alexander; Pataki, Diane E.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Pincetl, Stephanie
In developing countries, culture favours males for economic ventures more than females. There is evidence that allowing HIV positive women inheritance rights will mitigate negative economic consequences of HIV/AIDS and other related risks. This study aimed to examine the extent to which HIV positive women have access to family resources in Abia State, Nigeria. Data collection instruments were questionnaire, focus group discussion and interview guides using 98 HIV positive women in network of people living with HIV/AIDS. Five key informants were also interviewed to authenticate women's responses. Results showed that 85 (86.7%) of the women were denied rights to family resources. Thirty-eight (64.4%) of them had negative relationship with their family members for demanding their husbands' property. Because of limited financial assistance, the women took two types of risks in order to survive in the communities. Twenty-five women (25.5%) earned their livelihood by acting as hired labourers to others in the farm. More that half (55.1%) of the HIV positive women were practicing unprotected sex. Although as high as 79.6% of women were aware of risks of unprotected sex, 54 (55%) of them practised it. The commonest reason for taking the risk was sex partners' dislike for condom use. The high proportion of HIV positive women who were denied access to family resources, could suggest lack of care and support. If this denial continues, Government's efforts to reduce HIV prevalence would yield no significant result. There is therefore need for organized community education programme that emphasizes the benefits of empowering women living positively with HIV/AIDS economically. PMID:18846783
Enwereji, E E
Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase.
Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.
The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352
Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua
The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ? 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673
Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace
Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716
Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday
Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil.
Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.
This metasite, created by Brian Kenny and Matthias Gessler, contains a very large number of links relating to archaeology in the American Southwest. Archaeologists and students will find links for health and safety issues, job opportunities, professional contacts, and conference announcements. Those interested in Southwestern archaeology, history, or culture will appreciate the eclectic collection of links, organized by state. Additional resources include annotated bibliographies and links to "Anti-Archaeology" sites.
Giessler, Matthias.; Kenny, Brian.
Convectively-driven dust storms (or haboobs) are common phenomena in the southwestern United States. However, studies about haboobs in this region are limited. Here, we investigate the state and fate of a massive haboob that hit Phoenix, Arizona on 5 July 2011 using satellite, radar, and ground-based observations. This haboob was a result of strong outflow boundaries (with peak wind gusts of 29 m s-1) from storms that were initiated in the southeast of Tucson. In particular, we find three major outflow systems (based on radar data) that were generated by forward propagating storms, ultimately merging near Phoenix. This resulted in peak hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of 1974 ?g m-3 and 907 ?g m-3 at US EPA stations near Phoenix. The high PM concentration is consistent in space and time with the dust wall movement based on our analysis of radar data on hydrometeor classification. Enhanced aerosol loadings over metropolitan Phoenix were also observed on 6 July from NASA Terra/Aqua MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals (AOD > 0.8). We infer from CALIOP vertical feature masks and HYSPLIT back trajectories that remnants of the haboob were transported to northwest of Phoenix on 6 July at 2-4 km above ground level. Ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 from IMPROVE stations also imply low-level transport to the east of Phoenix on 8 July. Finally, we find that this haboob, which had local and regional impacts, is atypical of other dust events in this region. We note from this analysis that extreme events such as this haboob require an integrated air quality observing system to provide a more comprehensive assessment of these events.
Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F.; Brost, John J.
A STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MIGRANTS WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER THROUGH DECEMBER, 1964, IN ARIZONA, COLORADO, NEW MEXICO, AND TEXAS. THIS REPORT, CONCERNED WITH THE ARIZONA STUDY, IDENTIFIED THE MOST COMPLICATED PROBLEM AS THE LACK OF A COORDINATED ATTACK ON MIGRANT SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, HEALTH, AND EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BY LOCAL, STATE, AND…
MOORE, HAROLD E.; SCHUFLETOWSKI, CHARLES
Jaguars (Panthera onca) remain virtually unstudied in the desert environments at the northern extent of their range. Historic sightings from the United States indicate a declining population of resident jaguars from the late 1800s into the 1940s, after which only occasional jaguars were reported until the present. After 2 sightings of jaguars in 1996, we established a camera monitoring program
Emil B. McCain; Jack L. Childs
This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…
Beaudrie, Sara M.
In Nigeria diarrhea still poses the greatest health problem to the survival of the under-fives in spite of the fact that the majority of mothers are reportedly to have been reached by health education on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) regardless of their ecological and socioeconomic situations. This study assesses the effect of different ecological and sociocultural conditions on use of
B. Folasade Iyun; E. Adewale Oke
Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…
Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka
The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were
Ikaraoha Chidiebere Ikechukwu; Oforofuo Isreal Agware Ojareva; Anetor John Ibhagbemien; Okogbo Felix Okhoaretor; Okusanya Babasola Oluwatomi; Okogbenin Sylvanus Akhalufo; Alonge Temitope Oluwagbenga; Mbadiwe Nkeiruka Chigaekwu
The problem of soil erosion, especially in the south-eastern part of Nigeria, is enormous. This problem is affecting the development because infrastructures such as houses, roads and many others are being destroyed yearly and this in turn constitutes an environmental menace. To effectively tackle this problem, there is a need to evaluate those factors of soils that affect erosion. In
Peter Aba Idah; H. I. Mustapha; J. J. Musa; J. Dike
The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p?0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128
Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I
In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This
B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya
Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).
Goldberg, C. S.; Sullivan, B. K.; Malone, J. H.; Schwalbe, C. R.
A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hanson, R. T.; Newhouse, M. W.; Dettinger, M. D.
Landsat time series data sets were acquired for the Santa Fe National Forest in New Mexico. This area includes the San Pedro Parks Wilderness area, which was designated as an official wilderness in 1964. Eight autumnal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes acquired from 1988 to 2006 were analyzed to determine whether significant changes have occurred throughout the region during the past 18??years and, if so, to assess whether the changes are long-term and gradual or short-term and abrupt. It was found that, starting in about 1995, many of the conifer stands within the Wilderness area showed consistently gradual and marked increases in the Shortwave Infrared/Near Infrared Index. These trends generally imply decreases in canopy greenness or increases in mortality. Other high-elevation conifer forests located outside of the Wilderness area showed similar spectral trends, indicating that changes are potentially widespread. The spatial patterns of forest damage as inferred from the image analyses were very similar to the general patterns of insect defoliation damage mapped via aerial sketch mapping by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring Program. A field visit indicated that zones of spectral change are associated with high levels of forest damage and mortality, likely caused by a combination of insects and drought. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of using historical Landsat data for providing objective and consistent long-term assessments of the gradual ecosystem changes that are occurring within the western United States.
Vogelmann, J. E.; Tolk, B.; Zhu, Z.
The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.
Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray
The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources. About 46.6 million people live in the SWPA study area, mostly in urban areas, but also in rural, agricultural communities that cultivate about 14.4 million acres of cropland. Other rural areas contain small communities with mining, retirement, or tourism/recreational-based economies. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the region are particularly dependent on good-quality groundwater supplies. In the year 2000, about 33.7 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of surface water was diverted from streams, and about 23.0 million acre-ft of groundwater was withdrawn from basin-fill aquifers in the SWPA study area. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area for 2000 were about 18.0 million acre-ft and 4.1 million acre-ft, respectively, and together account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Although irrigation and public supply are the primary uses of basin-fill aquifer withdrawals in the study area, water use varies locally by basin, and withdrawals for industrial, mining, and electric power generation also are substantial in some areas.
Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.
Examination of 58 Clapper Rail specimens taken in the breeding season from the Colorado Valley and the west coast of mainland Mexico verifies the distinctness of the races Rallus longirostris yomanensis, R. 1. rhizophorae, and R. 1. nayaritensis. Rallus 1. yumanensis is a relatively pale brown, pointed-winged, summer resident of freshwater marshes along the valley and delta of the Colorado River. Late winter specimens of yumanensis have been taken in freshwater and saltwater habitats in the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Puebla. Both R. 1. rhizophorae, a pale grayish bird, and R. 1. nayaritensis, a darker grayish form, are presumed year-round residents of the western Mexican mangrove swamps. Both have more rounded wings than yumanensis. The range of rhizophorae extends south along the coast from central Sonora to central Sinaloa, and that of nayaritensis from central Sinaloa to the vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit. Features of the range and characters of birds where the range of these two races approach each other are unclear.
Banks, R.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.
The intention of the project reported was to develop plans for an energy-efficient residence for the southwestern region of the country, and to design into it a roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) solar electric power system which would allow two-way power flo...
The overall goal of Balanced Nutrient Management Systems (BNMS) a collaborative project between International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U. Leuven) is to curb the vicious cycle of plant nutrient depletion in maize-based farming systems in the moist savanna and humid forest zone of West Africa. This is through integrated nutrient management systems geared to land use practices which are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable. In Kaduna state of Nigeria (Northern Guinea Savannah), three improved maize-based technologies were tested in a series of farmer-managed field trials since 2000. The first technology was a continuous maize treatment characterized by high fertilizer rates (Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG 2000)). In the second technology, half of the fertilizer quantity was replaced with organic manure (BNMS-manure). The third technology was a soybean-maize rotation treatment in which the fertilizer rates to the maize was reduced by a half (BNMS-soybean/maize). The broad objective of the study was to conduct economic analysis of the three introduced BNMS maize-based technologies along with the farmers` own practice of maize production. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the costs and returns to the BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and to examine the farmers` perception of the BNMS technologies. The tools used for the analysis of the data were: partial budget analysis to determine the costs and returns to the introduced BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and the scoring technique to examine the farmer`s perception of the BNMS technologies. Findings from the partial budget analysis showed that, BNMS-soybean/maize was the best in both the demonstration and adaptation trials by having the highest gross margins of 18,462 and 19,785, respectively, with the inorganic fertilizer cost constituting over 50% of the total production cost. The farmers gave overall best perception to both the BNM-soybean/maize and the BNMS-manure technologies.
Omadachi, Ugbabe O.; Ahmed, Ben; Manyong, V. M.; Olukosi, James O.; Yusuf, Oseni
Purpose: To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 ± 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said ‘I don't know’ and 24.4% of participants who responded ‘curse-from-God’. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded ‘I don't know how it can be treated’ and 10/41 (36.6%) said ‘medically’. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because ‘it cannot cure or reverse the disease’ while (26.7%) would refuse out of ‘fear’. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma.
Isawumi, Michaeline A.; Hassan, Mustapha B.; Akinwusi, Patience O.; Adebimpe, Olalekan W.; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O.; Christopher, Alebiosu C.; Adewole, Taiwo A.
Background A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. Methods and Findings Three primary schools were randomly selected: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural) and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4–15 y, of whom 146 (56.8%) were boys and 111 (43.2%) were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (?2?=?18.85, df?=?2, p<0.0005). A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage was present around school compounds. In the private school, in contrast, all hygiene indices were satisfactory. Conclusions These results indicate that burden of parasite infections and poor sanitary conditions are of greater public health importance in government-owned schools than in privately owned schools. School health programmes in government-owned schools, including deworming, health education, and improvement of hygiene conditions are recommended.
Ekpo, Uwem Friday; Odoemene, Simon Nnayere; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi
The Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) is important for regulating stream channels, as it defines the lateral extent of non-wetland waters, as defined under Waters of the United States in the Clean Water Act (33 CFR Part 328.3). Prior to this study, little was known about the OHWM and geomorphically effective events in arid southwest ephemeral and intermittent channels. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain features and flow dynamics are challenging to identify in these channels because of the unstable channel morphology, flashy flood events, and lack of gage data. Through field surveys, LiDAR high-resolution topography data collection, HEC-RAS flow modeling, analysis of aerial photography, and determination of recurrence intervals using gage data, we have developed a methodology to identify the hydrogeomorphic floodplain units and delineate the OHWM. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain units include a migratory low-flow channel, an active floodplain associated with low to moderate discharge events, and a low terrace inundated by moderate to high floods. We identified primary OHWM indicators such as a break in slope, a change in sediment texture, and a change in vegetation characteristics that create a repeatable and reliable signature in the channel morphology that is associated with the OHW boundary between the active floodplain and the low terrace. Secondary indicators such as drift, ripples, and silt deposits are randomly distributed throughout the channel and cannot be linked to a particular inundation extent. In an analysis of 14 gaged ephemeral and intermittent channels, we determined that the recurrence intervals varied from <1 to 15.5 yr. Lower recurrence intervals were typically associated with more stable channels, while channels with a sandy, erodable substrate had higher recurrence intervals. A more complete understanding of the channel morphology and the highly variable OHW recurrence intervals allows more reliable and repeatable delineations in southwest ephemeral and intermittent streams.
Curtis, K. E.; Lichvar, R.; Dixon, L.
This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42?, NO3?, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42? show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42? unlike snow SO42?, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42? (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42?-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3? : SO42? ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3? : SO42? ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3? : SO42? ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42? precursors.
Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.
This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…
Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.
This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…
Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.
This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…
Adeyemi, T. O.
A survey of the prevalence of onchocerciasis was carried out in the Taraba river valley, Nigeria where Simulium damnosum s. l. is known to breed but about which no epidemiological data exists. Skin biopsies taken from 2,876 persons in 14 communities were examined for the microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. 100% infection rate was recorded in one of the communities, five other communities had prevalence rates between 81.0% and 94.7%. Three communities had infection rates between 44.8% and 69.1%. The mean microfilarial density in all the communities was 64.7 with a range between 3.2 and 167.6. The present findings indicate that the Taraba river valley may be one of the worst onchocerciasis zones in Nigeria. PMID:1883152
Akogun, O B; Onwuliri, C O
Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319
Monath, T P; Wilson, D C; Stroh, G; Lee, V H; Smith, E A
Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by environmental factors operating on the entire drainage basin, classification of channels can provide land managers and users with an understanding of what areas are likely to be most susceptible to erosion or the effects of high sedimentation rates and under what conditions they are most likely to occur.
Parker, John T. C.
School-based programming is one of the most common approaches to HIV/AIDS prevention among youth. This paper presents the history and development of the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme in Edo State, Nigeria and results of evaluation of teacher actions and responses to training in its delivery. Results indicate that teachers benefited from the training, were aware of new and/or existing teaching resources and began to teach about HIV/AIDS. Teachers expressed that the programme facilitated open dialogue about HIV/AIDS. However, given limited human resources, FLHE was viewed as additional work to already overloaded teaching schedules. It is recommended that the Ministry of Education channel resources to enhance teachers' efforts towards combating HIV/AIDS. To facilitate learning about sexual health and family life, it is recommended that FLHE-based training be viewed as the first rather than the only step towards teacher professional development in this area. PMID:22916546
Dlamini, Nombuso; Okoro, Felicia; Ekhosuehi, Uyi Oni; Esiet, Adenike; Lowik, A J; Metcalfe, Karen
A serologic survey for antibodies against H5 subtype influenza virus in 605 apparently healthy local chickens using a hemagglutination inhibition test was carried out in 12 local government areas of Kaduna state, Nigeria. An overall prevalence of 18.1% was recorded, with a higher prevalence of 27.3% in six local government areas that have not reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and a lower prevalence of 7.5% in six local government areas that had reported and confirmed outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 virus between 2006 and 2007. There was association between the presence of ducks and detection of H5 antibodies (P = 0.000, odds ratio = 0.22). The implication of this finding is discussed, although a virologic investigation to verify the findings of this study is highly recommended. PMID:20521661
Durosinlorun, A; Umoh, J U; Abdu, P A; Ajogi, I
This study examined the impact of two interventions delivered in rural communities and schools in Edo State, Nigeria designed to decrease youth vulnerability to HIV infection. The Ministry of Education approved Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme delivered in Junior Secondary Schools and a community-based initiative to raise AIDS Competency of rural communities were evaluated using a clustered randomized control trial and mixed qualitative-quantitative methods. Ten schools were assigned to each of three research arms: FLHE programme only, FLHE and community programme, and control. Results demonstrated positive effects on rejection of myths, attitudes related to abstinence and use of condoms, and sexual activity. Confidence in these results is supported by both levels of statistical significance and consistency in patterns of results across different levels of schooling. Results support expansion of delivery of the FLHE programme and development of community-based initiatives as effective methods of reducing youth vulnerability to HIV infection. PMID:22916547
Arnold, Robert; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Tenkorang, Eric; Holland, Daniel; Gaspard, Adeline; Luginaah, Isaac
Tree species diversity, biovolume and forest stand structure were investigated in natural forest ecosystem located around\\u000a some selected communities in the bitumen-producing area of Ondo state, Nigeria. Two forest reserves and four free areas distributed\\u000a in 4 Local Government Areas (LGA) of the state were selected for data collection, out of the total 6 LGAs in the bitumen belt\\u000a of
V. A. J. Adekunle; A. O. Olagoke
This study identified the characteristics and factors influencing unintended pregnancy among unmarried young women in a rural community in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and thirty six unmarried teens with unintended pregnancy attending a Christian hospital in Ozubulu, a rural community in south-east Nigeria, from January 1998 to December 2001 were included in the study. Information was obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Over 75% of the girls had their first sexual intercourse by 19 years, and over 69% had multiple partners. Over 95% had sex for economic reasons and exchanged sex for money or gifts. Only 13.5% ever used condoms. Ninety seven per cent suffered violence such as beating and verbal abuse from family members because of the pregnancy. Most of the adolescents or young women experienced major stressors, most importantly school and job termination, partner's negative attitude, religious sanction, discrimination and stigmatisation as a result of the unintended pregnancy. Unmarried pregnant adolescents or young women have particular health and psychosocial problems. Stakeholders in adolescent health, namely, parents, teachers, religious groups and health care providers, should recognise these problems and advocate for the provision of appropriate care and youth-friendly services to help youths navigate through these problems. PMID:17348328
Ilika, Amobi; Igwegbe, Anthony
Security was tight in northern Nigeria today, as armed police guarded mosques after days of religious rioting that have left hundreds dead and widespread destruction. While sparked by Christian opposition to the introduction of Sharia, or Muslim law, in the Nigerian state of Kaduna, most observers blame both sides for the rioting. Africa's most populous nation (115 million), Nigeria contains over 200 ethnic groups and is split almost evenly between a Muslim north and Christian south. Ironically, the violence can in part be traced to the return of democracy to Nigeria last year. Under the new and more open government led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, some of the Muslim-dominated states have taken steps to introduce Sharia. While the transition to Sharia passed peacefully in the overwhelmingly Muslim Zamfara state, Kaduna contains a sizable Christian majority who have reacted strongly at the mere prospect of the introduction of Islamic law. Previously circumspect on the issue, Obasanjo recently spoke out against Sharia, expressing doubts over whether it was compatible with the Nigerian constitution. In addition, Nigeria's Human Rights Law Service has also begun court proceedings to try to have Sharia declared unconstitutional in Zamfara. While order is slowly being restored in Kaduna, this issue will certainly remain in the forefront of Nigerian politics, as the governors of two more states have signed bills under which Sharia will come into effect in May, and two other states are actively considering taking similiar steps.
De Nie, Michael W.
Despite a widely noted increase in the severity of recent western wildfires, this trend has never been quantified. A twenty-year series of Landsat TM satellite imagery for all forest fires on the 1.4 million ha Gila National Forest suggests that an increases in area burned and area burned severely from 1984-2004 are well correlated with timing and intensity of rain events during the fire season. Winter precipitation was marginally correlated with burn severity, but only in high-elevation forest types. These results suggest the importance of within-season precipitation over snow pack in modulating recent wildfire size and severity in mid-elevation southwestern forests.
Holden, Zachary A.; Morgan, Penelope; Crimmins, Michael A.; Steinhorst, R. K.; Smith, Alistair M. S.
This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (p<0.05), also, both total Cr and Cr (VI) were 5.4-26 folds higher in USA cement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (p<0.001). Total Cd was higher in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05 and p<0.001), respectively. Mercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (p<0.05), while Pb was only significantly higher in clinker from Nigeria (p<0.001). These results show that cement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125
Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O
In this paper, examined are the sexual and health behaviours of commercial sex workers in Nigeria, a high-risk group in this era of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim is to provide in-depth knowledge of their sexual networking and the prevalence rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This analysis is intended to highlight their implications in the spread and control of AIDS and HIV infection. The results of the study show the extensive sexual networking of these commercial sex workers, the health implications, and the utilisation of nonorthodox health services in diagnosing STDs. The implications of these results are the likely drain on the limited health resources of the Nigerian government and the harmful effects on the women, fetuses, children, and other sexual partners of clients of these commercial sex workers. PMID:11813779
Asowa-Omorodion, F I
This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569
Omorodion, F I
Sociocultural factors affecting malnutrition in over one thousand under fives living in villages and towns located in northeastern Nigeria were examined. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and through examination of the children. The study showed that about a third of the children were malnourished. The observed malnutrition was higher among females. The age group most affected was 25-36 months. Poor weaning and food supplementation exerted the strongest influence on the nutritional status of the children whose diet consisted mainly of cereals. It is suggested that local but largely ignored protein sources should be given more attention. Adequate health education to mothers is essential especially in providing information on appropriate nutrition for the child that has just been weaned. PMID:9836205
Madusolumuo, M A; Akogun, O B
The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated. PMID:22869337
Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L
A comparative study of radiofrequencies field levels of some base stations in Makurdi and its environs was carried out in Makurdi, Benue State, North central Nigeria. Electromagnetic field tester (EMF 827 Lutron) was used for measurement at distances ranging from 5.00, 10.00, 15.00 and 20.00 meters away from the base stations at the North, South, West and East directions. Electric
J. T Iortile; L. Alumuku
The aim of this study was to uncover barriers to childhood immunization in order to make recommendations that will address the problem in Rivers State and Nigeria. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in September 2008, among mothers and caregivers of children aged 0-5 years, to examine the various barriers to childhood immunization in the Khana Local Government Area of the State. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6.4d software. A total of 1560 mothers and caregivers were interviewed. Their knowledge about immunization was low. Only 15.2% was able to define immunization and mention six vaccine preventable diseases. Most children (46.8%) did not complete their immunization schedule because of frequent shortage of vaccines in the health facilities. Long-term and advance commitment by the government to vaccine manufacturers to purchase vaccines and engaging communities in dialogue over benefits of immunization is advocated to improve immunization in the State. PMID:23000461
Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A
Since 2010, Nigerian state and federal governments and the international community have been responding to an outbreak of lead poisoning caused by the processing of lead-containing gold ore in Zamfara State, Nigeria, that resulted in the deaths of approximately 400 children aged ?5 years. Widespread education, surveys of high-risk villages, testing of blood lead levels (BLLs), medical treatment, and environmental cleanup all have been implemented. To evaluate the success of these remediation efforts in reducing the prevalence of lead poisoning and dangerous work practices, a population-based assessment of children's BLLs and ore processing techniques was conducted during June-July 2012. The assessment found few children in need of medical treatment, significantly lower BLLs, and substantially less exposure of children to dangerous work practices. Public health strategies designed to identify and treat children with lead poisoning, clean up existing environmental hazards, and prevent children from being exposed to dangerous ore processing techniques can produce a sustained reduction in BLLs. PMID:24739340
Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.
Lai, Chung-Chieng A.
Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and is required for remediating salinity problems.
Scanlon, B. R.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Leaney, F. W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R. G.
Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS. PMID:21483498
Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS
To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755
Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O
The manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) all over the world has increased the need for information on the nature and pattern of sexual networking in Africa, where there is a dearth of such information. In the present study, information on the sexual networking of market women in Benin City, Nigeria, was obtained using a questionnaire instrument. The questionnaire covered the sexual, reproductive, and health behaviors of these women. The data revealed that the levels of both premarital and extramarital sexual networking are high. Such a high degree of sexual networking has exposed a number of these women to sexually transmitted diseases. The manifestation of AIDS in this society will be widespread and devastating to the people and the society because these women are in a polygamous relationship in a society that frowns on the use of contraceptives by couples. In addition, controversies surround the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and AIDS, geographical areas of prevalence, and the role of prostitutes in the spread of the disease. For example, studies in Africa show that whereas there is no correlation between SES and AIDS in Kinshasa, the attack rate was higher in educated people in Rwanda and Zambia. Moreover, there are predominantly urban outbreaks in other countries, such as Uganda (Piot & Carael, 1988). PMID:8138473
Omorodion, F I
The aim and objective of the study was to determined pollutant levels in tannery industrial effluent from kano metropolis, Nigeria. Effluents from five tannery industries were characterized and the major sources of industrial pollution determined. Levels of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, Pb and Cr) were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotomeric method, while pH, Eh, DO, TDS, Temperature, sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were also determined using standard procedure. The results of the study showed that effluent quality discharged between tanneries differed significantly. Effluent chromium concentrations varied between 1.02`0.13 to 1.56`0.06 mg LG1, which are above WHO and FEPA limit of 1.0 mg LG1. Hafawa Enterprise Tannery, Unique Leather Finishing had significantly high lead concentrations, while Great Northern Tannery could be a potential source of Iron contamination in this area. Mean levels of Zn for Tannorth Tannery Limited were above maximum permissible limits set by FEPA and WHO. Mean levels of sulphate, nitrate and dissolved Oxygen were also above maximum permissible limits for the entire tanneries studied. Mean values of pH total dissolved solid, phosphate, temperature, Cu, Co, Mn and Redox potential generally were below maximum and minimum permissible limits for effluent discharged into rivers. The monthly variations in the entire tannery fell within the range set up by FEPA and WHO for the discharged of tannery effluent into river. The study serves to generate relevant baseline information for Kano industrial estate.
Akan, J. C.; Moses, E. A.; Ogugbuaja, V. O.; Abah, J.
In northern Nigeria 60 leprosy patients, 49 outpatients and 11 in-patients, were interviewed about their help-seeking behaviour and explanatory models before their first contact with the leprosy services. Most patients showed a delay of more than 1 year. After leprosy was provisionally diagnosed by lay persons, 27% of patients found their way to the leprosy services within 3 months. Chemists (popular sector) and the professional sector frequently missed the diagnosis. If early case finding is to be improved, it is important to involve them in case finding activities and to train them in adequate diagnostic skills. No significant correlations were found between total delay and sex, age, religion or leprosy classification, except with visible deformity at the time of the interview and illiteracy. Consultation of folk healers was the major reason for delay. Most patients consulted folk healers, who, although they claimed to have a positive attitude towards modern medicine in the case of leprosy, never referred patients to the leprosy services. While many patients held a variety of causes responsible for leprosy, most patients explained the disease in traditional terms (58%), while only a minority used modern concepts (20%). This emphasizes the need for continuous attention for health education of diagnosed patients and their families. No significant difference was found between male and female patients concerning their concept of leprosy. Denial of the leprosy diagnosis was rare. PMID:9927811
van de Weg, N; Post, E B; Lucassen, R; De Jong, J T; Van Den Broek, J
The Southwestern Small Animal Imaging Resource (SW-SAIR) seeks to promote and facilitate small animal imaging research related to cancer at UT Southwestern. It combines facilities, expertise, and resources of the Department of Radiology, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the Advanced Imaging Research Center. Major recent investment in imaging has provided a new building and substantial infrastructure (instruments, space, and personnel) based on a trinity of collaboration between UT Southwestern Medical Center, UT Dallas and UT Arlington.
The Southwestern Historical Quarterly started publication in 1897 and remains one of the preeminent journals about the history of Texas and the Southwest. The Texas State Historical Association has undertaken a vast effort to digitize the first 100 years of this publication, and the fruits of their labors are available here. Visitors can search through each of the issues as they wish, or just browse through the table of contents for articles of interest. The issues from 1972 and 1973 are both great places to start, as they contain pieces like "Internal Improvements in Texas in the Early 1850s" and "Pioneer Evaluation of Vegetation in Frontier Texas." Users can view the table of contents for issues after 1997, but they will not have access to the full text of the articles without a subscription. As a whole, this magisterial collection is a tremendous resource for anyone with an interest in the history of the region.
With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.
Oteze, G. E.
The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs. PMID:9447776
Ofoezie, I E; Asaolu, S O
The effect of different water discharge patterns from the artificial Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria, on water level fluctuations and on schistosomiasis transmission was investigated between August 1990 and March 1993 to determine the impact of water level regulation on schistosomiasis transmission and control. The results show that transmission was greatly influenced by the pattern of water discharge during the hot dry season (January-April). A high discharge during this period of no rainfall, high temperatures, and intense sunshine stimulated rapid water level fluctuations and lake draw-down, which led to significant reductions in all indices of schistosomiasis transmission, i.e. snail density, snail infection rates, human water contact patterns, and incidence of infection. Although these results support continuous water discharges from the reservoir during the hot dry season, this may run counter to current water management policies. Further investigation is therefore required to harmonize the potential benefits in this type of discharge pattern with the objectives of efficient water management in artificial reservoirs.
Ofoezie, I. E.; Asaolu, S. O.
Nurses are faced with professional hazards such as needle pricks and blood-borne infections in their day to day activities in the work place. This study is aimed at finding out the knowledge and practice of universal precautions among nurses at the Central Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty-five (155) nurses participated in the cross-sectional study. The nurses were selected using the stratified random sampling method. The nurses had a poor knowledge about universal precautions as only 34.2% of nurses had heard about universal precautions. There was also a poor observance of universal precautions. Knowledge of measures to be taken after the occurrence of occupational accidents/ injuries was also poor, as only 26(16.8%) nurses would report puncture injuries to the clinic, only 13(8.4%) nurses would screen patients for HIV antibody after consent when they sustain work related accident/injuries. Twelve (7.7%) nurses would screen patient to determine hepatitis B status of patient while only 8(5.2%) nurses would go for medical check-up/immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:12717461
Ofili, A N; Asuzu, M C; Okojie, O H
A survey of S. haematobium and other urinary tract pathogens co-infection was carried out among 198 volunteers in Ihieve, Ogben, a rural community in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Of these, 118 (59.5%) had S. haematobium ova in their urine samples. Light infection (< or =50 ova/l0 ml) occurred among 49 (24.7%) volunteers and 59 (29.8%) inhabitants had heavy infections (> 50 ova/10 ml). The children 68 (64.2%) were more infected their the adults 50 (54.3%). This difference was statistically significant at (chi2 = 60.37, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. haematobium among the males 80 (71.4%) was higher than their female counterparts 38 (41.9%) and this difference is statistically significant at (t = 1.28) Bacteriuria and bacterial isolates occurred among 60 (30.3%) with S haematobium infection. Three nitrate reducing bacterial isolates namely; Klebsiella sp and Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and a fungus; Candida albicans were reported in their urine cultures. Multiple infections were observed among 43 S. haematobium infected persons. The antibiogram of the isolates indicated that Nitrofurantoin, Gentamycin and otramax were the most effective drugs for the management of bacterial infections among these volunteers. All the bacterial isolates were resistant to Cloxacillin and Augmentum. The C. albicans were sensitive to Diflucan, Nizoral, Gynotravogen, Gynotrosydovule, Gyno-daktarin and Mycostatin. PMID:18338685
Nmorsi, O P G; Kwandu, U N C D; Ebiaguanye, L M
Background: Condom programming is an integral component in a range of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and with repeated sexual contact among HIV-discordant couples, 98-100% of those who used latex condoms correctly and consistently did not become infected. The objective of this study is to determine condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey carried out among 231 PLWHA and receiving care and treatment at General Hospital Abejukolo in Kogi State, Nigeria. The research instrument was interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO version 3.4.1 software and P-value of < 0.05 was significant for the study. Results: About three-quarters (70.6%) of the respondents had ever used condom. Reasons given by respondents who did not use condom were: Desire for children (39.7%), and reduction of sexual pleasure (17.7%) and partner preference. More than half (56.0%) of the respondents with multiple partners did not use condom. About half 119 (51.5%) have used condom in the last sexual encounter. Gender, literacy level and disclosure of HIV status to partners significantly influence condom use during sexual intercourse. Conclusion: The poor uptake of condom among PLWHA underscores the need for government and other stakeholders in the management of HIV/AIDS to provide more enlightenment opportunities to address the gaps in condom use and disclosure of HIV status to partners. PMID:24923368
Salaudeen, Adekunle G; Musa, Omotosho I; Ojotule, Austin; Yusuf, Ayodeji S; Durowade, Kabir A; Omokanye, Lukman O
The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174
Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A
One strategy for meeting the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women is to integrate family planning into HIV services. In 2008 in Cross River State, Nigeria,family planning was integrated into antiretroviral (ART) services in five local government areas. A basic family planning/HIV integration model was implemented in three of these areas, and an enhanced model in the other two. We conducted baseline interviews in 2008 and follow-up interviews 12-14 months later with 274 female ART clients aged 18-45 in 2009 across the five areas. Unmet need for contraception was high at baseline (28-35 percent). We found that modern contraceptive use rose in the enhanced and basic groups; most of the increase was in consistent condom use. Despite an increase in family planning counseling by ART providers, referrals to family planning services for noncondom methods were low. We conclude by presenting alternative strategies for family planning/HIV integration in settings where large families and low contraceptive use are normative. PMID:22292247
McCarraher, Donna R; Vance, Gwyneth; Gwarzo, Usman; Taylor, Douglas; Chabikuli, Otto Nzapfurundi
The authors investigated the effect of blood lead (BPb) and its relationship with calcium and phosphorus in the development of preeclampsia in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 59 preclamptics, 150 normal pregnant, and 122 nonpregnant women. Blood lead and serum Ca and P were determined. Blood lead was significantly higher (p < .001), whereas serum Ca and P were significantly lower (p < .001) in preclamptics than in normal pregnant women (60.2 ± 12.8 vs 26.3 ± 8.0 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.39 ± 0.33 vs 2.03 ± 0.22 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.76 ± 0.10 vs 0.99 ± 0.13 mmol/L for P, respectively). There was significant increase (p < .05) in BPb and decreases (p < .01) in serum Ca and P in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (35.7 ± 18.0 vs 13.1 ± 6.4 ?g/dL for Pb, 1.85 ± 0.33 vs 2.33 ± 0.20 mmol/L for Ca, and 0.93 ± 0.38 vs 1.24 ± 0.26 mmol/L for P). Also, BPb was negatively correlated with serum Ca and, P, and positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures in pregnancy (r = -.804 for Ca, r = -.728 for P, r = .908 for SBP, and r = .842 for DBP) and preeclampsia (p < .01). It appears that increase in blood lead, which parallels decreases in serum calcium and phosphorus, may be related to the development and progression of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:22845729
Ikechukwu, Ikaraoha Chidiebere; Ojareva, Oforofuo Isreal Agware; Ibhagbemien, Anetor John; Okhoaretor, Okogbo Felix; Oluwatomi, Okusanya Babasola; Akhalufo, Okogbenin Sylvanus; Oluwagbenga, Alonge Temitope; Chigaekwu, Mbadiwe Nkeiruka
Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007
Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M
Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits.
Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU
Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI.
Introduction Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self –administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results The mean age of respondents was 21.3±2.8years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0± 4.5years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Conclusion Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended.
Imaledo, John Abdulrahman; Peter-Kio, Opirite Boma; Asuquo, Eme Olukemi
Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the infants. The benefits of breastfeeding practices to infants and mothers are well documented. However, information on breastfeeding practices and its effect on body mass index (BMI) of mothers are scarce, particularly in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess breastfeeding practices and its association with BMI of mothers. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted among breastfeeding mothers that attended postnatal clinic of the state specialist hospitals and maternity centers in the study location. The specialist hospital and two-third of the nine maternity centers were purposively selected because of their health facilities and personnel. The mother-child pairs (200 respondents) were randomly selected from the study locations. Information on demographic characteristic, socio-economic parameters, nutritional knowledge of breastfeeding and dietary intakes of mothers were collected using questionnaires. BMI of mothers was determined as described by World Health Organization. Age distribution of mothers was between 25-34 years; and almost half of respondents had good educational background and were engaged in different occupations. The respondent monthly income ranged between = N = 3500 - 26000 ($26.92 - $200); and their dietary intakes varied between starchy and protein-based food. The result also showed that the respondent consumed enough nutrients to meet up the recommended daily allowance for protein, carbohydrate, fat, zinc, magnesium, sodium and phosphorous requirements. The BMI classifications showed that over three-fifth of respondents were normal, while the remaining were underweight (6%) and overweight/obese (26.5%). Also, large proportion of respondents engaged in exclusive breastfeeding and with good knowledge of breastfeeding practices. Statistically, exclusive breastfeeding practices had no correlation between the BMI and frequency of breastfeeding. The study, therefore, concluded that mothers had good knowledge of breastfeeding practice; and that there was no association between breastfeeding practices and BMI. PMID:20607068
Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve
Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes.
Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo
Data on knowledge about and attitudes toward sex education was collected from 178 females and 224 males, 15 years of age or older, who resided in a random sample of 243 households in Agbo-Oba, an urban center located in the Ilorin area of Kwara, Nigeria. Nigerian youth are rarely exposed to sex education in the schools; yet, they are increasingly exposed to the portrayal of irresponsible sex and pornography in imported films, books, and magazines. The present study assessed the need for sex education in Nigerian society and examined public attitudes toward sex education. Percent distributions were used to analyze the material. 63.4% of the male respondents and 70.2% of the female respondents had some knowledge of sex education. The proportion of those with knowledge of sex education increased with educational level. In all age groups, at least 60% of the respondents knew about sex education. Respondents' sources of sex education included parents (24.6%), friends (36.8%), school teachers (18.4%), books and magazines (64.7%), health personnel (6%), and churches (1.5%). Respondent knowledge of specific components of sex education was limited. For example, only 55.45 recognized contraception as a component of sex education, and only 37.1% considered the dissemination of information on sexually transmitted diseases to be a part of sex education. Only 9.2% of the respondents were satisfied with their current level of sexual knowledge. 95.3% knew about gonorrhea, and 47.8% knew about syphilis, but only 12.2% knew about herpes, and only 7.7% knew about chancroid. 65.1% of the Moslems and 78.4% of the Christian respondents, or 74.1% of all the respondents, agreed that there was a need for sex education in Nigerian society. The proportion who agreed increased with educational level. Among those who were receptive to sex education, 88.3% said it should be taught by health personnel; 59.7%, by parents; 42.3%, by school teachers; 11.4%, by religious institutions; and 9.7%, by peers. 68.7% thought that schools were the most appropriate setting for imparting sex education. 60% of the respondents knew about oral contraceptives and condoms, but only 40% knew about other methods. 67.7% of the respondents were currently practicing contraception. 67.7% of the respondents believed that the recent influx of pornography into the country was corrupting the morals of the young. 56.3% were in favor of a government ban on the importation of these materials. Overall, the findings indicate that there is a need for sex education and that the majority of the respondents are in favor of introducing sex education into Nigerian society. In view of these findings, a national task force should be appointed to develop sex education training programs, to support and coordinate needed research, and to develop educational materials and experimental sex education courses. PMID:4043975
Ebomoyi, E; Elimian, A A
The Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) is a known nonpoint source for a significant portion of the salinity and selenium (Se) loads in the Colorado River in the southwestern United States and northwestern corner of Mexico. These two contaminants pose a serious threat to rivers in these arid regions where water supplies are especially critical. Tuttle et al. (companion paper) investigates the cycling of contaminants in a Colorado River tributary watershed (Uncompahgre River, southwestern Colorado) where the MS weathers under natural conditions. This paper builds on those results and uses regional soil data in the same watershed to investigate the impact of MS geology, weathering intensity, land use, and climate on salt and Se storage in and flux from soils on the natural landscape, irrigated agriculture fields, areas undergoing urban development, and wetlands. The size of salinity and Se reservoirs in the MS soils is quantified. Flux calculations show that during modern weathering, natural landscapes cycle salt and Se; however, little of it is released for transport to the Uncompahgre River (10% of the annual salinity and 6% of the annual Se river loads). When irrigated, salinity and Se loads from the MS soil increase (26% and 57% of the river load, respectively), causing the river to be out of compliance with Federal and State Se standards. During 100 years of irrigation, seven times more Se has been removed from agricultural soil than what was lost from natural landscapes during the entire period of pedogenesis. Under more arid conditions, even less salt and Se are expected to be transported from the natural landscape. However, if wetter climates prevail, transport could increase dramatically due to storage of soluble phases in the non-irrigated soil. These results are critical input for water-resource and land-use managers who must decide whether or not the salinity and Se in a watershed can be managed, what sustainable mitigation strategies are possible, and what landscapes should be targeted. The broader implications include providing a reliable approach for quantifying nonpoint-source contamination from MS and other rock units elsewhere that weather under similar conditions and, together with results from our companion paper, address the complex interplay of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on contaminant cycling in the arid Southwest.
Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.
Nigeria is a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society with enormous potential for economic, social, and democratic development. However, the intense conflicts and violence that have manifested within it since colonial rule have made development and elude ...
A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135
Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N
Background Cardiovascular disease worldwide is largely driven by modifiable risk factors. This study sought to identify and determine the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors according to sex in inhabitants of a rural community in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study included participants aged ?40 years in the rural community of Aaye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. All participants who met the inclusion criteria were drawn from the 161 households in the community. Data on the following were collected: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and sociodemographic parameters. These were analysed with SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The 104 participants (33 male, 71 female) had a mean age (± standard deviation) of 66.77?±?12.06 years (range, 40–88 years). The majority of the participants (56.7%) were aged 60–79 years. Hypertension was present in 66.4%, diabetes mellitus in 4.8%, abdominal obesity in 38.46%, smoking in 2.9%, physical inactivity in 29.8%, and high alcohol consumption in 1%. Dyslipidaemia, as represented by low HDL-C, occurred in 30%. There were borderline high levels of TC in 4.5%, LDL-C in 1.1%, and TG in 12.5%, but no subject had a high level. Abdominal obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking were statistically significantly associated with sex. Conclusion In this study, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, apart from hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity and low HDL-C had a low prevalence in the rural Nigerian community. However, the high prevalence of hypertension in this poor community suggests a high risk of a future cardiovascular event.
As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients. PMID:23878707
Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya
This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers.
Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas
Background Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP) is a common global cardiovascular (CV) disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1); BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2), and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3). Results Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%), hypertension (31.4%), cigarette smoking (13.3%), use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%), physical inactivity (64.2%) and being overweight or obese (33.7%). Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco) and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05); while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05). The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. Conclusion Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.
Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Tiffin, Nicki; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel
Purpose – After almost 60 years of water supply development in Nigeria, it is unfortunate that as many as 43 per cent of the population still lack access to safe water. The situation is worse in the rural areas. There is, therefore, the need to better understand the constraints and challenges of water supply, especially in the rural areas of
A. S. Gbadegesin; F. B. Olorunfemi
Radar images, aerial photographs, geoelectrical studies (vertical electrical sounding, VES and horizontal resistivity profiling, HRP), geological logs based on exploratory drilling and the local surfacial geology have been employed for groundwater investigations in the Cross River Sate, southeastern Nigeria.Results from the study show that areas with high lineament frequency and a thick regolith should be targeted for groundwater investigation within
C. S. Okereke; E. O. Esu; A. E. Edet
Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers.
Serological investigations on female prostitutes resident in Borno State in northeastern Nigeria have shown that the seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection has increased 9.81%--fold in one year. The highest sero-prevalence rates were found amongst prostitutes who had not benefited from previous health education campaigns. Prostitution appears to be on the increase in spite of AIDS probably because of the difficulty in finding alternative means of making a living. Attempts to halt the spread of HIV infection are hampered by the fact that most prostitutes are indifferent to the use of condoms and do not appreciate the importance of protecting themselves from the risks of HIV infection. Their frequent mobility also poses a problem as it makes it difficult for them to benefit from health education campaigns. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection among female prostitutes in Borno State (as indeed in other States in Nigeria) is likely to rise sharply in the next few years unless serious efforts are made to intensify health education campaigns targeted at the high risk groups. PMID:2606018
Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Ola, T
Measurements of NO, NO(x) (NO + NO2), O3, and CO are presented from seven aircraft flights made over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the southwestern United States in spring of 1984. The sampling region was characterized by large- and small-scale variability for all of the measurements, likely as a result of vigorous synoptic scale meteorology and the influence of tropopause folds. Median values for NO, NO(x), O3, and CO from the flights made over the ocean in the region of 5.8-7.6 km were 10 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), 32 pptv, 46 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and 120 ppbv, respectively. Corresponding values from two flights made over the continent at similar altitudes were 16 pptv, 38 pptv, 42 ppbv, and 111 ppbv. There was a strong tendency for NO or NO(x) to be correlated positively with O3 and to be anticorrelated with dew-point/frost-point measurements. No significant overall correlation occurred between NO(x) and CO for the ocean data. The variability of NO(x) was such that regions of net destruction and regions of net production of O(3) were sampled both over the ocean and over the continent. However, in the middle free troposphere over the ocean, net O(3) destruction was predominant.
Ridley, B. A.; Carroll, M. A.; Dunlap, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Sachse, G. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Condon, E. P.
One hundred and forty-three respondents participated in this cross-sectional study and 42 (29.4%) of them had never had sex. About 92% engaged in at least one leisure activity. Factors significantly associated with abstinence follow: living arrangement, type of occupation, mode of earning, self-esteem, alcohol use, and some leisure activities (p < .05). Factors predictive of abstinence were living with parents or other relatives, earning weekly and monthly wages as opposed to daily wages, high self-esteem, and reading of novels during leisure time. Intensified efforts are necessary to enhance the identified protective factors in order to promote abstinence among out-of-school females. PMID:23638653
Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O
This study examined the occupational aspirations of university students of agriculture in Edo State, with particular reference to agriculture-related careers. Factors affecting the university students’ willingness to pursue an agricultural career were also determined. Data from 247 respondents randomly sampled from three universities were subjected to frequency distribution and logistic regression analysis. Results revealed that 70.9% of the respondents were
M. I. Ilenloh; E. A. Onemolease; A. P. Erie
The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…
Oluwatayo, James Ayodele
Major multinational oil companies depend largely on oil wells in Akwa Ibom State because of increased oil bunkering, hostage-taking, and incessant militantsâ€™ attacks in other parts of the region. The explanation of the stateâ€™s peaceful conditions lies in the utilization of the traditional peacebuilding mechanism of the Ayei and Mbiam of the Ibibio people to manage conflicts between the operating
Purpose – This paper aims to present the results of a study which was carried out to find out whether the undergraduate students in the College of Health Sciences in Delta State University are aware of and fully utilize the medical databases and other online information resources within and outside the medical library. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire and interview methods
Emmanuel E. Baro; Benake-ebide C. Endouware; Janet O. Ubogu
Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.
Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.
Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance.
As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.
Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.
Objective This study determined the awareness and attitude towards the Osun state prohibition of smoking in public places law. Method Descriptive cross-sectional study design. 520 consenting respondents recruited using a convenience sampling method were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire covering their smoking pattern, awareness and attitude towards the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. Data analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results Only 38% were aware of the law while none had seen the document. Fifty six percent felt cigarette smoking is a problem that required the law to be implemented, while only 20% agreed that the law will stop tobacco use. The radio (58%), bill boards (45%) and newspapers (44%) were the major sources of awareness of the law. The perception of risk posed to the public and family health by cigarette smoking was poor among the participants. Conclusion There is poor awareness and attitude to the law of prohibition of smoking in public places in Osun State. It is necessary to increase sensitization of the general public and enforcement of the law.
University outreach is an educational and research-based information source enabling farmers to make decisions that improve the quality of their lives. This paper explores how collaborative efforts between the university and farmers have directly impacted in albeit Striga (‘noxious witch weed’) ravaged maize farms in rainforest farming systems in southwest Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested instruments from cross-section of
Abayomi Oloruntoba; Dorcas A Adegbite
Management of flame retarded plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been posing a major challenge to waste management experts because of the potential environmental contamination issues especially the formation of polybrominated-dioxins and -furans (PBDD\\/F) during processing. In Nigeria, large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste) are currently being managed—a significant quantity of which is imported illegally as secondhand
Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo
Introduction The last case of wild polio virus transmission occurred in Akwa Ibom state in October 2001; however, combination high routine immunization coverage with OPV, high quality AFP surveillance, mass immunization campaign in which two doses of potent oral polio vaccine is administered to eligible children and mop-up campaigns in areas with identified immunization or surveillance gaps has help the state in maintaining a free polio status for over ten years. This study was carried out to describe the characteristics of reported acute flaccid paralysis cases between 2004 and 2009, and to evaluate the performance of the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization. Methods A retrospective study was conducted among children, 0-15 years, by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Epidemiology unit of State Ministry of Health (SMOH), Uyo. The demographic characteristics and the results of isolation and identification of polio and other enteroviruses in stool samples sent to the WHO Polio Laboratory Ibadan for cases was analyzed. Results A total of 521 cases of AFP (270 males and 251 females) aged 0 month to=15 years were reported by the surveillance system between 2004 and 2009. Those below 5 years of age accounted for 82.5% of cases reported and investigated. Of the 521 cases investigated 512 (98.3%) received at least three doses of oral polio vaccine, while 9(1.7) never received any oral polio vaccine (zero-dose). In all 5.1% of the isolates were Sabin, 7.9% non polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 2.3% were classified by national expert committee as compatible with poliomyelitis. There was consistent and steady increase in three critical indicators; Non polio AFP rate in children <15 years from 4.5 to 6.4 per 100 000 population, proportion of AFP cases with 2 stool specimens collected within 14 days of onset of paralysis from 57% in 2005 to 91% in 2009 and proportion of Local Government Areas (Districts) meeting both core indicators from 23% in 2005 to 87% in 2009. The highest numbers of cases were seen in the months of March, May and September. Conclusion This study showed high levels of surveillance performance with some challenges in reverse the cold chain system, the continuation and sustained AFP case detection, prompt investigation and response, improvement in the reserve cold chain system would achieve optimal standards recommended by WHO and might provide a good model for the eradication of poliomyelitis.
Bassey, Bassey Enya; Gasasira, Alex; Mitula, Pamela; Frankson, Umoh Utobong; Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle
Nigeria is highly endemic for infection with Schistosoma haematobium, which most commonly manifests itself with blood in urine. To monitor the impact of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel for S. haematobium in Delta State, Nigeria, cross-sectional hematuria surveys of school children were conducted in 8 sentinel villages (SVs) at baseline (n=240) and after two annual doses (n=402). We assessed the comparability of three assessments of hematuria (child’s reported history, nurse visual diagnosis (NVD) and dipstick) to determine the need for mass treatment. Dipstick was considered to be the gold standard. Prior to treatment, history and NVD each identified only the 3 most highly prevalent SVs, and overall this represented just 37.5% of the 8 SVs in need of treatment. Following treatment, after dipstick prevalence decreased by 88.5% (p<0.001), and history and NVD identified only one of two villages still needing treatment. The study suggests that dipsticks should be the recommended method for launching and monitoring mass treatment for S. haematobium.
Emukah, Emmanuel; Gutman, Julie; Eguagie, John; Miri, Emmanuel S; Yinkore, Paul; Okocha, Ndudi; Jibunor, Victoria; Obiageli, Nebe; Ikenna, Nwoye Augustine; Richards, Frank O.
Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.
Webb, R. H.; Leake, S. A.
Across the Southwestern United States, desert shrubs modulate sediment transport on arid hillslopes, wherein rainsplash processes create mounds beneath shrub canopies. These mounds act as capacitors which ultimately influence the sediment flux. Yet, complex plant community dynamics make it difficult to predict changes in the surface of the Earth over extended timescales, such as those associated with climate change. Climate predictions for the American Southwest suggest changes in precipitation which can affect desert shrub populations and in turn, sediment transport rates. To better understand the complex, abiotic-biotic interaction between vegetation and sediment transport on arid hillslopes we couple a biologically-informed, stochastic model of desert shrub population dynamics (presented in a complimentary abstract by Worman et al.), with a model of rainsplash sediment transport. This coupled model allows us to track changes in the total vegetation present on the hillslopes, which we measure in terms of biomass using the WBE allometric scaling model, and relate it to sediment transport rates. We find that the simulated values from the model confirm intuitive assumptions, in which higher amounts of shrub biomass are indeed inversely correlated to sediment flux values. Therefore, it is possible to generalize erosion rates obtained from the model in terms of hillslope biomass. We explore how different climate change scenarios affect desert shrubs and the associated sediment flux. The model suggests that shrub morphology acts as a control on how shrubs respond to climate change, specifically to increased aridification. This work provides an opportunity to develop techniques for large scale monitoring, and possibly prediction, of changes in shrub populations and associated sediment transport on desert hillslopes.
Fathel, Siobhan; Furbish, David; Worman, Stacey
Under global warming, the more likely rainfall scenario expected should be characterized by a high variability. Considering the watershed as a functional unit with a range of biophysical components, the present study targeted the interactions between vegetation dynamics and rainfall variability. The study used historical rainfall data from 370 ground based stations for the last five decades as well as spatial and the last 22 years remote sensed data over regional watersheds in the southwestern United States. The region of study is a part of the North American Monsoon Region, and the seasonal period June-July-August JJA was considered in the study. From 1895 to 2011, the JJA precipitations counted in average for 22 to 43% of total annual precipitation depending of the region and that percentage gets higher in arid regions. Entropy theory which is a probabilistic approach has been used to address precipitation variability issue in time and space. However, the present document targets the results obtained with the Texas Gulf watershed. Different seasonal rainfall characteristics such as number of rainfall events, rainfall amount was involved in the analysis of the interaction between seasonal rainfall variability and vegetation dynamics. The amount of the seasonal rainfall variability induced by the watershed characteristics was investigated through different time series analysis. In final we found out that seasonal rainfall variability tends to be higher in arid regions. More the impact of seasonal precipitation variability on vegetation tends to be more pronounced in arid regions. The implication on water budget was analyzed and it came out potential changes in future terrestrial hydrological process particularly in arid regions.elating spatial variability trend of seasonal number of rainfall events with humidity/aridity level in the Texas Gulf omparing NDVI trends in two regions with different rainfall variability Characteristics in the Texas Gulf watershed
Sohoulande, D. C.; Singh, V. P.; Frauenfeld, O. W.
Results of detailed field and laboratory studies are reported on the primary distribution of uranium (and thorium and lead) in the radioactive minerals of five radioactive granite bodies in Arizona and California. This distribution was examined in a granite pluton. Granites with uranium concentrations ranging from 4 to 47 ppM, thorium concentrations from 11 to 181 ppM, and Th/U ratios of 0.6 to 16.0 were compared. Evidence for secondary mobilization, migration, fixation and/or loss of uranium, thorium and radiogenic leads was explored. Uranium distribution in radioactive granites is hosted in a far greater diversity of sites than has previously been known. Uranium and thorium distribution in primary minerals of granites is almost entirely a disequilibrium product involving local fractionation processes during magmatic crystallization. Every radioactive granite studied contains minerals that contain uranium and/or thorium as major stoichiometric components. When the granites are subject to secondary geochemical events and processes, the behavior of uranium is determined by the stability fields of the different radioactive minerals in the rocks. The two most powerful tools for evaluating uranium migration in a granite are (a) isotope dilution mass spectrometry and (b) the electron microprobe. Uranium mobilization and loss is a common feature in radioactive granites of the southwestern United States. A model for the evaluation of uranium loss from granites has been developed. The mineral zircon can be used as an independent indicator of uranium and thorium endowment. The weathering products show surprising differences in the response of different granites in arid region settings. Significant losses of primary uranium (up to 70%) has been a common occurrence. Uranium, thorium and radiogenic lead exist in labile (movable) form on surfaces of cleavages, fractures and grain boundaries in granites.
Silver, L.T.; Woodhead, J.A.; Williams, I.S.; Chappell, B.W.
Background Studies implemented to evaluate the success of Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) distribution campaigns are often limited to ownership and utilization rates, neglecting other factors that directly affect the efficacy of the tool in malaria control. This study investigates sleeping habits and net maintenance behaviour in addition to LLIN ownership, utilization and the challenges associated with LLIN use among residents in Ilorin City where the tool has been massively distributed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire to obtain information from randomly selected household respondents in Ilorin, the Kwara State Capital. The study was conducted in July 2012, about sixteen months after the March 2011 distribution of LLIN in the locality. The results were analyzed using the EPI INFO 2007 version. Results LLIN ownership (85%) and utilization (37%) rates improved compared to earlier reports, though 29% of net users have noticed holes in the nets even as 26% claimed to have actually experienced mosquito bites under it. Most (92%) of the respondents who slept under LLIN the previous night before the study spent the first five hours of the night (19.00-23.00 hr) outdoors while 88% also engage in inappropriate net washing practices. All the LLIN users claimed to have experienced at least one malaria episode while 43% have had two or more episodes within the past twelve months. Conclusion The use of LLIN among the respondents in this study was accompanied by chancy sleeping habits, inappropriate net maintenance practices and repeated experience of mosquito bites under the nets. This shows the need to sustain the will and confidence of LLIN users in this area through frequent monitoring and surveillance visits targeted at enlightening the people on habits that increase malaria exposure risks as well as proper use and maintenance of LLIN for maximum malaria vector control benefits.
We analyse the deformation pattern along the south-western margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS) where Upper Carboniferous-Mesozoic rocks are uplifted due to the Late Cretaceous basin inversion. The geometry of mesoscale faults and associated striae are used to calculate the stress state(s) responsible for the observed deformation. Each reduced stress tensor obtained comprises (i) the directions of the principal stress axes ?1, ?2, and ?3 ( ?1 ? ?2 ? ?3) and (ii) the ratio of principal stress differences R = ( ?2 - ?3) / ( ?1 - ?3). We present a stress inversion technique that allows each stress state inherent in a heterogeneous fault population to be identified by integrating the results of the PBT-Method [Turner, F.J., 1953. Nature and dynamic interpretation of deformation lamellae in calcite of three marbles. American Journal of Sciences, 251(4): 276-298; Sperner, B., Ratschbacher, L. and Ott, R., 1993. Fault-striae analysis: a Turbo Pascal program package for graphical presentation and reduced stress tensor calculation. Computers & Geosciences, 19: 1361-1388] and the Multiple Inverse Method [Yamaji, A., 2000. The multiple inverse method; a new technique to separate stresses from heterogeneous fault-slip data. Journal of Structural Geology, 22(4): 441-452]. This comprehensive approach not only facilitates the separation of complex data sets into homogeneous subsets but also guarantees that each stress state derived fulfils both the criteria of low-misfit angles (Wallace-Bott hypothesis) and high shear-to-normal-stress ratios (Mohr-Coulomb criterion). The reliability of our technique is confirmed by the fact that irrespective of (i) the number of fault-slip data from an outcrop, (ii) the number of subsets they represent and (iii) the proportion of newly formed and reactivated faults, we obtain consistent results from outcrops of variously aged rocks. This consistency concerns both calculated stress states as well as locally observed deformation sequences. Such local chronologies are derived from cross-cutting relationships and superimposition of different fault-slip data which individually are assigned to a consistent stress state. A synthesis of results from different locations of the study area argues for the superposition of two main deformation events. Most prominently, the area was affected by a stress state with a horizontal N-S- to NE-SW-directed maximum compression ( ?1) and a low stress ratio which induced reverse and strike-slip faulting. A pure strike-slip regime of E-W- to NW-SE-directed compression with moderate stress ratios is less prevalent and probably younger. The age of the youngest rocks documenting these two phases proves the stress fields to correspond to the polyphase Late Cretaceous-Tertiary basin inversion of the CEBS during post-Cenomanian times. The youngest tectonic imprints detected in the study area correspond to locally appearing extensional stress states with varying directions of ?3. At many sites, the youngest derived paleostress state coincides with the present-day stress field in terms of the direction of the maximum horizontal stress axis, SHmax. The only stress state detected which pre-dates the basin inversion corresponds to an extensional regime with an WNW-ESE- to NW-SE-directed ?3-axis observed only locally in the N-S striking Leine Graben and its prolongation to the North. The fact that the majority of variously aged rocks exhibit only the traces of the latest deformation phases indicates a high degree of fault plane reactivation in the study area.
Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Reicherter, Klaus; Mazur, Stanislaw
Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412
Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele
The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.
Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.
Twenty-five species of helminths, recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of 129 Mexican ducks from Mexico and the United States, were all new host records. The species included: Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma revolutum, Hypoderaeum conoideum, Notocotylus attenuatus, Prosthogonimus cuneatus, Zygocotyle lunata, Anomotaenia ciliata, Cloacotaenia megalops, Diorchis bulbodes, Diorchis sp., Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriaria fasciolaris, Fimbriarioides sp., Hymenolepis sp. 1, Hymenolepis sp. 2, Sobolevicanthus gracilis. Corynosoma constrictum, Polymorphus minutus, Amidostomum acutum, Echinuria sp., Epomidiostomum crami, Hystrichis varispinosus, Rusguniella arctica, and Tetrameres sp. Fimbriarioides sp. occurred predominantly in ducks from south-central Chihuahua, Mexico. The distributions for the other 24 species of the helminths were not significantly different among the four collecting areas. The helminth fauna for the 32 complete specimens and 97 intestinal tracts was distributed relatively evenly among the hosts with a calculated mean evenness of 0.77 +/- 0.15 and 0.89 +/- 0.03 respectively. The parasite fauna was more similar to those of the black duck Anas rubripes Brewster of eastern North America (53%), the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (L.) (49%), and the mottled duck, Anas fulvigula Ridgway, from Florida (45%), than to the green-winged teal, Anas crecca (L.) (36%), the gadwall, Anas strepera (L.) (30%), and the American wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin (26%), collected in the Southwest. PMID:3951061
Farias, J D; Canaris, A G
This study assessed rates of lifetime and current alcohol use among 7th- through 12th-grade Mexican American and non-Hispanic White students. Students from 55 middle and high schools from the southwestern U.S. completed a survey of alcohol use. Odds ratios were calculated for grade by gender by ethnicity comparisons for Mexican American boys (n =…
Swaim, Randall, PhD
Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits. PMID:22684090
Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant
Climate variability and change affects natural and managed ecosystems, namely agriculture and rangelands, and the services they offer such as food, fiber, energy, fresh water, etc. we derive from them are among the highest concerns in quantifying the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change. These impacts are expected to be ecosystem and region specific, thus requiring climate information at greater spatial and temporal resolution offered by the global climate models. In this study we are using a combination of climate downscaling and regional climate models in conjunction with ecosystem models to assess the impact of climate variability and change on the natural and managed ecosystems in California and Southwest region of the United States. In an attempt to generate reliable assessments of the impact of regional climate variability and change on the agro-ecosystems in the region, we have designed an impact assessment study in which multiple Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are used to develop downscaled climate information to in turn drive ecosystem models. We develop the climate scenarios for the region based on a combination of dynamical and statistical approaches. We evaluate the efficacy of the climate scenarios in hindcast mode against available historical observation records to build confidence in their future climate projections. We then use the derived climate information in the ecosystem models to assess how these ecosystems will function under the projected climate conditions. We will present some early results from the evaluation of three regional climate models in a long-term hindcast experiments, the fundamental step before performing regional climate projection. Model variables needed by agro-ecosystem models, daily precipitation and temperature extremes, from individual models and their ensembles, are being evaluated against the National Weather Service observation network and the global gridded analyses from NCEP. We also compare direct RCM simulations with a hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling approach in order to expand our understanding of the limitations and strengths of various plausible approaches to generating high-resolution climate projections for agroecosystem impact analyses. The combination of Earth observations with model runs provides great opportunities for practical assessment of climate impacts at regional scales.
Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Hayhoe, K.; Kim, J.; Ziska, L.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.
A research site for atmospheric chemistry and air pollution measurements was established at Pinnacle State Park in Addison, NY, in 1995. This paper presents an overview of the site characteristics and measurement program, as well as monthly average concentrations for many of the trace gas and aerosol pollutants over the full measurement period. Monthly averaged ozone concentrations range from values as low as 15 parts per billion (ppb) during cold-season months, to values approaching 50 ppb during some spring and summer months. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and reactive odd nitrogen (NOy) all show distinct seasonal variation, with summertime monthly averages as low as 1-3 ppb, and wintertime monthly averages from 6-12 ppb. The variation in carbon monoxide (CO) is much smaller, with minimums of approximately 150 ppb and maximums only rarely exceeding 250 ppb. Data for three hydrocarbon species--propane, benzene, and isoprene--are presented. Propane and benzene show higher monthly averaged concentrations in the winter and lower values in the summer, with values ranging over a factor of 4-5. Isoprene, on the other hand has much higher values during the summer season, sometimes a factor of 10 or more greater than concentrations measured in the winter. Monthly averaged plots for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) beginning in 1999 show a robust summer maximum and winter minimum, and roughly a factor of two difference between the two. An empirical measure of ozone production using the correlation of hour-averaged ozone and NOy data illustrates relatively robust ozone production during some, but not all, summertime months over the time period. Also, an analysis of the frequency distribution of the hours of maximum ozone concentration shows a strong mid-afternoon peak, as expected, but also a prominent secondary maximum centered around midnight. The secondary peak is interpreted as ozone transported from ozone-producing areas to the west, including Buffalo, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and the Ohio Valley. Finally, SO2 concentrations as a function of wind direction clearly indicate maximum impacts when the winds are out of the south (Pittsburgh and Philadelphia), with a secondary peak when the winds are from the north-northeast, consistent with the locations of major SO2 emission sources in the region. PMID:19320268
Schwab, James J; Spicer, John B; Demerjian, Kenneth L
This paper discusses the perceptions of the Nigerian population policy, family planning program and family planning using data obtained from a 1995 survey of 600 Atyap women aged 15-49 years, in Nigeria. Additional qualitative data were obtained from married and unmarried women and men, clergymen, government officials, and respected community elders. The predominantly Christian and rural Atyap community generally accepts modern contraception and the need for family size reduction but considers the "four-is-enough" policy to be unacceptable. Religion may be important in determining the success of the federal government to reduce family size to four children by the year 2000. PMID:11000710
Avong, H N
Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. This study focused on VVF patients seeking treatment. Hospital records were used to sample 30 respondents. Three focus group discussions were conducted and analyzed in themes. Results reveal that most of the respondents did not know what brought about their condition, whereas some felt it was a curse from the gods. Respondents reported discrimination and stigmatization by relatives. Findings suggest the need to have trained social workers working in all fistula centers in the country. They will help in the counseling, rehabilitation, and reintegration of these women. PMID:25068607
Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Okoye, Uzoma O; Odey, Ering S
The pattern of congenital malformation of the central nervous system (CNS) as seen in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) is slightly different from that seen in Europe, Japan and Southern Nigeria. Not all the various types of CNS malformations reported from these centres have been seen in JUTH. Myelomeningocele was the commonest anomaly of the CNS seen and it accounted for more than 60% of all cases. Bilateral talipes equinovarus deformity was the commonest associated anomaly found. No case of anencephaly was seen in this study. PMID:1637744
Binitie, O P
One hundred patients with diarrhoea and 50 asymptomatic individuals attending various hospitals in Edo State, Nigeria, were screened for serum complement-fixing and agglutinating antibodies to Plesiomonas shigelloides using the complement-fixation and agglutination tests. Seventy (70%) of the 100 patients and 20 (40%) of the 50 asymptomatic individuals had detectable complement-fixing antibodies at titres ranging from 1:32 to 1:128 and 1:8 to 1:32 respectively. Results suggest that cases of diarrhoea in this environment may be due to P. shigelloides, but the demonstration of antibodies in asymptomatic individuals show that they also have serum antibodies against P. shigelloides. The exclusive use of antibody responses in the diagnosis of P. shigelloides infections should, therefore, be interpreted with caution. PMID:8708332
Ndip, R N; Obi, C L; Agbonlahor, D E; Igumbor, E O; Ayamba, L M
The lead poisoning crisis in Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria has been called the worst such case in modern history and it presents unique challenges for risk assessment and management of co-exposure to multiple heavy metals. More than 400 children have died in Zamfara as a result of ongoing lead intoxication since early in 2010. A review of the common toxic endpoints of the major heavy metals advances analysis of co-exposures and their common pathologies. Environmental contamination in Bagega village, examined by X-ray fluorescence of soils, includes lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and manganese. Co-exposure risk is explored by scoring common toxic endpoints and hazard indices to calculate a common pathology hazard risk ranking of Pb?>?As?>?Hg?>?Cd?>?Mn. Zamfara presents an extreme picture of both lead and multiple heavy metal mortality and morbidity, but similar situations have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. PMID:24044870
Bartrem, Casey; Tirima, Simba; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Worrell, Mary Claire; Mohammad Anka, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aishat; Moller, Gregory
In this project, sponsored by the McArthur Foundation and the Population Council, magnesium sulphate was introduced in February 2007 to 10 general hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria. Changes were monitored via data collected at the hospital. At an initial training of the trainers' workshop, 25 master trainers were trained. They then conducted step down trainings and trained 160 clinical providers. Within 12 months, 1045 patients were treated with magnesium sulphate. The attributable deaths from eclampsia fell by 42.4%. The community became aware of an improved outcome for eclampsia. The providers expressed satisfaction with the outcome of the treated patients. Four of the master trainers trained 30 clinical providers from the other 25 general hospitals. Initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality should be evidence-based. PMID:21831930
Tukur, J; Ogedengbe, C; Nwanchukwu, E; Araoyinbo, I A; Yakasai, I A; Adaji, S E; Ajala, B
Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ?25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio
Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m?2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the Colorado River well into the future. Other trace elements weathering from MS that are often of environmental concern include U and Mo, which mimic Se in their behavior; As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb, which show little redistribution; and Cd, Sb, V, and Zn, which accumulate in Stage I shale, but are lost to varying degrees from upper soil intervals. None of these trace elements have been reported previously as contaminants in the study area.
Tuttle, Michele L.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.
*Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary, but should be more biologically meaningful because it incorporates the landscape features that may be driving separation of the subspecies. Even so, we caution that using any narrow boundary line as an indicator of subspecies identity could be misleading because biologically the boundary is a region of intergradation rather than a discrete line. Designating, a boundary ultimately becomes a regulatory and management decision based on how much of the genetic variation unique to a subspecies should be protected. We discuss how the results of this study can help guide this decision process by wildlife policy makers.
Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul
This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.
McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.
Geological considerations indicate that four types of uranium deposits, three from within the crystalline rocks and the fourth from the sedimentary formations, can be explored for in Nigeria. The Precambrian Basement Complex underwent crustal reactivation in Pan-African times (600 ± 150 Ma) during which migmatites and rocks of the Older Granite suite were emplaced. The occurrences of these rocks in northeastern, north-central and central Nigeria are possible hosts for the granitic type of uranium deposit. Vein-type uranium deposits are often localized in areas of the Basement Complex which have undergone intense brittle deformation. The high-level, anorogenic, peralkaline Younger Granites of Nigeria of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age have geochemical characteristics which are similar to those of the host rocks of non-orogenic type uranium deposit in alkali complexes such as the Bokan mountains of Alaska. The sandstone type of uranium deposit may be found in the Cretaceous-Recent continental sandstone formations in the Sokoto, Niger, Chad and Benue Basins of Nigeria and in the sediments overlying the Oban Massif in Cross Rivers State. Geologically similar sandstone occurrences elsewhere in the world (Gabon, Niger and Colorado, U.S.A.) are known to harbour important uranium mineralization.
Oshin, I. O.; Rahaman, M. A.
AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...
J. B. Mathison
This study examined the instructional computer technology with its implications for gender achievement in Nigeria. The setting was in Graphcom Independent Educational Computer Laboratory, Ilorin in Nigeria. The participants were randomly selected Junior Secondary School (JSS) III students in Ilorin West local government area of Kwara State for a holiday computer technology instruction. A total of 30 students (15 boys
Infectious bursal disease was reported in a flock of 7-week old vaccinated chickens. Clinical findings and post-mortem changes were classical as well as the microscopic pathology of the bursa. Bursal homogenates from dead birds were positive for IBD virus antigen in agar gel diffusion test (AGDT). Convalescent sera obtained from birds 14 days following the onset of clinical signs were also positive for IBD virus antibody in AGDT. Seven-week old susceptible birds, each infected i/m with 0.1 ml of a bursal preparation from the outbreak, showed clinical signs of IBD on the 3rd day and were all dead by the 6th day. Their bursae were also positive for IBD virus antigen in AGDT. This is the first recorded outbreak of IBD in Southern Nigeria following inoculation with a locally produced vaccine. PMID:1668870
Onunkwo, O; Okoye, J O
This paper focuses on the community component of a larger action research project on HIV Prevention for Rural Youth (HP4RY), funded by the Global Health Research Initiative (Canada). It began with ethnographic research in 10 communities selected using geographic representative sampling and random assignment to one of three research arms. Using the AIDS Competent Community (ACC) model developed by Catherine Campbell, the ethnographic research identified factors in six domains that contributed to youth vulnerability to HIV infection. This was followed by recruitment, training and deployment of three overlapping cohorts of young adults (n = 40) serving in Nigeria's National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), to mobilize youth and adults in the communities to increase communities' AIDS competence over a nearly 2 year period. Monthly reports of these Corpers, observations of a Field Coordinator, and community feedback supported the conclusion that communities moved towards greater AIDS competence and reduction in youth vulnerability to HIV infection. PMID:22916545
Omorodion, Francisca; Akpede, Ese; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Agbontean-Eghafona, Kokunre; Onokerhoraye, Andrew
Radar images, aerial photographs, geoelectrical studies (vertical electrical sounding, VES and horizontal resistivity profiling, HRP), geological logs based on exploratory drilling and the local surfacial geology have been employed for groundwater investigations in the Cross River Sate, southeastern Nigeria. Results from the study show that areas with high lineament frequency and a thick regolith should be targeted for groundwater investigation within the crystalline basement complex terrains, whereas in the sedimentary areas the target areas are determined by the lithology and stratigraphical sequence. Using the results of this study there is an increase in the number of successful boreholes drilled in the area from 35% to 92%. It is also observed that remotely sensed, geoelectric and exploratory drilling data are adequate for delineating the surface and near-subsurface hydrogeology of the area.
Okereke, C. S.; Esu, E. O.; Edet, A. E.
Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. Materials and methods One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Results Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.
Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O
Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277
Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C
Educational stakeholders have continued to express concerns over the poor academic performance of Nigerian students at virtually all levels of academic engagements. This paper investigated personal factors as predictors of students' academic performance in the South-Western Nigeria. The study employed the ex post facto design using a survey…
Adeyemi, Abisola Moradeyo; Adeyemi, Semiu Babatunde
Objectives To determine the knowledge and attitudes on modern contraceptive use of women living in an inner city area of Osogbo. Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty nine women of childbearing age were studied utilizing a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A multistage random sampling technique was used in recruiting respondents to the study. A four-part questionnaire was applied dually, by interviewers and by respondents’ self administration, and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results The mean age of respondents was 28.6 ± 6.65 years. The majority (90.3%) of respondents were aware of modern methods of family planning (FP), 76.0% claimed awareness of where to obtain FP services, and 74.9% knew of at least five methods. However, only 30.6% had ever used contraceptives, while only 13.1% were current users. The most frequently used method was the male condom. The commonly perceived barriers accounting for low use of FP methods were fear of perceived side effects (44.0%), ignorance (32.6%), misinformation (25.1%), superstition (22.0%), and culture (20.3%). Some reasons were proffered for respondents’ nonuse of modern contraception. Predictors of use of modern contraceptives include the awareness of a place of FP service provision, respondents’ approval of the use of contraceptives, higher education status, and being married. Conclusion Most of the barriers reported appeared preventable and removable and may be responsible for the reported low point prevalence of use of contraceptives. It is recommended that community-based behavioral-change communication programs be instituted, aimed at improving the perceptions of women with respect to bridging knowledge gaps about contraceptive methods and to changing deep-seated negative beliefs related to contraceptive use in Nigeria.
Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Adebimpe, WO; Bamidele, JO; Odu, OO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Ojofeitimi, EO
Background: During May–June 2010, a childhood lead poisoning outbreak related to gold ore processing was confirmed in two villages in Zamfara State, Nigeria. During June–September of that year, villages with suspected or confirmed childhood lead poisoning continued to be identified in Zamfara State. Objectives: We investigated the extent of childhood lead poisoning [? 1 child with a blood lead level (BLL) ? 10 µg/dL] and lead contamination (? 1 soil/dust sample with a lead level > 400 parts per million) among villages in Zamfara State and identified villages that should be prioritized for urgent interventions. Methods: We used chain-referral sampling to identify villages of interest, defined as villages suspected of participation in gold ore processing during the previous 12 months. We interviewed villagers, determined BLLs among children < 5 years of age, and analyzed soil/dust from public areas and homes for lead. Results: We identified 131 villages of interest and visited 74 (56%) villages in three local government areas. Fifty-four (77%) of 70 villages that completed the survey reported gold ore processing. Ore-processing villages were more likely to have ? 1 child < 5 years of age with lead poisoning (68% vs. 50%, p = 0.17) or death following convulsions (74% vs. 44%, p = 0.02). Soil/dust contamination and BLL ? 45 µg/dL were identified in ore-processing villages only [50% (p < 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.22), respectively]. The odds of childhood lead poisoning or lead contamination was 3.5 times as high in ore-processing villages than the other villages (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 11.3). Conclusion: Childhood lead poisoning and lead contamination were widespread in surveyed areas, particularly among villages that had processed ore recently. Urgent interventions are required to reduce lead exposure, morbidity, and mortality in affected communities.
Lo, Yi-Chun; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Neri, Antonio; Durant, James; Jefferies, Taran; Medina-Marino, Andrew; de Ravello, Lori; Thoroughman, Douglas; Davis, Lora; Dankoli, Raymond S.; Samson, Matthias Y.; Ibrahim, Luka M.; Okechukwu, Ossai; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir T.; Dama, Alhassan H.
This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson plans are…
Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.
In this paper we investigated cybercrime and examined the relevant laws available to combat this crime in Nigeria. Therefore, we had a critical review of criminal laws in Nigeria and also computer network and internet security. The internet as an instrument to aid crime ranges from business espionage, to banking fraud, obtaining un-authorized and sabotaging data in computer networks of
Okonigene Robert Ehimen; Adekanle Bola
In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522
Supriya, K E
Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.
Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu
An inventory study into the ethno-veterinary medicine and traditional management practices and the extent of their adoption in the management of small ruminants by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria was carried out. Three hundred and fifty (350) small ruminant farmers randomly chosen from the seven (7) randomly selected local government areas in the state were used for the study. Data pertaining to farmers' background information, small ruminant acquisition and rearing as well as the ethno-veterinary medicines (EVMs) adopted were collected through a scheduled interview where structured questionnaires were administered. Data collected were used in the computation of ethno-veterinary medicine use indices (EVMUIs) and were subjected to simple statistical analysis. Results showed that 60.5% of the farmers interviewed were male while 39.4% were females and 56.9% of them were above 40 years old. About 60% of the farmers had between primary and secondary education, while 33.1% have no formal education and about 86% had little or no exposure to mass media. Thirty-seven (37) different EVMs/Traditional practices were identified. Based on their EVMUIs, 11 or 29.73% were highly used, 9 or 24.32% were moderately used while 17 or 45.95% were poorly used by farmers. Materials identified were noted to be locally available and were fully discussed. It is concluded that EVMs practices are actually adapted to the culture and socio-economic realities of resource poor farmers and means of spreading the knowledge among small scale farmers should be encouraged. PMID:19412741
Bamikole, M A; Ikhatua, U J
Background: Disease surveillance and notification (DSN) is part of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) which comprises databases, personnel, and materials that are organized to collect data which are utilized for informed decision making. The knowledge about DSN is very important for the reporting of notifiable diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the awareness and knowledge of health-care workers about DSN, and availability of facility records in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional one in which relevant data were collected from health-care workers selected by a multistage sampling technique. Qualitative information was also elicited by key informant interviews, whereas an observational checklist, preceded by a desk review was used to examine the availability of facility records. Results: Although 89.8% of the health-care workers were aware of the DSN system, only 33.3, 31.1, and 33.7% of them knew the specific uses of forms IDSR 001, IDSR 002, and IDSR 003 (IDSR: Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response), respectively. Knowledge of use of the various forms at the facility and local government area (LGA) levels were generally low, although the observational checklist revealed that IDSR 001 and IDSR 002 forms were predominantly found in primary health-care facilities. HMIS forms were less likely to be available in secondary health-care facilities (?2=7.67, P=0.005). Conclusions: Regular training and retraining of concerned health-care workers on DSN at the LGA level is recommended. This should run concurrently with adequate and regular provision of IDSR forms, copies of the standard case definitions, and other necessary logistics to the health-care facilities by the local and state governments.
Nnebue, Chinomnso C.; Onwasigwe, Chika N.; Adogu, Prosper O. U; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.
Abortion is carried out daily in Nigeria despite the restrictive abortion law. This study was carried out to obtain information on societal attitude to the issues of family planning, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, adoption of children and laws relating to them. Focus group discussions were held in south-western Nigeria among 11 sub-groups. Participants felt that there was high prevalence of unwanted pregnancy and abortion particularly among youths. They had high level awareness of contraceptives and ascribed its low use to negative side effects, high cost and provider bias. Christians favoured planning of pregnancies while the Muslims did not. Majority of the respondents had negative perception of induced abortion. Some of them supported abortion if the education of the young girl would be disrupted, if paternity of pregnancy is in dispute, or if it would save the family from shame. Participants supported the enactment of laws that would make adoption of unwanted children easier. PMID:16104663
Oye-Adeniran, Boniface A; Adewole, Isaac F; Umoh, Augustine V; Iwere, Ngozi; Gbadegesin, Abidoye
Examines three books with different ways of writing about the desert. Discusses: "Here Is the Southwestern Desert" by Madeline Dunphy, "The Desert Is My Mother" by Pat Mora, and "The Desert Mermaid" by Alberto Blanco. (PA)
The study assessed the dietary intake of lead and cadmium and health risk from consumption of various parts of cow meat by the urban population of Enugu State, Nigeria. Meat samples (n=150) comprising of muscle, liver, kidney, intestine and tripe were purchased from abattoirs in Nsukka and Enugu. The samples were dried, ground and two gram was digested with 3:2 HNO3:HClO4 v/v. The Cd and Pb concentrations were read with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The dietary intakes were estimated using a one week food frequency questionnaire administered to 755 subjects. The dietary intake of lead (µg/kg body weight/week) were in the following ranges; men [0.15 (kidney)-0.55(intestine)], non pregnant/non lactating women [0.16 (kidney)-0.62 (liver)], pregnant/lactating women [0.13 (kidney)-0.53 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.12 (kidney)-0.62 (intestine)] and school children [0.29 (kidney)-1.16 (liver)]; cadmium: men [0.42 (liver)-1.21 (tripe)], non-pregnant/non-lactating women [0.53 (kidney)-1.20 (tripe)], pregnant/lactating women [0.43 (kidney)-0.90 (intestine)], undergraduate students [0.40 (kidney)-1.18 (tripe)] and school children [0.97 (kidney)-1.93 (tripe)]. The total dietary intakes of lead from the various cow meat parts by the groups were much lower than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) guide line, but for cadmium, the intakes were quite appreciable when compared to the PTWI guideline while the intake for school children was very high, 113% of PTWI for the metal. The target hazard quotients were in the range of 0.05-0.10 for lead and 0.42-0.90 for cadmium. These values are less than one, indicating that the subjects are not exposed to any significant health risk via cow meat consumption. PMID:23664087
Ihedioha, J N; Okoye, C O B
Background In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acut