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Sample records for state southwestern nigeria

  1. Impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of primary-school children in Osun state, south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oninla, S O; Onayade, A A; Owa, J A

    2010-10-01

    In January-March 2000, the impact of intestinal helminthiases on the nutritional status of 749 pupils (353 boys and 396 girls) attending public primary schools in the Ife Central local government area of Osun state, in south-western Nigeria, was investigated. Demographic, socio-economic and other relevant information was collected on the pupils, on the same day that a single stool sample was collected from each subject and examined, using Stoll's dilution egg-count technique. The weights, heights and ages of the subjects were recorded and converted to percentages of the reference medians for weight-for-height, weight-for-age and height-for-age. The overall prevalences of helminth infection detected among the 465 malnourished pupils (i.e. those with any form of under-nutrition) and the 284 well-nourished pupils were 32.9% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.029). The nutritional indices of the pupils who were found helminth-infected were generally lower than those of the pupils who appeared free of intestinal helminths. The mean values for weight-for-height, for example, were higher in the apparently uninfected pupils than in those found infected with any intestinal helminth (P=0.02) or only with Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.05). Similarly, the mean height-for-age of the pupils who were apparently uninfected was higher than the corresponding value for the pupils found hookworm-positive (P=0.003). The pupils who were each found infected with two or more species of intestinal infection had significantly lower weights-for-heights, weights-for-ages and heights-for-ages than the pupils who appeared to be helminth-free. The results of a multivariate logistic-regression analysis indicated that hookworm infection was a significant risk factor for underweight (P=0.015), wasting (P=0.033) and stunting (P=0.015) whereas Trichuris was only a significant risk factor for stunting (P=0.025). It appears that intestinal helminthiasis may play a causal or contributory role in the occurrence of childhood malnutrition, at least in the present study area. Steps should be taken to control both of these important health problems, through functional school-health programmes that provide regular deworming, supervised school meals and health education. PMID:21092395

  2. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  3. Work-related stress perception and hypertension amongst health workers of a mission hospital in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mojisola O.; OlaOlorun, Akintayo D.; Olofin, Ayo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globalisation and changes in the nature of work have resulted in increasing work-related stress in people in developing countries. Work stress is at present already acknowledged as one of the epidemics of modern working life. It is associated with a number of disease conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, affective disorders, depression, disturbed metabolism (risk of Type II diabetes) and musculoskeletal disorders. Objective This study was a work site cross-sectional descriptive study carried out amongst the health workers at the Baptist Medical Centre Ogbomoso, Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. The aim of the study was to discern the prevalence of perceived work stress and to explore the relationship between perceived work stress and the presence of hypertension. Methods A total of 324 consenting health workers of the institution were administered the job demand-control questionnaire to assess work stress. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and other personal data. Measurements of blood pressure, weight and height were carried out and body mass indices were calculated. Results More than a quarter (26.2%) of the subjects perceived themself as stressed at work. The single largest group of hypertensive subjects was seen amongst subjects with work stress. Conclusion A significant number of health workers in this study is afflicted by work-related stress and perceived work stress was found to be significantly associated with higher hypertension prevalence.

  4. Groundwater prospects in the basement complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Owolabi; Adegoke-Anthony, C. W.

    The results of drilling more than 40 wells for several clients in the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria since 1981 by Geostruct Company have shown that wells can be successfully located in Basement Complex areas without necessarily relying on expensive, preliminary geophysical studies. Out of 45 wells drilled, only three proved abortive, representing a success rate of 93 per cent. This success rate is significant when it is realised that the locations of all the wells were restricted to sites specified by the various clients. Furthermore, most of the wells were drilled without reliance on preliminary geophysical investigations. It has also been observed that wells located in pegmatitic areas have better yield than wells located in finer grained equivalents. The conclusion from observation and experience is that local geological conditions, some of which are not readily amenable to geophysical investigations, play a critical role in the yield of wells located in the Basement Complex areas of southwestern Nigeria. Suggestions, based on field experience, as to the proper roles of geology and geophysics respectively, in the exploration for groundwater in Basement Complex areas are thus made.

  5. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  6. HIV TESTING IN DENTAL PRACTICE: PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF DENTISTS IN SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Abe, E.O.; Kolude, B.; Adeyemi, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In recent times, the concept of routine HIV screening has been recommended to enhance early diagnosis and timely initiation of care thereby reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV infected persons. Dental practice has been identified as a unique venue of reaching at-risk individuals who may not otherwise access the conventional healthcare settings. Aim To assess the perception and attitude of dentists in Southwestern Nigeria concerning integrating HIV testing into dental practice. Methods this descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted between January–March, 2014. Convenience sampling was used to select 113 practising dentists within Southwest Nigeria. Data collection was done using a self- administered questionnaire. Results Agreement to HIV testing in dental settings was in the order of 100% for private practitioners followed by 91.7% from teaching hospitals (91.7%) and least agreement was with state hospitals (76.5%). There was a strong association between participants’ years of practice and support for HIV testing in dental settings with highest support among those between 7–9 years (p= 0.002). Significantly too (p= 0.013), all the specialists (100%) agreed to HIV testing in dental settings compared to general practitioners (84.0%). Conclusion This study showed that most dentists in Southwest Nigeria acknowledged dental practice as being appropriate for expanded HIV testing and as well were willing to undergo training for HIV testing in their dental settings. PMID:26709329

  7. Determinants of Use of Insecticide Treated Bednets Among Caregivers of Under Five Children in an Urban Local Government Area of Osun State, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Esimai, O. A.; Aluko, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    In Sub Sahara Africa, the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) is one of many strategies of Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiatives to reduce malaria burden. This study therefore assessed the current use of insecticide treated nets and the determinants of its use among the caregivers of under five children in an urban local government area in Osun state, Nigeria. The study utilised a cross-sectional design among caregivers of under-five children selected from households by multistage sampling technique. The study collected quantitative data using pretested semi structured, interviewer administered questionnaire while factors that determine the current use of ITN were identified using multi linear logistic regression. The study revealed that 54.4% caregivers of under-five children were aware of ITNs as one of the malaria preventive measures, 49.1% had good knowledge of ITN and 38% agreed with the use of ITNs. Thirty four percent had access to ITNs, 32.3% owned at least one ITN with 30.3% reported been given free in the health care facilities. Thirty three percent had ever used and the foremost reasons for non-use are not readily available and expensive. Only 18.5% currently used ITNs and challenges faced were not easy to treat, difficult to set up and no place to keep it. Marital status, knowledge of ITN, attitude towards ITN, ownership of ITN and free ITN were factors that determined the use of ITNs amongst the respondents. There is a need to ensure intensive awareness on ITNs through campaigns and embark on its mass distribution to the public to enhance use. PMID:25716380

  8. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojewole, Foluso O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,

  9. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  10. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojewole, Foluso O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…

  11. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall

  12. The incidence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat vegetables in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayeoba, Titilayo A; Atanda, Olusegun O; Obadina, Adewale O; Bankole, Mobolaji O; Adelowo, Olawale O

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables: (Cucumber, Cucumis sativas; Cabbage, Brassica olerecea; Carrot, Daucus carota; Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum; Lettuce, Lactuca sativa) in six states in South-Western Nigeria. A total of 555 composite samples were collected from 30 traditional markets within the states and only 244 L. monocytogenes species were isolated by standard methods. The incidence of L. monocytogenes was low and not statistically significant per vegetable type. The percentage distribution of the L. monocytogenes isolates in the RTE vegetables was 28.28, 9.02, 23.36, 19.67, and 19.67 for Cabbage, Carrot, Cucumber, Lettuce, and Tomatoes, respectively. Lagos state had the highest incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination (55%) followed by Ondo (48.89%), Oyo (48.75%), Ogun (44.09%), Osun (34.38%), and Ekiti (33.33%) states, respectively. Although the incidence of L. monocytogenes in the RTE vegetables in South-Western Nigeria is low, its presence should be a source of concern as it could constitute a public health threat for its consumers. PMID:26788311

  13. Teachers' Value Internalization and Commitment to Implementation of National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum in South-Western States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badmus, Medinat

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the level of degree to which the home Economics teachers developed value internalization and commitment for the implementation of the National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum (NJSSHEC). It also determined the state and qualification influence on the level of degree of value internalization and commitment…

  14. Inclusive Education Setting in Southwestern Nigeria: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluremi, Fareo Dorcas

    2015-01-01

    Researches from developed and developing countries found that there were problems affecting the inclusive education in Nigeria. Hence, there is need to determine the challenges facing the schools where inclusive education is being implemented, and what could be done to improve the programme. The study showed that essential facilities and materials…

  15. Radiological safety assessment of surface-water dam sediments used as building material in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Farai, I P; Isinkaye, M O

    2009-03-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements were performed on sediment samples collected from surface-water dams in five southwestern states of Nigeria with the aim of estimating the background radiation levels and assessing the radiological hazards associated with the use of sediments in building construction. The weighted mean concentration of (40)K varied from 199.1 to 796.7 Bq kg(-1), whereas that of (238)U varied from 22.6 to 27.6 Bq kg(-1) and that of (232)Th varied from 36.4 to 76.1 Bq kg(-1) in the five states where samples were collected. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities, internal and external indices, and effective dose rates in indoor air. The values obtained are lower than internationally recommended limits for building materials. The results indicate an acceptably low radiological risk arising from the use of the sediments in the construction of buildings. PMID:19225186

  16. The pattern of childhood accidents in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1969-01-01

    All childhood accidents treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, during a 4-year period are analysed. The pattern of childhood injuries in the part of Nigeria served by this hospital does not differ significantly from the pattern reported in studies from other parts of the world. The chain of events leading to an accident appears in large measure to be directly influenced by the mode of life in the community. This in turn is related to the prevailing level of technological development. There is an obvious need for more exhaustive studies of childhood accidents in developing countries. However, these countries need not wait for this information to become available before initiating accident-prevention programmes. PMID:5309535

  17. The volatile constituents of Parquetina nigrescens from southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lawal, Oladipupo A; Hauser, Rebecca M; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    The leaf essential oil of Parquetina nigrescens collected from Badary, Nigeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The essential oil had a simple composition with only five identified components. The oil was dominated by citral (35.0% neral and 53.7% geranial). The high concentration of citral in the essential oil likely contributes to the ethnomedicinal utility and bioactivities associated with this medicinal plant. PMID:25115099

  18. Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen/oil shows associated with the study area. The results also point to the southern and south-western part of the basin as the appropriate direction to focus at for meaningful hydrocarbon potential development.

  19. Delineation of the subsurface geological structures of Omu-Aran area, south-western Nigeria, using aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayode, J. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Baioumy, H. M.; Khalil, A. E.; Khiruddin, B. A.

    2015-04-01

    Omu-Aran area is characterized by mining activities to exploit the valuable mineralization there. These facts motivated the present work to evaluate the factors controlling the mineralization in the study area using aeromagnetic data obtained from the Nigerian Geological survey Agency. The data was processed and interpreted with the mean of delineating subsurface geological structures around Omu-Aran in Kwara State, South-western Nigeria. Data enhancement methods was performed on the aeromagnetic map using Regional Residual Separation of the total field anomalies map; horizontal gradient enhanced and International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRS) removed; reduced to the pole magnetic shaded relief image was carried out; Magnetic vertical gradient calculated, Magnetic horizontal gradient measured and Analytical signal map was constructed using some computer aided packages. The interpreted map enabled delineation of various subsurface geological structures such as the rock contacts, fractured and faulted areas.

  20. Abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obajimi, Millicent O; Atalabi, Mojisola O; Ogbole, Godwin I; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike T; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Adekanmi, Ademola J; Osuagwu, Yvonne U; Olarinoye, Sefiat A; Olusola-Bello, Mojisola A; Ogunseyinde, Ayotunde O; Aken'Ova, Yetunde A; Adewole, Isaac F

    2008-01-01

    Background Though the major target of the HIV-virus is the immune system, the frequency of abdominal disorders in HIV/AIDS patients has been reported to be second only to pulmonary disease. These abdominal manifestations may be on the increase as the use of antiretroviral therapy has increased life expectancy and improved quality of life. Ultrasonography is an easy to perform, non invasive, inexpensive and safe imaging technique that is invaluable in Africa where AIDS is most prevalent and where sophisticated diagnostic tools are not readily available. Purpose: To describe the findings and evaluate the clinical utility of abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in Ibadan, Nigeria Methods A Prospective evaluation of the abdominal ultrasonography of 391 HIV-positive patients as well as 391 age and sex-matched HIV-negative patients were carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Results Of the 391 cases studied, 260 (66.5%) were females; the mean age was 38.02 years, (range 15–66 years). The disease was most prevalent in the 4th decade with an incidence of 40.4%. Compared with the HIV-negative individuals, the HIV+ group of patients had a significantly higher proportion of splenomegaly (13.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.01), lymphadenopathy (2.0% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.70), and renal abnormalities (8.4% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.02). There were no differences in hepatic and pancreatic abnormalities between the HIV+ and HIV- groups. There were significantly fewer gallstones in the HIV+ group (1.4% vs. 5.1%; p < 0.01). Conclusion AIDS is a multi-systemic disease and its demographic and clinical pattern remains the same globally. Ultrasonography is optimally suited for its clinical management especially in Africa. Its accuracy and sensitivity may be much improved with clinico-pathologic correlation which may not be readily available in developing countries; further studies may provide this much needed diagnostic algorithms. PMID:18312644

  1. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedipe, Olubukola Deborah; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. PMID:26464944

  2. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedipe, Olubukola Deborah; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.60-1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.80-1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. PMID:26464944

  3. Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the pegmatites in Ede area, southwestern Nigeria: A newly discovered oldest Pan African rock in southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adetunji, A.; Olarewaju, V. O.; Ocan, O. O.; Ganev, V. Y.; Macheva, L.

    2016-03-01

    Field and petrographic studies, whole rock geochemistry and in-situ LA-ICP-MS geochemical and isotopic U-Pb measurements on zircons have been performed on granitic pegmatites of Ede area, southwestern Nigeria with a view to characterize them, determining their mineralization potentials, petrogenetic attributes and emplacement age. The pegmatites are hosted by migmatite gneiss complex, biotite-muscovite schist and associated quartzite. The textural and mineralogical characteristics of these pegmatites indicate the occurrence of two main varieties, namely, muscovite pegmatite and garnet pegmatite. Of less importance are inclusions and pods of graphic granite, quartz-microcline aplitic and pegmatitic bodies. At the present level of erosion, the parent igneous rocks of the pegmatites are not exposed. The two dominant pegmatite varieties show slightly different chemical peculiarities but similar peraluminous character. The average K/Rb ratios of 165 and 163, respectively, for muscovite and garnet pegmatites combined with other trace element compositions are indicative of affinity to muscovite class of pegmatite which are generally not promising for rare elements mineralization. However, the unusually high concentration of bismuth in the zircons indicates Bi mineralization in the area which can either be in the pegmatites or host rocks. The Nb/Ta ratios for both muscovite and garnet pegmatites range from 0.7 to 15.2 and 1.0 to 14.8, respectively. These Nb/Ta ratios and Eu anomalies are statistically similar for both pegmatites. These probably indicate the pegmatites crystallized from a common source but separated into crystallization paths that produced different pegmatite varieties through liquid-liquid immiscibity mechanism. In-situ measurements of REE, P, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Bi, Th and U of individual zircon grains show the existence of two chemically and texturally different domains which are indicative of alteration that may be due to interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation promoted by microfractures induced by metamictization. Notwithstanding, the (Sm/La)N vs. La plot for zircon, weak positive Ce and variable europium anomaly (Eu*) are suggestive of pegmatites of hydrothermal origin. The pegmatites yielded a discordant U-Pb zircon age with upper concordia intercept of 709 +27/-19 (at 2σ, MSWD = 1.5) Ma which can be attributed to their emplacement. This age represents the oldest Pan African magmatic event reported so far in southwestern Nigeria.

  4. High Seroprevelance of West Nile Virus Antibodies Observed in Horses from Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Adedokun, Rahamon Akinyele Moshood; Rufai, Nurudeen; McCracken, Fiona; Mansfield, Karen L.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To investigate exposure of Nigerian horses to West Nile virus (WNV), we determined the seroprevalence rate of anti-WNV antibody in a cohort of 145 horses. Serum samples were collected from three locations in southwestern Nigeria between October, 2011, and July, 2012. The horses were asymptomatic and unvaccinated against WNV at the time of sampling. All sera were tested using a competition enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an immunoglobulin M (IgM)-specific ELISA. High rates of anti-WNV antibody prevalence were observed in all locations with a mean level of 90.3% (95% confidence interval 84.3–94.6%). None of the horses had detectable anti-WNV IgM. This is the first ELISA-based report of WNV seroprevalence in Nigerian horses and suggests that WNV is enzootic in the study areas, indicating a potential risk of infection in humans and animals. PMID:25793479

  5. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among Health Professional Students in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awopeju, OF; Erhabor, GE; Awosusi, B; Awopeju, OA; Adewole, OO; Irabor, I

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South-Western Nigeria with their accompanied nursing and pharmacy students. All students in the selected schools were eligible to participate and student's participation was voluntary. The Global Health Professional Students Survey core questionnaire was used to collect data on smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control. The data were summarized using percentages and confidence interval (CI) was calculated using standard error of mean. Pearson's Chi-square and fisher's exact were employed to test the significance. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking was 17.9% (121/675) with (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-20.8). Only 5.04% (34/675) with (95% CI 3.7-7.1) of the respondents were currently smoking. Ever smokers were significantly less likely than non-smokers to indicate that tobacco sales to adolescents should be banned (P < 0.01). Fewer smokers than non-smokers agreed that there should be a complete ban on advertising of tobacco products (P < 0.001). 93.3% of them said that they were taught about danger of smoking but only 48.6% ever heard of using anti-depressant in tobacco cessation program. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence among health professional students in South-West Nigeria is relatively low; however, majority believed that health-care providers serve as role models for their patients and the public. PMID:24116313

  6. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofiki A.; Sellner, Johann; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A.; Imarhiagbe, Frank A.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Afolabi, Olusegun T.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka S.; Olanrewaju, Fatai; Oladimeji, Benedicta Y.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores) and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P < 0.001). HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression. PMID:26295033

  7. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.; Adesokan, H. A.

    2006-04-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural patterns were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by a high density of positive (HDP) or a high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of a high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing shows that the borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. The asymmetry of the anomaly was also found to be useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  8. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.

    2005-05-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 meters was carried out in 10 villages in Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatised undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural pattern were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by high density of positive (HDP) or high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing show that borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. Asymmetry of the anomaly was also found useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  9. PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECT OF ANTERIOR TOOTH DISCOLORATION AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN IGBO-ORA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ibiyemi, O.; Taiwo, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aesthetic problems in adolescence can have a significant effect on their psychosocial development. Abnormalities in tooth color can lead to such problem especially if it affects anterior teeth. Objective: This study therefore assessed the effects of anterior tooth discoloration on the psychosocial well-being of adolescents with a view to providing information that will aid the prevention and treatment of this dental problem. Materials and methods: This study was a cross-sectional study involving 384 adolescents aged between 10 and 20years in Igboora southwestern Nigeria. Twenty-six item semi-structured questionnaire comprising variables on demographics and psychosocial effects were researcher-administered. Oral examination of the labial surfaces of the anterior permanent teeth was carried by two examiners. Frequencies and mean were generated. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests were used to test associations between categorical variables at (P≤0.05). Results: The mean age of participants was 14.7±2.3 years. Ninety four (24.5%) participants perceived that their anterior teeth were discolored, 65 (69.1%) of these did not like the discoloration. Sixty two (65.9%), 47 (50.0%) and 38 (40.4%) respectively reported that it prevented them from freely answering questions, smiling and interacting. After oral examination, 120 (31.2%) subjects had one form of anterior tooth discoloration. The cause of tooth discoloration in the majority 64 (16.7%) of the participants was due to extrinsic stains from compounds incorporated into plaque and calculus. Age group, sex, class of participants and presence of tetracycline stained teeth were significantly related with reported psychosocial problems (p≤0.05). Conclusion: About one third of adolescents had anterior tooth discoloration and the majority reported one form of psychosocial problem. PMID:25161491

  10. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences. PMID:25879258

  11. The genesis of manganese concretions in the Igarra area, Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafor, B. E.; Mücke, A.

    An unusual supergene manganese enrichment occurs in the Igarra Formation within the schist belt of southwestern Nigeria. The manganese occurs mainly as peanut-size pisolitic grains or spherical concretions in the weathered schistose units within the formation. The mineralogy of the weathered schists consists of irregularly shaped quartz grains of varying sizes embedded in a matrix composed mainly of sheet-silicates, organic materials and heavy minerals (mostly oxides) which have been almost completely replaced by todorokite. The most abundant of these heavy minerals was probably ilnenite (FeTiO 3) which has now been transformed into pseudo-rutile (Fe 2Ti 3O 9) by the leaching of iron. Ore microscopic studies reveal that the concretions have essentially the same mineralogy as the weathered host rock. But in addition, they also contain some plant remains in the form of decomposing cellular tissues which are generally either completely or partly replaced by todorokite which also replaces the surrounding cement. Microprobe analysis of relicts of the original cement indicates that it was initially thuringitic to chamositic in composition, with FeO content of about 38 weight %. Manganese replacement of the cement was at various stages. The final product of the enrichment process contained over 70 % MnO while the FeO value decreased to only about 2 %. The unusual aspect of this enrichment is the reversal in the usual process of separation of manganese from iron. The reversal is explained as resulting from the transportation of the two elements in the supergene solution in the form of organo-metallic complexes. The manganese complex, being less stable than the iron complex, was precipitated around spots defined by relicts of decomposing plant materials whcih formed a geochemical manganese barrier, while the more stable iron complex still remained in solution. Subsequent erosion concentrated the manganese-rich spots into resistant concretions paving the present surface of the area.

  12. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  13. Evidence of elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commonly consumed fish from Eleyele Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution of water, which is a source of cheap and affordable protein in the form of fish on which the population depends on, is of great concern globally. The present study assesses the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in sediments and six commonly consumed cichlid species from Eleyele Reservoir, Southwestern Nigeria. The results indicate that the concentrations of heavier PCB congeners are higher than the lighter congeners in both sediment and fish tissue. The predominant PCB congeners in the sediment samples from this site were PCBs 8, 44, 114, 101, 189, 196, 206 and 209. The concentration of PCB congeners increased with increasing molecular weight from hepta-PCB to deca-PCB in all fish species. The trend in accumulation of total PCBs in fish was as follows: Tilapia guineensis (2,531.1 ± 74.6 ng/g) > Sarotherodon galilaeus (1178.7 ± 68.5 ng/g) > Oreochromis niloticus > (891.8 ± 49.6 ng/g) > Tilapia zillii (832.8 ± 38.2 ng/g) > Hemichromis fasciatus (475.7 ± 28.5 ng/g) > Sarotherodon melanotheron (333.2 ± 26.1 ng/g). In summary, data from this study shows that the levels of PCBs in cichlid species from Eleyele Reservoir are higher than the threshold level of 0.023-0.047 ng g(-1) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Such elevated PCB levels present significant health implications for human consumers and a threat to the resident fish communities. PMID:23859942

  14. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and communications networks are an important part of the development. The US is involved in providing economic aid to Nigeria. At the present time, Nigeria is producing small arms and light armored vehicles and is attempting to increase both of those capabilities. Nigerian foreign policy has focused largely in Africa and is, to this end, very active in African organizations. It condemns apartheid and advocates the imposition of mandatory comprehensive economic sanctions against South Africa. Relations with the US are cordial; there is frequent travel between the 2 countries and there are currently between 15-20,000 Nigerians studying in the US. PMID:12177964

  15. Floristic analysis of the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.P.

    1986-01-31

    A study was made of the distributions of native, terrestrial, vascular plants occurring in 50 local floras from throughout the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces of the southwestern US. The objectives of the study were to objectively define and describe the floristic elements - assemblages of species with roughly coincident geographic distribution - occurring in the southwestern US and to determine what such assemblages reveal about the floristic history of the region. Factor analysis was used to identify seven floristic elements for the region: Great Basin element, a Mojavean element, a Colorado Plateau element, a Chihuahuan element, an Apachian element, and a Mogollon element. This factor analysis solution was shown to satisfy criteria of interpretability and consistency. The Mojavean, Colorado Plateau, and Apachian elements are believed to be autochthonous. The other four elements show high overlap in species composition with one or more adjacent regions. Each floristic element is mapped to show its geographic form and distribution. Analysis of the maps shows how the existence of objectively defined floristic elements is not contradictory to either the individualistic view of the distribution of a species or local continuity of vegetation and flora. The rarity of the majority of species and the clear association of floristic elements with rather narrowly circumscribed Holocene environments suggest that many Southwestern species have migrated little and are of rather recent, probably post-glacial origin. Geographic principles derived from the distribution patterns of relatively few, widespread, dominant, usually woody species may not be applicable to entire, regional floras. 78 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  16. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select

  17. Implications of Farmers' Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Downy-Mildew Resistant Maize and Improved Cowpea Varieties for Extension Education in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oladele, O. I.; Adekoya, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of farmers' propensity to discontinue the adoption of agricultural technologies in southwestern Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that extension education process should be proactive in addressing farmers in order to sustain the adoption process. Empirical studies looking at diffusion processes from an…

  18. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select…

  19. Roles of Personality, Vocational Interests, Academic Achievement and Socio-Cultural Factors in Educational Aspirations of Secondary School Adolescents in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the roles of personality, vocational interests, academic achievement and some socio-cultural factors in educational aspirations of secondary school adolescents in southwestern Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: A survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 430 (males = 220, females = 210)…

  20. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254

  1. Fire - Southern Oscillation relations in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swetnam, T.W.; Betancourt, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Fire scar and tree growth chronologies (1700 to 1905) and fire statistics (since 1905) from Arizona and New Mexico show that small areas burn after wet springs associated with the low phase of the Southern Oscillation (SO), whereas large areas burn after dry springs associated with the high phase of the SO. Through its synergistic influence on spring weather and fuel conditions, climatic variability in the tropical Pacific significantly influences vegetation dynamics in the southwestern United States. Synchrony of fire-free and severe fire years across diverse southwestern forests implies that climate forces fire regimes on a subcontinental scale; it also underscores the importance of exogenous factors in ecosystem dynamics.

  2. Treatment for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend in a Southwestern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikomi, Philip A.; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H. Elaine

    2009-01-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average…

  3. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. Results From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Conclusion Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease. PMID:27200134

  4. Downstream assessment of chlorinated organic compounds in the bed-sediment of Aiba Stream, Iwo, South-Western, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olutona, Godwin O; Olatunji, Stephen O; Obisanya, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated levels and distribution pattern of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) otherwise known as organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples at downstream of Aiba watercourse in Iwo, South-western Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method followed by GC-ECD analysis were used to ascertain levels of COCs in the sediment samples collected from four different locations along the stream. Eighteen COCs were detected with trans permethrin and endosulfan sulfate having highest and lowest concentrations of 375.70 ± 689.41 and 0.03 ± 0.05 µg/g, respectively. The varying levels of COCs as obtained in this study were attributed to organochlorine pesticides contamination emanated from different agricultural practices and domestic sewage loads of the study area. PMID:26839760

  5. Co-endemicity of Loiasis and Onchocerciasis in Rain Forest Communities in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Akindele, Akeem Abiodun; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Oyedeji, Matthew Oyebode; Adedokun, Samuel Adeyinka; Ojo, Josephine Folashade; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adefioye, Olusegun Adelowo; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2015-01-01

    Background Loiasis is currently receiving attention as a disease of public health importance because of the possibility of increased risk of developing neurologic serious adverse event following mass ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis in individual co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Methodology/Principal Findings Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was conducted in 12 communities covering the 3 senatorial districts of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 960 people were interviewed for history of eye worm using the WHO guidelines for rapid assessment. The survey confirmed the presence of loiasis in all the 12 communities with 4 in Osun East/Ife south senatorial district being at high risk with a prevalence of over 40%. Based on the RAPLOA results, communities within Osun East/Ife south senatorial district were selected for microfilaraemic assessment of L. loa and O. volvulus. A total of 1115 and 1091 individuals were screened for L. loa and O. volvulus microfilaria worms respectively. 160 (14.3%) had L. loa microfilaria detected in their blood with 8 (5.0%) individuals having L. loa loads above 8000 mf/ml. 166 (15.2%) subjects had O. volvulus microfilaria (range 4-504 mf/ml) detected in their skin snip. 30 (2.69%) subjects were co-infected with both L. loa and O. volvulus. There was a significant variation in the prevalence (2.1% to 33.3%) of onchocerciasis in the communities studied (p = 0.001). Five (41.7%) of the studied communities had a prevalence that is equal to or greater than 20%. Conclusions/Significance Low prevalence of onchocerciasis and loiasis co-infection in this study suggests that loiasis may not pose a serious epidemiological threat to the continuous distribution and sustainability of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Evaluation of the interruption of onchocerciasis transmissions in this region using all the indicators set forth by WHO is therefore suggested. PMID:25812086

  6. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  7. Western United States and Southwestern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  8. Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration in the southwest

  9. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483

  10. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them were also less likely to be sexually experienced than those to whom it was acceptable (AOR =0.043, 95% CI =0.016–0.122). Predictors of having multiple sexual partners include the sex of the respondent and the frequency of Internet use, with females (AOR =0.308, 95% CI =0.113–0.843) and those who rarely use the Internet less likely to have multiple sexual partners. Conclusion We conclude that uncontrolled exposure to mass media and Internet could negatively influence the sexual patterns and behavior of youths. PMID:24729737

  12. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were

  13. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

  14. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  15. Development of vegetation and climate in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Van Devender, T R; Spaulding, W G

    1979-05-18

    Plant macrofossils in ancient packrat middens document the presence of woodland communities in most of the present Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mohave deserts in the southwestern United States during the late Wisconsinan (22,000 to 11,000 years before present by radiocarbon dating). Warm desert species were common in the woodlands at lower elevations and mixed conifer and subalpine forests were present at high elevations. Inferred mild, wet winters and cool summers produced unusual plant and animal associations compared to those of today. Montane communities acquired modern aspects and more mesophytic species disappeared from lower woodlands about 11,000 years ago. Early Holocene xeric woodlands and an inferred winter precipitation regime persisted until about 8000 years ago. The present circulation patterns, rainfall regimes, and biotic distributions probably formed as a result of the melting of the continental ice sheets. Southwestern communities appear to have responded quickly to climatic changes compared to the gradual responses of central and eastern United States forest communities. PMID:17840214

  16. Enumeration and identification of gram negative bacteria present in soil underlying urban waste-sites in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Achudume, A C; Olawale, J T

    2010-09-01

    Samples of soils underlying wastes were collected from four sites representing four demographic regions of a medium sized town in southwestern Nigeria. Standard methods and reference strains of isolated bacteria were employed for identification. Evaluation of the enzymatic and biochemical reactions showed that all isolated and identified microbes were non-fermenting heterotrophic (HTB). For example, Klebsiella pnemuniae may be involved in wound infections, particularly following bowel surgery. Similarly Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce serious nosocomial infections if it gains access to the body through wounds or intravenous lines. From the 15 culure plates, 88 colonies with various characteristics were enumerated. They differed in aspect of viscosity and color. The bacterial species were identified by percent positive reactions while oxidative and sugar fermentation tests revealed various characteristics among the isolated strains. All of the isolates were negative for citrate utilization, gelatin liquefaction, nitrate reduction, methyl red and Voges Proskaur, motility and hydrogen sulphate production. The quantity of HTB present in an area serves as an index of the general sanitary conditions of that area. The presence of a large number of HTB, in an ecological area may be considered a liability as it can enhance the spread of diseases and on a larger scale may enable epidemics to arise. Therefore, there is need for control of waste sites by recovery and regular germicidal sanitation. PMID:21387915

  17. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 3.3, 25.8 4.7 and 153.9 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 3.1, 23.9 4.5 and 219.9 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 3.2, 26.3 3.8 and 149.0 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 3.1, 29.7 4.0, 28.2 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 0.004, 0.036 0.005, 0.035 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction. PMID:23567195

  18. Treatment for juveniles who sexually offend in a Southwestern state.

    PubMed

    Ikomi, Philip A; Harris-Wyatt, Georgetta; Doucet, Geraldine; Rodney, H Elaine

    2009-11-01

    A 25-item questionnaire was mailed to sex offender treatment providers from counties with 60 or more reported juvenile sex offenders in a Southwestern state to determine the most effective treatment for juvenile sex offenders. Results indicated that cognitive behavioral therapy was the most successful reported approach to treatment with an average success rate of 87%. The most commonly used approach was cognitive behavioral therapy with relapse prevention. The most common sexual offense was indecency with a child involving sexual contact, contrary to studies that found that in the Probation Commission data, aggravated sexual offense was the most common. These results have ramifications for state policies on treatment for juvenile sex offenders. PMID:20183420

  19. Functional Literacy Empowerment for Nomadic Herdsmen in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Mojisola Ajibike

    2010-01-01

    The need for adequate functional English literacy and numeracy instruction for the herdsmen in Osun State in Nigeria arose as a result of the persistent clashes between the herdsmen and their neighbours. In all, 48 participants (22 adults and 26 children and youths) took part in the International Reading Association assisted functional literacy…

  20. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data for lineaments study and occurrence of Banded Iron Formation in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Michael Adeyinka; Olayinka, Abel Idowu; Alaba, Mustapha; Adabanija, Moruffdeen Adedapo

    2016-02-01

    The quest for solid mineral resource as an alternative for oil income in Nigeria presents opportunity to diversify the resource base of the country. To fill some information gap on the long abandoned Ajase and Gbede Banded Iron Formations (BIF) in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria, high resolution aeromagnetic data of Ogbomoso - Sheet 222 was interpreted; to provide a better understanding of the mode of occurrence of the iron ore and associated structural features and geologic model. These were accomplished by subjecting reduced-to-pole (RTP) residual aeromagnetic intensity map to various data filtering and processing involving total horizontal derivative, vertical derivative, Upward Continuation (UC), Downward Continuation (DC), Euler Deconvolution at different Spectral Indices (SI), and Analytical signal using Geosoft Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 (HJ) data processing and analysis software. The resultants maps were overlain, compared and or plotted on RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map and or geological map and interpreted in relation to the surface geological map. Positive magnetic anomalies observed on the RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map ranged from 2.1 to 94.0 nT and associated with contrasting basement rocks, Ajase and Gbede BIF; while negative magnetic anomalies varied between -54.7 nT and -2.8 nT and are associated with intrusive bodies. Interpreted lineaments obtained from total horizontal derivative map were separated into two categories namely ductile and brittle based on their character vis-à-vis magnetic anomalies on RTP intensity map. Whilst the brittle lineaments were interpreted as fracture or faults; the ductile lineaments were interpreted as folds or representing the internal fabric of the rock units. In addition prominent magnetic faults mainly due to offset of similar magnetic domain/gradient were also interpreted. The iron ore mineralization is distributed within the eastern portion of the study area with Ajase BIF at relatively greater depth (0.5-2.0 km) compared to Gbede BIF (0.50-0.75 km) and confined probably along a fault lineament or lying conformably on topographic bedrock depression suggesting it is structurally controlled. The accepted Euler deconvolution structural index of 2.0 and 3.0 indicate horizontal cylinder and sphere geological model respectively. Orientation and mode of occurrence of Ajase BIF have been established. However, coring and a complimentary geophysical prospecting preferably gravity is recommended to deduce and establish the thickness of Ajase BIF in order to estimate the possible tonnage of the deposit.

  1. Joint application of ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity measurements for characterization of subsurface stratigraphy in Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Fayemi, O.

    2012-08-01

    The frequent building collapses in Nigeria have been attributed to a lack of pre-construction investigations, which assist engineers in obtaining in situ geotechnical information. Further, the structural subsurface settings are often ignored or investigation is haphazardly carried out. To address this issue and demonstrate the importance of such a survey, a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired in a part of Southwestern Nigeria. A 200 MHz antenna was used for the data acquisition along four traverses. The data were subjected to standard GPR processing techniques, and attribute analysis such as instantaneous frequency, amplitude and phase. Also, for comparative and engineering characterization purposes, longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy were computed from the VES results and used for determining the competency of the bedrocks. From the GPR results, it was observed that the mapped subsurface is characterized as erosional truncated at a low angle, which is southerly dipping and includes tangential reflections. Further, stratified rocks dipping at an angle of 32° occur between 1.0 and 4.5 m depth in all of the GPR sections; these strata were truncated by topsoil at shallow depths. Also, some of the sections depict ancient channel structures that have a dimension of 70 m × 40 m. The resistivity data suggest that the study area is characterized by four distinct geoelectric sequences. These comprise topsoil which is composed of clay-like sand to lateritic clay whose thickness ranges between 0.25 and 8.12 m, weathered bedrock with a thickness between 3.84 and 12.61 m, stratified bedrock with a thickness between 0.33 and 7.51 m, and fresh bedrock. These results reveal a complex subsurface geology and this characterizes the study area. The area has low to moderate longitudinal conductance and coefficient of anisotropy values, which suggest that incompetent to semi-competent bedrock exists beneath the subsurface. A good correlation between the GPR and resistivity derived thicknesses was established.

  2. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

  3. Erectile Dysfunction Among Men Attending Surgical Outpatients Department in a Tertiary Hospital in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Takure, Augustine O; Adebayo, Sikiru A; Okeke, Linus I; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi; Shittu, Olayiwola B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erectile dysfunction is becoming a public health issue with high incidences reported in community studies. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and outcome of treatment in men with erectile dysfunction in a tertiary center in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Methods: Data of men with erectile dysfunction was retrieved between July 2004 and June 2014 and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Results: Eighty-nine men with erectile dysfunction were managed which constituted 2% of all urological cases seen during the study period. Their median and mean ages were 39 years and 39.6 ± 1.2SD (range 19-76 years). The peak age incidence at 30-44 years was 41.6% and reduced with increasing age after 65 years to 4.5%. The etiologies were psychogenic in 55%, organic in 27%, idiopathic in 17% and 1% was familial. 67.5%, 31.5% and 3.4% were married, single and separated respectively. Seventy percent neither smoked cigarette nor drank alcohol, 21.3% drank alcohol and 9% took both alcohol and smoked cigarette. Seventy seven and half percent of men presented within 5 years of their symptom. The treatments offered were PDE type 5 inhibitors alone or in combination with psychotherapy or modification of medications. The outcome of these treatments ranged from 89% to 91% success rate. Conclusion: The number of men with erectile dysfunction managed in the tertiary hospital is very low though the outcome of treatment is within acceptable range. Increase public enlightenment may encourage increase hospital patronage and access to the available treatments for erectile dysfunction. PMID:27013856

  4. The relevance of the social networking media in Ebola virus disease prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Adeyemi, Damilare Hakeem; Faremi, Ayodeji; Ojo, John Olujide; Efuntoye, Adeola Ebun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Social Media (SM) is fast becoming a huge avenue to create and spread health awareness amongst youths. Meanwhile news surrounding the on-going Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa are frightening. This study assessed the relevance of the social networking media in spreading awareness about EVD prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study among 400 youths selected using multistage sampling method. Research instruments used were semi structured self administered questionnaires that were analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Results Three hundred and eighty (95.0%) of respondents were members of a social network. Several misconceptions trailed the spread of information about EVD. Though only 21(7.3%) bothered to ascertain the reliability of such information before use, 332 (83.0%) believed that SM can also be used to dispel rumours on health information, 337(84.3%) said they would like the use of SM regulated, while 206 (51.6%) still believed that SM is effective in disseminating health information among youths. Only 79.4% had good knowledge of EVD, and 30.7% of respondents had misinformation about EVD. Determinants of good level of knowledge about EVD through SM contacts include being a male, having SM as the first source of information on EVD and believing that SM could assist to disseminate and improve health information. Conclusion Misconceptions spread through the SM fuelled the ongoing EVD outbreak in West Africa. There is a need for the concerned authority to create awareness through SM contacts as well as regulate its use. PMID:26779299

  5. Forms and pedogenic distribution of extractable manganese in some soils of south-western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ayanlaja, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The contents of various forms of manganese in 10 profiles from S.W. Nigeria was determined by selective extraction methods: dithionite (total), oxalate (amorphous), hydroquinone (easily reducible) and pyrophosphate (organic). All forms were generally highest in the surface horizon and decreased down the profile. Amorphous Mn is the dominant form, being between 80-100% of the total Mn. This indicates that a high proportion of the total soil Mn is potentially available to plant. The active Mn ratio remains fairly constant through most of the profiles suggesting that a dynamic equilibrium exists between the crystalline and the amorphous forms. X-ray diffraction analysis of the manganese concretions picked out from the soils revealed birnessite as the prevalent crystalline form, and the formula derived for birnessite by chemical and thermogravimetric analyses is: (Mn/sub 6.37/, Co/sub 0.16/, Na/sub 1.52/, Ni/sub 0.03/, Ca/sub 0.02/, K/sub 0.06/, Cu/sub 0.01/, Mg/ sub 0.07/) O/sub 14/.4H/sub 2/O.

  6. Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy: A Multicenter Study of Incidence, Indications and Outcomes in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintayo, A A; Olagbuji, B N; Aderoba, A K; Akadiri, O; Olofinbiyi, B A; Bakare, B

    2016-06-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, indications and outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) in three tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria between January, 2010 and December , 2013. Methods A retrospective review of all cases of EPH over a 4 year period was done. EPH was defined as hysterectomy performed at the time of delivery or within 24 h of delivery for uncontrollable postpartum bleeding not responsive to conservative measures. Relevant information was extracted from the hospital records and operation notes. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There were 102 EPHs performed among 39,738 deliveries within the study period, giving a rate of 2.6 per thousand deliveries. Indications were uterine rupture (44.1 %), uterine atony (37.3 %), morbidly adherent placenta (17.6 %) and extension of caesarean section incision involving the uterine arteries (1 %). Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in most cases (67.6 %).Maternal case fatality rate was 11.8 % and perinatal mortality rate was 55.9 %. Blood transfusion, severe postoperative anaemia, wound sepsis, febrile morbidity and acute kidney injury were common morbidities associated with the procedure. Following multivariate logistic regression, the unbooked status [odds-ratio 95 % CI = 12.80 (1.22-133.97) p = 0.03] was the only variable that significantly predicted maternal death. Conclusion The incidence of EPH from our study is high. Much more needs to be done in maternal health services, particularly provision of quality obstetric care to reduce the rates of EPH and the associated high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26961244

  7. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Aboderin, Bukola W; Idris, Olayinka O; Mabayoje, Victor O; Opaleye, Oluyinka O; Adekunle, O Catherine; Olowe, Rita Ayanbolade; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6%) and were female (61.9%). Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05). A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%), cefotaxime (77.7%), and cefuroxime (75.7%) was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 μg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of stx1 were in the 0–10-year-old age group, 3.5% of stx2 were aged ≥40 and above, and 1.0% of the hlyA isolates were in the 0–10-year-old age group. Conclusion The prevalence of virulent STEC is a public health concern. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay should aid quick detection of this virulent serotype and help curb the severe epidemic of human diseases associated with STEC infections. PMID:25342913

  8. Evaluation of radiological hazards in the sediments of Ogun river, South-Western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibiri, N. N.; Okeyode, I. C.

    2012-02-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the sediments of Ogun river in South Western Nigeria have been measured and determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th at different locations along the course of the river were found to vary from 370.99±19.26 Bq/kg (at Olopade) to 608.02±24.66 Bq/kg (at Owere), 5.57±2.34 (at Ekerin) to 20.40±4.52 Bq/kg (at Sokori) and 5.04±2.24 Bq/kg (at mile 12-Maidan) to 23.10±4.81 Bq/kg (at Sokori) respectively. The overall calculated mean of the total indoor absorbed dose rates was 64.46±9.16 nGy/h with corresponding annual indoor effective dose of 0.32±0.05 mSv/y. Radium equivalent activity (Ra eq), external hazard index ( Hex), internal hazard index ( Hin) and representative gamma index ( Iγr) were calculated in order to assess the radiation hazards associated with the use of these sediments in the construction of dwellings. The overall estimated values for the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index and the representative gamma index were 67.96±10.74 Bq/kg, 0.18±0.03, 0.22±0.05 and 0.54±0.08, respectively. These values obtained for the river sediments were less than the recommended safe and criterion limits by UNSCEAR and also, they compared well with the values from other countries of normal radiation areas. It suffices to say therefore that sediments from Ogun river are safe and can be used for construction of buildings without undue radiological health concerns. Results of the study could serve as an important baseline radiometric data for future epidemiological studies and monitoring initiatives in the study area.

  9. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun State of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Osinkolu, G. A.; Pelemo, D. A.; Obiajunwa, E. I.; Oladele, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was employed for the determination of elemental compositions of Thaumatococcus danielli (T. danielli) {Marantaceae} (Benn.) Benth [miraculous berry] in Osun State of Nigeria. The objective is to show the usefulness of T. danielli and especially the beneficial effects of the mineral concentrations from the leaves and fruits of T. danielli. The results show the detection of seventeen elements at different concentrations, and their beneficial effects to humans were discussed.

  10. Medication adherence among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary healthcare setting in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Rasaq; Fakeye, Titilayo O.; Fasanmade, Adesoji

    Objective To assess adherence to medication among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes, ascertain the level of glycemic control, and evaluate patients’ opinions on probable reasons for non-adherence with a view to identify areas of intervention to improve adherence. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at a 900-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between June and August, 2009. Out of 140 consented patients, 114 (81.4%) properly responded to the validated and pre-tested data collection tool and these were subsequently considered for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Means and proportions were compared using student t-test and chi-square or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate, with p<0.05 considered statistical significant. Results Approximately sixty percent of the patients were adjudged adherent with prescribed medication. Out of 58.8% of the cohort who gave their recent fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values, 59.7% had FPG above 110mg/dL. The mean FPG for patients was 139.05 (SD=70.5)mg/dL, males and females significantly differed in their mean FPG, 146.55 (SD=85.0)mg/dL versus 133.33 (SD=57.6)mg/dL respectively (p=0.032). Also, the mean FPG values for adherent patients, 137.09 (SD=59.3)mg/dL was lower than their non-adherent counterparts, 143.92 (SD=87.6) mg/dL, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.095). Financial constraint (34.4%) was the major barrier to optimal adherence with medication. A significant association exist between genders and opinions on physician’s mode of approach during patient-physician interaction as a contributory factor for non-adherence (p=0.038). Conclusions Medication adherence of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients is considerable. However, the relatively high level of adherence did not appear to have significantly impacted on patients’ glycemic status due to a substantial number who had plasma glucose above the recommended targets. Multiple methods may be required to detect patient who report adherence but who may in fact be non-adherent. Also, adherence to other aspects of diabetes management plan needs to be encouraged in order to accomplish optimal glycemic control. Initiatives targeting patient-specific intervention to improve medication adherence should be considered. PMID:24688612

  11. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  12. Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red band bidirectional reflectance factor data from the NASA MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) acquired over the southwestern United States were interpreted through a simple geometric–optical (GO) canopy reflectance model to provide maps of fractional crown cover (dimensionless),...

  13. Barrier contraception among adolescents and young adults in a tertiary institution in Southwestern Nigeria: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O; Adeomi, Adeleye A

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria, like most African nations, is basically conservative, but the young people are becoming more sexually liberated, and the incidence of STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and abortions among these young people is on the increase. The use of barrier contraception (BC), which is a cost-effective method of preventing STD/HIV, unwanted pregnancies and its attending complications, has therefore become an important issue in reproductive health. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among first year students of Osun State University, Nigeria. Four hundred respondents were studied using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were selected by balloting. Most respondents (93%) had heard about the male condom as a method of barrier contraception. Most respondents (79.1%) supported the use of barrier contraceptives, but many (62.5%) thought it would promote sexual promiscuity, 33.4% believed that the use of barrier contraception reflected a lack of trust from the partner, and 38.7% felt barrier contraception is not necessary with a stable partner. One hundred and sixty one (40.5%) had used a form of barrier contraception before, but only 130 (32.7%) are currently using BC. The male condom was the most commonly used method (88.2%), followed by female condom and diaphragm (5.6% respectively). The prevention of STI and unwanted pregnancies were the main reasons (59%) given by respondents for using BC, while religion was the main reason given by non-users. The attitudes of these students toward barrier contraception and their practice were poor. The role of sex education at homes and religious gatherings cannot be over-emphasized. PMID:21061934

  14. Permian evaporites in the Permian basin of southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    During Permian time, a broad and shallow inland sea covered much of southwestern United States, extending northward from west Texas into northwestern Kansas. Slow but continual subsidence beneath all parts of this vast Permian basin caused deposition of a thick sequence of Permian red beds and evaporites, including dolomite, gypsum/anhydrite, salt, and potash. Evaporite units are notably thick and laterally persistent throughout the Permian basin. The entire Permian System ranges up to 2,000 m thick in various parts of the basin, and individual formations, consisting mostly of gypsum/anhydrite and salt, commonly are 60-500 m thick. Evaporite deposits are oldest in the northern part of the Permian basin, and they generally are progressively younger toward the south. The site of principal salt deposition during early Leonardian time (Wellington evaporites) was in Kansas and northwestern Oklahoma; it then shifted southward into western Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle during late Leonardian and early Guadalupian time (Lower Clear Fork/Lower Cimarron evaporites, Upper Clear Fork/Upper Cimarron evaporites, and San Andres/Blaine evaporites); and finally into west Texas and southeastern New Mexico during late Guadalupian and Ochoan time (Artesia, Castile, Salado, and Rustler evaporites). These evaporites comprise a significant resource for the region: rock salt is produced from dry mines, brine fields, and solar-salt operations at 18 locations; gypsum is mined at 13 sites; potash is produced from 5 underground mines in the world-famous Carlsbad potash district; and sulfur is produced by the Frasch process at one site.

  15. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  16. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  17. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  18. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,

  19. Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis was performed on the states in the Southwestern United States to determine methods to increase the proportion of wind and solar generated electricity in those states to levels as high as 40% of total electricity used. This analysis was performed by comparing the monthly and diurnal elect...

  20. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  1. Health manpower development in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    McFubara, Kalada G; Edoni, Elizabeth R; Ezonbodor-Akwagbe, Rose E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health manpower is one of the critical factors in the development of a region. This is because health is an index of development. Bayelsa State has a low level of health manpower. Thus, in this study, we sought to identify factors necessary for effective development of health manpower. Methods: Three methods were used to gather information, ie, face-to-face interviews, postal surveys, and documentary analysis. Critical incidents were identified, and content and thematic analyses were conducted. Results: There is no full complement of a primary health care workforce in any of the health centers in the state. The three health manpower training institutions have the limitations of inadequate health care educators and other manpower training facilities, including lack of a teaching hospital. Conclusion: Accreditation of health manpower training institutions is a major factor for effective development of health manpower. Public officers can contribute to the accreditation process by subsuming their personal interest into the state’s common interest. Bayelsa is a fast-growing state and needs a critical mass of health care personnel. To develop this workforce requires a conscious effort rich in common interests in the deployment of resources. PMID:23271926

  2. Approaches for Effective Vocationalisation of Secondary School Agriculture in Nigeria: The Views of Agricultural Science Teachers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeoji, Canice N.; Agwubike, Christian C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a random sample of serving agricultural science teachers in Delta State, Nigeria, as a background to understanding their views on four selected approaches for effective vocationalisation of secondary school agriculture. These approaches were used to develop a 23-item questionnaire based on current literature. A five-point…

  3. The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Talabi, J K

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming. PMID:12283104

  4. Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.

    1977-01-01

    Secondary calcium carbonate of diverse origins, 'caliche' of many authors, is widespread in the southwestern United States. 'Caliche' includes various carbonates such as calcic soils and products of groundwater cementation. The term 'caliche' is generally avoided in this report in favor of such terms as calcrete, calcic soils, and pervasively cemented deposits. Criteria for the recognition of various types of calcrete of diverse origins include field relations and laboratory data. Calcic soils provide a comprehensive set of characteristics that aid in their recognition in the field. These characteristics include a distinctive morphology that is zoned horizontally and can frequently be traced over tens to hundreds of square kilometers. The major process in the formation of pedogenic calcrete and calic soils is the leaching of calcium carbonate from upper soil horizons by downward percolating soil solutions and reprecipitation of the carbonate in alluvial horizons near the base of the soil profile. The formation of pedogenic calcrete involves many factors including climate, source of carbonate, and tectonic stability of the geomorphic surface on which the calcrete is deposited. Most of the carbonate in pedogenic calcrete is probably derived from windblown sand, dust, and rain. Calcic soils and pedogenic calcretes follow a six-stage sequence morphologic development and is based on a classification devised by Gile, Peterson and Grossman in 1966. The .six morphologic stages of carbonate deposition in soils are related to the relative age of the soil and are as follows: I. The first or youngest stage includes filamentous or faint coatings of carbonate on detrital grains. II. The second stage includes pebble coatings which are continuous; firm carbonate nodules are few to common. III. The third stage includes coalesced nodules which occur in a friable or disseminated carbonate matrix. IV. The fourth stage includes platy, firmly cemented matrix which engulfs nodules; horizon is plugged to downward moving solutions. V. The fifth stage includes soils which are platy to tabular, dense, strongly cemented. A well-developed laminar layer occurs on the upper surface. VI. The sixth and most advanced stage is massive, multilaminar, and strongly cemented calcrete with abundant pisoliths, the upper surface of which may be brecciated. Pisoliths may indicate many generations of brecciation and reformation. In general calcic soils include stages I through III and are friable to moderately indurated; whereas pedogenic calcretes include stages IV through VI and are dense and strongly indurated. In a single pedon the morphologic stage of carbonate deposition decreases downward in the profile. The stage of development may be used in local regions for correlation and determination of relative ages of soils and geomorphic surfaces. Some structures observed in pedogenic calcretes may be present in other types of calcrete but the horizontal zonation typical of deposits of soil processes is absent. Laminar structure in particular is not restricted to pedogenic deposits and is common in many varieties of calcrete. Very little chemical change occurs in the noncalcareous nonclayey fractions of calcretes with age; but clay minerals within calcretes undergo a complex history of authigenesis. There is a depletion of magnesium in the calcareous portion and an enrichment of magnesium in the clayey portion of a calcrete with age. In keeping with this relationship, montmorillonite, or mixed layer montmorillonite-illite, is common in younger calcretes; whereas the high magnesium-silicate clays, sepiolite and palygorskite, are common in older calcretes. This indicates that the magnesium depleted from the carbonate is redistributed authigenically in clay minerals. The mobility of carbonate introduces many problems in attempts to date calcretes directly. Although the relative ages of soils within a province may be determined by quant

  5. Characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates infecting peanut in Southwestern states of USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is among the greatest yield-reducing viruses affecting peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in all peanut-producing states in U.S. Due to the lack of molecular information on TSWV-isolates associated with peanut in southwestern states, the aim of this study was directed at ...

  6. The Education of Spanish-Speaking Children in Five Southwestern States. Bulletin, 1933, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Annie

    1933-01-01

    This manuscript has been prepared after careful study and a visit into the territory concerned. There have been many Spanish speaking foreigners, largely from Mexico, in the United States in recent years. They are sufficiently numerous, however, in our five Southwestern States to constitute a rather serious school problem. Enough of the social and…

  7. Migrant Programs in the Southwestern States -- Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory was prepared for use by agencies working with migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the Southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The directory lists programs, services, and resources available to migrants in these states.…

  8. 77 FR 40490 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... the southwestern United States (77 FR 35618). Subsequent to publication, an error was found in the... June 14, 2012 (77 FR 35618) (FR Doc. 2012-14406) for RNAV route T- 310, is corrected under the..., that establishes two RNAV routes in the southwest United States. This action corrects the...

  9. Adoption of Improved Cotton Production Technologies in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniji, O. B.; Voh, J. P.; Atala, T. K.; Ogungbile, A. O.

    The research broadly aims at providing information on the technology adoption behaviour of cotton farmers in Katsina State of Nigeria., The study was conducted in 2001 farming season in the Sudan savanna ecological zone where Samcot 8, 9, 10 and other production packages have been introduced to farmers. The sample consisted of 250 farmers selected from Funtua, Daudawa and Malumfashi, in Katsina State. The results indicated a high rate of awareness in the zone. The main sources of information were extension agents and the use of radio. The rate of adoption of improved practice was 78%. The results showed that most sampled farmers were not aware of the complete set of technologies studied. Among the technologies, farmer`s awareness of herbicides was least (15%) while the use of fertilizer recorded (85%). The major reasons for non adoption of improved technologies were inadequate knowledge and non-availability of these technologies.

  10. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C

    1985-12-01

    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed. PMID:3836217

  11. Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of 300 randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The results obtained revealed that about 40% of the 71 botanicals identified presently rare. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area. The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. PMID:16909472

  12. Severe Ophthalmological Complications of Thyroid Disease are Rare in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogun, Olufunmilola A.; Adeleye, Jokotade O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ocular manifestations of thyroid dysfunction constitute a wide clinical spectrum ranging from minor ocular discomfort, lid retraction, lid lag and ocular injection, to sight threatening eyeball protusion and optic nerve compression. Thyroid-related eye disorders are most commonly associated with Graves’ disease, and this most frequently occurs in the setting of hyperthyroidism. However, in 10% of cases, typical eye signs have also been reported in euthyroid and hypothyroid states. The severity of thyroid eye disease has been linked to cigarette smoking. There is very little data specifically reporting the ocular manifestations of thyroid disease among black African patients and there is no known report from Nigeria. This pilot study therefore focused on documenting the ocular signs accompanying thyroid dysfunction in a black African population. AIM To evaluate the pattern of ocular complications, among patients treated for thyroid disorders, in a major Nigerian teaching hospital. RESULTS A total of 75 patients with thyroid dysfunction, were evaluated, comprising 63 females and 12 males. There was a very low prevalence of smoking among patients (<5%). Graves’ disease was the commonest thyroid disorder, representing 70% of cases. Seventy-eight percent of patients were hyperthyroid, 11.8% were euthyroid and only 9.8% of patients were hypothyroid. Commonest systemic symptoms were neck swelling (68.6%), weight loss (63.8%), tremors (60.9%) and palpitations (59.4%). Two-thirds of patients reported ocular symptoms consisting mainly of painless eye swelling (66.7%) and ocular irritation (58%). Conjunctival injection, lid lag and lid retraction were the commonest ocular signs. Chemosis, severe proptosis and ocular motility disorder were very rare. Optic neuropathy was found in 4 patients but was related to pre-existing glaucoma. Majority of patients required only ocular emollients and tear supplements. CONCLUSION Severe ocular complications of thyroid disorders were uncommon in this cross-section of Nigerian patients. This may be linked to the very low prevalence of cigarette smoking among Nigerians or genetic and environmental factors linked to their African heritage. PMID:27042149

  13. Pharmacovigilance amongst patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in Ekiti state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeniran, Adeyinka; Awodele, Deborah F

    2012-01-01

    With the current population of Nigeria and the limited number of trained health care providers, PMVs are inevitable and highly needed especially in the rural areas for the supply of drugs in treating minor illnesses. Thus, pharmacovigilance (PVG) activity in Nigeria cannot exclude the roles of PMVs; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the knowledge of PMVs on PVG and adverse drug reaction reporting system. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey of the knowledge of Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting system of 96 PMVs in Ekiti state, Nigeria before the National Pharmacovigilance training in February, 2011 and after the training. The data obtained before the training showed that more than 87% of the respondents had at least secondary level of education. About half of the respondents (58.5%) knew the correct meaning of PVG and 56.6% knew how to report ADRs. But only about one third of them (35.8%) knew where to obtain ADR forms. Very few respondents 3 (5.7%) had received report/complaints of ADR from patients in the last 1 month while just 2 (3.8%) of them reported. The most commonly mentioned factors/reasons for poor reporting of ADRs/compliance with PVG guideline by the respondents were fears of indictment (61.3%), poor public knowledge (88.7%), and poor training on PMVs (92.5%). However, the results after the training showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.005) improvement in the proportion of respondents who were aware of PVG (from 55.8% to 89.1%), those who knew the meaning of PVG (from 49.0% to 61.7%), where to obtain ADR form (28.3% to 92.1%) and those who knew how to report ADRs (44.2% to 88.0%). PMVs are ready to practice PVG if they are properly trained. Training has been revealed to play a significant role in the knowledge of the concept of PVG amongst PMVs. It is therefore recommended that National Pharmacovigilance Centre should continue to organize periodic trainings for PMVs especially those with poor knowledge on PVG. PMID:22751188

  14. 77 FR 35836 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (78 FR 24156). An NPRM correction published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2012 (77 FR 30437) corrected the description of VOR Federal airway V-16. Interested... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...

  15. 77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... (77 FR 24156). The description of V-16 in the NPRM did not reflect a previous amendment of the route that was published on September 19, 2011 (76 FR 57902). The incorrect part of the V-16 description in...; Southwestern United States as published in the Federal Register of April 23, 2010 (77 FR 24156) FR Doc....

  16. 77 FR 35618 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (77 FR 24157). Interested parties were invited to participate in... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  17. Library Media Technical Assistant Education in the Southwestern and Western United States: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Rebecca R.

    A survey of 89 two- and four-year colleges in the Western and Southwestern United States was conducted to provide an overview of Library Media Technical Assistant (LMTA) education programs in those sections of the country. Each of the target institutions was identified by the Guidance Information System or the "Ferguson Guide to Two-Year College…

  18. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Engelthaler, David M; Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern. PMID:26982330

  19. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern. PMID:26982330

  20. Black grama grass under the microscope; Anatomical features of a native plant from southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black grama grass (Bouteloua eriopoda) is a perennial desert grass native to the arid Southwestern United States. It is most common in the Chihuahuan Desert, occupying large areas of New Mexico and Arizona, where occurrence of drought conditions are high. Black grama tends to grow in sandy loam soil...

  1. Ground Based Reflectance Measurements of Arid Rangeland Vegetation Communities of the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1997 a research program began using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD-FR) spectroradiometer to collect ground based in situ radiance/reflectance measurements from vegetation communities typical of semiarid/arid rangelands of southwestern United States. Measurements were made after the spring (Ap...

  2. Headcut retreat in a semiarid watershed in the southwestern United States since 1935

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Headcuts are prominent feature in the southwestern United States. Within the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) survey data was available to quantify the advance of the three most prominent headcuts in sub-watershed 63.011 since 1935. The data was incorporated and analyzed in a geographical ...

  3. Sensitivity of a semi-arid riparian ecosystem to climatic variability in the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic change will have strong impacts on riverine ecosystems and their associated riparian zones. In the southwestern United States, conservation and restoration of riparian habitats has become a priority for resource management agencies and conservation groups, and these areas are biodiversity h...

  4. Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the output of wind farms with that of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants (including a heat storage system) resulted in a substantial percentage (40%) of the total utility electrical generation in the Southwestern United States being met by renewable energy. Using wind and solar resourc...

  5. Street hawking among in-school adolescents in a south-western town in Nigeria: pattern, determinants and effects on school performance.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Ojo, Temitope O; Babatunde, Adelekan; Olatunji, Gbajumo J; Owolabi, Gbolagade K; Adewale, Ibiyemi A; Ifedayo, Ibukun F; Friday, Ijuewe S

    2015-02-01

    Street hawking is the commonest form of child labor in Nigeria. Although street hawking is very pervasive, there is the increasing need to fully understand its pattern and effects on those involved in hawking particularly adolescents who combine schooling with hawking. In Nigeria, data on the effects of street hawking on in-school adolescents are generally scanty. Therefore, the present study was undertaken in Ife Central Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun State, Nigeria to assess the pattern, determinants of street hawking among in-school adolescents and its effect on school performance. A cross-sectional study of 435 adolescents (aged 10-19) attending public secondary schools was done. Data were collected using facilitated self-administered questionnaires alongside a review of class records. Appropriate statistical analysis including multiple regression was done. Results showed mean age of respondents to be 14.6±2.1 years with prevalence of street hawking at 37.2%. Early adolescents (10-13 years) were more likely to engage in street hawking compared to their counterparts in late adolescence (aged 17-19). Female adolescents and students of trading mothers were significantly more likely to engage in street hawking. Respondents engaged in street hawking were significantly more likely to have failed the last academic term examination. The findings from this study will be useful for stakeholders as they develop policies and programmes to address the challenge of street hawking among adolescent school goers. PMID:24914712

  6. Diverticular disease at colonoscopy in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluyemi, Aderemi; Odeghe, Emuobor

    2016-01-01

    Background: The upsurge in the reported cases of diverticular disease (DD) has led to a re-appraisal of the earlier held views that it was a rare entity in Nigeria. The advent of colonoscopy has contributed in no small way to this change. We sought to determine the clinical characteristics, indications for colonoscopy, and intra-procedural findings among these patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out on the colonoscopy records from four private endoscopy units based in Lagos State, Nigeria. The records were drawn from a 5-year period (August 2010 to July 2015). The endoscopy logs and reports were reviewed, and the bio data, indications, and colonoscopy findings were gleaned. Results: A total of 265 colonoscopies were carried out in the stated period. Of these, 28 (10.6%) had DD. Of the patients with DD, 5 (17.9%) were females while 23 (82.1%) were males. Their ages ranged from 46 to 94 years (mean = 68.2 ± 11 years). Fifteen patients had been referred for the procedure on account of hematochezia alone (15 = 53.6%). Other reasons for referral included abdominal pain alone (2 = 7%), hematochezia plus abdominal pain (5 = 17.9%), and change in bowel habits (3 = 10.8%). Ten (35%) patients had pan-colonic involvement. Regional disease involved the right side alone in only one case (3.5%) while the other combinations of sites are as follows; 6 (21.4%) in the sigmoid colon alone, 2 (7%) in the descending colon alone, 5 (17.9%) in the sigmoid–descending colon, 4 (14.3%) in the sigmoid-descending-transverse colon, thus the sigmoid colon was involved in 25 (89.3%) cases. Five cases (17.9%) had endoscopic features suggestive of diverticulitis. Conclusions: DD should no longer be regarded as a rare problem in the Nigerian patient. The study findings support the notion of higher prevalence among the elderly, in males, and of sigmoid colon involvement. PMID:27226685

  7. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Park; Allen, Craig D; Millar, Constance I; Swetnam, Thomas W; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J; Leavitt, Steven W

    2010-12-14

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ≈ 2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ≈ 7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ≈ 18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

  8. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Park; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, Constance I.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Michaelsen, Joel; Still, Christopher J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ≈2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ≈7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ≈18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests. PMID:21149715

  9. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, A.P.; Allen, C.D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasingmortality inmany temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth.We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ???2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantialmortality due to wildfires from1984 to 2006, and???7. 6%experiencedmortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ???18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

  10. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  11. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Amy C.; Harhay, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. Approach Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. Results Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). Conclusion/Recommendations The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

  12. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

  13. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: implications for livestock disease management and public health.

    PubMed

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Agada, Charity A; Adetunji, Victoria O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M

    2013-01-01

    After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised. PMID:23905209

  14. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0.80. The results also showed that yam production was profitable in State with net profit of N 108,299.67 ha-1.

  15. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  16. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  17. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  18. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  19. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  20. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  1. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while

  2. The Effective Management of Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria: An Analytical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the management of education in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a correlational research, the study population comprised all the 694 primary schools in the State. Out of this, a sample of 320 schools was selected through the stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments were used to collect data for the…

  3. Impact of Principal Leadership on Catholic High School Students' Academic Achievement in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhangbe, Osayamen Samson

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, students of Catholic High/Senior secondary schools in Edo state, Nigeria have maintained a significantly higher level of academic achievement than their counterparts in public schools in the state. This development has not only been a cause of serious concern for parents of students who attend public High/Senior secondary schools…

  4. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  5. In-School Adolescents and Career Choice: The Case of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osakinle, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines in-school adolescents and career choices in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample consists of two hundred randomly selected parents and in-school adolescents from four local government areas in Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistical analysis. The results showed…

  6. Teachers' Teaching Experience and Students' Learning Outcomes in Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2008-01-01

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…

  7. Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree-ring record indicates that this is the case. During the 20th century, tree-ring widths correlated very positively with total winter precipitation and very negatively with spring-summer maximum temperature. This indicates that Southwestern forest growth is significantly impacted by both the amount of water delivered before the growing season and temperature during the growing season. We conclude that in the absence of a significant increase in winter precipitation, continued warming should lead to a more sparsely populated Southwestern forest population, similar to the one that appears to have existed during 1000-1600 AD.

  8. The problem of uveitis in Bendel State of Nigeria: experience in Benin City.

    PubMed Central

    Ayanru, J. O.

    1977-01-01

    A review of 1987 patients with uveitis seen over an 11-year period in Bendel State of Nigeria has been undertaken; 56% of cases had a posterior/mid-peripheral uveitis, 15.1% a panuveitis, 21.5% an anterior uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis with classical symptoms was rarely seen. Its comparative rarity is presumably due to the absence of HL-A27 in Africans and altered immunological states from malaria and parasitic infections. Identified aetiological factors in anterior uveitis were leprosy (1 patient), tuberculosis (1 patient), herpes zoster (16 patients), and onchocerciasis (3 patients). The great majority of cases of posterior uveitis were of presumed toxoplasmic origin. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its mode of transmission in a population in which toxoplasmosis is endemic. Forest onchocerciasis is not a major cause of uveitis in southern Nigeria in the same way as savanna onchocerciasis is in northern Nigeria. Syphilis seems to play no part in the causation of uveitis in southern Nigeria. Better diagnostic facilities are required to determine the role of sarcoidosis and other possible causative factors. Uveitis is a major cause of blindness in Nigeria. PMID:563237

  9. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  10. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  11. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio

  12. Prevalence of hospital-acquired enterococci infections in two primary-care hospitals in osogbo, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olawale, Kafayat Olayinka; Fadiora, Solomon Olufemi; Taiwo, Samuel Sunday

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that become pathogenic when they colonize niches where they are not normally found. Of recent, they have become major cause of nosocomial infections, especially of the bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical sites. The aim of this study is to determine the point-prevalence rate of human enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in Osogbo, Nigeria. The study was conducted between January and June 2009 in two primary-care hospitals in Osogbo and involved a total of 118 patients who developed clinical evidence of infection at least 48 hours after hospital admission. Appropriate clinical samples were collected from the patients after an informed consent and cultured for isolation/biochemical identification of Enterococcus species at the Bacteriology Laboratory of Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo using standard microbiological methods. There were 525 hospital admissions within the time frame of the study of which 118 (22.5%) developed hospital acquired infection (HAI); 58 (49.2%) of which cultured positive for bacterial pathogens. Enterococci were isolated from infective focus in 7 patients, giving a prevalence rate of hospital-acquired enterococci infection of 5.9%. Two species of Enterococcus were identified; Enterococcus faecalis from urinary tract infection (UTI) and surgical site infection (SSI) of 6 (85.7%) patients and Enterococcus faecium from UTI in 1 (14.3%) patient. Other bacteria recovered from other infective foci were Klebsiella spp 31.0%, Pseudomonas spp 20.7%, Staphylococcus aureus 17.2%, Escherichia coli 12.1%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 3.4%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.7% and Serratia spp 1.7%. All the enterococci isolates were multiply antibiotic resistant, and 42.9% were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) with the VRE strains showing resistance to wider range of antibiotics than the vancomycin-sensitive strains. Other Gram-positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates also demonstrated multiple resistance to all commonly available antibiotics in this community except E. coli and Pseudomonas spp which were relatively sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. This limited study demonstrated a high prevalence rate of multiple antibiotic resistant enterococci infections among hospitalized patients in this environment. There is need for systematic surveillance of hospitals for enterococci infections; prudent use and rational prescription of antibiotics and stringent measures to reduce the prevalence rate by health education on infection control measures such as isolation, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization. PMID:23878706

  13. Hydrochemical and stable isotopic characterization of shallow groundwater system in the crystalline basement terrain of Ekiti area, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talabi, Abel O.; Tijani, Moshood N.

    2013-03-01

    Assessments of hydrochemical quality and recharge source are critical components of sustainable groundwater resources evaluation and management, especially in complex weathered/fractured crystalline bedrock terrains. Assessment of the weathered/fractured basement aquifer of Ekiti area, SW-Nigeria was undertaken with emphasis on hydrochemical quality and stable isotope characterization of shallow groundwater system. The study approach involved field sampling and in situ measurements of physico-chemical parameters followed by hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses of the water samples. In situ measurements revealed EC value of 43-995 μS/cm (av 431.96 μS/cm) and total hardness of 31.3-295.1 mg/L. The pH of the water sample ranged from 7.0 to 8.9 (av 8.00). The concentrations of the major cations are in the order of Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > Mg2+ with their respective average values of 33.35, 25.61, 24.91 and 8.7 mg/L respectively while that of the anions are in the order of HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 - with their respective average values of 165.44, 31.85, 21.27 and 5.44 mg/L respectively. However, the results of stable isotope analyses revealed δ18O value of -4.2 to -2.1 ‰ and δD of -22.3 to -10.2 ‰, suggesting meteoric water source (recent precipitation water recharging the associated shallow basement aquifer) while the estimated deuterium excess of 6.80-11.00 ‰ (av 9.6 ‰) suggested little or no imprint of kinetic evaporation. Furthermore, the overall hydrochemical profiles revealed the main hydrochemical facies as Ca(Mg)-HCO3 (dominant) and Na(K)-HCO3 (minor) water types which can be attributed to dissolution of minerals in the various rock units in the study area. Conclusively, the overall hydrochemical and stable isotope evaluations revealed a recharge predominantly derived from meteoric (rainfall) source while the corresponding low TDS is a reflection of low water-rock interaction and limited migratory history of the shallow groundwater system in the study area.

  14. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  15. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  16. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  17. Laboratory Teaching: Implication on Students' Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigation of the roles of the laboratory in students' academic achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 240 students selected through simple random sampling technique from ten secondary schools in the 3 Education Zones…

  18. Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emielu, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

  19. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their

  20. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  1. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  2. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage…

  3. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on

  4. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  5. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  6. Emotional Abuse of Secondary School Students by Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, A. I.; Okoza, Jolly

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the forms of emotional abuse experienced by students and the percentage of victims that experience the various forms of emotional abuse. The survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 1,559 students drawn from public secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria, who were randomly selected through the multi-stage

  7. Sustainability of Farm Credit Delivery by Cooperatives and NGOs in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alufohai, G. O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examined the sustainability rates of co-operatives and NGOs in farm credit delivery in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. The Subsidy Dependence Indices (SDI) and the capital formation rates were determined using both primary and secondary data obtained from 80 and 20 purposively selected cooperatives and NGOs respectively, based on their…

  8. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  9. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  10. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  11. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Pupils' Achievement in Mathematics and Science in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Agbatogun, A. Olajumoke

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement of pupils in the public and private primary schools in mathematics and science. The descriptive survey research design was employed to carry out this study. Four hundred and eighty (480) pupils from thirty primary schools in Ogun State, Nigeria were randomly selected for this study. From the results of this…

  12. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in

  13. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  14. Effect of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Rasaq; Fakeye, Titilayo O.

    Objective To determine the influence of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study using pre-tested structured questionnaire among 176 consented patients recruited from the endocrinology clinics of two teaching hospitals between November, 2010 and January, 2011; and a retrospective review of case notes of the cohort for details of prescribed medications and blood glucose values. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Tests of proportions were evaluated using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. The differences in mean fasting blood glucose (FBG) between and among categorical variables were compared using student t-test and ANOVA respectively, with p<0.05 considered significant. Results Mean number of prescribed medications was 4.6 ±1.4. Almost two thirds 103 (60.6%) were placed on >4 medications. Adherence was better among patients on >4 medications compared to those on ≤4 medications (p=0.05). However, patients on >4 medications were mostly older adults (>60 years of age), and they were in the majority (66.7%) who had tertiary education compared to 33.3% of those on ≤4 medications who had tertiary education (p=0.02). Adherence rates to antidiabetes medications were in the ranking of oral antidiabetes medications (OAM) alone (50.0%) > insulin plus OAM (44.0%) > insulin alone (41.7%) with no significant difference (p=0.77). There was a significant difference in mean FBG among patients on >4 medications (172.1 ±61.1mg/dL) versus (198.8 ±83.8mg/dL) among those on ≤4 medications (p=0.02). Conclusions Prescribing more than four medications is linked to improved adherence and glycemic outcome. However, age and educational background of patients are important factors that need to be considered when prescribing multiple medications for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24223081

  15. Automatic detection of vegetation changes in the southwestern United States using remotely sensed images

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, P.S.; Mackinnon, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using same-date Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) data for comparison with the MSS results. The change-detection procedure includes multitemporal image calibration using a hybrid method that we developed for the project; the hybrid calibration allows a radiometric calibration to be applied to historical data by using field-radiance information rather than a modeling procedure. The results indicate that a calibrated visible band is more sensitive than the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting vegetation changes in the arid and semi-arid environments of the southwestern United States. Changes were detected in the desert environment, where the vegetation density is relatively low, with both Landsat MSS and GOES VISSR images. Some changes detected by the automatic procedure were confirmed in the field during two of the Landsat overpasses. The changes corresponded mostly to the blooming of ephemeral or annual vegetation.

  16. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  17. Evidence against infection with hantaviruses among forest and park workers in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Vitek, C R; Ksiazek, T G; Peters, C J; Breiman, R F

    1996-08-01

    To determine if individuals with extensive exposure to rodent habitats were infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), we evaluated forest and park service personnel from the region of endemicity in the southwestern United States. Information about work and recreational activities, including exposure to rodents and a history of recent illnesses, was obtained via a standardized questionnaire. Serum specimens were also collected. Of 140 participating workers, 84 (60%) were primarily engaged in outdoor work activities, 14 (10%) were office-based supervisors, and 42 (30%) were office workers. Of the 140 employees, 89 (64%) reported repeated exposures to rodents, rodent nests, and/or rodent droppings; 22 (16%) reported trapping or handling wild rodents. Hantavirus antibodies were not detected in any park employee. These data suggest that transmission of SNV is a rare event even among persons in the southwestern United States who have a high level of exposure to this virus. Although park employees and visitors in this region are at low risk of infection with SNV, these persons should continue to use recommended measures for risk reduction. PMID:8842264

  18. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, H.L.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.; Yount, J.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the Mojave Desert to the central Colorado Plateau. Aeolian dust is recognized in these depressions on the basis of textural, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics and comparisons of those characteristics to the underlying bedrock units. Spatial and temporal trends suggest that although local dust sources are important to the accumulated material in these depressions, Mojave Desert dust sources may also contribute. Depth trends in the depressions suggest that Mojave sources may have contributed more dust to the Colorado Plateau recently than in the past. These interpretations point to the important roles of far-traveled aeolian dust for landscape geochemistry and imply future changes to soil geochemistry under changing conditions in far-distant dust source areas. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Funmilola A.; Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Oluseyi, Adekola E.; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. Materials and Methods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%), Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%), and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%). All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (81.67%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%), ofloxacin (68.33%), vancomycin (65%), and gentamicin (20%). None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M) was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M) gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied location and consequently Nigeria. PMID:26957873

  1. Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntogun, B. A.; Koku, C. A.

    A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total suspended particulates were estimated using automatic air monitors. The noise levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels obtained for the air pollution indicators in Lagos were CO- 232 ppm at Idumota; SO2- 2.9 ppm at Idumota; NO2- 1.5 ppm at Iyana-Ipaja bus stop; total suspended particulates- 852 cpm at Oshodi bus stop. At Ibadan, the CO and SO2 levels at 271 and 1.4 ppm were, respectively highest at Mokola round about while NO2 at 1.0 ppm was highest at Bere round about. In Ado-Ekiti, the highest levels obtained were CO- 317 ppm at Oke Isha, NO2- 0.6 ppm at Ijigbo junction and SO2- 0.8 ppm at Old garage junction. The recorded noise levels were 112.8 dB at Oshodi bus stop in Lagos, 120 dB at Iwo road in Ibadan and 115 dB at Old Garage junction, Ado-Ekiti. The Federal Ministry of Environment National Standards for these air pollutant indicators are CO, 10-20 ppm; SO2, 0.01-0.1 ppm; NO2, 0.04-0.6 ppm and total suspended particulates, 250 mg dm-3. The noise level is restricted to 90 db. The blood samples of people at these high trafficked locations such as the commercial drivers, conductors, street traders and road traffic wardens were also analysed for Lead content with a resultant high Pb concentration. Responses to interviews indicate that these people suffer from air pollution related diseases such as headaches, loss of vision, anaemia, forgetfulness and fatigue than those from the control locations.

  2. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  3. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  4. Cutaneous myiasis due to tumbu-fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edungbola, L D

    1982-12-01

    The occurrence and public health significance of cutaneous myiasis were investigated in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria between June and September, 1981. The findings indicated that human myiasis caused by the maggot of African tumbu-fly, Cordylobia anthropophaga was relatively common and constituted potential public health problems in the affected parts of the state capital. The importance of animal myiasis due to larvae of sheep bot-fly, Oesteris ovis and the cattle grubs, Hypoderma bovis, was assessed and discussed. PMID:6131594

  5. State Variations in Womens Socioeconomic Status and Use of Modern Contraceptives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamidi, Esther O.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. Objective I examined the variations in womens socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Methods Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. Results The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on womens socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in womens participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Conclusion Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria. PMID:26258578

  6. Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

  7. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process. PMID:24367495

  8. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  9. The diffusion of maize to the southwestern United States and its impact

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Fritz, Gayle J.; Adams, Karen R.; Roney, John R.; MacWilliams, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the initial period of agriculture in the southwestern United States has been transformed by recent discoveries that establish the presence of maize there by 2100 cal. B.C. (calibrated calendrical years before the Christian era) and document the processes by which it was integrated into local foraging economies. Here we review archaeological, paleoecological, linguistic, and genetic data to evaluate the hypothesis that Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) farmers migrating from a homeland in Mesoamerica introduced maize agriculture to the region. We conclude that this hypothesis is untenable and that the available data indicate instead a Great Basin homeland for the PUA, the breakup of this speech community into northern and southern divisions ≈6900 cal. B.C. and the dispersal of maize agriculture from Mesoamerica to the US Southwest via group-to-group diffusion across a Southern Uto-Aztecan linguistic continuum. PMID:19995985

  10. Earlier onset of the spring fine dust season in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; White, W. H.; Gebhart, K. A.; Hyslop, N. P.; Gill, T. E.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM)2.5 dust concentrations (mineral particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm) typically peak in spring and early summer at rural and remote sites across the southwestern United States. Trend analyses indicate that springtime regional mean PM2.5 dust concentrations have increased from 1995 to 2014, especially in March (5.4% yr-1, p < 0.01). This increase reflects an earlier onset of the spring dust season across the Southwest by 1 to 2 weeks over the 20 year time period. March dust concentrations were strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (r = -0.65, p < 0.01), which was mostly in its negative phase from 2007 to 2014, during which the region was drier, windier, and less vegetated. The positive spring trend and its association with large-scale climate variability have several important implications for visibility, particulate matter, health effects, and the hydrologic cycle in the region.

  11. Patterns of diversity for fungal assemblages of biological soil crusts from the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Nash, Thomas H; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2012-01-01

    Molecular methodologies were used to investigate fungal assemblages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) from arid lands in the southwestern United States. Fungal diversity of BSCs was assessed in a broad survey that included the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts as well as the Colorado Plateau. At selected sites samples were collected along kilometer-scale transects, and fungal community diversity and composition were assessed based on community rRNA gene fingerprinting using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Individual phylotypes were characterized through band sequencing. The results indicate that a considerable diversity of fungi is present within crusted soils, with higher diversity being recovered from more successionally mature BSCs. The overwhelming majority of crust fungi belong to the Ascomycota, with the Pleosporales being widespread and frequently dominant. Beta diversity patterns of phylotypes putatively representing dominant members of BSC fungal communities suggest that these assemblages are specific to their respective geographic regions of origin. PMID:22123652

  12. Patterns and causes of observed piñon pine mortality in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hicke, Jeff H.; Macalady, Alison K.; Buotte, P.C.; Cowles, T.R.; Allen, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, widespread piñon pine die-off occurred in the southwestern United States. Here we synthesize observational studies of this event and compare findings to expected relationships with biotic and abiotic factors. Agreement exists on the occurrence of drought, presence of bark beetles and increased mortality of larger trees. However, studies disagree about the influences of stem density, elevation and other factors, perhaps related to study design, location and impact of extreme drought. Detailed information about bark beetles is seldom reported and their role is poorly understood. Our analysis reveals substantial limits to our knowledge regarding the processes that produce mortality patterns across space and time, indicating a poor ability to forecast mortality in response to expected increases in future droughts.

  13. Patterns and causes of observed piñon pine mortality in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Meddens, Arjan J H; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Macalady, Alison K; Buotte, Polly C; Cowles, Travis R; Allen, Craig D

    2015-04-01

    Recently, widespread piñon pine die-off occurred in the southwestern United States. Here we synthesize observational studies of this event and compare findings to expected relationships with biotic and abiotic factors. Agreement exists on the occurrence of drought, presence of bark beetles and increased mortality of larger trees. However, studies disagree about the influences of stem density, elevation and other factors, perhaps related to study design, location and impact of extreme drought. Detailed information about bark beetles is seldom reported and their role is poorly understood. Our analysis reveals substantial limits to our knowledge regarding the processes that produce mortality patterns across space and time, indicating a poor ability to forecast mortality in response to expected increases in future droughts. PMID:25494578

  14. Wetter and cooler late Holocene climate in the southwestern United States from mites preserved in stalagmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, Victor J.; Cokendolpher, James C.; Norton, Roy A.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2001-07-01

    The presence of at least 12 species of well-preserved mites in two late Holocene stalagmites from Hidden Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, depicts changing climate over the past 3200 yr. Growth of both stalagmites, determined by uranium-series dating, occurred from at least 3171 ± 48 yr ago and ceased by 819 ± 82 yr ago. Some of the 12 subfossil genera and species in the stalagmites are like those currently found in wetter and cooler climates, northern-like, and distinctly different from those known in the cave (n = 16) and on the surface immediately around the cave (n = 32). The mismatch of genera and species in the stalagmites, cave, and surface near the cave argues for a wetter and cooler late Holocene climate in the southwestern United States from ca. 3200 to 800 yr ago.

  15. Spatial and phylogenetic analysis of the vesicular stomatitis virus epidemic in the southwestern United States in 2004-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southwestern United States has been incidentally affected by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) epidemics during the last 100 years. By the time this manuscript was written, the last episodes were reported in 2004-2006. Results of space clustering and phylogenetic analysis techniques used here sug...

  16. Baseline survey of level of quality control in medical radiology in Cross River State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyang, S. O.; Egbe, N. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Oshi, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in radiology is meant to ensure that accurate diagnoses are obtained with radiation doses kept as low as reasonably achievable. It is also a fundamental requirement by the Regulatory Authorities in issuing operational license to operators of radiology facilities. In Nigeria, QC issues in Radiation Medicine have recently been introduced and are being enforced by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). The level of QC practice in the radiology facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria was evaluated to obtain baseline information that could be relied on in the future to determine the level of improvement. It was observed that radiology practitioners appreciate QC and its importance in their practice, the present low level of its implementation notwithstanding.

  17. Prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in some States of northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  18. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  19. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117

  20. Oil, the state, and power politics: the political economy of Nigeria's foreign policy, 1960-80

    SciTech Connect

    Abubakar, D.

    1986-01-01

    This study deals with the misconception of policy makers about the place of a commodity in the international market, and the potential confusion of economic gains as a political leverage in the realm of foreign policy. Substantively, the study focuses on the orientation of Nigeria's foreign policy over a period of two decades (1960-80) and emphasizes the impact of oil wealth, along with the perception of such sudden wealth by relevant Nigerian decision makers, on the pattern of the country's behavior in the international system. By drawing pertinent insight from interdependence paradigm and decision-making theories, the thesis tests a central hypothesis that differences in the attributes of nation state actors will be related to variations in the foreign policy behavior patterns that the state will exhibit in the international arena. Oil, the thesis argues, has been an important determinant of Nigeria's diplomatic posture in the African sub-system. However, the sharp decline in oil prices affected Nigeria adversely. In terms of her foreign policy, the hitherto activist orientation of the 1970s gradually gave way to a rather low profile posture in the early 1980s.

  1. Living with vesico-vaginal fistula: experiences of women awaiting repairs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2014-10-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of maternal health problems confronting public health workers in Nigeria today. Information on how women suffering from this condition cope is important in that it can inform the design and delivery of programmes and interventions to address the challenges that face victims of VVF. The objective of this study was to highlight how women living with VVF cope with the health problem in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women awaiting repairs at the National Fistula Centre at Abakaliki in Nigeria. Six of the women have lived with the health problem for more than ten years. Findings show that nearly all the women attributed their health problem to supernatural causes. The women stated that they go through a lot of physical and emotional problems. Some of the ways they have devised of physically coping with the problem include bathing regularly and use of strips of old wrappers as pads. Many of them cope emotionally and financially by attending religious gatherings and having some form of income yielding business. The study recommends the need for repairs to go hand in hand with vocational training so that they will have some income yielding business after repairs. PMID:26891522

  2. Sensitivity of simulated maize crop yields to regional climate in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kim, J.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kafatos, M.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of maize yield to the regional climate in the Southwestern United States (SW US) has been investigated by using a crop-yield simulation model (APSIM) in conjunction with meteorological forcings (daily minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation, and radiation) from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. The primary focus of this study is to look at the effects of interannual variations of atmospheric components on the crop productivity in the SW US over the 21-year period (1991 to 2011). First of all, characteristics and performance of APSIM was examined by comparing simulated maize yields with observed yields from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the leaf-area index (LAI) from MODIS satellite data. Comparisons of the simulated maize yield with the available observations show that the crop model can reasonably reproduce observed maize yields. Sensitivity tests were performed to assess the relative contribution of each climate driver to regional crop yield. Sensitivity experiments show that potential crop production responds nonlinearly to climate drivers and the yield sensitivity varied among geographical locations depending on their mean climates. Lastly, a detailed analysis of both the spatial and temporal variations of each climate driver in the regions where maize is actually grown in three states (CA, AZ, and NV) in the SW US was performed.

  3. Redefining the HIV epidemic in Nigeria: from national to state level

    PubMed Central

    Mahy, Mary; Nzima, Masauso; Ogungbemi, Michael K.; Ogbang, Doris A.; Morka, Mercy Chinenye; Stover, John

    2014-01-01

    Background: Governments are increasingly recognizing the need to focus limited HIV resources on specific geographic areas and specific populations to have a greater impact. Nigeria, with the second largest HIV epidemic in the world, is an important example of where more localized programming has the potential to improve the efficiency of the HIV response. Methods: Using Spectrum software we modelled the Nigerian HIV epidemic using two methods: First, we created national HIV estimates using trends in urban and rural areas. Second, we created national HIV estimates using trends from each of the 37 states in Nigeria and aggregated these results. In both instances we used HIV surveillance data from antenatal clinics and household surveys and aggregated the trends to determine the national epidemic. Results: The state models showed divergent trends in the 37 states. Comparing the national results calculated from the two methods resulted in different conclusions. In the aggregated state files, adult HIV incidence in Nigeria was stable between 2005 and 2013 (change of −6%), whereas the urban and rural file suggested incidence was decreasing over the same time (change of −50%). This difference was also reflected in the HIV prevalence trends, although the two methods showed similar trends in AIDS-related mortality. The two models had similar adult HIV prevalence in 2013: 3.0% (2.0–4.5%) in the aggregated state files versus 3.2% (3.0–3.5%) in the urban/rural file. Conclusion: The state-level estimates provide insight into the variations of the HIV epidemic in each state and provide useful information for programme managers. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on the amount and quality of data available from each sub-national area. PMID:25406749

  4. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  5. Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Robert M.; Robles, Marcos D.; Majka, Daniel R.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background While freshwater sustainability is generally defined as the provisioning of water for both people and the environment, in practice it is largely focused only on supplying water to furnish human population growth. Symptomatic of this is the state of Arizona, where rapid growth outside of the metropolitan Phoenix-Tucson corridor relies on the same groundwater that supplies year-round flow in rivers. Using Arizona as a case study, we present the first study in the southwestern United States that evaluates the potential impact of future population growth and water demand on streamflow depletion across multiple watersheds. Methodology/Principal Findings We modeled population growth and water demand through 2050 and used four scenarios to explore the potential effects of alternative growth and water management strategies on river flows. Under the base population projection, we found that rivers in seven of the 18 study watersheds could be dewatered due to municipal demand. Implementing alternative growth and water management strategies, however, could prevent four of these rivers from being dewatered. Conclusions/Significance The window of opportunity to implement water management strategies is narrowing. Because impacts from groundwater extraction are cumulative and cannot be immediately reversed, proactive water management strategies should be implemented where groundwater will be used to support new municipal demand. Our approach provides a low-cost method to identify where alternative water and growth management strategies may have the most impact, and demonstrates that such strategies can maintain a continued water supply for both people and the environment. PMID:20657735

  6. Do Water Markets ``Work''? Market Transfers and Trade-Offs in the Southwestern States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Bonne Colby

    1987-07-01

    Many authors argue that markets will (and should) become a common means of transferring water rights in the western United States. Previous studies have estimated benefits from potential transfers and identified institutional arrangements conducive to market development. However, there is little published material that describes and evaluates existing markets. This article describes five southwestern water markets and evaluates market processes using transactions data from each study area. While the evaluation is necessarily preliminary due to the limited availability of data on market transactions, the markets analyzed here appear to be relatively efficient in allocating water between municipal and agricultural uses. However, nonconsumptive use water values and third-party impacts not specifically addressed in state laws are poorly accounted for in most areas. Trade-offs between benefits of market activities, opportunity costs related to market transfers, and transactions costs induced by laws and institutions are identified. These trade-offs are a key issue facing policymakers who determine the roles that market and administrative processes play in water allocation.

  7. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, S. G.; Atsanda, N. N.; Tijjani, A. O.; Usur, A. M.; Sule, A. G; Gulani, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the seroepidemiological patterns of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from the anterior jugular vein of 336 slaughtered cattle, between September 2013 and March 2014 in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The sera obtained were screened for brucellosis using rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) in parallel. The data generated was subjected to Chi-square and Fishers exact test analysis to establish whether there is a relationship between the breeds, sex, and location of the animals sampled. Results: Of the 336 cattle screened, 18 (5.4%) and 13 (3.9%) were positive by RBPT and SAT, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the sex, age, and location of cattle with seropositivity of brucellosis in the state. It was concluded that brucellosis is prevalent in Bauchi State. Further study is recommended in other abattoirs and herds of cattle in Bauchi State for confirmation of the status of the disease among cattle slaughtered in the state. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the cattle in Bauchi state indicates that the disease is endemic and cattle are one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease. PMID:27051184

  8. Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was reported as common practice. The resources available for these activities and which constitute potential resources for the CDI process include community volunteers, CBOs and NGOs. Others are landlords; professional, women and youth associations; social clubs, religious organisations and the available health facilities. Conclusion This study’s findings support the feasibility of using the CDI process in delivering health interventions in urban poor communities and show that potential resources for the strategy abound in the communities. PMID:24156481

  9. Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Ellis Quinn

    Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer Drought Severity Index and tree-ring reconstructed ENSO, PDO and AMO phases (1905-1978 and 1700-1904). Upper elevation fires (115 fires, 84 fire years, 1623-1904) were compared with climate indices. ENSO, PDO, and AMO affected regional PDSI, but AMO and PDO teleconnections changed between periods. Fire occurrence was significantly related to inter-annual variability in PDSI, precipitation, ENSO, and phase combinations of ENSO and PDO, but not AMO (1700-1904). Reduced upper elevation fire (1785-1840) was coincident with a cool AMO phase.

  10. Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: a synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J. N.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Peters, C. J.; Childs, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    A series of intensive, longitudinal, mark-recapture studies of hantavirus infection dynamics in reservoir populations in the southwestern United States indicates consistent patterns as well as important differences among sites and host-virus associations. All studies found a higher prevalence of infection in older (particularly male) mice; one study associated wounds with seropositivity. These findings are consistent with horizontal transmission and transmission through fighting between adult male rodents. Despite very low rodent densities at some sites, low-level hantavirus infection continued, perhaps because of persistent infection in a few long-lived rodents or periodic reintroduction of virus from neighboring populations. Prevalence of hantavirus antibody showed seasonal and multiyear patterns that suggested a delayed density-dependent relationship between prevalence and population density. Clear differences in population dynamics and patterns of infection among sites, sampling periods, and host species underscore the importance of replication and continuity of long-term reservoir studies. Nevertheless, the measurable associations between environmental variables, reservoir population density, rates of virus transmission, and prevalence of infection in host populations may improve our capacity to model processes influencing infection and predict increased risk for hantavirus transmission to humans. PMID:10081681

  11. Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaban, M.K.; Mooney, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

  12. Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Toffelmier, Daniel A; Tyburczy, James A

    2007-06-21

    A deep-seated melt or fluid layer on top of the 410-km-deep seismic discontinuity in Earth's upper mantle, as proposed in the transition-zone 'water filter' hypothesis, may have significant bearing on mantle dynamics and chemical differentiation. The geophysical detection of such a layer has, however, proved difficult. Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding are geophysical methods sensitive to mantle melt. Here we use these methods to search for a distinct structure near 410-km depth. We calculate one-dimensional forward models of the response of electrical conductivity depth profiles, based on mineral physics studies of the effect of incorporating hydrogen in upper-mantle and transition-zone minerals. These models indicate that a melt layer at 410-km depth is consistent with regional magnetotelluric and geomagnetic depth sounding data from the southwestern United States (Tucson). The 410-km-deep melt layer in this model has a conductance of 3.0 x 10(4) S and an estimated thickness of 5-30 km. This is the only regional data set that we have examined for which such a melt layer structure was found, consistent with regional seismic studies. We infer that the hypothesized transition-zone water filter occurs regionally, but that such a layer is unlikely to be a global feature. PMID:17581582

  13. Seismic discontinuities beneath the southwestern United States from S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanbi, Olufemi; Li, Aibing

    2016-05-01

    S-receiver functions along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande Rift-Great Plains Transect known as LA RISTRA in the southwestern United States have been utilized to map seismic discontinuities beneath this tectonically active region. Individual receiver functions were stacked according to ray piercing points with moveout corrections in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the converted S-to-P phases. A mantle discontinuity, which is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), is observed along the profile with depth ranging from 80 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) to 100 km beneath the Great Plains (GP) and 120-180 km beneath the Colorado Plateau (CP). The shallow LAB beneath the Rio Grande Rift is indicative of lithosphere extension and asthenosphere upwarp. The LAB deepens sharply at the RGR-CP and RGR-GP boundaries, providing evidence for edge-driven, small-scale mantle convection beneath LA RISTRA. Two local discontinuities beneath the southeastern Colorado Plateau are imaged at ~ 250 km and ~ 300 km and could be the top and base of the eroded lithosphere, respectively. The S receiver function images suggest that edge-driven, small-scale convection is probably the mantle source for recent extension and uplift in the Rio Grande Rift and the Colorado Plateau.

  14. A study of academic advisement satisfaction of Oklahoma aviation undergraduate students at four southwestern state universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Debra Denise

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to examine the academic advisement satisfaction of 510, Oklahoma aviation students at four southwestern state universities. Students were given the opportunity to complete a survey during class meetings or during aviation student orientation, spring 2002. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) software program was utilized to determine the mean, median, mode, and range of data. Data is also presented in frequencies, percentages and Chi square statistical test analysis to illustrate rank order of academic advisement satisfaction between the four participating aviation undergraduate programs. Findings and conclusions. Of the 510 aviation students surveyed, 268 or 52.5% completed and returned surveys. Demographics indicated that aviation students at Programs A, C & D were predominately advised by aviation faculty, and at Program B by an advisor in an advisement center. The majority were seniors, under the age of 25, evenly split between in-state and out-of-state student residency, enrolled full-time, possessed an average GPA of 3.2, were first-generation aviation majors, and were male. Based on Chi square analysis the rank order of academic advisement satisfaction between the four aviation programs was: Program B - 99.9%, Program D - 92.0%, Program C - 87.9% and Program A - 83.9%. Rank order for academic advisement satisfaction concerning aviation career advisement was: Program B - 76.0%, Program D - 66.9%, Program A - 54.6%, and Program C - 49.3%. Rank order for academic advisement satisfaction concerning aviation student personal confidence in advisors was: Program B - 99.4%, Program D - 95.6%, Program A - 85.4%, and Program C - 84.5%. Written open responses relating to academic advisement developed into three categories of academic, personal and career, and were recorded for 194, or 72.3% of the 268 students completing the survey instrument.

  15. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  16. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…

  17. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  18. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  19. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  20. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  1. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles, III; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither are presently considered candidates for prospective endangerment. We project range losses of over 40 percent, from its current extent of occurrence, for the plateau striped whiptail, Arizona black rattlesnake, and common lesser earless lizard. Currently, these reptile species are thought to be common or at least locally abundant throughout their ranges. The total contribution of plants in each distribution model was very small, but models that contained at least one plant always outperformed models with only physical variables (climatic or landscape). The magnitude of change in projected range increased further into the future, especially when a plant was in the model. Among bird species, those that had the strongest association with a landscape feature during the breeding season, such as terrain ruggedness and insolation, exhibited the smallest contractions in projected breeding range in the future. In contrast, bird species that had weak associations with landscape features, but strong climatic associations, suffered the greatest breeding range contractions. Thus, landscape effects appeared to buffer some of the negative effects of climate change for some species. Among bird species, magnitude of change in projected breeding range was positively related to the annual average temperature of their baseline distribution, thus species with the warmest breeding ranges exhibited the greatest changes in future breeding ranges. This pattern was not evident for reptiles, but might exist if additional species were included in the model. Our results provide managers with a series of projected range maps that will enable scientists, concerned citizens, and wildlife managers to identify what the potential effects of climate change will be on bird and reptile distributions in the Western United States. We hope that our results can be used in proactive ways to mitigate some of the potential effects of climate change on selected species.

  2. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock types, landforms, occurrence of fossils, drainage system, soil and other processes that outline the geodiversity. In addition to the wealth index number, which presents a quantity and area ratio, another way of analyzing the geodiversity of a case study is the abundance, dominance or the relative frequency of geodiversity (Carcavilla et al, 2007). As for the southwestern region of Paraná State case study, we used a set of cartographic databases at the 1:250.000 scale; for example: geomorphological and soil compartments, rivers, geological formations, structural lineaments, as well as temperature, rainfall and humidity average maps. The maps were organized relating the attribute tables, quantifying the sum of different elements each sample cell contained in a regular grid of 4km2. As a result, a map of the geodiversity wealth index of the region has been generated. High geodiversity wealth index comprises more carved valleys with steep slopes on some structural lines; on the other hand, less wealthy areas are located on softer relief plateaus with large hills, more homogeneous soils and lower relief structural control. These results, as well as adjustments and efficiency of the method seem to indicate an important tool for area management, especially regarding the selection of priority areas for nature conservation.

  3. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions. The chapters in this professional paper present (first) an overview of climatic and hydrogeologic framework (chapter A), followed by a regional analysis of ground-water recharge across the entire study area (chapter B). These are followed by an overview of site-specific case studies representing different subareas of the geographically diverse arid and semiarid southwestern United States (chapter C); the case studies themselves follow in chapters D?K. The regional analysis includes detailed hydrologic modeling within the framework of a high-resolution geographic-information system (GIS). Results from the regional analysis are used to explore both the distribution of ground-water recharge for mean climatic conditions as well as the influence of two climatic patterns?the El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation?that impart a high degree of variability to the hydrologic cycle. Individual case studies employ a variety of geophysical and geochemical techniques to investigate recharge processes and relate the processes to local geologic and climatic conditions. All of the case studies made use of naturally occurring tracers to quantify recharge. Thermal and geophysical techniques that were developed in the course of the studies are presented in appendices. The quantification of ground-water recharge in arid settings is inherently difficult due to the generally low amount of recharge, its spatially and temporally spotty nature, and the absence of techniques for directly measuring fluxes entering the saturated zone from the unsaturated zone. Deep water tables in arid alluvial basins correspond to thick unsaturated zones that produce up to millennial time lags between changes in hydrologic conditions at the land surface and subsequent changes in recharge to underlying ground water. Recent advances in physical, chemical, isotopic, and modeling techniques have foster

  4. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict the future of desert grasslands. PMID:26183431

  5. LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

  6. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  7. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  8. Microfossil zonation and correlation of nonmarine Triassic of southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kietzke, K.K. )

    1989-09-01

    Recent studies of the nonmarine Triassic in New Mexico and adjacent states by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History have resulted in a data base that for the first allows the use of calcareous microfossils for zonation of the Moenkopi and Chinle formations. Three biostratigraphic assemblages have been recognized thus far: Moenkopi, lower Chinle, and upper Chinle. The Middle Triassic Moenkopi assemblage is characterized by the charophyte Porochara, uncoiled species of Spirorbis, and the presence of the ostracod genus Darwinuloides. The Upper Triassic lower Chinle assemblage is present in the lower shale member of the Chinle Formation. It is characterized by lacking a charophyte component and in containing an exceptionally large species of Darwinula. The upper Chinle assemblage is present in the upper shale and Redonda members of the Chinle Formation and in the Sloan Canyon Formation. It contains the charophyte Stellatochara, a diverse assemblage of darwinulid ostracods, the ostracod genus Lutkevichinella, and a generally coiled species of Spirorbis. These three microfossil assemblages contain several elements of apparent cosmopolitan distribution and should greatly facilitate long-range correlations. Initial correlations suggest the Moenkopi can be correlated with the middle Bundsandstein of Europe and the Lower Triassic of the Caspian depression of the Soviet Union. The lower Chinle assemblage appears to be restricted to the southwestern US with no known correlatives elsewhere. The upper Chinle assemblage contains elements in common with the middle and upper Keuper of Europe and the Upper Triassic Wayaobu Formation of Shaanxi, China. As more collections are made and studied, correlations with other Triassic assemblages should increase in refinement and utility. Additionally, the paleoecologic aspects of these assemblages should help greatly in refining Triassic paleoenvironmental interpretations.

  9. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States - Climatic and Geologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Harrill, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly but irregularly control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Anthropogenically induced climate change likely will reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations, and perhaps through increased drought. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge directly through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area, and indirectly through climate change. High ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas, and distinct modes of recharge in the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range subregions.

  10. Modeling Lithospheric Isostatic and Thermal Evolution: Application to the Proterozoic Orogen of the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, R. M.; Royden, L. H.; Bowring, S. A.

    2003-12-01

    The integration of high-resolution cooling histories with exhumation constraints and thermobarometric, heat production and heat flow data can be used to understand long-term lithospheric thermal and isostatic evolution. Cratonic lithosphere retains a record of the net temperature dependent lithospheric density change, as net lithospheric heating causes density decrease, uplift and erosion, while net cooling causes density increase, subsidence and sedimentation. We use this to construct isostatically consistent primary lithospheric geotherms, and use a finite-difference model to compute the time-dependent change of the geotherms following assembly to steady-state. The Proterozoic orogen of the southwestern U.S., characterized by disparate crustal domains with distinct cooling records, levels of exposure, and peak metamorphic conditions, is an ideal location to evaluate the controls on lithospheric thermal and isostatic evolution. In West-central AZ, apparent protracted cooling (1° C/m.y.) in 3-4 kbar exposed rocks of the Hualapai block contrasts with rapid cooling (25-100° C/m.y.) in 1-2 kbar exposed rocks of the Ash Creek block. Our thermal analysis indicates that observed differences in radiogenic heat production (3.1-5.2 microW/m3 for Hualapai vs. 0.7-1.4 microW/m3 for Ash Creek), but similar initial lithospheric mantle temperatures (900-1000° C), can explain the distinct thermal and isostatic records of the two blocks. Thus, heat production variation not only significantly influences crustal cooling histories, as has been previously documented, but also can induce diverse isostatic responses during geotherm evolution. The approach applied in this study can place important constraints on feasible, isostatically consistent models for cratonic lithosphere, and provides a framework with which better understand its assembly, stabilization and preservation.

  11. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care

    PubMed Central

    Ncama, Busisiwe P.; Sartorius, Benn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is a global health challenge and its prevalence is increasing rapidly amongst adults in many African countries. Some studies on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension have been conducted in Nigeria, but none within Delta State. We assessed the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors amongst adults in three villages in the Ibusa community in Delta State, Nigeria. Method Homesteads were randomly selected and all consenting adults (≥ 18 years of age) were recruited for this cross-sectional study (134 individuals: 48 men, 86 women). Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements (weight, height and abdominal circumference) were recorded. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg. Result Hypertension prevalence in this rural community was 44%. Results from one village (Ogboli: 82%) and ethnic group (Ibo: 50%) were significantly higher than in others in the same variable category. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested increasing age, increasing body mass index and high salt intake as prominent risk factors for hypertension. Lack of funds and equipment shortage in clinics were most often reported as barriers to health care. Conclusion A nutritional education programme to promote low-cholesterol and low-salt diets is recommended to specifically target people in higher-risk areas and of higher-risk ethnicity. Local barriers to accessing health care need to be addressed. PMID:26842522

  12. Factors associated with interruption of treatment among Pulmonary Tuberculosis patients in Plateau State, Nigeria. 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Hadejia, Idris Suleiman; Nguku, Patrick; Dankoli, Raymond; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Akhimien, Moses Obiemen; Ogiri, Samuel; Oyemakinde, Akin; Dalhatu, Ibrahim; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens in the world with estimated incidence of 133 per 100,000 populations. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat of the TB control in Nigeria caused mainly by incomplete treatment. This study explored factors that affect adherence to treatment among patients undergoing direct observation of TB treatment in Plateau state, Nigeria. Methods Between June and July 2011, we reviewed medical records and interviewed randomly selected pulmonary TB patients in their eighth month of treatment. Information on patients? clinical, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was collected using checklist and structured questionnaire for knowledge of treatment duration and reasons for interruption of treatment. We conducted focus group discussions with patients about barriers to treatment adherence. Data were analyzed with Epi Info software. Results Of 378 records reviewed, 229 (61%) patients were male; mean age 37.6 ±13.5 years and 71 (19%) interrupted their treatment. Interruption of treatment was associated with living > 5 km from TB treatment site (AOR: 11.3; CI 95%: 5.7-22.2), lack of knowledge of duration of treatment (AOR: 6.1; CI 95%: 2.8-13.2) and cigarette smoking (AOR: 3.4; CI 95%: 1.5- 8.0). Major reasons for the interruption were lack of transport fare (40%) and feeling well (25%). Focused group discussions revealed unfriendly attitudes of health care workers as barriers to adherence to treatment. Conclusion This study revealed knowledge of the patients on the duration of treatment, distance and health workers attitude as the major determinants of adherent to TB treatment. Training for health care workers on patient education was conducted during routine supportive supervision. PMID:24711884

  13. National health insurance scheme: how protected are households in Oyo State, Nigeria from catastrophic health expenditure?

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola

    2014-01-01

    Background: The major objective of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Nigeria is to protect families from the financial hardship of large medical bills. Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE) is rampart in Nigeria despite the take-off of the NHIS. This study aimed to determine if households enrolled in the NHIS were protected from having CHE. Methods: The study took place among 714 households in urban communities of Oyo State. CHE was measured using a threshold of 40% of monthly non-food expenditure. Descriptive statistics were done, Principal Component Analysis was used to divide households into wealth quintiles. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were done. Results: The mean age of household respondent was 33.5 years. The median household income was 43,500 naira (290 US dollars) and the range was 7,000–680,000 naira (46.7–4,533 US dollars) in 2012. The overall median household healthcare cost was 890 naira (5.9 US dollars) and the range was 10-17,700 naira (0.1–118 US dollars) in 2012. In all, 67 (9.4%) households were enrolled in NHIS scheme. Healthcare services was utilized by 637 (82.9%) and CHE occurred in 42 (6.6%) households. CHE occurred in 14 (10.9%) of the households in the lowest quintile compared to 3 (2.5%) in the highest wealth quintile (P= 0.004). The odds of CHE among households in lowest wealth quintile is about 5 times. They had Crude OR (CI): 4.7 (1.3–16.8), P= 0.022. Non enrolled households were two times likely to have CHE, though not significant Conclusion: Households in the lowest wealth quintiles were at higher risk of CHE. Universal coverage of health insurance in Nigeria should be fast-tracked to give the expected financial risk protection and decreased incidence of CHE. PMID:24847483

  14. Climate change and the rising cost of living for forests in the southwestern United States and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Allen, C. D.; Macalady, A. K.; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Meko, D. M.; Swetnam, T. W.; Rauscher, S.; Seager, R.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; Dean, J.; Cook, E.; Gangodagamage, C.; Cai, M.; McDowell, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    As climate changes, drought may reduce tree productivity and survival across many forest ecosystems; however, the relative influence of specific climate parameters on forest decline is poorly understood. We derive a forest drought-stress index (FDSI) for the southwestern United States using a comprehensive tree-ring dataset representing CE 1000-2007. FDSI is approximately equally influenced by warm-season atmospheric moisture demand (largely controlled by temperature) and cold-season precipitation, together explaining 82% of FDSI variability. Correspondence between FDSI and measures of forest productivity, mortality, bark-beetle outbreak, and wildfire validate FDSI as a holistic indicator of forest vigor throughout the region. In fact, the exceptionally large burned areas in 2002, 2011, and 2012 were all predictable based upon FDSI. If atmospheric moisture demand continues increasing as projected by climate models, average forest drought stress levels by the 2050s will exceed those of the worst megadroughts in at least 1000 years. Collectively, these results foreshadow 21st century changes in southwestern forest structures and compositions, with a transition of southwestern forests, and perhaps water-limited forests globally, toward distributions unfamiliar to modern civilization.

  15. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid. Traditional Yorubic medicine also accommodated some situations that are out of the range of conventional medicine like boosting sales, conferring invisibility, removing bad luck, appeasing/wading off witches cum evil forces and money rituals. Some of these situations specifically require juvenile, or even pregnant female animals. Conclusion Traditional Yorubic medical practices eats deep into the reproductive base of the species, presently listed in Appendix II of CITES and Schedule I of the Nigerian Decree 11 (1985), both of which recommended strict control in sales and utilisation of this species. Its numerous medicinal values, folk culture and financial benefits of these activities are the main factors promoting the commercialisation and use of this species. Pharmacological studies on the various preparations are required to identify the bioactive compounds in them. There is a need for improved and urgent measures to conserve populations of this species in-situ. Massive education and enlightenment is urgently needed for the populace to have the necessary awareness and orientation about the conservation of this species. PMID:19961597

  16. Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

    2010-12-01

    The sky islands of the southwestern U.S. offer a unique opportunity to study the coevolution of landscape processes in areas of similar rock type and tectonic history but a wide range of climates. In this study we compile high-resolution, spatially-distributed data for the available energy to drive rock weathering and other landscape processes, i.e. the Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT) variable of Rasmussen and Tabor (2005), together with data for LiDAR-derived above-ground biomass, soil thickness, water storage potential, hillslope relief, and valley density in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno Mountains, two predominantly granitic ranges in southern Arizona. Strong correlations exist among these variables such that warm, dry, low elevation portions of these areas are characterized by low biomass, thin soils, low water-storage potential, steep slopes, and high valley densities. Cooler, wetter, higher-elevation portions have systematically higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water-storage potential, gentler slopes, and lower valley densities. Moreover, all of these variables have a nonlinear dependence on climate/elevation. Slope gradient and aspect also exert an important control on these variables, with steep, south-facing hillslopes characterized by drier-than-average conditions for a given elevation and north-facing slopes associated with wetter-than-average conditions. We hypothesize that these correlations partly reflect coevolutionary positive-feedback mechanisms among these processes that amplify differences in rates set by climate, tectonics, and rock type. For example, thicker soils with higher water storage potential that form at higher elevations/north-facing slopes tend to have greater biomass, causing lower runoff ratios, lower rates of slopewash and fluvial erosion, and increased rates of colluvial transport, thereby promoting thicker soils, lower-gradient slopes, and lower valley densities. Thicker soils and higher water storage potentials, in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

  17. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  18. A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

    2012-01-01

    Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

  19. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  20. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  1. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  2. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  3. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was…

  4. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  5. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents

  6. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  7. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  8. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  9. Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

  10. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  11. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced

  12. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  13. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  14. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and maximum temperature), beyond which the yields were negatively affected. These results are now being used for further regional-scale yield analysis as the aforementioned framework is adaptable to multiple geographic regions and crop types.

  15. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  16. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  17. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government’s FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers’ groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities’ health. PMID:25337602

  18. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  19. Sociocultural Factors Associated With Abuse of Mentally Impaired Persons in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Ngozi E; Onyeneho, Nkechi G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors associated with abuse of mentally impaired persons (MIP) in Imo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,147 persons aged 10 years and above who had at least one MIP in their household was conducted. Six in-depth interviews and 21 focus group discussion (FGD) sessions with 160 study participants comprising adult male and female members of the communities, respectively, were conducted. The study established that a multitude of cultural and social factors shape the attitude of individuals toward mental impairment and MIPs. It was found that cultural perceptions of the cause of mental impairment as supernatural and evil forces were widespread within the study communities. Among those surveyed, 74.6% were aware that MIPs are victims of abuse. Perpetrators identified were mostly relatives and persons close to MIPs. The findings provide useful insights into gaps in conventional understanding of mental impairment and abuse of MIPs in Imo State. PMID:26470398

  20. Deposition and removal of fugitive dust in the arid southwestern United States: measurements and model results.

    PubMed

    Etyemezian, Vic; Ahonen, Sean; Nikolic, Djordje; Gillies, John; Kuhns, Hampden; Gillette, Dale; Veranth, John

    2004-09-01

    This work was motivated by the need to better reconcile emission factors for fugitive dust with the amount of geologic material found on ambient filter samples. The deposition of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10), generated by travel over an unpaved road, over the first 100 m of transport downwind of the road was examined at Ft. Bliss, near El Paso, TX. The field conditions, typical for warm days in the arid southwestern United States, represented sparsely vegetated terrain under neutral to unstable atmospheric conditions. Emission fluxes of PM10 dust were obtained from towers downwind of the unpaved road at 7, 50, and 100 m. The horizontal flux measurements at the 7 m and 100 m towers indicated that PM10 deposition to the vegetation and ground was too small to measure. The data indicated, with 95% confidence, that the loss of PM10 between the source of emission at the unpaved road, represented by the 7 m tower, and a point 100 m downwind was less than 9.5%. A Gaussian model was used to simulate the plume. Values of the vertical standard deviation sigma(z) and the deposition velocity Vd were similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ISC3 model. For the field conditions, the model predicted that removal of PM10 unpaved road dust by deposition over the distance between the point of emission and 100 m downwind would be less than 5%. However, the model results also indicated that particles larger than 10 microm (aerodynamic diameter) would deposit more appreciably. The model was consistent with changes observed in size distributions between 7 m and 100 m downwind, which were measured with optical particle counters. The Gaussian model predictions were also compared with another study conducted over rough terrain and stable atmospheric conditions. Under such conditions, measured PM10 removal rates over 95 m of downwind transport were reported to be between 86% and 89%, whereas the Gaussian model predicted only a 30% removal. One explanation for the large discrepancy between measurements and model results was the possibility that under the conditions of the study, the dust plume was comparable in vertical extent to the roughness elements, thereby violating one of the model assumptions. Results of the field study reported here and the previous work over rough terrain bound the extent of particle deposition expected to occur under most unpaved road emission scenarios. PMID:15468663

  1. Steady-state simulation of ground-water flow in the Blaine Aquifer, southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, Donna L.; McLean, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A generalized finite-difference model was prepared for the Blaine aquifer in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. This report releases the model for use and modification. A grid of 1-square-mile nodes was established over the area, with 1,030 of the nodes actively simulated in the model. The steady-state model simulation used a uniform recharge rate of 2.2 inches per year and three values of hydraulic conductivity: 80, 19, and 4.7 feet per day. About 44 percent of the recharge is discharged as pumpage from wells, and the remainder is discharged to rivers and creeks within and adjacent to the study area.

  2. The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

  3. Evaluation of Paracheck-PfTM rapid malaria diagnostic test for the diagnosis of malaria among HIV-positive patients in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Falade, C O; Adesina-Adewole, B; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Ajayi, I O; Akinyemi, J O; Ademowo, O G; Adewole, I F; Kanki, P

    2013-01-01

    Febrile illnesses occur frequently among HIV positive patients and these are often treated presumptively as malaria in endemic areas. Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria will eliminate unnecessary treatment, reduce drug–drug interactions and the chances for the emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium. We evaluated finger prick blood samples from 387 people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and suspected of having malaria by expert microscopy and Paracheck-PfTM – a histidine-rich protein-II based malaria rapid diagnostic test. The study was conducted at the PEPFAR supported AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Outcome parameters were prevalence of malaria parasitemia, sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf as well as the positive and negative predictive values for Paracheck-Pf using microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood film as gold standard. Malaria parasites were detected in 19.1% (74/387) of enrollees by microscopy and 19.3% (74/383) by Paracheck-Pf. Geometric mean parasite density was 501/μl (range 39–749 202/μl). Sensitivity and specificity of Paracheck-Pf at all parasite densities were 55.4% and 89.3% while corresponding figures at parasite densities ≧200/μl were 90.9% and 90.3%. Sensitivity and specificity at parasite densities ≧500/μl was 97.6% and 90.3%. Positive and negative predictive values for parasite density ≧200/μl were 55.4% and 98.7%, respectively. Paracheck-pf was found to be a useful malaria diagnostic tool at parasite densities ≧200/μl facilitating appropriate clinical management. PMID:23683333

  4. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  5. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the Southwest are particularly dependent on supplies of good-quality groundwater. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Many factors influence the quality of groundwater in the 15 case-study basins, but some common factors emerge from the basin summaries presented in this report. These factors include the chemical composition of the recharge water, consolidated rock geology and composition of aquifer materials derived from consolidated rock, and land and water use. The major water-quality issues in many of the developed case-study basins are increased concentrations of dissolved solids, nitrate, and VOCs in groundwater as a result of human activities. The information presented and the citations listed in this report serve as a resource for those interested in the groundwater-flow systems in the NAWQA case-study basins. The summaries of water-development history, hydrogeology, conceptual understanding of the groundwater system under both predevelopment and modern conditions, and effects of natural and human-related factors on groundwater quality presented in the sections on each basin also serve as a foundation for the synthesis and modeling phases of the SWPA regional study.

  6. Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-abanihe, U C

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education.... Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables." (SUMMARY IN ITA AND FRE) PMID:12347234

  7. Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

    2014-10-01

    A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity. PMID:24906223

  8. Nigeria. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Lecky, M

    1984-12-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, currently has no official population policy; however, recent news releases from the Federal Ministry of Information indicate that efforts to deal with rapid population growth may be forthcouming. Adequate census materials are lacking. In 1984 population size was estimated to be 88 million, and in 1983 the estimated crude birth rate was 48-51/1000, the estimated crude death rate was 16-18/1000, and the population growth rate was approximately 3.0%-3.5%. Other estimates for 1983 placed the infant mortality rate at 134 and life expectancy at 49 years. The total fertility rate observed in a 1981 World Fertility Study was 5.4, but this rate was questioned by investigators, who believe it is too low. World Bank projections, based on the assumption that fertility declines will begin soon, indicate that the population will reach 618 million before stabilizing toward the end of the 21st century. At the present time, only 6% of Nigeria's women of reproductive age use contraception, and most of these women contracept only for spacing purposes. Nigeria, which obtained independence in 1960, is plagued by internal strife between different ethnic groups. The northern region, populated by the Hausa is less developed economically than the southern region. The Ibo, who play a major role in the nation's commerical and government sectors, predominated in the the southeastern region, and the Yoruba are the most populous group in the southwestern region. 1/2 of the population if Muslim, 40% is Christian, and the remaining proportion practices traditional religions. During the 1960s, Nigeria derived 2/3 of it gross national product from agriculture, and especially from the export of cocoa, groundnuts, and palm oil. During the 1970s the economy changed markedly as the country began to exploit its oil reserves. By 1983, agriculture accounted for only 20% of the gross national product, and 98% of the country's total exports of US$11.3 billion were derived from oil. Oil reserves are expected to be exhausted in 15 years. To compensate for this expected loss, an effort was initiated in 1980 to revive the country's deteriorating agricultural sector. In addition, the government instituted educational programs aimed at increasing the supply of skilled labor for industrial development. PMID:12313400

  9. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and members of the Enterobacteriaceae group along the processing line of 'Wara' a Southwestern Nigeria soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, V O; Chen, J

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the survivability of Listeria monocytogenes and members of the Enterobacteriaceae group of organisms during the processing and storage of wara, a southwestern Nigerian un-ripened soft cheese. Pasteurized milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes at 10(1) or 10(2) CFU/ml was used to process the cheese. Samples were taken along the processing steps and throughout a five-day storage period at 15 and 28 degrees C for populations of L. monocytogenes and Enterobacteriaceae. On the fourth storage day, portions of the control cheese (not inoculated with L. monocytogenes) were fried in vegetable oil, mimicking the practice of southwestern Nigerian cheese processors. The results indicated that L. monocytogenes, at both inoculation levels, did not survive the processing of wara. In samples initially inoculated with 10(1) CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes, the Enterobacteriaceae counts increased from 3.35-3.48 Log10 CFU/g on the first day of storage to 7.63-8.46 Log10 CFU/g at 28 degrees C and 5.41-6.34 Log10 CFU/g at 15 degrees C after storage for 5 days. The populations of the Enterobacteriaceae group increased with the extension of storage time in the contaminated, as well as the control cheeses. Overall, the survival of Enterobacteriaceae responded to storage temperatures. Frying significantly reduced the populations of Enterobacteriaceae. The study suggests that wara can serve as a vehicle to transmit illness if its microbial quality is not appropriately managed. PMID:22416662

  10. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Leveille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu-Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

  11. Hydrologic response to modeled snowmelt input in alpine catchments in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.; Meixner, T.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Snowmelt from high elevation catchments is the primary source of water resources in the Southwestern United States. Timing and duration of snowmelt and resulting catchment response can show the physical and chemical importance of storage at the catchment scale. Storage of waters in subsurface materials provides a physical and chemical buffer to hydrologic input variability. We expect the hydrochemistry of catchments with less storage capacity will more closely reflect input waters than a catchment with more storage and therefore more geochemical evolution of waters. Two headwater catchments were compared for this study; Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) in the southern Sierra Nevada and Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Colorado Front Range. These sites have geochemically similar granitic terrane, and negligible evaporation and transpiration due to their high-elevation setting. Eleven years of data (1996-2006) from spatially-distributed snowmelt models were spatially and temporally aggregated to generate daily values of snowmelt volume for each catchment area. Daily storage flux was calculated as the difference between snowmelt input and catchment outflow at a daily timestep, normalized to the catchment area. Daily snowmelt values in GL4 are more consistent (the annual standard deviation ranged from 0.19 to 0.76 cm) than the daily snowmelt in ELW (0.60 to 1.04 cm). Outflow follows the same trend, with an even narrower range of standard deviations from GL4 (0.27 to 0.54 cm) compared to the standard deviation of outflow in ELW (0.38 to 0.98 cm). The dampening of the input variability could be due to storage in the catchment; the larger effect would mean a larger storage capacity in the catchment. Calculations of storage flux (the input snowmelt minus the output catchment discharge) show the annual sum of water into storage in ELW ranges from -0.9200 to 1.1124 meters, in GL4 the ranger is narrower, from -0.655 to 0.0992 meters. Cumulative storage for each year can be negative (more water leaving the system than entering; storage loss) or positive (more water coming into the system than leaving; storage gain). The cumulative storage for all years in GL4 show a similar positive trend from day of year 60 through 150, followed by a decrease to the end of the snowmelt season. Only two years (1997 and 2005) in GL4 were calculated to cumulatively gain storage water, the other nine years lost stored water to outflow. The cumulative storage annual data in ELW do not show as strong of a trend for all years. ELW also a different distribution of cumulative storage values; with four years showing a cumulative loss and seven years showing a gain in stored water. This could show a depletion of stored water, an underestimate of snowmelt or a connection to deeper flowpaths. Mass-balance inverse geochemical models will be used to determine the hydrochemical connectivity or lack of connectivity of snowmelt to outflow relative to the physical calculations. Initial hydrochemical results show generally higher concentrations of solutes from GL4 outflow, which may show more contribution from stored waters.

  12. Assessing the strength of the monsoon during the late Pleistocene in southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M.; Huang, Yongsong; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Fawcett, Peter J.; Fessenden, Julianna; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, Philip A.; Larson, Toti; Perkins, George; Toney, Jaime; Werne, Josef P.; Goff, Fraser; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Berke, Melissa A.

    2014-11-01

    Improved predictions of drought require an understanding of natural and human-induced climate variability. Long-term records across glacial-interglacial cycles provide the natural component of variability, however few such records exist for the southwestern United States (US) and quantitative or semi-quantitative records of precipitation are absent. Here we use the hydrogen isotope (δD) value of C28n-alkanoic acid in lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene age to reconstruct δD values of precipitation in northern New Mexico over two glacial-interglacial cycles (∼550,000-360,000 years before present) and obtain a record of monsoon strength. Overall, reconstructed δD values range from -53.8‰ to -94.4‰, with a mean value of -77.5 ± 8‰. Remarkably, this variation falls within the measured present-day summer monsoonal and winter weighted means (-50.3 ± 3‰ and -106.4 ± 20‰ respectively), suggesting that processes similar to those of present time also controlled precipitation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13 to 10. Using the δD summer monsoonal and winter mean values as end-members, we interpret our reconstructed δD record of precipitation as a direct, and semi-quantitative, indicator of monsoon strength during MIS 13 to 10. Interglacial periods were characterized by greater monsoon strength but also greater variability compared to glacial periods. Pronounced cycles in the strength of the monsoon occurred during interglacial periods and in general were positively correlated with maximum mean annual temperatures. Our estimates of monsoon strength are supported by independent proxies of ecosystem productivity, namely, TOC, δ13C of TOC and Si/Ti ratio and warm pollen taxa Juniperus and Quercus. Interglacial variability in the strength of the monsoon resembles a response to the land-sea surface temperature contrast (LSTC) except for the early part of MIS 11. During this period, LSTC would have remained relatively strong while monsoonal strength decreased to a minimum. This minimum occurred following the warmest interval of MIS 11, suggesting a more complex driving of monsoon strength during warm periods. In addition, this period of monsoon minimum coincided with a core section of mud-cracked sediments that suggest low monsoonal precipitation was an important factor in the onset of drought. Our estimates of monsoon strength represent a record of natural variability in the region that is relevant to present time, in particular the variability during interglacial MIS 11, which is considered an analog for the current interglacial. Our results suggest that natural variability can cause significant reductions in monsoonal precipitation with the implication of a potentially adverse effect from sustained warming.

  13. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu–Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits, hydrothermal magnetite from different vein types can be distinguished by varying Ti, V, Mn, and Zn contents. Titanium and V concentrations are highly variable among hydrothermal and igneous magnetites, but Ti concentrations above 3,560 ppm could only be detected in igneous magnetite, and V concentrations are on average lower in hydrothermal magnetite. The highest Ti concentrations are present in igneous magnetite from gabbro and monzonite. The lowest Ti concentrations were recorded in igneous magnetite from granodiorite and granodiorite breccia and largely overlap with Ti concentrations found in hydrothermal porphyry magnetite. Magnesium and Mn concentrations vary between magnetite from different skarn deposits but are generally greater than in hydrothermal magnetite from the porphyry deposits. High Mg, and low Ti and V concentrations characterize hydrothermal magnetite from magnesian skarn deposits and follow a trend that indicates that magnetite from skarn (calcic and magnesian) commonly has low Ti and V concentrations.

  14. Design and fabrication of a prototype system for photovoltaic residences in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millner, A. E.

    1982-08-01

    The intention of the project reported was to develop plans for an energy-efficient residence for the southwestern region of the country, and to design into it a roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) solar electric power system which would allow two-way power flow between the utility grid and the house. A full-scale working prototype of the PV system was built to evaluate the performance of that system for one year. The residence design, the prototype construction, and the fabrication history through the first year of operation are described.

  15. A reduced-rank prediction model of stream-channel size response to traditional agricultural land-use practices in southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odemerho, Francis O.

    1984-02-01

    Stream-channel morphologic responses are found to be related to different parameters measuring traditional agricultural land-use patterns and practices in 50 small headwater basins in southwest Nigeria. The problem of intercorrelations among these parameters made it initially difficult to establish their precise channel enlargement effects and to calibrate an impact prediction model. Through factor analysis of the 22 land-use and morphometric parameters, six factors identified as measures of traditional land-use practice, farm size, planting activities, shortened fallow, relief and overland flow, were found to account for 86% of the variance in the data. The factor-defining variables are length of cropping period, areas in short fallow, farm-plot size, length of farm preparation, relief ratio and overland flow. In a multiple regression analysis, only the first three variables were found to be statistically significant in explaining stream-channel morphologic responses. Thus, areas in short fallows, average farm size and length of cropping period adequately described those aspects of the traditional farming practices that affect basin hydrologic and channel responses. Since these variables were orthogonally derived, they formed the basis for the evaluation of the channel impact status of traditional land-use activities. The duplication of information and effects in the original 22-variable full-rank model were removed while utilizing the three-factor reduced model.

  16. Violence and HIV/AIDS prevention among female out-of-school youths in southwestern Nigeria: lessons learnt from interventions targeted at hawkers and apprentices.

    PubMed

    Fawole, O I; Ajuwon, A J; Osungbade, K O

    2004-12-01

    Between 1997 and 2003, four studies on hawkers and apprentices in motor parks and work shops in south west, Nigeria were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing HIV infection and gender based violence (GBV). The studies were in 3 phases namely baseline survey, intervention and end line survey. Interventions consisting of:--development and distribution of education materials and training programmes for the police, judiciary, instructors, drivers, traders and apprentices/hawkers, including micro-credit facilities were implemented in some of the studies. The major lessons learnt were that: Young girls working in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy face dual risks of HIV infection and GBV and yet they are seldom targets of intervention; Many had been victims of GBV and did not seek redress either because they accept it is their lot, are afraid of being stigmatized or are put off the prolonged legal system; Perpetrators tend to deny their involvement in violence; Despite the challenges involved, interventions implemented among female apprentices and hawkers, especially those that involve multiple stakeholders, made a difference in protecting this group from dual risks of GBV and HIV/AIDS infection. We recommend more intervention programmes for this population, and regulation of activities in the informal sector of the Nigerian economy. PMID:15977443

  17. Rural Youth in Five Southwestern States: The Population Under Age 25 in Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. Information Report No. 73-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Luis A.; Upham, W. Kennedy

    Population characteristics of rural youth (persons under 25 years of age) living in the Southwestern States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas are presented. Data were collected from the 1970 U.S. Census of Population Final Reports for the individual States. This report is organized into two sections: (1) the analytical text…

  18. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  19. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  20. Mothers knowledge on the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria in a university staff clinic in an urban setting in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omole, M K; Alabi, O M; Ayoola, O O

    2007-03-01

    This prospective study was carried out at Jaja Clinic, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study documented the knowledge of mothers of children about the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria. These were mothers of children between ages 1 month to 12 years that presented with fever at the clinic for the first time during the current illness. Data was collected with structured questionnaires administered to the mothers of the enrolled children. The children were clinically examined by clinicians and blood films for malaria parasites were taken and examined in the laboratory using Giemsa stain. The haematocrit level of each child was also determined. 60.4% of the children were 1 month-5 years (mean age 33.0 +/- 15.2 months) while 39.6% of them were over 5-12 years (mean 8.1 +/- 2.1 years). Most of the mothers (58.3%) had above secondary school education. Blood films for malaria parasites were positive in 76% of the children that presented with fever. 74.2% of the mothers knew mosquito bite as the cause of malaria while 13.2% of them were ignorant of the cause of malaria. The main protective measures practiced by the mothers against mosquito bites were netted windows (86.2%), use of aerosol insecticides (76.1%), and mosquito coil (17.0%). Most mothers were not knowledgeable about the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) which is the most recently introduced protective measure against mosquito bite. Ninety percent of the mothers knew fever as the major symptom of malaria. The degree of parasitaemia affected the PCV level. The greater the parasite count, the lower the PCV level. PMID:17876917

  1. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with 11-KT and GSI. These relationships suggest feminization and masculinization of male and female fish, respectively. PMID:26410712

  2. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés à une profondeur de 5,0 m dans 20 puits tests et analysés pour la qualité. Les concentrations en Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn et Cu sont légèrement au-dessus des valeurs recommandées par l'OMS. Des panaches d'eau contaminée provenant de bassins d'eaux usées ont été délimités. Les profils géoélectriques mettent en évidence quatre couches, qui sont successivement en profondeurs croissantes une argile latéritique, un sable ou un sable argileux, le substratum altéré, puis fissuré, et enfin le substratum non altéré. Les niveaux 3 et 4 les plus profonds constituent l'aquifère principal, de 3,1-67,1 m d'épaisseur. La distribution des éléments dans les effluents d'égouts confirme l'existence d'une communication hydrologique entre les bassins d'épandage et la nappe. Les eaux souterraines sont contaminées, comme le prouvent les résultats des prélèvements et de la géophysique. Par conséquent, les résultats démontrent la fiabilité de la méthode géophysique de résistivité électrique pour la détection et la cartographie de panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle cristallin. Resumen. Se ha efectuado un estudio hidrogeológico ambiental en el punto de vertido de las aguas residuales del Campus Universitario de Obafemi Awolowo, en Ile-Ife (Nigeria). El objetivo era determinar la validez del método de la resistividad eléctrica para delimitar penachos de contaminación en un medio rocoso. Se utilizó 50 estaciones con un Terrameter ABEM SAS 300C, utilizando la matriz de Wenner. Se interpretó los resultados por medio de una técnica iterativa automática. Se recogieron muestras de agua a una profundidad de 5 m en 20 pozos de ensayo, las cuales fueron posteriormente analizadas en laboratorio. Las concentraciones de cromo, cadmio, plomo, cinc y cobre son ligeramente superiores a los valores guía de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se delineó el penacho de agua contaminada procedente de las balsas de aguas residuales. Las secciones geoeléctricas revelan la existencia de cuatro capas, que están formadas, de menor a mayor profundidad, por arcilla laterítica, arena arcillosa/arena, matriz rocosa meteorizada/fracturada, y roca sin alterar. Las dos capas más profundas constituyen el acuífero principal, que tiene un espesor comprendido entre 3,1-67,1 m. La caracterización química de las aguas residuales confirma que hay una conexión hidrológica entre las balsas de estabilización y las aguas subterráneas. Éstas muestran síntomas de contaminación, de acuerdo con el muestreo y la interpretación geofísica. Los datos evidencian la fiabilidad del método geofísico de la resistividad eléctrica por corriente directa para detectar y delimitar penachos contaminantes en un medio rocoso cristalino.

  3. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  4. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  5. Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the area of these three basin-fill aquifer systems had dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 1,000 milligrams per liter. Dissolved solids in streams were described on the basis of median daily concentration, median annual load, and median annual yield data for 420 surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The time period with dissolved-solids data for individual sites varied but was at least 10 or more years between 1974 and 2003. Median daily dissolved-solids concentrations vary substantially among the sites in the Southwest, ranging between 22 and 13,800 milligrams per liter, and also vary between different sites on the same stream. Median daily concentrations generally increased in a downstream direction for sites on the Rio Grande, Colorado River, Yampa River, White River, Green River, San Juan River, Gila River, Bear River, and Sevier River. Median annual dissolved-solids loads ranged from 60 tons per year for a site on Elk Creek, a headwater tributary to the Colorado River, to 7.86 million tons per year at Colorado River below Hoover Dam, Arizona-Nevada. Typically, streams with the highest flows have the highest dissolved-solids loads. Median annual loads for sites on these rivers generally increased in the downstream direction, except where streamflow decreased substantially due to diversions and (or) streambed infiltration, typically in the downstream part of the river system. Median annual yields ranged from 0.69 to 7,510 tons per year per square mile, and the mean for all 420 sites was 125 tons per year per square mile. Most (104 of 112) sites with median annual yields greater than 100 tons per year per square mile were in the Colorado River basin upstream from Lees Ferry and in the Bear and Great Salt Lake hydrologic subregions. A conceptual model was developed for the effects of natural and human factors on dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers and streams. Factors affecting concentrations in streamflow of upland mountain

  6. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  7. En echelon Miocene rifting in the southwestern United States and model for vertical-axis rotation in continental extension

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.M. ); Glazner, A.F. )

    1991-12-01

    Two areas of intense early Miocene crustal extension in the southwestern United States, the Colorado River trough and the central Mojave Desert, are separated by a weakly deformed area in the eastern Mojave Desert. The authors propose that these areas form a left-stepping en echelon rift system linked by a ductile detachment at depth. The en echelon geometry explains the southward loss of displacement in the central Mojave Desert and northward loss of coeval displacement in the Colorado River trough, and it incorporates seismic reflection evidence that mid-crustal Tertiary extensional mylonites continue beneath the weakly deformed area. This geometry also explains clockwise paleomagnetic declination anomalies from lower Miocene rocks as recording thin-skinned, detached rotations; large-scale block rotations are not required. Obliquity of the northeast-trending crustal-extension vector to the east-west-trending early Miocene synextensional volcanic belt may have caused the en echelon pattern to develop.

  8. A survey of tremetone, dehydrotremetone, and structurally related compounds in Isocoma spp. (goldenbush) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Cook, Daniel; Davis, T Zane; Gardner, Dale R; Johnson, Robert L; Stonecipher, Clinton A

    2015-01-28

    Isocoma pluriflora, a plant prevalent on land used for livestock production and native to Arizona, New Mexico, West Texas, and Northern Mexico, is poisonous and causes trembles in livestock. Tremetone and dehydrotremetone have been suggested as the toxic compounds in I. pluriflora. In this study several different Isocoma spp., including I. pluriflora, I. tenuisecta, I. azteca, I. acradenia, and I. rusbyi, that are native to land used for grazing livestock in the southwestern United States were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tremetone, dehydrotremetone, and other structurally related compounds. This is the first report of tremetone, dehydrotremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyltremetone in I. tenuisecta, I. azteca, I. acradenia, I. rusbyi, and several other Isocoma spp. In addition, this is the first report of 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)acetophenone and 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin in Isocoma spp. PMID:25554830

  9. DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

  10. An incursion of dust in the southwestern United States from April 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, L. A.; Roquemore, G. R.; St.amand, P.; Gibson, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    An intrusion of volcanic dust occurred over the northern Mojave Desert, one month before the explosive eruption of 18 May 1980. Visibility was reduced to 15 to 30 miles during meteorological conditions that should have yielded a visibility in excess of 100 miles. This intrusion was documented by particle size distributions, scanning electron microscope analysis of Nuclepore filter samples, insolation measurements, observations by Navy and NASA aircraft, and meteorological data. No further incidents have been observed to date because of a lack of simultaneous volcanic activity with the particular wind patterns that existed in April. Therefore, under certain meteorological conditions, the desert of the southwestern United States could be significantly affected by volcanic ash from an eruption of Mount St. Helens.

  11. Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

    2011-07-01

    Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

  12. Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Reynolds, R.L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident. PMID:15070492

  14. Cattle cruelty and risks of meat contamination at Akinyele cattle market and slaughter slab in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Adeyemi, Isaac G; Awosanya, Emmanuel J

    2009-12-01

    Cattle transported to the government-run cattle market and slaughter slab in Akinyele, Oyo State, Nigeria on their final voyage are facing a disturbingly cruel, filthy and unsafe environment that is also raising the risk of contamination of meat sold for human consumption. This report gives a picture of what the cattle have to go through before they are slaughtered. This study also reveals cattle awaiting slaughter in abysmal health conditions, cows pulled with extreme force towards lairage and slaughter slab. Equally disturbing is the filthy situation inside the abattoir where the risk of contamination of meat is significant. Also, poor meat handling, transportation and sales practices subject meat to contamination leading to poor quality and exposure of human consumers to health risk. Development of hygienic slaughter slab operations, improved transportation system for both livestock and meat is therefore recommended; not only for Akinyele, but all abattoirs and slaughter slabs in Nigeria. PMID:19440852

  15. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and prevention of schistosomiasis and education about good personal and sanitary hygiene practices should be considered in order to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of infection within these communities. PMID:26606264

  16. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  17. Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n = 100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H. elliptica, R. lunulatus, R. muhsamae and R. senegalensis 1 (1%), respectively. Conclusions Up to 8 tick-borne pathogens possibly occur in the dog population at Jos, with B. rossi being the most prevalent. The absence of the BrEMA1 gene suggests that B. rossi occurring in that area may be less virulent than South African isolates. PMID:24661795

  18. Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Idowu Olayinka, A.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3-18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10-5 mm s-1, while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10-4 to 1.36 × 10-3 mm s-1. The thick but less permeable lateritic unit which overlaid the more permeable rocks constituted a partial impermeable overburden that prevented an adequate groundwater recharge during and immediately after rainfall. Three zones were delineated as low, medium and high groundwater resource potential areas, located in the northern, central and southern part of the study area, respectively. The low groundwater resource potential around Ijebu-Ode is due to the less permeable lateritic overburden, which prevents an adequate recharge during rainfall and the rugged/undulating basement topography that controls the distribution and storage of the limited recharged water. The southern part of the study area can be developed to meet the water needs of the inhabitants.

  19. Survey for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza from Poultry in Two Northeastern States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Ibrahim Waziri; Abdu, Paul Ayuba; Sackey, Anthony Kojo Bedu; Oladele, Sunday Blessing

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major global zoonosis. It has a complex ecological distribution with almost unpredictable epidemiological features thus placing it topmost in the World Organization for Animal Health list A poultry diseases. Structured questionnaire survey of poultry farmer's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in two Nigerian states revealed the presence of risk farming practices that may enable avian influenza high chance of introduction/reintroduction. There existed significant statistical association between farmer's educational levels and AI awareness and zoonotic awareness (P < 0.005). Poultry rearing of multiage and species (81%), multiple sources of stock (62%), inadequate dead-bird disposal (71%), and access to live bird markets (LBMs) (62%) constituted major biosecurity threats in these poultry farming communities. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test detected antibodies against H5 avian influenza (AI) in 8 of the 400 sera samples; rapid antigen detection test kit (RADTK) was negative for all the 400 cloaca and trachea swabs. These results and other poultry diseases similar to AI observed in this study could invariably affect avian influenza early detection, reporting, and control. We recommend strong policy initiatives towards poultry farmers' attitudinal change and increasing efforts on awareness of the implications of future HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria. PMID:23936731

  20. Molecular Characterization of Human Rotavirus from Children with Diarrhoeal Disease in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alkali, B. R.; Daneji, A. I.; Magaji, A. A.; Bilbis, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to detect and characterize prevalent human group A rotavirus strains from 200 diarrheic children in Sokoto, Nigeria, by ELISA, monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. Rotavirus was detected in 25.5% of the children. The G-serotypes observed in circulation were G4: 16 (59.3%), G1: 4 (14.8%), G2: 3 (11.1%), G3: 3 (11.1%), and G12: 1 (3.7%). The monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping detected G1 and G3 but did not detect G4 and G2 serotypes. The Mab typing of the G1 and G3 serotypes was consistent with the result of the RT-PCR. The VP4 genotypes detected were P[6] 3 (13%), P[8] 11 (47.8%), and the rare human P genotype (P[9]), found in 9 patients (39.1%). Nine strains identified with the common G and P combinations were G4 P[8] 5 (56%), G4 P[6] 1 (11%), G1 P[8] 2 (22%), and G3 P[8] 1 (11%), while seven strains with unusual combinations or rare G or P genotypes identified were G12 P[8] 1 (14%), G2 P[8] 2 (29%), and G4 P[9] 4 (57%). To our knowledge this is the first molecular study of human rotavirus and report of rare human G and P serotypes in Sokoto State. PMID:27051531

  1. Perceived Effects of Occupational Hazards on Farmers' Productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akangbe, Jones Adebola; Komolafe, Sola Emmanuel; Oduwaiye, Muyiwa Olarinde

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the perceived effects of occupational hazards on farmers' productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis for empirical analysis were used. The results show common agricultural production to include maize, yam and cassava. The results also revealed prevalent occupational hazards that include cut/injury from farm tools, malaria due to mosquito bite, and general body pain. The findings further revealed that injury from farm tools and general body pain had high effects on agricultural productivity. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship (P?0.05) between selected socio-economic characteristics with the perceived effects of occupational hazards on productivity. Based on the findings, the study concludes that occupational (farming) hazards, most especially general body pain, had negative effects on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that government and relevant agencies should encourage farmers by providing for them protective equipment at subsidized cost through extension agents who will train farmers on their use. Also, public health agents should educate farmers on personal health care practices in order to ensure good health status of farmers. PMID:26370039

  2. Lymphatic filariasis baseline survey in two sentinel sites of Ogun state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okorie, Patricia Nkem; Davies, Emmanuel; Ogunmola, Olushola Omoniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Saka, Yisa; Okoeguale, Bridget; Braide, Ekanem Ikpi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for Mass Drug Administration by National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme, a baseline epidemiological investigation on lymphatic filariasis (LF) was conducted in two sentinel sites of Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was carried out in Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South Local Government Areas (LGAs) to determine LF prevalence, microfilarial density and the abundance of Wucheraria bancrofti in the mosquito vectors. Methods Microscopic examination of thick blood smears of 299 and 288 participants from Ado-Odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs was conducted. Visual observations of clinical manifestations of chronic infection and questionnaire administration were also conducted. Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected using the pyrethrum spray technique and CDC light traps and mosquitoes were dissected for filarial larvae. Results Microfilaria prevalences were 4.0% and 2.4% in Ado-odo Ota and Abeokuta South LGAs. The microflarial density (mfd) was 30.6mf/ml and 23.9 mf/ml in the same areas. No clinical manifestations of the infection were found at both sites. Knowledge of LF by inhabitants was very low in the two areas. Anopheles gambiae s.l and Culex species mosquitoes were collected but none was found positive for stage L3 infective larvae. Conclusion Mass awareness campaigns on the goal of mass drug administration, cause of LF, mode of transmission, the relationship between infection and clinical signs/symptoms is advocated so as to increase acceptance and support of the control programme by the community. PMID:26185587

  3. Traditional oral health practices among Kanuri women of Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bukar, A; Danfillo, I S; Adeleke, O A; Ogunbodede, E O

    2004-09-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered on 495 women (urban 339, rural 156) from two LGAs of Borno State, Nigeria, using the interviewer method. The age range of the subjects was 12 to 80 years with a mean age (+/- SD) of 35.7 +/- 13.44 years. Majority (83.5%) did not have any formal education. Oral hygiene tools used by the respondents included toothbrush/paste 36 (7.9%), chewing stick 250 (54.9%), charcoal 159 (34.9%) and ordinary water 10 (2.2%). Of those using chewing sticks; 168 (67.2%) use Salvadora persica, 36 (14.4%) use Azadirachta indica and 46 (18.4%) use Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Forty (8.1%) of the respondents do not clean their teeth at all. Strong association was found between choice of teeth cleaning material and educational level (P=0.000). Three hundred and one (60.8%) of the respondents stain their teeth with flowers of Solanum incanum or Nicotania tabacum while, 218 (44.0%) perform tattooing of lip or gingivae and of this number 213 (97.7%) performed tattooing before marriage. Tattooing is usually performed without local anaesthesia with thorns of Balanites aegyptiaca and a mixture of charcoal & seeds of Acacia nilotica var. tomentosa as pigments. It is concluded that traditional oral health practices still constitute important part of the lifestyle in the study population. PMID:15900821

  4. A survey of anthropometry of rural agricultural workers in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Okey Francis; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface O; Adeboye, Busayo S

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, large amount of anthropometric data are available for reference purposes; however, anthropometric data of Nigerian populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. A total of 377 rural agricultural workers within the age limit of 18-45 years, who are involved in different agricultural activities, were selected from six rural agriculture-based communities in Enugu state. Thirty-six anthropometric body dimensions were measured including age and body weight. A comparison between the male and female data indicated that data obtained from male agricultural workers were higher than that obtained from their female counterparts in all body dimensions except chest (bust) depth, abdominal breadth and hip breadth (sitting). In terms of design parameters, it was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. Practitioner Summary. Anthropometric data of Nigeria populace are lacking. As a result, most agricultural machines and equipment used are designed using anthropometric data from other populations of the world. It was observed that the data from Nigerian agricultural workers were different from that obtained from agricultural workers in north-eastern India. PMID:25588899

  5. Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

    Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

  6. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State.

    PubMed Central

    Fagbami, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of Zika virus infections was carried out in four communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Virus isolation studies between 1971 and 1975 yielded two virus isolations from human cases of mild febrile illness. Haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a high prevalence of antibodies to Zika and three other flaviviruses used. The percentages of positive sera were as follows: Zika (31%), Yellow fever (50%), West Nile (46%), and Wesselsbron (59%). Neutralization tests showed that 40% of Nigerians had Zika virus neutralizing antibody. Fifty per cent of zika virus immune persons had neutralizing antibody to Zika alone or to Zika and one other flavivirus. A total of 121 sera had antibody to Zika virus; of these 48 (40%) also showed antibody to two other flaviviruses, and 12 (10%) had antibodies to three or more other viruses. The percentage of neutralizing antibodies to other flaviviruses in Zika virus immune sera was 81% to Dengue type 1, 58% to Yellow fever, 7% to Wesselsbron, 6% to West Nile and 3% to Uganda S. PMID:489960

  7. Biological input to visibility-reducing aerosol particles in the remote arid southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Cass, G.R. ); Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Source contributions of contemporary biological material to remote airsheds of the arid southwestern US are described. Combined inputs of epicuticular plants waxes and airborne microorganisms range from winter minimum (11.3-26.9 ng/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of aromatic resin acids (i.e., dehydroabietic acid and 13-isopropyl-5{alpha}-podocarpa-6,8,11,13-tetraen-16-oic acid) plus a thermally matured wood smoke marker (i.e., retene) range from 1.2 to 9.6 ng/m{sup 3}. Minimum levels of the resin acids and wood smoke marker are observed for the sparse desert vegetation site (low elevation), and maximum levels are found for the transition site of ponderosa pine and pinyon/juniper forest (high elevation). The total wood smoke mass contributions were estimated by using the ambient mass concentrations of both the aromatic resin acid and wood smoke tracers. Based on these estimates, combustion of conifer biomass (e.g., natural wildfires, camp fires, home heating) is an important component of the organic emission source inventory for this desert region.

  8. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2010-11-01

    Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

  9. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the Southeastern and Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61±12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

  10. Southwestern Sojourn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the common characteristics of experiential education programs and administration in public and private elementary, secondary, and alternative high schools in Colorado and New Mexico. Also discusses the attributes of an effective outdoor education leader and how those attributes are acquired, based on interviews with Southwestern outdoor…

  11. GENDER-RELATED FACTORS INFLUENCING WOMEN'S HEALTH SEEKING FOR TUBERCULOSIS CARE IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Oshi, Daniel C; Oshi, Sarah N; Alobu, Isaac N; Ukwaja, Kingsley N

    2016-01-01

    This is a qualitative, descriptive study to explore gender-related factors that influence health seeking for tuberculosis (TB) care by women in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In-depth interviews based on interview guides were conducted with participants selected through purposive sampling in communities in the state. The results show that gender relations prohibit women from seeking care for symptoms of TB and other diseases outside their community without their husbands' approval. Gender norms on intra-household resource ownership and control divest women of the power to allocate money for health care seeking. Yet, the same norms place the burden of spending on health care for minor illnesses on women, and such repeated, out-of-pocket expenditures on health care at the village level make it difficult for women to save money for use for health care seeking for major illnesses such as TB, which, even if subsidized, still involves hidden costs such as transport fare. The opening hours of TB clinics do not favour their use by most women as they are open when women are usually engaged in income-generating activities. Attending the clinics may therefore entail opportunity costs for many women. People with chronic, infectious diseases such as TB and HIV are generally stigmatized and avoided. Women suffer more stigma and discrimination than men. Stigma and discrimination make women reluctant to seek care for TB until the disease is advanced. Policies and programmes aimed at increasing women's access to TB services should not only take these gender norms that disempower women into explicit consideration but also include interventions to address them. The programmes should integrate flexible opening hours for TB treatment units, including introduction of evening consultation for women. Interventions should also integrate anti-stigma strategies led by the community members themselves. PMID:26627885

  12. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.

  13. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Maternal and Child Health Intervention Targets Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Bauchi State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving maternal and child health remains a top priority in Nigerias Bauchi State in the northeastern region where the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are as high as 1540 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births respectively. In this study, we used the framework of the continuum of maternal and child care to evaluate the impact of interventions in Bauchi State focused on improved maternal and child health, and to ascertain progress towards the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Methods At baseline (2012) and then at follow-up (2013), we randomly sampled 340 households from 19 random locations in each of the 20 Local Government Areas (LGA) of Bauchi State in Northern Nigeria, using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) technique. Women residents in the households were interviewed about their own health and that of their children. Estimated LGA coverage of maternal and child health indicators were aggregated across the State. These values were then compared to the national figures, and the differences from 2012 to 2014 were calculated. Results For several of the indicators, a modest improvement from baseline was found. However, the indicators in the continuum of care neither reached the national average nor attained the 90% globally recommended coverage level. The majority of the LGA surveyed were classifiable as high priority, thus requiring intensified efforts and programmatic scale up. Conclusions Intensive scale-up of programs and interventions is needed in Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria, to accelerate, consolidate and sustain the modest but significant achievements in the continuum of care, if MDGs 4 and 5 are to be achieved by the end of 2015. The intentional focus of LGAs as the unit of intervention ought to be considered a condition precedent for future investments. Priority should be given to the re-allocating resources to program areas and regions where coverage has been low. Finally, systematic considerations need to be given to the design of strategies that address the demand for health services. PMID:26086236

  14. FREQUENCY, URINALYSIS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF PATHOGENS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Dibua, Uju M.E.; Onyemerela, Ifeoma S.; Nweze, Emeka I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency and causative agent(s) of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in individuals with symptoms of urinary tract infections in Enugu State of Southeast Nigeria, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of microbial agents isolated from urine culture. Methods: The study involved 211 individuals (149 females and 62 males) clinically suspected for UTI. Urine samples were collected by the mid-stream ‘clean catch’ method and tested using standard procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated pathogens was tested using the Kirby-Bauer technique according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Microscopy of centrifuged urine samples showed 16 patients had pyuria while 54 had pus cells. Calcium oxalate crystals were found in 14 samples. Urinalysis performed with urine samples showed 17 had protein; seven were nitrite positive and three had moderate to high glucose concentration. Fifty-four urine samples (36.2%) from females and 12 (19.4%) from males showed significant growth upon culture. Gram stain and biochemical tests identified nine different organisms with Escherichia coli as the most common isolated species. Forty three randomly selected strains were further tested for their susceptibility against a panel of antibiotics. Thirty isolates (81.08%) were resistant to four or more antibiotics with the highest resistance shown by E. coli (76.67%). All the Gram- negative isolates were resistant to Ampicilox, Cefuroxime and Amoxicillin. Conclusion: Urinary tract infections were found more in females in the area under study. As found in other studies, E. coli was the most predominant isolate, although other organisms seem to be on the increase. PMID:24553609

  15. Current status of traditional mental health practice in Ilorin Emirate Council area, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makanjuola, A B; Adelekan, M L; Morakinyo, O

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven traditional mental health practitioners (TMHPs) and 16 patients' relatives (PR) were studied with a view to gaining an understanding of the current status of traditional mental health practice in five local government areas in Ilorin Emirate Council Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data was collected using Practitioners' Questionnaire (PQ), Patients' Relatives' Questionnaire (PRQ), Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and observation of TMHPs in their clinics. Factors which affect utilization of traditional mental health services were also reviewed. We found that TMHPs still enjoy considerable patronage from the populace, are more in numerical strength, and are more widely and evenly dispersed in the community than orthodox mental health practitioners (OMHPs). About 74% of TMHPs expressed interest in attending seminars aimed at improving their skills. Most of the patients' relatives expressed the belief that only traditional healers can understand the supernatural aetiological basis of mental disorders, and can therefore offer more effective care than OMHPs. Some of the negative practices observed were (i) infliction of corporal punishment and physical restraints on patients by some TMHPs resulting in wounds, which often become septic (ii) low level of hygiene at the clinics and (iii) lack of adequate follow-up care. In conclusion, since TMHPs still play a major role in the treatment of the mentally ill in this environment, OMHPs should assist them in improving on some of the negative practices identified. Thus, there is an urgent need to organize a training programme for TMHPs to expose them to the general rules of hygiene in medical care, basic principles of orthodox mental health practice, including human treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10821086

  16. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms. PMID:23290716

  17. Demographic and ecological survey of dog population in aba, abia state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ (2) = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23-0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04-0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  18. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level. PMID:23011673

  19. Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Idongesit L.; Adibe, Maxwell O.; Okonta, Matthew J.; Ukwe, Chinwe V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria. Methods Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05. Results A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013). Conclusion Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level. PMID:25243026

  20. Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maikai, Beatty V; Umoh, Jarlath U; Lawal, Idris A; Kudi, Ayuba C; Ejembi, Clara L; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-08-01

    The use of molecular diagnostic tools in epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon has provided new insights into their diversity and transmission pathways. In this study, 157 stool specimens from 2-month to 70-year-old patients were collected, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to detect and differentiate Cryptosporidium species, and DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to subtype Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the specimens were detected using PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), respectively. C. hominis and C. parvum were found in two (1.3%) and one (0.6%) specimen respectively, comprising of Ia and IIe (with 8 nucleotide substitutions) subtype families. The G. duodenalis A2 subtype was detected in five (3.2%) specimens, while four genotypes of E. bieneusi, namely A, type IV, D and WL7 were found in 10 (6.4%) specimens. Children aged two years or younger had the highest occurrence of Cryptosporidium (4.4%) and Enterocytozoon (13.0%) while children of 6 to 17 years had the highest Giardia infection rate (40.0%). No Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Enterocytozoon were detected in patients older than 60 years. Enterocytozoon had high infection rates in both HIV-positive (3.3%) and HIV-negative (8.3%) patients. Results of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission may be important in the transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis while zoonotic transmissions may also play a role in the transmission of E. bieneusi in humans in Kaduna State, Nigeria. PMID:22664352

  1. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  2. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  3. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  4. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  5. The Place of English in the SSS Curriculum in Nigeria: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, A.

    A discussion of the senior high school curriculum in Nigeria focuses on the role of English, considered an important language for educated individuals. An overview of the structure of the secondary curriculum is offered, and the sociolinguistic and pedagogical significance of English in the society is examined briefly. The senior high school…

  6. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  7. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  8. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  9. Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

  10. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogle, Rian C.; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  11. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerette, G. Darrel; Miller, Greg; Buyantuev, Alexander; Pataki, Diane E.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities.

  12. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  13. Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 μg/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 μg/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

  14. Late Pleistocene C4 plant dominance and summer rainfall in the southwestern United States from isotopic study of herbivore teeth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connin, S.L.; Betancourt, J.; Quade, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of climate and C4 plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel ??13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C4 plant consumption for Mammuthus spp., Bison spp., Equus spp., and Camelops spp. The ??13C values were greatest in Bison spp. (-6.9 to + 1.7???) and Mammuthus spp. (-9.0 to +0.3???), and in some locales indicated C4-dominated grazing. The ??13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9???) and indicated C3 feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C4 grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel ??18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0??? and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO2 determined glacial-age C4 abundance patterns.

  15. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems. PMID:25331641

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Health: Voices and Images of Latina Immigrant Survivors in Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Eva M.; Chávez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

  17. Intimate partner violence and sexual health: voices and images of Latina immigrant survivors in southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Moya, Eva M; Chávez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

    2014-11-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

  18. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing <50% of historic monthly averages), and elevated stream temperatures (>3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  19. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Most respondents showed a reasonable belief over the cause of their children’s condition rather than the erroneous traditional belief that paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by spirit forces. Conclusions It is of great concern that the good knowledge, positive attitude and reasonable belief by parents/primary caregivers about paralytic poliomyelitis observed in this study did not play a prominent role in preventing susceptibility of children in north-west Nigeria to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is imperative that Nigerian policy makers should device more strategic measures toward the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis in this sub region. PMID:23083466

  20. Hierarchical analysis of rainfall variability across Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnaji, Chidozie Charles; Mama, Cordelia Nnennaya; Ukpabi, Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall in Nigeria is subjected to wide variability both in time and space. This variability has assumed a more pronounced dimension as a result of climate change. In this paper, cluster analyses were used to study rainfall variability in Nigeria. Rainfall data in 20 locations spread across the geopolitical and ecological zones of Nigeria were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of time series and coefficient of variation for over periods spanning 30 years. Maps of spatial variations of mean annual rainfall and mean rainfall coefficient of variation were produced using ARCGIS 10.1. Furthermore, a better understanding of temporal variation of rainfall was sought by an investigation into the time series of rainfall coefficients of variation. It was found that the southern parts of the country were given to more severe rainfall variability/fluctuations than the northern parts. The north central parts exhibited more similarity to the southern parts than the other northern locations. The relationship between average annual rainfall and the coefficient of rainfall variation was found to follow a power law with R 2 value approximately 0.7. With respect to variability of annual rainfall, three zones emerged as follows: a linear relationship ( R 2 = 0.90) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for the rainforest zone of the southsouth; a power law ( R 2 = 0.86) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all rainforest and derived guinea savannah zones of the southeastern and southwestern states; and a logarithmic relationship ( R 2 = 0.54) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all northern states regardless of ecological zone. Generally, in-year rainfall variability increases from the northwest to the southwest; while between-year (yearly) rainfall variability increases from the north central to the southeast. This study further confirms that rainfall variability over time follows a spatial trend within a certain arbitrary boundary.

  1. Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria – Preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Bakare, Muideen O.; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A.; Munir, Kerim M.; Ogun, Oluwayemi C.; Eaton, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Late diagnosis and interventions characterize childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has negatively impacted on the prognosis of the children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delays among children under the age of 3 years attending immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria and also affords opportunity of early follow-up and interventions, which had been documented to improve prognosis. The study involved two stage assessments; which consisted of first phase screening of the children for neurodevelopmental delays in immunization clinics at primary healthcare centers Lagos State, Nigeria and second phase which consists of definitive clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions for children screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays. Twenty seven (0.9%) of a total of 3,011 children under the age of 3 years were screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays and subsequently undergoing clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions. Preliminary working diagnoses among these children include cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder trait, nutritional deficiency, Down syndrome and Non-specific neurodevelopmental delay with co-morbid seizure disorder accounting for 33.3%, 14.8%, 18.5%, 7.4% and 25.9% respectively. This is a preliminary report that would be followed up with information on medium and long term intervention phase. PMID:27125631

  2. Time is (still) of the essence: quantifying the impact of emergency meningitis vaccination response in Katsina State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fermon, Florence; Nackers, Fabienne; Llosa, Augusto; Magone, Claire; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, a large meningitis A epidemic affected a broad region of northern Nigeria and southern Niger, resulting in more than 75 000 cases and 4000 deaths. In collaboration with state and federal agencies, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) intervened with a large-scale vaccination campaign using polysaccharide vaccine. Here the authors analyze the impact (cases averted) of the vaccination response as a function of the timing and coverage achieved. Methods Phenomenological epidemic models were fitted to replicate meningitis surveillance data from the Nigerian Ministry of Health/WHO surveillance system and from reinforced surveillance conducted by MSF in both vaccinated and unvaccinated areas using a dynamic, state–space framework to account for under-reporting of cases. Results The overall impact of the vaccination campaigns (reduction in meningitis cases) in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, ranged from 4% to 12%. At the local level, vaccination reduced cases by as much as 50% when campaigns were conducted early in the epidemic. Conclusions Reactive vaccination with polysaccharide vaccine during meningitis outbreaks can significantly reduce the case burden when conducted early and comprehensively. Introduction of the conjugate MenAfriVac vaccine has reduced rates of disease caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in the region. Despite this, reactive campaigns with polysaccharide vaccine remain a necessary and important tool for meningitis outbreak response. PMID:25193978

  3. Neurodevelopmental delay among children under the age of three years at immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria - Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Muideen O; Bello-Mojeed, Mashudat A; Munir, Kerim M; Ogun, Oluwayemi C; Eaton, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Late diagnosis and interventions characterize childhood neurodevelopmental disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa. This has negatively impacted on the prognosis of the children with neurodevelopmental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental delays among children under the age of 3 years attending immunization clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria and also affords opportunity of early follow-up and interventions, which had been documented to improve prognosis. The study involved two stage assessments; which consisted of first phase screening of the children for neurodevelopmental delays in immunization clinics at primary healthcare centers Lagos State, Nigeria and second phase which consists of definitive clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions for children screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays. Twenty seven (0.9%) of a total of 3,011 children under the age of 3 years were screened positive for neurodevelopmental delays and subsequently undergoing clinical evaluation and follow-up interventions. Preliminary working diagnoses among these children include cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder trait, nutritional deficiency, Down syndrome and Non-specific neurodevelopmental delay with co-morbid seizure disorder accounting for 33.3%, 14.8%, 18.5%, 7.4% and 25.9% respectively. This is a preliminary report that would be followed up with information on medium and long term intervention phase. PMID:27125631

  4. Hispanic Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about AIDS: A Survey in Four Southwestern States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latin American Research and Service Agency, Denver, CO.

    This document comprises a report on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of Hispanic Americans residing in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. A total of 2,400 people (600 per state) were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and January 1989. The following sample characteristics are…

  5. Using Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Evaluate the Hydrologic Effects of Climate in the Southwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been an active area of research at regional and national scales in the United States. The concept has been used to make spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwe...

  6. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation.

    PubMed

    Casey, Ryan P; Rouff, Mark A; Jauregui-Covarrubias, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally. PMID:25711750

  7. Spanish Heritage Language Programs: A Snapshot of Current Programs in the Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…

  8. Precipitation Trends and Water Consumption Related to Population in the Southwestern United States, 1930-83.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Henry F.; Holle, Ronald L.; Thorn, Joe W., Jr.

    1985-02-01

    The possible effects of climatic fluctuations on renewable water supplies in the western United States was examined, especially as it is impacted by the growth of population and water consumption in recent decades.Precipitation fluctuations in the Colorado River Basin states have differed depending upon their location, but have tended to fluctuate with a time scale of one to two decades. Longer-term regimes may also be operative. For example, the Upper Basin states (Colorado and Utah) experienced a prolonged wet interval from about the turn of this century to around 1930; from 1930 to around 1978, drier than normal years tended to outnumber wet ones; and since 1978 the Upper Basin has been exceedingly wet. Lower Basin states also experienced the early wet period and drier conditions after the mid-1940s, but they undergo somewhat different alternations of wetness and dryness. However, from the point of view of water supply, precipitation variability in the Upper Basin, particularly in Colorado, is more critical.Reservoir capacity in the and western states is expected to gain little in additional storage capacity during the next couple of decades; in addition, withdrawal of water from the Colorado River is approaching the legal limits. The effect of a future prolonged drought on the order of those which have occurred in recent decades, or in a worse case, those which have occurred in past centuries from tree ring studies, could have far more serious consequences than any in previous experience due to the large population increases in the region. These population trends show all signs of continuing, at least in the near future. The impact of a drought, however, would depend on the level of reservoir capacity that is present at the time of drought onset as well as its intensity and longevity; reservoirs in the West are presently at or near capacity.

  9. Isotopic and trace element constraints on the composition and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, P. D.; Fitton, J. G.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Ormerod, D. S.

    1991-07-01

    The effects of subduction and crustal recycling on the composition and evolution of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the southwestern United States are recorded in the isotopic and trace element compositions of Cenozoic (<17 Ma) alkalic basalts from the Basin and Range and its tectonic boundaries to the west (Western Great Basin) and east (Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range transition zone). Basin and Range alkalic basalts are chemically similar to ocean island basalts, having high ɛNd and TiO2, with low Ba, Ba/Nb, and 87Sr/86Sr, which suggests an asthenospheric mantle origin. Lavas from the Western Great Basin and the Eastern Transition Zone have higher Ba contents coupled with higher Ba/Nb and lower TiO2 than Basin and Range basalts, characteristics typically associated with subduction zone magmas. Western Great Basin lavas typically have higher Ba/Nb, K/Ti, and Sr isotope ratios than basalts from the Eastern Transition Zone. Lavas from the northern portion of the Eastern Transition Zone (northern Arizona to central Utah) have unusually low 87Sr/86Sr combined with low 143Nd/144Nd and plot below and to the left of the mantle array, indicating low time-integrated Rb/Sr ratios in the source. Pb isotope ratios are distinct for each area. Basin and Range basalts exhibit only a small isotopic range, whereas transition zone basalts have overlapping to lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher 207Pb/204Pb. Linear distributions on Pb-Pb plots for both the Western Great Basin and the Eastern Transition Zone basalts yield source ages of 1.8 Ga, but basalts from the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau are displaced to lower 207Pb/204Pb, indicating a lower U/Pb ratio (μ1). Interaction between asthenospheric basaltic magmas and overlying crust appears to be unable to explain the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope trends since (1) correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 1/Sr are riot observed, and (2) analyzed lower to midcrustal xenoliths, inferred lower to mid-crustal compositions and Proterozoic supracrustal rocks from the area do not form reasonable mixing end-members for both isotopes and trace elements. The high Ba/Nb, Rb/Sr, and K/Ti ratios in the transition zone basalts indicate that subduction processes have enriched the subcontinental lithosphere beneath the southwestern United States. The range in isotopic and trace element ratios suggest that enrichment processes ranged from fluid-dominated (Western Great Basin) to melt-dominated (Eastern Transition Zone). Although the effects of recent subduction cannot be dismissed, isotopic evidence suggests that these characteristics were largely imposed upon the lithosphere at about 1.8 Ga. Chemical differences in magmas that interacted with lithospheric mantle reflect ancient, rather than recent, subduction processes in the western United States. Geochemical boundaries in the lithosphere correspond to domains established during the Proterozoic which were ultimately assembled into western North America during Proterozoic and late Paleozoic time.

  10. Stress state of the Baoxing segment of the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone before and after the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Manlu; Zhang, Chongyuan; Fan, Taoyuan

    2016-05-01

    In situ stress measurements were conducted with hydraulic fracturing and piezomagnetic overcoring method in a borehole at Qiaoqi of Baoxing region in the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone, to understand the current stress state and stress change after the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake. The stress regime of the Qiaoqi borehole is characterized by SH > Sh > Sv, indicating that the regional stress field is dominated by the maximum horizontal stress and this stress regime is prone to reverse faulting. Impression tests show that the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress are NW-NWW oriented. The magnitudes of the maximum horizontal principal stress at Qiaoqi are obviously higher than those before the Lushan earthquake, signifying that stress is still accumulating in this region. The real-time stress monitoring data shows that the stress in the NWW direction is increasing continuously before and after the earthquake. Authors have computed the frictional parameter, μm, using the derived stress data. The result demonstrates a high stress build-up level in the shallow crust before and after the Lushan earthquake. Adopting the Coulomb frictional-failure criteria, we conclude that Baoxing area, the southwestern section of the Longmenshan Fault Zone has already reached or exceeded a frictional limit equilibrium state. Evidence shows that the Lushan earthquake did not release the highly accumulated stress of the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone and the potential risk of earthquakes in this region still exists.

  11. Awareness of and Attitude towards Glaucoma among an Adult Rural Population of Osun State, Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isawumi, Michaeline A.; Hassan, Mustapha B.; Akinwusi, Patience O.; Adebimpe, Olalekan W.; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O.; Christopher, Alebiosu C.; Adewole, Taiwo A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain baseline data and assess the level of awareness and attitudes towards glaucoma among rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based study that involved interviews and descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Serial-recruitment was performed of consenting participants who presented at a community-based screening service in March 2011. Socio-demographic data and information about glaucoma were obtained through face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Results: The study population comprised 259 respondents (mean age 49.73 ± 16.6 years; range 18 to 90 years). There were 159 females (61.4%). Skilled workers were the most common 130/259 (50.3%) participants. Only 41 (15.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-20.2) participants had ever heard of glaucoma. Sources of information were from visits to an eye clinic for 21/41 (51.2%; 95% CI: 35.9-66.5) participants and 15/41 (36.6%) participants who know someone with glaucoma. Reponses to the causes of glaucoma included 20/41 (48.8%; 33.5-64.1) participant who said ‘I don't know’ and 24.4% of participants who responded ‘curse-from-God’. Responses to questions on treatment included 20/41 (48.8%) participants who responded ‘I don't know how it can be treated’ and 10/41 (36.6%) said ‘medically’. Thirty 30/41 (73.2%) participants would refuse surgery, half of them because ‘it cannot cure or reverse the disease’ while (26.7%) would refuse out of ‘fear’. Only 8/41 (19.5%; 95% CI: 7.4-31.6) would accept surgery for maintenance. Statistically significant predictors of glaucoma awareness were older participants, males and skilled workers (teachers) (P = 0.028, P = 0.018, P = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The outcomes of study indicate a low level of awareness of glaucoma. Health education at all levels of health and eye care services is required to prevent ocular morbidity and irreversible blindness from glaucoma. PMID:24791109

  12. Economic Analysis of Balanced Nutrient Management Technologies for Maize Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omadachi, Ugbabe O.; Ahmed, Ben; Manyong, V. M.; Olukosi, James O.; Yusuf, Oseni

    The overall goal of Balanced Nutrient Management Systems (BNMS) a collaborative project between International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (K.U. Leuven) is to curb the vicious cycle of plant nutrient depletion in maize-based farming systems in the moist savanna and humid forest zone of West Africa. This is through integrated nutrient management systems geared to land use practices which are economically viable, ecologically sound and socially acceptable. In Kaduna state of Nigeria (Northern Guinea Savannah), three improved maize-based technologies were tested in a series of farmer-managed field trials since 2000. The first technology was a continuous maize treatment characterized by high fertilizer rates (Sasakawa Global 2000 (SG 2000)). In the second technology, half of the fertilizer quantity was replaced with organic manure (BNMS-manure). The third technology was a soybean-maize rotation treatment in which the fertilizer rates to the maize was reduced by a half (BNMS-soybean/maize). The broad objective of the study was to conduct economic analysis of the three introduced BNMS maize-based technologies along with the farmers` own practice of maize production. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the costs and returns to the BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and to examine the farmers` perception of the BNMS technologies. The tools used for the analysis of the data were: partial budget analysis to determine the costs and returns to the introduced BNMS technologies and farmers` practice and the scoring technique to examine the farmer`s perception of the BNMS technologies. Findings from the partial budget analysis showed that, BNMS-soybean/maize was the best in both the demonstration and adaptation trials by having the highest gross margins of 18,462 and 19,785, respectively, with the inorganic fertilizer cost constituting over 50% of the total production cost. The farmers gave overall best perception to both the BNM-soybean/maize and the BNMS-manure technologies.

  13. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  14. Fertility level in urban Nigerian societies: recent observations from Eket Urban of Akwa Ibom state of south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Etukudo, I W

    1990-12-01

    Between November-December 1990 a fertility survey of 614 urban women 15-49 years old in Eket In Akwa Ibom State of southeastern Nigeria was conducted to determine fertility levels and their relevance to population and socioeconomic planning in Nigeria. 75% of the women were literate and 95.2% were married. The number of children ever born increased as age increased. The numbers ranged from 2.26 for 15-19 year olds to 7.14 for 45-49 year olds. Mean family size equalled 5.61. That of their mothers was 7.25 and that of their grandmothers 7.14. The relative young sample population accounted for the comparatively low family size. The total fertility rate compared favorably with completed family size (7.27 and 7.14, respectively). Age specific fertility rates were highest in 20-24 year old women (304) and 30-34 year old women (281) and lowest in 40-44 year old women (194) and in 45-49 year old women (70). Pregnancy rates were highest in 30-34 year old women (25.1%) and lowest in 45-49 year old women (0). Despite the dissemination of family planning information and a relatively high percentage of educated women and women who work in professional positions in Eket, fertility is very high. Like the rest of Nigeria, the population in the early 1990s in Eket was expanding very rapidly. This coupled with falling mortality rates indicated a large percentage of children 15 years old to support which seriously strained the economy. Besides high fertility affected significantly the health of mothers and children, yet rapid population growth did not allow Nigeria to develop an adequate health care system. The government should use these findings and those of other small scale surveys to develop a sound population policy and population programs which include compulsory population education for children and adults. The policy should be integrated within socioeconomic planning PMID:12343743

  15. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  16. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  17. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  18. Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

  19. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  20. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  1. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and

  2. Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,

  3. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  4. Drought risk mapping of south-western state in the Indian peninsula - A web based application.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Girish; Ambili, G K; Gregory, Shery Joseph; Anusha, C K

    2015-09-15

    Application of geospatial technology is very shimmering in drought monitoring. Drought severity in crops for six northern districts of Kerala has been attempted using Geospatial Techniques. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the major parameter used to measure vegetation health obtained from MODIS, Terra satellite products MOD13Q1, MOD02QKM. The mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Kerala state over 13 years was calculated. The daily anomalies of NDVI from its long term mean NDVI over the same period was determined based on which drought risk classification was done. High negative NDVI anomaly areas are susceptible to drought and the severity of drought risk on each crop can be identified using Land Use/Land Cover data. Overlaying daily NDVI Anomaly based drought risk map on land use/land cover map gives the drought risk for different crops. Based on this, a web application has been developed for Northern districts of Kerala state in India. This web application can be used to plan for drought management measures and can also serve as a database for drought analysis. PMID:25560658

  5. A test of a climatic index of dune mobility using measurements from the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.

    2000-01-01

    The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  6. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  7. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  8. A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability Reconstruction of the Coastal Southwestern United States Using Lake Sediments from Crystal Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.; Hiner, C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to reconstruct a high resolution, late Holocene record of precipitation variability for the coastal southwestern United States region using sediment cores from Crystal Lake, CA. This region is especially susceptible to droughts and episodic floods, making it of particular importance to understand past hydrologic variability. Crystal Lake is a small, alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake located in the range. It is hydrologically closed, meaning all lake level changes are controlled by changes in precipitation: evaporation. To reconstruct past hydrologic variability, two Livingston piston cores were taken 15 m apart in the depocenter of the lake in May 2014. A multi-proxy methodology was utilized including: magnetic susceptibility, total organic matter and total carbonate content, grain size, and bulk d13Corg of sediments. All analyses were conducted at 1 cm contiguous intervals except bulk d13Corg (at 2 cm). Seismic reflection profiles were also generated to examine the basin's stratigraphic features in the context of the individual sediment cores. A working age model was provided by multiple AMS 14C dates from discrete organic matter (i.e., seeds, charcoal). Results from this study are compared to preexisting records of late Holocene hydrologic variability from coastal, central, and southern California. Further, the forcing mechanisms that drive hydrologic change (wet vs. dry episodes) in Southern California, such as ocean-atmosphere interactions including El Niño Southern Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, are discussed.

  10. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiming; Reheis, Marith C.

    2003-07-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ34S and δ18O) are 5.8 ± 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ± 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (Δ17O), with an average value of 1.0 ± 0.6‰. Except for a weak positive correlation between δ18O and Δ17O values (r2 ≈ 0.4), no correlation exists for δ18O versus δ34S, Δ17O versus δ34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive Δ17O values (up to 4.23‰) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero Δ17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ˜4.8‰ lower for δ18O, ˜2.1‰ higher for δ34S, and ˜0.3‰ lower for Δ17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  11. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (μg/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (μg/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  12. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  13. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  14. Taboos of childbearing and child-rearing in Bendel state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iweze, F A

    1983-01-01

    Certain marriage, childbearing, and child rearing practices within the Bendel State of Nigeria are outlined. In the rural communities early marriage is encouraged in order to ensure partners for eligible bachelors and "maidens of good repute." Childbearing and child rearing is incorporated within the framework of the extended family system, including monogamous and polygamous forms of marriages. Most marriages take place for the major purpose of childbearing. In Bendel State 2 types of birth attendants are prevalent. The traditional birth attendant (TBA) who does not have formal schooling and who acquires her skill and knowledge from either a relation or friend by means of an informal apprenticeship. In contrast the midwife has a formal--basic and professional--education and can only practice independently after passing the prescribed national examination and being registerd by the Nigerian Nursing and Midwifery Council. The midwife is responsible for the care of the woman during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum period. She is also responsible for the care of the baby during the same period and up to the age of 28 days. From the 3rd month of pregnancy onward, the midwife will carry out regular abdominal massage and palpation. This technique is used to loosen the nerves and relax the muscles, facilitating an easy pregnancy and delivery as well as correcting malpresentations. The mother to be will also make a paste with kola nuts and rub the paste on her abdomen every day to prevent thrush and other skin infections in the newborn baby. In the northern parts of the state, the young primigravida is sent to her parents for circumcision. This practice is dying out as the young mothers to be become more knowledgeable about the risk of infection and other problems. During pregnancy the husband tries to support all his wife's needs. The mother to be is encouraged to avoid places where people fight and quarrel so that the baby is peace loving when born. After birth, the placenta is disposed of with care because it is regarded as part of the baby even after birth. The mother is given a warm bath and a specially prepared oil is applied over her body. The abdomen is bound tightly with a cloth believing it will help the abdominal muscles regain their tone and maintain the prepregnancy figure. Much importance is attached to the 1st bath of the baby, for it is believed that lifelong body odor can be prevented at this stage. Lactation is encouraged by giving the mother palm wine to drink or an unripe paw paw is crushed and the liquid is given to the mother to drink. These liquids are believed to have an almost immediate effect on the mammary glands. As soon as the baby is born, the mother or grandmother talks to the baby with words of praise and blessing. It is believed that a baby talked to in this manner grows to be happy and peace loving. PMID:6552278

  15. An evaluation of the knowledge and practices of trained traditional birth attendants in Bodinga, Sokoto State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpala, C O

    1994-02-01

    To improve Maternal and Child Health services especially in the rural areas, a programme to train traditional birth attendants (Ungo Zoma) was established by the Sokoto State government of Nigeria in 1975. The impact of the training programme on the knowledge and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in a rural community in the state was studied. Seventy-four TBAs, consisting of 43 trained and 31 untrained attendants, were interviewed. Statistically significant differences were observed in the proportion of both groups of TBAs able to recognize high risk pregnancies and deliveries for referral to health institutions. In contrast to the trained attendants, none of the untrained TBAs offered any of the following Maternal and Child Health services: antenatal care, advice on immunization of children or their mothers during pregnancy, and family planning. Suggestions for improving the knowledge and practices of the TBAs in Sokoto as well as in other communities wishing to embark on similar programmes are offered. PMID:8107173

  16. Visibility in the southwestern united states from summer 1978 to spring 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, William C.; Walther, Eric G.; O'Dell, Kenneth; Kleine, Marvin

    The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, recognizing the importance of visibility to the experience of a visitor to Class I areas in the United States, entered into an agreement with the National Park Service to initially deploy an experimental research teleradiometer network at 13 national parks and monuments in the Southwest. Objectives of the network are to: (1) evaluate the ability of multiwavelength teleradiometers to measure visibility, (2) evaluate the ability of several physical variables to characterize visibility and (3) determine the temporal and spatial dynamics of visibility deterioration on a regional scale. Visibility is more than the ability to see an object at the distance at which it just disappears. Visibility includes the effects of atmospheric constituents on the ability of an observer to see color, texture, and form of both near and distant vistas. Target apparent contrast and delta contrast are variables that can represent atmospheric visibility, but they are vista specific. Hence, standard visual range, a parameter which tends to normalize differences between targets, remains a useful interpretive parameter for comparing data from different vistas. Each park vista is also monitored with standardized photography, allowing a pictorial description of visibility. Analysis of data from summer 1978 through spring 1979 shows that winter had the highest standard visual range and spring the lowest. Capitol Reef National Park had the best visibility, while Wupatki National Monument had the worst. Visibility on cloudless days was usually better than on cloudless and cloudy days taken together.

  17. Causes, Effects and Strategies for Eradicating Cultism among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria--A Case Study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udoh Victoria; Mag, Ikezu Uju Joy

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth…

  18. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 20122013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a priority, for intensive program scale-up to accelerate impact. PMID:26455491

  19. Numerical simulation of precipitation over the Southwestern United States during the 1994-1995 winter season

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1995-09-28

    Accurate assessments of precipitation and surface snow budget during winter seasons are crucial for managing water resources in the western United States. This region receives most of its annual precipitation during winter months and relies on water stored in snowpack and reservoirs for water supply during dry summer seasons. Rainfall directly affects water inflow into reservoirs while snowmelt determines it during spring and summer. Precipitation and snow budget result from interactions among large-scale forcing, mesoscale processes, and surface energy balance. Interaction among these elements is highly nonlinear and includes various processes such as large-scale water vapor and temperature advection, precipitation physics, orographic forcing, turbulence, solar and terrestrial radiative transfer, and snow-albedo feedback. Hence, one need to take these processes into consideration in order to obtain accurate assessments of regional water resources over time scales longer than a season. A regional model that interactively couples atmospheric and land surface processes is a cost-effective tool for an assessment of precipitation and surface hydrology over large areas at a relatively fine resolution. Such models can include complex physical and dynamical processes involved in the interaction between the atmosphere and land surfaces. Another advantage of coupled atmosphere-land surface modeling is that simulations, when verified against local observations, can provide area-integrated values. Area-integrated values are useful for computing overall budgets, but they are somewhat difficult to obtain directly from local observations. Hence, a coupled atmosphere-surface model is especially useful for computing area-weighted values for areas of interest.

  20. Economic Threshold for Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Cotton in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Kerns, D L; Yates, J A; Baugh, B A

    2015-08-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a common pest of cotton throughout much of the world. In the United States, insecticide applications targeting cotton aphid in cotton are common in the Mid-South, Texas, and California. Cotton aphid population dynamics data were collected from eight insecticide efficacy trials conducted in Lubbock, TX, over a 4-yr period. Among the field populations in the nontreated plots, the instantaneous rate of population growth averaged 0.56 ± 0.608, and the mean population doubling time was 3.97 ± 2.16 d. For calculating economic injury levels (EIL) and thresholds, control costs were set at US$30.50/ha, market prices were evaluated at US$0.88, US$1.33, US$1.77, and US$2.21 kg-lint, and cotton yield potentials were evaluated at 672, 896, and 1,120 kg-lint/ha. The EIL we calculated ranged from 66 to 272 aphids per leaf, and averaged 137 aphids per leaf. Economic thresholds (ET) were calculated based on lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d before EIL occurs. The mean ET across control cost, market price, and yield potential were 110 ± 48, 70 ± 31, 45 ± 19, and 29 ± 13 aphids per leaf at lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d, respectively. Most curative pest management tactics in cotton are implemented within 3 d of determining need, and the ET at 3 d that we calculated (70 ± 31 aphids per leaf) overlaps the current recommended action threshold in Texas and California of 50 aphids per leaf. PMID:26470321

  1. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, A; Shingler, T; Harpold, A; Feagles, C W; Meixner, T; Brooks, P D

    2013-08-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+)) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Cl(-), suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate [Formula: see text] show a statistically significant correlation with rain [Formula: see text] unlike snow [Formula: see text], which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of [Formula: see text] (and precursors) and the varying degree to which [Formula: see text]-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of [Formula: see text] precursors. PMID:24432030

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Summer Hydroclimate Extremes in Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, S.; Rajagopalan, B.; Ray, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Summer monsoon rains contribute substantially to the water resources in the semi-arid Southwest United States by providing inflow to the Lower Colorado River Basin and its tributaries. While winter rain and snow contribute over half of the annual flow to these river systems, summer precipitation is important for ecosystems and fire. Three factors are enhancing the importance of summer hydroclimate: 1) rising stress on the water and natural resources due to unprecedented socio-economic growth in recent decades, 2) the recent dry spell in the region, and 3) projected drying of the region in future decades. The summer rains often occur in heavy pulses resulting in natural hazards such as flooding, landslides etc., in addition to replenishing the water resources on the surface and below. Thus, understanding the variability of summer climate and its extremes is important for resource management and hazard mitigation. To this end, we perform a systematic analysis of spatial and temporal variability in the summer hydroclimate in the South Western US and its extremes. We compute 3-day maximum precipitation during the early monsoon season (June-July) at each location and perform PCA and cluster analysis to identify the dominant spatial and temporal patterns, which are then related to large-scale climate variables such as Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures, sea level pressures and winds. Similar analysis will also be performed in the late season rainfall and streamflow extremes. These analyses will provide insights into the mechanisms of moisture source and delivery that result in hydroclimate extremes in the region. We will also demonstrate modeling of the extremes at representative locations in the region with nonstationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution.

  3. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42−, NO3−, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42− show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42− unlike snow SO42−, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42− (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42−-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3− : SO42− ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3− : SO42− ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3− : SO42− ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42− precursors. PMID:24432030

  4. Using community volunteers to promote exclusive breastfeeding in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma Misbah; Oche, Oche Mansur; Sadiq, Umar Abubakar; Kabiru, Sabitu

    2011-01-01

    Background Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) refers to the practice of feeding breast milk only, (including expressed breast milk) to infants; and excluding water, other liquids, breast milk substitutes, and solid foods. Inadequately breastfed infants are likely to be undernourished and have childhood infections. EBF knowledge and infant feeding practices have not been studied sufficiently in Sokoto State, Nigeria. We describe the results of a randomized community trial to promote Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) in two local government areas Kware and Bodinga selected as intervention and control groups respectively. Methods During advocacy meetings with community leaders, a Committee was formed. Members of the Committee were consulted for informed consent and selection of ten female volunteers who would educate mothers about breastfeeding during home visits. Participants comprised mothers of infants who were breastfeeding at the time of the study. A total of 179 mothers were recruited through systematic random sampling from each community. Volunteers conducted in-person interviews using a structured questionnaire and counseled mothers in the intervention group only. Results At baseline, intervention and control groups differed significantly regarding maternal occupation (P=0.07), and age of the index child (P=0.07). 42% of infants in the intervention group were up to 6 months old and about 30% of them were exclusively breastfed. Intention to EBF was significantly associated with maternal age (P=0.01), education (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.00). After counseling, all infants up to 6 months of age were exclusively breastfed. The proportion of mothers with intention to EBF increased significantly with maternal age (P=0.00), occupation (P=0.00) and women who were exclusively breastfeeding (P=0.01). Post-intervention surveys showed that source of information and late initiation of breastfeeding was not significantly associated with intention to EBF. Mothers who reported practicing EBF for 6 months, were older (P=0.00) multi-parous (P=0.05) and more educated (P=0.00) compared to those who did not practice EBF. Among them, significantly increased proportion of women agreed that EBF should be continued during the night (P=0.03), infant should be fed on demand (P=0.05), sick child could be given medication (P=0.02), EBF offered protection against childhood diarrhea (P=0.01), and helped mothers with birth spacing (P=0.00). Conclusion This study shows that there is a need for reaching women with reliable information about infant nutrition in Sokoto State. The results show decreased EBF practice among working mothers, young women, mothers with poor education and fewer than five children. Counseling is a useful strategy for promoting the duration of EBF for six months and for developing support systems for nursing mothers. Working mothers may need additional resources in this setting to enable them to practice EBF. PMID:22187590

  5. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed terrestrial reference organisms are lichen and bryophytes. In all cases, the radio ecological risks are not likely to be discernible. This paper presents a pioneer data for ecological risk from ionizing contaminants due to mining activity in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Its methodology could be adopted for future work on radioecology of mining. PMID:25848858

  6. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    16 of the CMIP5 models had all the data needed for this work for at least one simulation that was continuous from 1950 to 2040. Details of the models analyzed here are provided in Table S1. The model data analyzed here are available at http://strega.ldeo.columbia.edu:81/expert/home/.naomi/.AR5/.v2/.historical:rcp85/.mmm16/ a. Assessing the climatology of the models Despite increases in horizontal resolution of many models compared to their CMIP3 counterparts none of these models can adequately resolve the topography of the south west United States, such as the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the associated orographic precipitation. This requires that caution be used when interpreting the results presented here. To assess the ability of the models to simulate the current hydroclimate, in Figure S1 we show the observed (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded rain gauge data, (1)) monthly climatology of precipitation and the same for all the models and the multimodel mean for the California-Nevada, Colorado headwaters and Texas regions. The GPCC data uses rain gauges only and interpolates to regular grids of which we used the 1? by 1? one. Details of the data set can be found in (2). While the models apparently overestimate precipitation in California and Nevada the seasonal cycle with wet winters and dry summers is very well represented. It is also possible that the rain gauge observations are biased low by inadequately sampling the higher mountain regions. How ever the models might also be expected to underestimate orographic precipitation due to inadequate horizontal resolution. The 25 models are also too wet in the Colorado headwaters region but correctly represent the quite even distribution though the year. The bimodal distribution of precipitation in Texas, with peaks in May and September, and the absolute amounts, are well modeled but with the September peak too weak. The positive precipitation bias translates into a positive runoff bias for the Colorado headwaters as also shown in Figure S1. Here the observed runoff values are taken from simulations of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface-hydrology model (3) forced by observed meteorology (5) that were conducted as part of the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 ( (NLDAS-2), http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/mmb/nldas/. Runoff for California-Nevada is better simulated but there is a positive bias over Texas despite no strong precipitation bias. To check whether regional climate models better simulate P and runoff in these regions we analyzed the historical simulation with the Regional Climate Model version 3 driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy Reanalysis 2 available from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (http://www.narccap.ucar.edu). This model configuration retained these biases in P and runoff although they were reduced in amplitude. Given these varying biases we plot P and P - E changes in actual values but apply the simplest bias correction possible to the runoff and soil moisture values and show the modeled changes in terms of percentages of the 20th Century model climatologies. A thorough assessment of the simulation of North American climate in CMIP5 models is conducted in Sheffield at al. (North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part I: Evaluation of 20th Century Continental and Regional Climatology, manuscript submit ted to J. Climate, available at http://www.climate.noaa.gov/index.jsp?pg=./cpo pa/ mapp/cmip5 publications.html). Sheffield et al. analyze the climatology of precipitation, surface air temperature, low level winds, moisture fluxes, runoff etc. and conclude that the main features of the hydrological cycle, including characteristics of the atmospheric moisture balance and its seasonality, are captured in the CMP5 models subject to biases in total precipitation amounts. We chose to use all available models instead of selecting some and rejecting others based on an assessment of model realism. This is in accord with the suggestions of Mote et al. for CMIP3 (4) but future work needs to revisit this matter for the case of the CMIP5 ensemble.

  7. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  8. Linguistic Assimilation of Westerners Living in the Yoruba Area of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, W. F.

    This study investigated the strategies used by westerners, particularly American, Canadians, and Britons, to assimilate linguistically with the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria. The report begins with a brief chronicling of the history of colonialism and English usage in Nigeria. The study is then described. Based on observation of…

  9. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from the use of antimicrobials. PMID:26526955

  10. Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the timing and amount of precipitation suggest three considerations for large mammal conservation in the Southwest. First, being tied to June NDVI, mule deer distribution is likely to track areas defined by relatively early growing seasons, whereas elk abundance is likely to increase in response to enhanced summer precipitation. Second, in mesic environments bighorn sheep are both poor competitors and susceptible to predation. To the extent that bighorn sheep are forced to share ranges with deer or elk, they may be adversely affected by changing climate. Lastly, shifts in ungulate abundance may lead cougars to switch prey in some localities, or contract from the drier portions of their current range as energetic costs rise beyond threshold values.

  11. A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by environmental factors operating on the entire drainage basin, classification of channels can provide land managers and users with an understanding of what areas are likely to be most susceptible to erosion or the effects of high sedimentation rates and under what conditions they are most likely to occur.

  12. Estimating the Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants: A Case Study of the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-05-01

    We estimate the capacity value of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants without thermal energy storage in the southwestern U.S. Our results show that CSP plants have capacity values that are between 45% and 95% of maximum capacity, depending on their location and configuration. We also examine the sensitivity of the capacity value of CSP to a number of factors and show that capacity factor-based methods can provide reasonable approximations of reliability-based estimates.

  13. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  14. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  15. Assessment of Mobile Health Nursing Intervention Knowledge among Community Health Nurses in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Titilayo, Odetola D; Okanlawon, FA

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mortality is high in Nigeria especially in rural areas due to knowledge deficit about expected care and labour process, socio-cultural belief, health care workers’ attitude, physical and financial barriers to quality health care access. Mobile health (m-health) technology which is the use of mobile telecommunication devices in health care delivery reduces costs, improves care access, removes time and distance barriers and facilitates patient-provider communications needed to make appropriate health decisions. Previous studies empowering nurses with m-health knowledge resulted in improved uptake of health care services. There exists a literature dearth about knowledge and perception of nurses in Nigeria. This study became expedient to empower nurses working at the grassroots with the knowledge of m-health and assess the impact of educational training on their perception of its effectiveness. This quasi-experimental study carried out in four randomly selected LGAs across Oyo South Senatorial district involved participants at experimental (20 nurses) and control levels (27 nurses). A validated 25-item questionnaire explored nurses’ perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health in improving uptake of maternal health services in Nigeria among both groups before intervention. Intervention group nurses had a training equipping them with knowledge of m-health nursing intervention (MNHI) for a period of one week. Their perception, knowledge and perceived effectiveness were re-assessed at three-months and six-months after MHNI. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and repeated measures ANOVA at 5% significance level. In the EG, knowledge score significantly increased from 21.9±4.5 at baseline to 23.6±4.6 and 23.2±5.6 at three-month and six-month respectively while there was no significant difference in knowledge score among CG over the study period. A very significant difference was shown in the knowledge and perception of mobile health and its effectiveness at P1 (p= 0.012 and 0.017) but this significance faded away 6 months after (p= 0.312 and 0.598) respectively. The study was effective as it improved the knowledge and perceived effectiveness of m-health among PHC nurses. However, the improvement dwindled after 6 months. Thus, similar training and retraining should be conducted periodically to update nurses’ knowledge and improve clients’ access to quality health information, education and therapeutic communication. PMID:26688606

  16. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. Results An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). Conclusion The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria. PMID:26740848

  17. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayorinde, A.; Oboh, B.; Oduola, A.; Otubanjo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2–69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9–199.96), while a decrease (243–63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  18. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, A; Oboh, B; Oduola, A; Otubanjo, O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2-69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9-199.96), while a decrease (243-63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  19. Economic empowerment and reproductive behaviour of young women in Osun state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odutolu, Oluwole; Adedimeji, Adebola; Odutolu, Omobola; Baruwa, Olatunde; Olatidoye, Funmilayo

    2003-12-01

    Women are increasingly being recognised as equal partners in development. However, there is a growing awareness that negative health, social and economic consequences act as barriers in their efforts to contribute to sustainable development. Consequently, to fully harness the potentials of women in this regard, these barriers have to be addressed. This paper utilises qualitative data collected as part of an intervention programme designed to increase access to reproductive health information/services and economic resources among young women in Osogbo, Nigeria. The aim was to provide reproductive health information and training in basic business skills and micro-credit facilities to enable beneficiaries to establish private businesses. Findings from the study highlight the importance of the relationship between female education, access to economic resources as a means of furthering empowerment of women especially in terms of their reproductive behaviour. The paper argues that increased access to resources is a major factor toward ensuring the much desired empowerment. PMID:15055152

  20. The socio-cultural context of health behaviour among Esan communities, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omorodion, F I

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on health beliefs and their influence on treatment decisions and behaviour among the Esan people of mid-west Nigeria. The sources for the study are my own experience of growing up in Esan society, anthropological field work, and focus groups. The research revealed a transitional society where both traditional and modern medicine are employed and where the choice between them is determined by belief systems which are themselves in the process of change, as well as by distance and costs. The traditional health-belief system was one which placed most responsibility and blame upon women, and a system of social control over the adult female population. Changing health beliefs are less the result of the introduction of a new health philosophy than of the retreat, under the impact of Christianity, of traditional religion which embodied the older health philosophy. PMID:10146569

  1. Palmar and digital dermatoglyphic patterns in the Ndokwas of Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anibor, E; Igbigbi, P S; Avwioro, O G; Okpor, A

    2011-09-01

    We determined asymmetry, complexity and pattern polarization of dermal ridges and palmar variables of atd angle, a - b ridge count and total finger ridge count of dermal ridges among the Ndokwa people of Nigeria. 400 healthy students who are Ndokwas were studied. Ink prints of their fingers and palms were obtained. Counting and classifying of Palmar and digital ridge pattern configurations of arches, loops and whorls was based on standard techniques. Ulnar loops polarized preferentially to digits III, IV and V and radial loops to digit II. Female subjects had higher counts of radial loops (p < 0.001) than the males. Male subjects had a higher whorl count than the females (p < 0.05). Our findings form useful baseline data for subsequent longitudinal cytogenetic studies on the Ndokwa people. PMID:22428511

  2. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low. PMID:21812197

  3. Sexual and health behaviour of commercial sex workers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asowa-Omorodion, F I

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, examined are the sexual and health behaviours of commercial sex workers in Nigeria, a high-risk group in this era of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim is to provide in-depth knowledge of their sexual networking and the prevalence rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This analysis is intended to highlight their implications in the spread and control of AIDS and HIV infection. The results of the study show the extensive sexual networking of these commercial sex workers, the health implications, and the utilisation of nonorthodox health services in diagnosing STDs. The implications of these results are the likely drain on the limited health resources of the Nigerian government and the harmful effects on the women, fetuses, children, and other sexual partners of clients of these commercial sex workers. PMID:11813779

  4. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

  5. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  6. Fire season precipitation variability influences fire extent and severity in a large southwestern wilderness area, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Zachary A.; Morgan, Penelope; Crimmins, Michael A.; Steinhorst, R. K.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2007-08-01

    Despite a widely noted increase in the severity of recent western wildfires, this trend has never been quantified. A twenty-year series of Landsat TM satellite imagery for all forest fires on the 1.4 million ha Gila National Forest suggests that an increases in area burned and area burned severely from 1984-2004 are well correlated with timing and intensity of rain events during the fire season. Winter precipitation was marginally correlated with burn severity, but only in high-elevation forest types. These results suggest the importance of within-season precipitation over snow pack in modulating recent wildfire size and severity in mid-elevation southwestern forests.

  7. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  8. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013.

    PubMed

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009-2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January-October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  9. Poor Availability of Skilled Birth Attendants in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State Primary Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Nkwo, Peter O; Lawani, Lucky O; Ubesie, Agozie C; Onodugo, Vincent A; Obu, Herbert A; Chinawa, Josephat M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Government of Enugu State plans to offer free perinatal services at the primary health care (PHC) centers in order to improve perinatal outcomes in the state, but it was not clear whether there are skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at the PHC level to implement the program. Aims: To determine whether there are sufficient numbers of SBAs in the public PHC system in Enugu State of Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved enumeration of health workers who worked at each public PHC facility in Enugu State and included verification of the qualifications and trainings of each health worker. Data analysis was performed with the help of Stata statistical package version 13 and results were presented in tables and as simple proportions. Results: There were 55 nurses and no midwife or doctor in the 152 PHC clinics studied. This number represents 0.36 nurses per health facility or about 9% (i.e., 55/608) of a minimum of 608 SBAs required for 24-h perinatal services at the 152 PHC clinics. There were 1233 junior community health extension worker/community health extension workers (JCHEW/CHEWs), averaging 8.1 JCHEW/CHEWs per PHC clinic. Conclusions: Enugu State has an acute shortage of SBAs. We recommend employment of qualified SBAs and in-service training of the JCHEW/CHEW and nurses to upgrade their midwifery skills. Incorporation of competency-based midwifery training into the pre-service training curricula of nurses and JCHEW/CHEW would provide a more sustainable supply of SBAs in Enugu state. PMID:25745571

  10. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G.; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. Methods. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. Results. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. Conclusions. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. PMID:26908755

  11. Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged ≤ 5 years--Zamfara State, Nigeria, June-July 2012.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean

    2014-04-18

    Since 2010, Nigerian state and federal governments and the international community have been responding to an outbreak of lead poisoning caused by the processing of lead-containing gold ore in Zamfara State, Nigeria, that resulted in the deaths of approximately 400 children aged ≤ 5 years. Widespread education, surveys of high-risk villages, testing of blood lead levels (BLLs), medical treatment, and environmental cleanup all have been implemented. To evaluate the success of these remediation efforts in reducing the prevalence of lead poisoning and dangerous work practices, a population-based assessment of children's BLLs and ore processing techniques was conducted during June-July 2012. The assessment found few children in need of medical treatment, significantly lower BLLs, and substantially less exposure of children to dangerous work practices. Public health strategies designed to identify and treat children with lead poisoning, clean up existing environmental hazards, and prevent children from being exposed to dangerous ore processing techniques can produce a sustained reduction in BLLs. PMID:24739340

  12. Mass immunization with inactivated polio vaccine in conflict zones - Experience from Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    M Shuaibu, Faisal; Birukila, Gerida; Usman, Samuel; Mohammed, Ado; Galway, Michael; Corkum, Melissa; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Mahoney, Frank; Wa Nganda, Gatei; Vertefeuille, John; Chavez, Anna; Meleh, Sule; Banda, Richard; Some, Almai; Mshelia, Hyelni; Umar, Al-Umra; Enemaku, Ogu; Etsano, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    The use of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization to replace Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is crucial in eradicating polio. In June 2014, Nigeria launched an IPV campaign in the conflict-affected states of Borno and Yobe, the largest ever implemented in Africa. We present the initiatives and lessons learned. The 8-day event involved two parallel campaigns. OPV target age was 0-59 months, while IPV targeted all children aged 14 weeks to 59 months. The Borno state primary health care agency set up temporary health camps for the exercise and treated minor ailments for all. The target population for the OPV campaign was 685 674 children in Borno and 113 774 in Yobe. The IPV target population for Borno was 608 964 and for Yobe 111 570. OPV coverage was 105.1 per cent for Borno and 103.3 per cent for Yobe. IPV coverage was 102.9 per cent for Borno and 99.1 per cent for Yobe. (Where we describe coverage as greater than 100 per cent, this reflects original underestimates of the target populations.) A successful campaign and IPV immunization is viable in conflict areas. PMID:26538455

  13. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Bayelsa state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Ismail A.; Momo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: A high level of adherence is required to achieve the desired outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. There is paucity of information about adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy in Bayelsa State of southern Nigeria. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy among the patients, evaluate the improvement in their immune status and identify reasons for sub-optimal adherence to therapy. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved administration of an adapted and pretested questionnaire to 601 consented patients attending the two tertiary health institutions in Bayesla State, Nigeria: The Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri. The tool was divided into various sections such as socio-demographic data, HIV knowledge and adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy. Information on the patient’s CD4+ T cells count was retrieved from their medical records. Adherence was assessed by asking patients to recall their intake of prescribed doses in the last fourteen days and subjects who had 95-100% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs were considered adherent. Results: Three hundred and forty eight (57.9%) of the subjects were females and 253 (42.1%) were males. The majority of them, 557 (92.7%) have good knowledge of HIV and combined anti-retroviral therapy with a score of 70.0% and above. A larger proportion of the respondents, 441 (73.4%), had ≥95% adherence. Some of the most important reasons giving for missing doses include, “simply forgot” 147 (24.5%), and “wanted to avoid the side-effects of drugs” 33(5.5%). There were remarkable improvements in the immune status of the subjects with an increment in the proportion of the subjects with CD4+ T cells count of greater than 350 cells/mm3 from 33 (5.5%) at therapy initiation to 338 (56.3%) at study period (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The adherence level of 73.4% was low which calls for intervention and improvement. The combined antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the immune status of the majority of patients which must be sustained. “Simply forgot” was the most important reason for missing doses. PMID:27011771

  14. Knowledge of Childhood Autism and Challenges of Management among Medical Doctors in Kaduna State, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eseigbe, E. E.; Nuhu, F. T.; Sheikh, T. L.; Eseigbe, P.; Sanni, K. A.; Olisah, V. O.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with serious implications in childhood. There is a significant gap in the identification and provision of health and social services for autism in Africa. The knowledge of autism among health care providers and identifying challenges associated with its management could facilitate bridging the gap and ensuring better outcomes. A self-administered tool, the Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW) questionnaire, was used in assessing knowledge of autism among 175 medical doctors (participants) attending an annual scientific meeting in northwest Nigeria. Other parameters assessed were sociodemographic and professional characteristics of the participants and challenges encountered in the management of autism. Out of 175 questionnaires distributed, 167 (95.4%) were returned. Good knowledge (KCAHW score ≥15) was significantly associated with being a paediatrician or psychiatrist and practicing in a tertiary health facility (P < 0.05), while poor knowledge (KCAHW score <15) was significant among general practitioners (P < 0.05). The highest knowledge gap was associated with onset of autism and its comorbidities (KCAHW Domain 4) while the least was concerning communication impairments (KCAHW Domain 2). Major challenges encountered in autism management were dearth of specialist services, cost of evaluation, and poor caregiver perspectives of autism. PMID:25878900

  15. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media. PMID:18573755

  16. Explanatory models and help-seeking behaviour of leprosy patients in Adamawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    van de Weg, N; Post, E B; Lucassen, R; De Jong, J T; Van Den Broek, J

    1998-12-01

    In northern Nigeria 60 leprosy patients, 49 outpatients and 11 in-patients, were interviewed about their help-seeking behaviour and explanatory models before their first contact with the leprosy services. Most patients showed a delay of more than 1 year. After leprosy was provisionally diagnosed by lay persons, 27% of patients found their way to the leprosy services within 3 months. Chemists (popular sector) and the professional sector frequently missed the diagnosis. If early case finding is to be improved, it is important to involve them in case finding activities and to train them in adequate diagnostic skills. No significant correlations were found between total delay and sex, age, religion or leprosy classification, except with visible deformity at the time of the interview and illiteracy. Consultation of folk healers was the major reason for delay. Most patients consulted folk healers, who, although they claimed to have a positive attitude towards modern medicine in the case of leprosy, never referred patients to the leprosy services. While many patients held a variety of causes responsible for leprosy, most patients explained the disease in traditional terms (58%), while only a minority used modern concepts (20%). This emphasizes the need for continuous attention for health education of diagnosed patients and their families. No significant difference was found between male and female patients concerning their concept of leprosy. Denial of the leprosy diagnosis was rare. PMID:9927811

  17. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  18. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws. PMID:25883686

  19. Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

  20. Coping Strategies for Living in Student Residential Facilities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amole, Dolapo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines coping strategies used by students in high-density living. It uses the questionnaire survey method in 20 university halls-of-residence in southwestern Nigeria. The study focused on students' cognitive responses to the bedroom, the coping strategies that they used, gender differences in coping styles, and the influence of…

  1. Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriot, Karen; And Others

    This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

  2. Aging Field Collected Aedes aegypti to Determine Their Capacity for Dengue Transmission in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Teresa K.; Jeffrey Gutierrez, Eileen H.; Ernst, Kacey; Walker, Kathleen R.; Carriere, Yves; Torabi, Mohammad; Riehle, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus, is well established throughout urban areas of the Southwestern US, including Tucson, AZ. Local transmission of the dengue virus, however, has not been reported in this area. Although many factors influence the distribution of the dengue virus, we hypothesize that one contributing factor is that the lifespan of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the Southwestern US is too short for the virus to complete development and be transmitted to a new host. To test this we utilized two age grading techniques. First, we determined parity by analyzing ovarian tracheation and found that only 40% of Ae. aegypti females collected in Tucson, AZ were parous. The second technique determined transcript levels of an age-associated gene, Sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein 1 (SCP-1). SCP-1 expression decreased in a predictable manner as the age of mosquitoes increased regardless of rearing conditions and reproductive status. We developed statistical models based on parity and SCP-1 expression to determine the age of individual, field collected mosquitoes within three age brackets: nonvectors (0–5 days post-emergence), unlikely vectors (6–14 days post-emergence), and potential vectors (15+ days post-emergence). The statistical models allowed us to accurately group individual wild mosquitoes into the three age brackets with high confidence. SCP-1 expression levels of individual, field collected mosquitoes were analyzed in conjunction with parity status. Based on SCP-1 transcript levels and parity data, 9% of collected mosquitoes survived more than 15 days post emergence. PMID:23077536

  3. Evaluation of quality of TB control services by private health care providers in Plateau state, Nigeria; 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Luka Mangveep; Oleribe, Obinna O; Nguku, Patrick; Tongwong, Gabriel Chukwak; Mato, Lakda Gonen; Longkyer, Musa Istifanus; Ogiri, Samuel; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is public health concern in Nigeria. The country uses the Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) strategy for its control. Plateau state started using the DOTS strategy in 2001 and had the Private health facilities (PHF) as an important stakeholder. We evaluated their contributions to case finding and quality of the services to identify gaps in monitoring and evaluation in the TB control services within the PHF to plan for intervention so as to meet the set target for TB control in the state. Methods We used the logical framework approach to identify and analyze the problem. We drew up an objective tree and from the objective tree developed a logical framework matrix including evaluation plan. We also conducted desk review to extract data on case findings, case management and outcomes of the treatment. We interviewed TB focal persons and laboratory personnel using structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using excel spread sheet. Results Of the 127 health facilities with TB patients on treatment 27 (21.3%) were PHF. The PHF reported 54.6% (1494) of TB cases in 2011. The sputum conversion rates, cured rate, treatment success rate, and default rates were 85%, 73%, 81.4% and 6.6% respectively. The discordant rates were 3.1% and 1.2% for the state and private health facilities respectively. Conclusion Log frame approach is a useful tool for evaluation of TB control services and helps provide evidence for decision making to improve quality of the TB services in the public and private health facilities in the state. PMID:24711883

  4. Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Ogochukwu; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ajuba, Miriam; Okonkwo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient’s perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions. Methods Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents’ knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis. Results Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57%) had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04) but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82). The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10) made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1) (US$20) and the third SES quintiles (Q3) (US$21). The average monthly productivity loss among caregivers was US$3.5. Conclusion Onchocerciasis still constitutes considerable economic burden on patients due to the high cost of treatment and productivity loss. Prioritizing domestic resource allocation for the treatment of onchocerciasis is important for significant and sustained reduction in the burden of the disease. In addition, focused health promotion interventions such as health education campaigns should be scaled up in onchocerciasis-endemic communities. PMID:26618633

  5. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  6. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  7. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyanju, Gladys Taiwo; Ishola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli are the two most important food-borne pathogens of public health interest incriminated in poultry meat worldwide. This study is to access their levels in frozen poultry meat obtained in Ibadan, Oyo State and compare those obtained from a commercial Nigerian-registered poultry company having a broiler-processing plant, Sayed Farms Ltd(R), with that obtained from retail stores. These retail stores source their products as illegal imports from neighboring Benin Republic or Togo because of a ban imposed by Government policy in Nigeria since July 2002 (USDA, GAIN report #NI2025:1-6, 2002). Microbiological Standards and Guidelines by USDA (National Agricultural library) (USDA 2011) and NCCLS guidelines (from Global Salm-Surv, 2003) were used during the research work. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Review Board (ERRB, Research Management Office 2011), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty-two (152) frozen poultry meat samples comprising ninety-nine retail poultry (53 chicken and 46 turkey) and 53 chicken from the processing plant were accessed. ISO Standards catalogue 07.100.30 (2011) was used in accessing the levels of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Aerobic plate count. ISO 6579: 2002 was used for Salmonella isolation and ISO-16654:2001 for Escherichia coli isolation. There was a higher level of Aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts in frozen retail poultry meat than from the processing plant. Salmonella contamination from the ninety-nine poultry samples (53 chicken and 46 turkey) obtained from retail markets was at 33% [chicken 32.1% (17/53) and turkey 34.8% (16/46)] while Escherichia coli at 43.4% [chicken 47.2% (25/53) and turkey 39.1% (18/46)]. From the processing plant, twelve (12) Salmonella isolates were obtained and prevalence rate calculated as 22.6% while three (3) Escherichia coli isolates at 5.7% was obtained. Antibiotic sensitivity for isolates using eight different Gram-negative antibiotics showed different resistance patterns. Nitrofurantion and augmentin showed a decrease in their sensitivity to isolates than they normally should. Salmonella enterica spp. showed 93% resistance to tetracycline and 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin, while Escherichia coli showed 100% resistance to augmentin and amoxicillin. PMID:25674440

  8. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Results Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001.Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Conclusion Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was conducted in selected schools. PMID:26740852

  9. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Okolocha, E. C.; Gamawa, A. A.; Babashani, M.; Bakari, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s) of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM), as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%), followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30%) while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2) of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10), then the lungs 29.23% (19/65); while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2), followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8), and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65). The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28) tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%), followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7%) and then Misau with 13 (10.8%). By the ZN staining technique, there were 25 (33.33%) positivity in Bauchi Zonal abattoir, while Katagum and Misau abattoirs had 9 (28.13%) and 1 (7.72%) positive respectively. By the PCR technique, 9 (12.00%), 1 (3.13%) and 0 (0.00%) positive cases were recorded for Bauchi, Katagum and Misau abattoirs respectively. Conclusion: The present study estimated the prevalence rate of bTB in Bauchi State, using PM, ZN and PCR techniques at 15.0%, 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Bovine TB lesions found at PM were not all due to M. bovis alone, as other MTBC and AFB organisms may cause bTB-like lesions that were excluded by PCR specific primers. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi abattoir that supplies larger population of the state with beef. These findings also demonstrate the urgent need for public health authorities in the state to intervene in the control of the zoonotic bTB. PMID:27047110

  10. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

  11. Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Ajala, Adeolu E.; Ibuot, Johnson C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents result of 30 vertical electrical soundings carried out in Makurdi, Benue state capital, north-central Nigeria to evaluate aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity of overburden units in the study area. This was done using the Schlumberger electrode array to obtain the data and was modelled using computer iteration (Winresist software). The field data gives a resolution with 3-4 geoelectric layers and the observed frequencies in curve types include: 30% of KQ, 16.67% of QH, 6.67% of AA and K, 3.33% of HA, Q and A, 10% of H, KH and HK. Using the longitudinal unit conductance (S), the protective capacities of the study area were classified as 36.67% weak, 10% poor, 40% moderate, and 13.33% as good. The corrosivity ratings of the study area show that 10% is strongly corrosive, 23% moderately corrosive, 37% slightly corrosive, and 30% noncorrosive The results reasonably provide information on areas where industries can be sited and iron pipes can be laid in order to safeguard the hydrological setting for resident's safety in the study area. Regions with moderate/good protective capacity are good sites for locating boreholes.

  12. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  13. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20-24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  14. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397

  16. Strategy for Cost Recovery in the Rural Water Sector: A Case Study of Nsukka District, Anambra State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittington, Dale; Okorafor, Apia; Okore, Augustine; McPhail, Alexander

    1990-09-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 395 households in three rural communities in the Nsukka district of Anambra State, Nigeria, concerning their household water use practices, water expenditures to vendors, willingness to pay for improved water supplies, and household socioeconomic characteristics. Households in Nsukka district do not want to pay for water in advance or commit themselves to a fixed monthly payment for water. They want the freedom to buy water only when they use it, partly due to the seasonal nature of water use and partly because they want control over their cash flow in order to meet other more immediately pressing needs. Equally important, they do not trust government to provide a reliable public water supply. They do not want to pay in advance for a service they are not sure they will ever get. If they are required to pay a fixed fee every month, households are willing to pay only relatively small amounts for improved services, even less than they are currently paying water vendors. Current arrangements for cost recovery, fixed monthly fees for both public taps and unmetered private connections, are inappropriate. Kiosk systems, or kiosk systems with metered private connections for some households, are the most promising way to improve cost recovery and meet consumers' cash flow needs.

  17. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

  18. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

  19. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control. PMID:26918306

  20. Coupled ocean-atmosphere model system for studies of interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin and precipitation over the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ultimate objective of this research project is to make understanding and predicting regional climate easier. The long-term goals of this project are (1) to construct a coupled ocean-atmosphere model (COAM) system, (2) use it to explore the interannual-to-decadal climate variability over the North Pacific Basin, and (3) determine climate effects on the precipitation over the Southwestern United States. During this project life, three major tasks were completed: (1) Mesoscale ocean and atmospheric model; (2) global-coupled ocean and atmospheric modeling: completed the coupling of LANL POP global ocean model with NCAR CCM2+ global atmospheric model; and (3) global nested-grid ocean modeling: designed the boundary interface for the nested-grid ocean models.

  1. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

  2. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality and is required for remediating salinity problems.

  3. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hepatitis e virus infection in plateau state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6-35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9-26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3-54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  5. Epidemiology and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Junaid, Surajudeen A; Agina, Samuel E; Abubakar, Khadijah A

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study in Nigeria was undertaken to determine the epidemiology, seroprevalence, and associated risk factors, of hepatitis E virus (HEV). A total of 462 subjects were used for the study, categorized into four groups: apparently healthy persons, pregnant women, HIV positive subjects, and animal handlers. Information was obtained from subjects using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for HEV antibodies (IgG and IgM) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Results obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 statistical software. The overall seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was 42.7 and 0.9%, respectively. Animal handlers had the highest seroprevalence (66.7%). The associated risk factors for IgM seroprevalence were rural dwelling (P = 0.039, odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–15.4), blood transfusion (P < 0.001, OR 9.6, 95% CI 2.6–35.6), attending to animals (P = 0.032, OR 4.9, 95% CI 0.9–26.6), and waste disposal (P < 0.001). Factors associated with IgG were age (P = 0.044), location (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), formal education (P < 0.001), farming as occupation (P < 0.001), rural dwelling (P = 0.001), waste disposal (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P = 0.001, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4–4.0), open defecation (P < 0.001, OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.7), attending to animals (P < 0.001, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.4), consuming unwashed fruits/vegetables (P < 0.001, OR 4.2, 95% CI 0.3–54.1), and stream/river as a source of drinking water (P < 0.001, OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6–7.8). Preventive public health measures should be reinforced among all communities, particularly domestic animal handlers and pregnant women. Potable water should be provided for all communities. Data suggest that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem, warranting further attention and research. PMID:25512696

  6. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

    2006-01-01

    Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

  7. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood anemia in both states, low baseline coverage of IRS and LLINs, and sub-optimal net use—especially among age groups with highest observed malaria burden. PMID:24669881

  8. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  9. Knowledge and acceptance of sex education at Agbo-Oba, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebomoyi, E; Elimian, A A

    1985-09-01

    Data on knowledge about and attitudes toward sex education was collected from 178 females and 224 males, 15 years of age or older, who resided in a random sample of 243 households in Agbo-Oba, an urban center located in the Ilorin area of Kwara, Nigeria. Nigerian youth are rarely exposed to sex education in the schools; yet, they are increasingly exposed to the portrayal of irresponsible sex and pornography in imported films, books, and magazines. The present study assessed the need for sex education in Nigerian society and examined public attitudes toward sex education. Percent distributions were used to analyze the material. 63.4% of the male respondents and 70.2% of the female respondents had some knowledge of sex education. The proportion of those with knowledge of sex education increased with educational level. In all age groups, at least 60% of the respondents knew about sex education. Respondents' sources of sex education included parents (24.6%), friends (36.8%), school teachers (18.4%), books and magazines (64.7%), health personnel (6%), and churches (1.5%). Respondent knowledge of specific components of sex education was limited. For example, only 55.45 recognized contraception as a component of sex education, and only 37.1% considered the dissemination of information on sexually transmitted diseases to be a part of sex education. Only 9.2% of the respondents were satisfied with their current level of sexual knowledge. 95.3% knew about gonorrhea, and 47.8% knew about syphilis, but only 12.2% knew about herpes, and only 7.7% knew about chancroid. 65.1% of the Moslems and 78.4% of the Christian respondents, or 74.1% of all the respondents, agreed that there was a need for sex education in Nigerian society. The proportion who agreed increased with educational level. Among those who were receptive to sex education, 88.3% said it should be taught by health personnel; 59.7%, by parents; 42.3%, by school teachers; 11.4%, by religious institutions; and 9.7%, by peers. 68.7% thought that schools were the most appropriate setting for imparting sex education. 60% of the respondents knew about oral contraceptives and condoms, but only 40% knew about other methods. 67.7% of the respondents were currently practicing contraception. 67.7% of the respondents believed that the recent influx of pornography into the country was corrupting the morals of the young. 56.3% were in favor of a government ban on the importation of these materials. Overall, the findings indicate that there is a need for sex education and that the majority of the respondents are in favor of introducing sex education into Nigerian society. In view of these findings, a national task force should be appointed to develop sex education training programs, to support and coordinate needed research, and to develop educational materials and experimental sex education courses. PMID:4043975

  10. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of skin diseases in Benin City, South-South Nigeria seems to follow a similar pattern observed in other Geo-political zones in Nigeria. The eczematous dermatitis took the lead and the impact of HIV-related skin diseases were vividly noticed to be on the increase. Connective tissue disorder and cutaneous malignancies were low in their occurrences. Our findings showed no major differences in the pattern of skin diseases when compared with other zones of Nigeria. Allergic skin diseases were observed to be on the increase in all the geo-political zones; possibly due to increase in urbanization and its attending socio-economic burden. PMID:22980241

  11. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onanuga, Adebola; Selekere, Tamaradobra Laurretta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria frequently occurs among all ages with the possibility of developing into urinary tract infections, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the etiologic organisms are essential for appropriate therapy. Thus, we investigated the virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common urinary bacteria in asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Clean catch mid-stream early morning urine samples collected from 200 asymptomatic University students of aged ranges 15–30 years were cultured, screened and common bacteria were identified using standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were screened for hemolysin production and their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using standard disc assay method. Results: A total prevalence rate of 52.0% significant bacteriuria was detected and it was significantly higher among the female with a weak association (χ2 = 6.01, phi = 0.173, P = 0.014). The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were most frequently encountered among the isolated bacteria and 18 (12.7%) of all the bacterial isolates produced hemolysins. All the bacterial isolates exhibited 50–100% resistance to the tested beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. The isolated bacteria were 85-100% multi-drug resistant. However, most of the isolates were generally susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was 9 (9.6%) among the tested Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The observed high proportions of multidrug resistant urinary bacteria among asymptomatic University students call for the need of greater control of antibiotic use in this study area. PMID:26957865

  12. Gender differences among oral health care workers in caring for HIV/AIDS patients in Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedigba, M A; Ogunbodede, E O; Fajewonyomi, B A; Ojo, O O; Naidoo, S

    2005-09-01

    The study investigated the relationship between gender and knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control among oral health care workers in the management of patients with HIV/AIDS in Osun State of Nigeria. It was a cross-sectional survey using 85 oral Health care workers (OHCWs) enlisted in the public dental health clinics. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. A total of 85 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 93%; 42 (53%) were males and 37 (47%) females. The majority of the respondents were in the 25-40 year old age group and the mean age was 37.3 years. This study found significant differences in gender and ability to identify HIV/AIDS oral manifestations (p<0.001) and recognition of HIV/AIDS risk factors (p<0.001). There was statistically significant gender difference and infection control practices (p=0.02) among the OHCWs. Males were more compliant to the universal cross-infection control principle than the female respondents. A significant association (p< 0.001) was found between OHCW gender and their attitude to the management of HIV/AIDS patients with males showing a better attitude towards the care of HIV/AIDS patients. This study shows that there are significant gender difference in attitudes, behaviour and practices of OHCW with males faring better than the females. National AIDS Control Programme, Health Control bodies, Health educators and other organizations should make efforts to improve the attitude and practice of oral health care workers regarding the management of patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:16245987

  13. A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

    2011-01-01

    A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats. PMID:20734135

  14. Asynchronous east-west climate changes over the southwestern United States driven by competing moisture sources during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Wicks, T.; Jimmie, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    During the last deglaciation, the climate of the southwestern US changed dramatically, reflecting large-scale shifts in atmospheric circulation that were driven largely by changing temperature and ice cover in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. While a great deal has been learned about the nature of these changes in the desert southwest from speleothem, lake sediment and other proxy climate records, much less is known about deglacial changes in atmospheric circulation to the east, where continuous high-resolution proxy records are rare. Here we present a new record of changing vegetation and atmospheric moisture in central Texas from the ?13C of bulk organic matter and the ?D of plant waxes preserved in the sediments of Hall's Cave. The record shows that Northern Hemisphere cold intervals were characterized by dry conditions, with a decreased proportion of winter grasses, trees and shrubs, whereas during warm intervals conditions were wetter and the proportion of C3 plants increased. These changes are opposite of those recorded elsewhere in the arid southwest, and particularly at sites in Arizona and New Mexico where the glacial was wet and the Blling-Allerd was exceptionally dry. ?Dwax variations suggest that these east-west differences in deglacial climate change reflect differences in the relative importance of westerly storm tracks and the low level jet (LLJ) for delivering moisture to these areas. Terminal Pleistocene drought during the Blling-Allerd appears to have been restricted to the desert southwest, while sites in Texas and the Great Plains became wetter. The asynchronous nature of these changes is seemingly at odds with a climatic origin for the late Pleistocene extinction of North American land mammals.

  15. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  16. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  17. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  18. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

  19. Relationship between the Curriculum and Attributes of Nigerian Faculty of Education Graduates towards Teaching in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayode, David Jimoh; Yusoff, Nurahimah BtMohd; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    University education in Nigeria has been recognized for its role in pertinent workforce training for the benefit of learners and the community. However, the role of university education in stimulating national economic growth and transformation exacerbates the need to ensure quality within the universities system. The quality and focus of the…

  20. The Utilisation of Skilled Artisans as Vocational Instructors in Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whawo, D. Duwovwiji

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the feasibility of hiring skilled craftspeople to teach practical workshop skills in secondary-level prevocational courses in Nigeria. Presents results of a survey of 200 artisans to determine their willingness to teach full- or part-time and minimum salary requirements. Indicates that 85.6% were willing to teach. Discusses…

  1. Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable organizational structure of the nomads in Enugu State and their desire for modern health intervention, it is feasible to test the CDI strategy for equitable healthcare delivery among nomads. They are willing and capable to participate actively in their own health programmes with minimal support from professional health workers. PMID:23566078

  2. Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

    2010-01-01

    This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among female prostitutes in Borno State of Nigeria: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Ola, T

    1989-11-01

    Serological investigations on female prostitutes resident in Borno State in northeastern Nigeria have shown that the seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection has increased 9.81%--fold in one year. The highest sero-prevalence rates were found amongst prostitutes who had not benefited from previous health education campaigns. Prostitution appears to be on the increase in spite of AIDS probably because of the difficulty in finding alternative means of making a living. Attempts to halt the spread of HIV infection are hampered by the fact that most prostitutes are indifferent to the use of condoms and do not appreciate the importance of protecting themselves from the risks of HIV infection. Their frequent mobility also poses a problem as it makes it difficult for them to benefit from health education campaigns. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection among female prostitutes in Borno State (as indeed in other States in Nigeria) is likely to rise sharply in the next few years unless serious efforts are made to intensify health education campaigns targeted at the high risk groups. PMID:2606018

  4. Contaminants from cretaceous black shale Part 2: Effect of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on salinity and selenium cycling, Mancos Shale landscapes, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) is a known nonpoint source for a significant portion of the salinity and selenium (Se) loads in the Colorado River in the southwestern United States and northwestern corner of Mexico. These two contaminants pose a serious threat to rivers in these arid regions where water supplies are especially critical. Tuttle et al. (companion paper) investigates the cycling of contaminants in a Colorado River tributary watershed (Uncompahgre River, southwestern Colorado) where the MS weathers under natural conditions. This paper builds on those results and uses regional soil data in the same watershed to investigate the impact of MS geology, weathering intensity, land use, and climate on salt and Se storage in and flux from soils on the natural landscape, irrigated agriculture fields, areas undergoing urban development, and wetlands. The size of salinity and Se reservoirs in the MS soils is quantified. Flux calculations show that during modern weathering, natural landscapes cycle salt and Se; however, little of it is released for transport to the Uncompahgre River (10% of the annual salinity and 6% of the annual Se river loads). When irrigated, salinity and Se loads from the MS soil increase (26% and 57% of the river load, respectively), causing the river to be out of compliance with Federal and State Se standards. During 100 years of irrigation, seven times more Se has been removed from agricultural soil than what was lost from natural landscapes during the entire period of pedogenesis. Under more arid conditions, even less salt and Se are expected to be transported from the natural landscape. However, if wetter climates prevail, transport could increase dramatically due to storage of soluble phases in the non-irrigated soil. These results are critical input for water-resource and land-use managers who must decide whether or not the salinity and Se in a watershed can be managed, what sustainable mitigation strategies are possible, and what landscapes should be targeted. The broader implications include providing a reliable approach for quantifying nonpoint-source contamination from MS and other rock units elsewhere that weather under similar conditions and, together with results from our companion paper, address the complex interplay of geology, weathering, climate, and land use on contaminant cycling in the arid Southwest.

  5. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The…

  6. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  7. Attitude towards Pre-Marital Genetic Screening among Students of Osun State Polytechnics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odelola, J. O.; Adisa, O.; Akintaro, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitude towards pre-marital genetic screening among students of Osun State Polytechnics. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self developed and structured questionnaire in four-point likert scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and percentages were…

  8. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in

  9. Perceived Sources of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the most prevalent sources of occupational stress and also the demographic variables of gender, age and length of service among primary school teachers in Delta State. Two research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study used a descriptive survey design. The population was the primary school teachers in…

  10. Stress among Secondary School Teachers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Suggested Interventions in the Worksite Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of stress experienced by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State. The dimensions of stress studied included physical stress, mental stress, emotional stress and social stress. The study adopted the cross-sectional survey design using a sample of 660 (male 259, female 401) teachers randomly drawn…

  11. School Environment and Satisfaction with Schooling among Primary School Pupils in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Stephen Ileoye

    2015-01-01

    Modern school environments put emphasis on adequate and qualitative facilities to promote conducive teaching and learning environments, the deplorable conditions of the primary schools has become worrisome to the state government and education stakeholders. The study investigated the school environment and pupils' satisfaction with schooling in…

  12. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

  13. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were

  14. School Types, Facilities and Academic Performance of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used…

  15. Factors associated with sexual abstinence among out-of-school females in a transitional town in Oyo State, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O

    2013-10-01

    One hundred and forty-three respondents participated in this cross-sectional study and 42 (29.4%) of them had never had sex. About 92% engaged in at least one leisure activity. Factors significantly associated with abstinence follow: living arrangement, type of occupation, mode of earning, self-esteem, alcohol use, and some leisure activities (p < .05). Factors predictive of abstinence were living with parents or other relatives, earning weekly and monthly wages as opposed to daily wages, high self-esteem, and reading of novels during leisure time. Intensified efforts are necessary to enhance the identified protective factors in order to promote abstinence among out-of-school females. PMID:23638653

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peer Education in Improving HIV Knowledge, Attitude, and Sexual Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212

  17. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  18. Benefits of using magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for eclampsia management and maternal mortality reduction: lessons from Kano State in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite clear emphasis through the Millennium Development Goals, the problem of high maternal mortality persists especially within low and middle income countries. Various studies report remarkably high maternal mortality rates in northern Nigeria, where maternal mortality rates exceed 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births and eclampsia contributes approximately 40% of maternal deaths. Across Nigeria, diazepam is routinely used for the management of eclampsia. Prior to February 2008, diazepam was widely used for the management of eclampsia in Kano State (within northern Nigeria) with case fatality rate being over 20%. While magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is recognized as the most effective drug for the management of eclampsia; this study aims to compare MgSO4 therapy with diazepam therapy in terms of case fatality rates and costs. Findings This retrospective study, including 1045 patients with eclampsia and pre-eclampsia during the years 2008 and 2009, reports a drop in case fatality rates from 20.9% (95% CI: 18.7, 23.2) to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4, 3.2) among eclampsia patients following the MgSO4 intervention. The study observed no significant difference in the cost of using MgSO4 therapy compared to diazepam therapy. Conclusions The study found a remarkable reduction in case fatality rate due to eclampsia in those who received MgSO4 therapy with minimal increase in costs when compared to diazepam therapy. Concerted efforts should be focused on properly introducing MgSO4 into emergency obstetric protocols especially within developing countries to reduce maternal mortality and also impact on health system performance. PMID:22873658

  19. Measurements of NO(x) over the eastern Pacific Ocean and southwestern United States during the spring 1984 NASA GTE aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, B. A.; Carroll, M. A.; Dunlap, D. D.; Trainer, M.; Sachse, G. W.; Gregory, G. L.; Condon, E. P.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of NO, NO(x) (NO + NO2), O3, and CO are presented from seven aircraft flights made over the eastern Pacific Ocean and the southwestern United States in spring of 1984. The sampling region was characterized by large- and small-scale variability for all of the measurements, likely as a result of vigorous synoptic scale meteorology and the influence of tropopause folds. Median values for NO, NO(x), O3, and CO from the flights made over the ocean in the region of 5.8-7.6 km were 10 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), 32 pptv, 46 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), and 120 ppbv, respectively. Corresponding values from two flights made over the continent at similar altitudes were 16 pptv, 38 pptv, 42 ppbv, and 111 ppbv. There was a strong tendency for NO or NO(x) to be correlated positively with O3 and to be anticorrelated with dew-point/frost-point measurements. No significant overall correlation occurred between NO(x) and CO for the ocean data. The variability of NO(x) was such that regions of net destruction and regions of net production of O(3) were sampled both over the ocean and over the continent. However, in the middle free troposphere over the ocean, net O(3) destruction was predominant.

  20. Estimating recharge distribution by incorporating runoff from mountainous areas in an alluvial basin in the Great Basin region of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Stone, D B; Moomaw, C L; Davis, A

    2001-01-01

    A method is described to estimate the distribution of ground water recharge within hydrographic basins in the Great Basin region of the southwestern United States on the basis of estimated runoff from high mountainous areas and subsequent infiltration in alluvial fans surrounding the intermontane basins. The procedure involves a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, empirical surface-runoff modeling, and water-balance calculations. The method addresses the need to develop and incorporate constraints on the distribution of recharge in regional-scale ground water flow modeling of arid and semiarid environments. The conceptual approach and methodology were developed for Crescent Valley, Nevada. However, the concept and method are generally applicable to any region where excess precipitation in upland areas is conveyed to lower elevations before it infiltrates to recharge the ground water system. Application of the procedure to a ground water flow model of Crescent Valley appears both qualitatively and quantitatively to result in a more accurate representation of actual recharge conditions than might otherwise have been prescribed. PMID:11708447

  1. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Owners to Canine Rabies in Wukari Metropolis, Taraba State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using χ2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89%) had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13%) knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5%) were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86%) did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44) than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50%) received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies. PMID:25168987

  2. Maternal and child under-nutrition in rural and urban communities of Lagos state, Nigeria: the relationship and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001) and (43.3% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001) respectively. In rural communities, the risk of stunted mothers having children with stunting was about 7 times higher than those who were not (OR 6.7, 95% CI = 1.4-32.0, p = 0.007). In urban communities, undernourished mothers have about 11 and 12 times risk of having children with underweight and wasting respectively (OR 11.2, 95% CI = 1.4-86.5, p = 0.005) and (OR 12.3, 95% CI = 1.6-95.7, p = 0.003) respectively. The identified risk factors for maternal and child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121

  3. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons. PMID:25763387

  4. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

  6. Prevalence and Type of BRCA Mutations in Hispanics Undergoing Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment in the Southwestern United States: A Report From the Clinical Cancer Genetics Community Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Clague, Jessica; Martir-Negron, Arelis; Ogaz, Raquel; Herzog, Josef; Ricker, Charité; Jungbluth, Chelsy; Cina, Cheryl; Duncan, Paul; Unzeitig, Gary; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Beattie, Mary; Feldman, Nancy; Sand, Sharon; Port, Danielle; Barragan, Deborah I.; John, Esther M.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Larson, Garrett P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and type of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations among Hispanics in the Southwestern United States and their potential impact on genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA). Patients and Methods Hispanics (n = 746) with a personal or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board–approved registry and received GCRA and BRCA testing within a consortium of 14 clinics. Population-based Hispanic breast cancer cases (n = 492) enrolled in the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry, negative by sequencing for BRCA mutations, were analyzed for the presence of the BRCA1 ex9-12del large rearrangement. Results Deleterious BRCA mutations were detected in 189 (25%) of 746 familial clinic patients (124 BRCA1, 65 BRCA2); 21 (11%) of 189 were large rearrangement mutations, of which 62% (13 of 21) were BRCA1 ex9-12del. Nine recurrent mutations accounted for 53% of the total. Among these, BRCA1 ex9-12del seems to be a Mexican founder mutation and represents 10% to 12% of all BRCA1 mutations in clinic- and population-based cohorts in the United States. Conclusion BRCA mutations were prevalent in the largest study of Hispanic breast and/or ovarian cancer families in the United States to date, and a significant proportion were large rearrangement mutations. The high frequency of large rearrangement mutations warrants screening in every case. We document the first Mexican founder mutation (BRCA1 ex9-12del), which, along with other recurrent mutations, suggests the potential for a cost-effective panel approach to ancestry-informed GCRA. PMID:23233716

  7. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Adie, Hilary; Igbang, Thomas; Otu, Akaninyene; Braide, Ekanem; Okon, Okpok; Ikpi, Edet; Joseph, Charles; Desousa, Alexander; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In preparation for implementation of primary healthcare (PHC) services in Cross River State, a study to identify perceptions of communities and health systems concerning such interventions was conducted. Methods Existing PHC practices were documented through observation and document reviews, including facility checklists at frontline levels. Perceptions of consumers and providers on PHC were elucidated through 32 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 78 semi-structured questionnaires. Results There was some level of implementation of the Nigerian PHC policy in the study districts. However, this policy emphasized curative instead of preventive services. Private partners perceived healthcare programmes as largely donor driven with poor release of allocations for health by government. Conclusion Both providers and consumers presented similar perceptions on the current PHC implementation and similar perspectives on services to be prioritized. These common views together with their on-going participatory experience are important platforms for strengthening community participation in the delivery of PHC. PMID:25237418

  8. Relationship between anthropometric and haematological parameters among third trimester pregnant women in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamaiyi, A J; Adelaiye, A B; Igbokwe, V U

    2013-01-01

    The pregnancy state in a woman's life is a unique state in terms of the desirable physiological changes and the exciting reversal of the changes soon after the termination of the pregnancy. It is considered essential that to guarantee a good feto-maternal outcome the attainment of optimum anthropometric and haematological parameters are key. Our study assessed the anthropometric and haematological changes and also looked at the relationship that exists between these parameters among pregnant women.We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study which considered 160 apparently healthy, singleton, third trimester pregnant women attending ANC at the State Specialist Hospital and 58 apparently healthy non-pregnant controls sourced from the Sokoto metropolis population. Each subject or control enrolled was contacted 3 times at 2 weekly intervals. And at each occasion they are assessed for changes in the anthropometric and haematological parameters. The response rate was 93.6% (3 pregnants and 11 controls were loss to follow up). The pregnant and control subgroups mean ages were 28.02 ± 6.81 years and 26.89 ± 5.84 years respectively (p = 0.265). Weekly weight gains of 0.48kg among the pregnant sub-group against 0.13kg obtained in the control group were recorded. BMI increase of about 0.19kg/m2 per week among the pregnant sub-group and only 0.05kg per week in the controls. 95% of the distribution of pregnant sub-group has haemoglobin and haematocrit of ≥8.9g/dL and ≥26% respectively. Among the pregnant sub-group, mean weekly haemoglobin and haematocrit drop of 0.24g/dL and 0.74% were respectively recorded. A steady rise in WBC was recorded but platelets counts dropped at an average of 5.04 x 103 /μL per week. A positive correlation between BMI and haemoglobin levels was observed (r > 0 and p < 0.05). No particular regularity in the relationship between BMI and WBC was noticed. We conclude that there was optimum weight gain and good haematological indices for those with good BMI during the third trimester of pregnancy. There was a positive correlation between BMI and plasma haemoglobin level but WBC showed no particular relationship with the anthropometric changes. We therefore, recommend that good education to improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the girl-child be encouraged to boost self sufficiency for better weight gains and to facilitate access to good healthcare so that the ideal anthropometric and haematological parameters can be achieved during pregnancy to guarantee good feto-maternal outcome. PMID:24937399

  9. 75 FR 82127 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Central Nigeria Unmasked...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Central Nigeria Unmasked: Arts of... the exhibition ``Central Nigeria Unmasked: Arts of the Benue River Valley,'' imported from abroad...

  10. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  11. Seroprevalence of Fowl Pox Antibody in Indigenous Chickens in Jos North and South Council Areas of Plateau State, Nigeria: Implication for Vector Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease. PMID:23762578

  12. Assessment of the Cotton Industry Using the Global Commodity Chain Analysis Approach in Katsina State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudi, T. M.; Akpoko, J. G.; Abdulsalam, Z.

    The study examines the cotton commodity chain and assessed the share of each actor in the cotton industry and identified the constraints encountered in cotton production, marketing and processing. A sample of thirty cotton producers, 50 traders, 500 agents and 3 ginneries were selected from Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State using both random and purposive sampling techniques. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the participants using focus group discussion and structured questionnaire during the 2004/2005 cropping season. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and budgeting technique. The farmersN budget analysis indicated that from an investment cost of N 33,146.00 ha-1, farmers obtained a revenue of N 44,544-00 ha-1, thus making a net income of N 11,398 ha-1, while the agent analysis shows that an agent is paid a commission of N 500.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchase on behalf of the merchant. The analysis of the tradersN budget revealed that from an investment cost of N 36,746.00 ton-1 of seed cotton purchased, traders` N 41,700.00 (lint + seed) and a net profit of N 4,954.00 ton h-1 of seed cotton. The analysis of the ginnery budget revealed that from one ton of seed cotton processed, a ginnery is making a net profit of N 2,178.00. These analyses indicated that cotton production, marketing and processing under the current price and cost setting is profitable. In spite of the profitability in cotton business, the following problems were identified: adulteration of seed cotton with foreign materials, heterogeneous seeds resale in the market, inappropriate packaging systems, no good prices for improving the quality and no mechanism for ensuring transparency in the quality (trust between actors). There is the need for intensification and expansion of the cotton sector in terms of provision of high quality inputs, clean seed cotton, introduction of jute bags for packaging, introduction of quality control mechanisms and good prices in order to sustain the industry.

  13. Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

    2013-03-01

    Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

  14. Perception of HIV/AIDS among the Igbo of Anambra State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muoghalu, Caroline Okumdi; Jegede, Samuel Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Perception is fundamental in the fight against stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Perception generally influences discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV which exacerbates their problems and quickens the degeneration of the disease from HIV to AIDS. This study examined the Anambra people's perception and knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the goal of creating knowledge on these issues in order to design effective intervention programmes towards the reduction of social stigmatization associated with the pandemic. The study was carried out in Idemmili North and Oyi local government areas of Anambra State. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to elicit information from respondents who were adult males and females of 18 years and above. The research instruments were questionnaires and in-depth interview schedule. Questionnaires were administered on 1000 respondents while 13 people were interviewed in-depth. Analysis of quantitative data were conducted by using the Statistical package for Social Sciences. Univariate analysis in the form of frequencies were conducted which generated the distribution of respondents across the research variables. Furthermore, multivariate analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses and sought for relationships among variables. The qualitative data were reported in themes based on the research objectives and were analysed jointly with the quantitative data. The findings were that majority of the respondents viewed HIV/AIDS as a disease that afflict immoral people and as a punishment from God. Only a handful of them saw the disease as a disease that could afflict anybody. Also, many of the respondents said that AIDS is real but showed a low level of knowledge. It was further indicated that there were significant relationships between educational level, sex, occupation, income influence perception and peoples' reactions to HIV positive status of a relative while there were no significant relationships between these variables and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. It was concluded that these negative perceptions were as a result of the people's low level of knowledge and cultural belief systems, which see a strange illness as punishment from God for disobedience. Furthermore, the fact that most of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had significant relationship with perception and reaction to HIV was an indication that most people in the study area had a uniform perception. It was also an indication that government HIV/AIDS awareness programmes were not effective. It was recommended that strategies for effective HIV educational programme should be sought and carried out in the study area. Effective intervention programme have the power to change behaviours and would likely change the people's negative perception and low level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS, thereby reducing stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23808412

  15. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability. This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The conceptual models are intended in part to provide a foundation for subsequent development of regional-scale statistical models that relate specific constituent concentrations or occurrence in groundwater to natural and human factors.

  16. The plankton food web of the Bizerte Lagoon (South-western Mediterranean): II. Carbon steady-state modelling using inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grami, Bouthena; Niquil, Nathalie; Sakka Hlaili, Asma; Gosselin, Michel; Hamel, Dominique; Hadj Mabrouk, Hassine

    2008-08-01

    A steady-state model of the planktonic food web of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia, South-western Mediterranean) was developed to characterize its structure and functioning through four stations: MA under urban discharge, MB impacted by industrial input, MJ located at proximity of shellfish farming and R in the central area of the lagoon. Carbon stocks of eight chosen compartments were determined and flows were assigned for each one from field data. Missing flow values were calculated by inverse analysis for each station. Network analysis was applied to the resulting food web models to characterize their properties. These analyses mainly showed similarity among stations concerning (1) a high primary production of phytoplankton which was dominated by >10 ?m cells (i.e. diatoms); (2) important herbivory against detritivory in stations MA and MJ; (3) major role of detritivory in stations MB and R; (4) efficiency of microbial link in transferring carbon for higher trophic level; (5) efficiency of microzooplankton as a trophic link between detritus, dissolved organic carbon, autotrophs and mesozooplankton; (6) important recycling of carbon leading to conclude about an immature state of the ecosystem. Differences between the functioning of microbial food webs in the lagoon are mainly due to the location of stations. The proximity of station MB to inland and industrial discharges affected its productivity and made it the least productive station. Water circulation into the lagoon made pollutant concentrate into the south and the western sections which seemed to affect the planktonic food web, since the values of productivity reported for stations MB and R were lower than those calculated for the others stations.

  17. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont été utilisées pour mettre en évidence certains phénomènes hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en certains points de la région étudiée. L'analyse des réseaux de linéaments et de drainage a porté sur la densité de leurs longueurs et sur leur fréquence. La densité de longueur des linéaments s'étend de 0,04 à 1,52 et la fréquence des linéaments de 0,11 à 5,09 ; la densité des longueurs de drainage est comprise entre 0,17 et 0,94, et la fréquence du drainage entre 0,16 et 1,53. Ces gammes de valeurs rendent compte des différences dans la probabilité des potentiels en eau souterraine. Ces résultats ont ensuite été utilisés pour délimiter les zones à potentiel en eau souterraine fort, moyen et faible. Les résultats de l'étude indiquent aussi qu'il existe des corrélations entre les réseau de linéaments et de drainage, la lithologie, la température de l'eau, la conductivité de l'eau, le rendement des puits, la transmissivité, la conductance longitudinale et la présence d'eau souterraine. Resumen Bajo el Estado de Cross River, Nigeria, subyace un complejo basal cristalino del Precámbrico, así como rocas de edad entre Cretácica y Terciaria. La exploración hidrogeológica en esta área requiere una técnica sistemàtica para poder alcanzar resultados óptimos, pero la falta de medios y de infraestructura ha hecho extremadamente difícil el poder realizar investigaciones previas a la perforación de los pozos, de manera que el porcentaje de fallos se eleva al 80%. Para poder delinear las áreas adecuadas para el posterior desarrollo hidrogeológico, se han usado imágenes de radar en blanco y negro y fotografías aéreas, con el objetivo de definir algunos rasgos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos en partes del área de estudio. Se analizaron los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje usando densidad y frecuencia de longitudes. La densidad de longitudes de lineamiento oscila entre 0.04-1.52 y la frecuencia entre 0.11-5.09. La densidad de longitud de drenaje oscila entre 0.17-0.94 y su frecuencia entre 0.16-1.53. Estos rangos de valores reflejan las diferencias en el grado potencial de extracción de aguas subterráneas, que se dibuja en unos mapas siguiendo la clasificación de potencial alto, medio o bajo. Los resultados del estudio indican que existen correlaciones entre los esquemas de lineamiento y drenaje, litología, temperatura y conductividad del agua, descenso en el pozo, transmisividad, conductancia longitudinal y la presencia de agua subterránea.

  18. Improving Maternal Care through a State-Wide Health Insurance Program: A Cost and Cost-Effectiveness Study in Rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Gabriela B.; Foster, Nicola; Brals, Daniella; Nelissen, Heleen E.; Bolarinwa, Oladimeji A.; Hendriks, Marleen E.; Boers, Alexander C.; van Eck, Diederik; Rosendaal, Nicole; Adenusi, Peju; Agbede, Kayode; Akande, Tanimola M.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michael; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Hankins, Catherine A.; Schultsz, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Background While the Nigerian government has made progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, further investments are needed to achieve the targets of post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, including Universal Health Coverage. Economic evaluations of innovative interventions can help inform investment decisions in resource-constrained settings. We aim to assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of maternal care provided within the new Kwara State Health Insurance program (KSHI) in rural Nigeria. Methods and Findings We used a decision analytic model to simulate a cohort of pregnant women. The primary outcome is the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the KSHI scenario compared to the current standard of care. Intervention cost from a healthcare provider perspective included service delivery costs and above-service level costs; these were evaluated in a participating hospital and using financial records from the managing organisations, respectively. Standard of care costs from a provider perspective were derived from the literature using an ingredient approach. We generated 95% credibility intervals around the primary outcome through probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) based on a Monte Carlo simulation. We conducted one-way sensitivity analyses across key model parameters and assessed the sensitivity of our results to the performance of the base case separately through a scenario analysis. Finally, we assessed the sustainability and feasibility of this program’s scale up within the State’s healthcare financing structure through a budget impact analysis. The KSHI scenario results in a health benefit to patients at a higher cost compared to the base case. The mean ICER (US$46.4/disability-adjusted life year averted) is considered very cost-effective compared to a willingness-to-pay threshold of one gross domestic product per capita (Nigeria, US$ 2012, 2,730). Our conclusion was robust to uncertainty in parameters estimates (PSA: median US$49.1, 95% credible interval 21.9–152.3), during one-way sensitivity analyses, and when cost, quality, cost and utilization parameters of the base case scenario were changed. The sustainability of this program’s scale up by the State is dependent on further investments in healthcare. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the investment made by the KSHI program in rural Nigeria is likely to have been cost-effective; however, further healthcare investments are needed for this program to be successfully expanded within Kwara State. Policy makers should consider supporting financial initiatives to reduce maternal mortality tackling both supply and demand issues in the access to care. PMID:26413788

  19. Childhood Malnutrition is Associated with Maternal Care During Pregnancy and Childbirth: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bauchi and Cross River States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Candyce; Enne, Joseph; Omer, Khalid; Ayara, Ndem; Yarima, Yahaya; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; the levels of childhood malnutrition in Nigeria are among the highest in the world. The literature supports many direct and indirect causes of malnutrition, but few studies have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study examines this potential link in Bauchi and Cross River states in Nigeria. Design and methods In 2011, a household survey collected information about children under four years old and their mothers’ last pregnancy. Trained fieldworkers measured mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of children aged 6-47 months. We examined associations with childhood malnutrition in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Some 4.4% of 3643 children in Cross River, and 14.7% of 2706 in Bauchi were malnourished (MUAC z-score). In both states, a child whose mother had fewer than four government antenatal care visits was more likely to be malnourished (Cross River: OR 1.85, 95%CIca 1.33-2.55; Bauchi: OR 1.29, 95%CIca 1.02-1.63). In Bauchi, a child whose mother who rarely or never discussed pregnancy and childbirth with her husband (OR 1.34, 95%CIca 1.07-1.68), and who did not have her last delivery attended by a skilled health worker was more likely to be malnourished (OR 1.50, 95%CIca 1.09-2.07). Conclusions These findings, if confirmed in other studies, suggest that poor care of women in pregnancy and childbirth could pose a longer term risk to the health of the child, as well as increasing immediate risks for both mother and child. Significance for public health Childhood malnutrition is a public health priority, accounting for almost 1/5 of global disease burden among children under five years old. Many studies have examined risk factors for childhood malnutrition, but few have examined the link between maternal care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition. This study, albeit a cross-sectional design, provides evidence of a link between poor care during pregnancy and childbirth and childhood malnutrition in two states of Nigeria. This is important for public health because it suggests another benefit of caring for women during pregnancy and childbirth. This could not only reduce maternal and child perinatal mortality, but also have benefits for the longer-term health and development of children. This finding could be useful for paternal advocacy; it may motivate men to support their wives during pregnancy and childbirth since through this support, fathers can also protect the future development of their children. PMID:25918695

  20. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sa'idu, A. S.; Okolocha, E. C.; Dzikwi, A. A.; Kwaga, J. K. P.; Gamawa, A. A.; Usman, A.; Maigari, S. A.; Ibrahim, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, ?2 = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, ?2 = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 35 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 35 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sa'idu, A S; Okolocha, E C; Dzikwi, A A; Kwaga, J K P; Gamawa, A A; Usman, A; Maigari, S A; Ibrahim, S

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15%) tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2%) were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3%) were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ (2) = 0.218). However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ (2) = 7.002) between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3-5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3-5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef. PMID:26464955

  2. Ground-water surface-water interactions and long-term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Riverine riparian vegetation has changed throughout the southwestern United States, prompting concern about losses of habitat and biodiversity. Woody riparian vegetation grows in a variety of geomorphic settings ranging from bedrock-lined channels to perennial streams crossing deep alluvium and is dependent on interaction between ground-water and surface-water resources. Historically, few reaches in Arizona, southern Utah, or eastern California below 1530 m elevation had closed gallery forests of cottonwood and willow; instead, many alluvial reaches that now support riparian gallery forests once had marshy grasslands and most bedrock canyons were essentially barren. Repeat photography using more than 3000 historical images of rivers indicates that riparian vegetation has increased over much of the region. These increases appear to be related to several factors, notably the reduction in beaver populations by trappers in the 19th century, downcutting of arroyos that drained alluvial aquifers between 1880 and 1910, the frequent recurrence of winter floods during discrete periods of the 20th century, an increased growing season, and stable ground-water levels. Reductions in riparian vegetation result from agricultural clearing, excessive ground-water use, complete flow diversion, and impoundment of reservoirs. Elimination of riparian vegetation occurs either where high ground-water use lowers the water table below the rooting depth of riparian species, where base flow is completely diverted, or both. We illustrate regional changes using case histories of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers, which are adjacent watersheds in southern Arizona with long histories of water development and different trajectories of change in riparian vegetation.

  3. Knowledge of causes of VVF and discrimination suffered by patients in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Okoye, Uzoma O; Odey, Ering S

    2014-01-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. This study focused on VVF patients seeking treatment. Hospital records were used to sample 30 respondents. Three focus group discussions were conducted and analyzed in themes. Results reveal that most of the respondents did not know what brought about their condition, whereas some felt it was a curse from the gods. Respondents reported discrimination and stigmatization by relatives. Findings suggest the need to have trained social workers working in all fistula centers in the country. They will help in the counseling, rehabilitation, and reintegration of these women. PMID:25068607

  4. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were infected with S. haematobium (RR = 1.3) and hookworm (RR = 1.4) have equal chances of being infected with P. falciparum as children with no worm infection. On the other hand children infected with Hymenolepis spp. (p<0.0001) are more likely to be infected with P. falciparum than Hymenolepis spp. uninfected children (RR = 2.0) Conclusions These findings suggest that multiple parasitic infections are common in school age children in rural communities of Kwara State Nigeria. The Hymenolepis spp. induced increase susceptibility to P. falciparum could have important consequences on how concurrent infections affect the expression or pathogenesis of these infections. PMID:26222743

  5. Paleostress states at the south-western margin of the Central European Basin System — Application of fault-slip analysis to unravel a polyphase deformation pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Reicherter, Klaus; Mazur, Stanislaw

    2009-05-01

    We analyse the deformation pattern along the south-western margin of the Central European Basin System (CEBS) where Upper Carboniferous-Mesozoic rocks are uplifted due to the Late Cretaceous basin inversion. The geometry of mesoscale faults and associated striae are used to calculate the stress state(s) responsible for the observed deformation. Each reduced stress tensor obtained comprises (i) the directions of the principal stress axes σ1, σ2, and σ3 ( σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3) and (ii) the ratio of principal stress differences R = ( σ2 - σ3) / ( σ1 - σ3). We present a stress inversion technique that allows each stress state inherent in a heterogeneous fault population to be identified by integrating the results of the PBT-Method [Turner, F.J., 1953. Nature and dynamic interpretation of deformation lamellae in calcite of three marbles. American Journal of Sciences, 251(4): 276-298; Sperner, B., Ratschbacher, L. and Ott, R., 1993. Fault-striae analysis: a Turbo Pascal program package for graphical presentation and reduced stress tensor calculation. Computers & Geosciences, 19: 1361-1388] and the Multiple Inverse Method [Yamaji, A., 2000. The multiple inverse method; a new technique to separate stresses from heterogeneous fault-slip data. Journal of Structural Geology, 22(4): 441-452]. This comprehensive approach not only facilitates the separation of complex data sets into homogeneous subsets but also guarantees that each stress state derived fulfils both the criteria of low-misfit angles (Wallace-Bott hypothesis) and high shear-to-normal-stress ratios (Mohr-Coulomb criterion). The reliability of our technique is confirmed by the fact that irrespective of (i) the number of fault-slip data from an outcrop, (ii) the number of subsets they represent and (iii) the proportion of newly formed and reactivated faults, we obtain consistent results from outcrops of variously aged rocks. This consistency concerns both calculated stress states as well as locally observed deformation sequences. Such local chronologies are derived from cross-cutting relationships and superimposition of different fault-slip data which individually are assigned to a consistent stress state. A synthesis of results from different locations of the study area argues for the superposition of two main deformation events. Most prominently, the area was affected by a stress state with a horizontal N-S- to NE-SW-directed maximum compression ( σ1) and a low stress ratio which induced reverse and strike-slip faulting. A pure strike-slip regime of E-W- to NW-SE-directed compression with moderate stress ratios is less prevalent and probably younger. The age of the youngest rocks documenting these two phases proves the stress fields to correspond to the polyphase Late Cretaceous-Tertiary basin inversion of the CEBS during post-Cenomanian times. The youngest tectonic imprints detected in the study area correspond to locally appearing extensional stress states with varying directions of σ3. At many sites, the youngest derived paleostress state coincides with the present-day stress field in terms of the direction of the maximum horizontal stress axis, SHmax. The only stress state detected which pre-dates the basin inversion corresponds to an extensional regime with an WNW-ESE- to NW-SE-directed σ3-axis observed only locally in the N-S striking Leine Graben and its prolongation to the North. The fact that the majority of variously aged rocks exhibit only the traces of the latest deformation phases indicates a high degree of fault plane reactivation in the study area.

  6. Prevalence and Pattern of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infection among Primary School Children in a Rural Community in Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Odinaka, Kelechi Kenneth; Nwolisa, Emeka Charles; Mbanefo, Francis; Iheakaram, Alfreda Chinekwu; Okolo, Seline

    2015-01-01

    Background. Soil-transmitted helminthic infection is a common public health challenge of primary school children in resource challenged and developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infection among primary school children in a rural community in Imo State, Nigeria. Method. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 284 primary school children in a rural community. Results. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection (STHI) was 30.3%. Of all STHIs, hookworm was the commonest geohelminth observed, 81 (94.2%). The prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthic infection was more in males, 58 (38.4%), than in females, 28 (21.1%). This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The high prevalence rate of soil-transmitted helminthic infection amongst the study population is worrisome. There is need for organized and routine deworming among school children in the community. PMID:26435717

  7. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: source water for the arid Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A; Wilson, Doyle C; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-07-15

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log D(OW) values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30ng/L to 2800ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10ng/L), but most were below detection limits. PMID:22684090

  8. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-01-01

    Emergingcontaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the UnitedStates. The objective of this study was to evaluate pointsources of ECs along the ColoradoRiver, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the ColoradoRiver Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-ITMS). Log Dow values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the ColoradoRiver) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  9. Interannual variability in associations between seasonal climate, weather, and extremes: wintertime temperature over the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature variability in the Southwest US is investigated using skew-normal probability distribution functions (SN PDFs) fitted to observed wintertime daily maximum temperature records. These PDFs vary significantly between years, with important geographical differences in the relationship between the central tendency and tails, revealing differing linkages between weather and climate. The warmest and coldest extremes do not necessarily follow the distribution center. In some regions one tail of the distribution shows more variability than does the other. For example, in California the cold tail is more variable while the warm tail remains relatively stable, so warm years are associated with fewer cold extremes but not necessarily more warm extremes. The opposite relationship is seen in the Great Plains. Changes in temperature PDFs are conditioned by different phases of El Niño-La Niña (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). In the Southern Great Plains, La Niña and/or negative PDO are associated with generally warmer conditions. However, in terms of extremes, while the warm tails become thicker and longer, the cool tails are not impacted—extremely warm days become more frequent but extremely cool days are not less frequent. In contrast, in coastal California, La Niña or negative PDO bring generally cooler conditions with more/stronger cold extremes but the warm extreme probability is not significantly affected. These results could have implications for global warming. If a rigid shift of the whole range occurs, then warm years are not necessarily a good analogue for a warmer climate. If global warming instead brings regional changes more aligned with a preferred state of dominant climate variability modes, then we may see asymmetric changes in the tails of local temperature PDFs.